Emerging Role of the Gut Microbiome in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
This article describes the evidence from epidemiologic and clinical observational studies highlighting the link between IBS and gut microbiome by investigating postinfection IBS, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and microbial dysbiosis. It highlights the effects of gut microbiota on mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of IBS, including gut-brain axis, visceral hypersensitivity, motility, epithelial barrier, and immune activation. In addition, it summarizes the current evidence on microbiome-guided therapies in IBS, including probiotics, antibiotics, diet, and fecal microbiota transplant.PMID:34304786 | DOI:1...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Prashant Singh Anthony Lembo Source Type: research

Behavioral Strategies for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Brain-Gut or Gut-Brain?
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2021 Sep;50(3):581-593. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.03.006. Epub 2021 Jun 25.ABSTRACTIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of gut-brain interaction (DGBI) that is associated with significant physical, emotional, and occupational burden. Factors such as early life stress, sleep disruption, maladaptive coping strategies, symptom hypervigilance, and visceral hypersensitivity negatively affect gut-brain communication and increase the likelihood of developing IBS or worsen IBS severity. Behavioral strategies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, gut-directed hypnosis, and mindfulness-based treat...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Christina H Jagielski Megan E Riehl Source Type: research

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Eating Disorders: A Burgeoning Concern in Gastrointestinal Clinics
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2021 Sep;50(3):595-610. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.03.007.ABSTRACTIrritable bowel syndrome affects 10% to 15% of the population, and up to 90% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome exclude certain foods to improve their gastrointestinal symptoms. Although focused dietary restrictions are a normal, adaptive response, restrictions can spiral out of control and result in maladaptive restriction. Dietary therapies are rapidly becoming first-line treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, and gastroenterologists need to be aware of red flag symptoms of maladaptive eating patterns and the negative effec...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Andrea McGowan Kimberly N Harer Source Type: research

Integrated Care for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Future Is Now
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2021 Sep;50(3):713-720. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.04.006. Epub 2021 Jul 3.ABSTRACTIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common symptom-based condition of heterogeneous pathogenesis and clinical phenotype. This heterogeneity and multidimensional nature creates significant diagnostic and treatment challenges. Recent evidence has documented the benefits of diet and behavioral interventions. These nonmedical strategies are causing a shift from the traditional care model to a multidisciplinary care model. Recent evidence suggests that collaborative, team-based integrated care leads to better clinical ou...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sameer K Berry William D Chey Source Type: research

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2021 Sep;50(3):xv-xvi. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.04.007.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34304798 | DOI:10.1016/j.gtc.2021.04.007 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: William D Chey Source Type: research

Dedication
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2021 Sep;50(3):xvii. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.04.008.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34304799 | DOI:10.1016/j.gtc.2021.04.008 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: William D Chey Source Type: research

Vestibular Physical Therapy and Fall Risk Assessment
This article provides an overview of VPT, highlighting various exercise modalities used to treat a variety of vestibular disorders. Patient safety and fall prevention are paramount; therefore, fall risk assessment and treatment are also addressed.PMID:34304897 | DOI:10.1016/j.otc.2021.05.018 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wendy J Carender Melissa Grzesiak Steven A Telian Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurosurgery in Primary Care: Masses of the Scalp and Skull in Children
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;68(4):743-757. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.003.ABSTRACTThere are a wide variety of scalp and skull lesions that can affect the pediatric population, many of which are first encountered by primary care physicians. The differential consists of a broad range of more common congenital lesions, sequelae of trauma, and vascular anomalies, to very rare neoplastic processes. It is important to understand signs and symptoms that may indicate whether a lesion may be benign versus life threatening, what imaging studies are appropriate and how to interpret them, and when to seek referrals to specialists....
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Randaline R Barnett Martin G Piazza Scott W Elton Source Type: research

Incidental Intracranial Cysts in Children
This article describes three common benign intracranial cysts found in the pediatric population: arachnoid cysts, choroid cysts, and pineal cysts.PMID:34247708 | DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Whitney E Muhlestein Cormac O Maher Source Type: research

Effective Large Group Teaching for General Surgery
This article makes recommendations for creating and delivering lectures, including active learning opportunities and modern innovations in information technology supporting teaching methods. Effective lecturing skills are acquired by persistent deliberate practice.PMID:34242600 | DOI:10.1016/j.suc.2021.05.004 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 9, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Samantha L Tarras Jock Thacker David L Bouwman David A Edelman Source Type: research

Effective Large Group Teaching for General Surgery
This article makes recommendations for creating and delivering lectures, including active learning opportunities and modern innovations in information technology supporting teaching methods. Effective lecturing skills are acquired by persistent deliberate practice.PMID:34242600 | DOI:10.1016/j.suc.2021.05.004 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 9, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Samantha L Tarras Jock Thacker David L Bouwman David A Edelman Source Type: research

Reinnervation with Selective Nerve Grafting from Multiple Donor Nerves
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;29(3):389-396. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.03.003.ABSTRACTNerve substitution is an important tool in facial reanimation. The goal is to reinnervate the distal facial nerve and musculature using an alternative cranial nerve in order to achieve facial movement, symmetry, and tone. Multiple donor nerves have been used for nerve transfer procedures, the most common being hypoglossal, masseteric, and cross-facial nerve graft. Each donor nerve has its advantages and disadvantages. Multiinnervation uses the use of multiple donor nerves in order to leverage the benefits while balancing the pit...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 4, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shiayin F Yang Jennifer C Kim Source Type: research

Reinnervation with Selective Nerve Grafting from Multiple Donor Nerves
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;29(3):389-396. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.03.003.ABSTRACTNerve substitution is an important tool in facial reanimation. The goal is to reinnervate the distal facial nerve and musculature using an alternative cranial nerve in order to achieve facial movement, symmetry, and tone. Multiple donor nerves have been used for nerve transfer procedures, the most common being hypoglossal, masseteric, and cross-facial nerve graft. Each donor nerve has its advantages and disadvantages. Multiinnervation uses the use of multiple donor nerves in order to leverage the benefits while balancing the pit...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 4, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shiayin F Yang Jennifer C Kim Source Type: research

Reinnervation with Selective Nerve Grafting from Multiple Donor Nerves
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;29(3):389-396. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.03.003.ABSTRACTNerve substitution is an important tool in facial reanimation. The goal is to reinnervate the distal facial nerve and musculature using an alternative cranial nerve in order to achieve facial movement, symmetry, and tone. Multiple donor nerves have been used for nerve transfer procedures, the most common being hypoglossal, masseteric, and cross-facial nerve graft. Each donor nerve has its advantages and disadvantages. Multiinnervation uses the use of multiple donor nerves in order to leverage the benefits while balancing the pit...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 4, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shiayin F Yang Jennifer C Kim Source Type: research

Reinnervation with Selective Nerve Grafting from Multiple Donor Nerves
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;29(3):389-396. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.03.003.ABSTRACTNerve substitution is an important tool in facial reanimation. The goal is to reinnervate the distal facial nerve and musculature using an alternative cranial nerve in order to achieve facial movement, symmetry, and tone. Multiple donor nerves have been used for nerve transfer procedures, the most common being hypoglossal, masseteric, and cross-facial nerve graft. Each donor nerve has its advantages and disadvantages. Multiinnervation uses the use of multiple donor nerves in order to leverage the benefits while balancing the pit...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 4, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shiayin F Yang Jennifer C Kim Source Type: research

Interferons in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;47(3):297-315. doi: 10.1016/j.rdc.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTSkewing of type I interferon (IFN) production and responses is a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Genetic and environmental contributions to IFN production lead to aberrant innate and adaptive immune activation even before clinical development of disease. Basic and translational research in this arena continues to identify contributions of IFNs to disease pathogenesis, and several promising therapeutic options for targeting of type I IFNs and their signaling pathways are in development for treatment of S...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sirisha Sirobhushanam Stephanie Lazar J Michelle Kahlenberg Source Type: research

Emerging and Re-emerging Infections in Children: COVID/ MIS-C, Zika, Ebola, Measles, Varicella, Pertussis ... Immunizations
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):453-465. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.002. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTThe role of the emergency provider lies at the forefront of recognition and treatment of novel and re-emerging infectious diseases in children. Familiarity with disease presentations that might be considered rare, such as vaccine-preventable and non-endemic illnesses, is essential in identifying and controlling outbreaks. As we have seen thus far in the novel coronavirus pandemic, susceptibility, severity, transmission, and disease presentation can all have unique patterns in children. Emergency providers also have the...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Carol C Chen Anne Whitehead Source Type: research

Big Tests in Little People
This article presents the literature about 4 common blood tests and examines the clinical applications of each.PMID:34215397 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.003 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jennifer Guyther Lauren Cantwell Source Type: research

High-Risk Medicolegal Conditions in Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):479-491. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Jun 9.ABSTRACTThe top 5 reasons for pediatric malpractice are cardiac or cardiorespiratory arrest, appendicitis, disorder of male genital organs, encephalopathy, and meningitis. Malpractice is most likely to result from an "error in diagnosis." Claims involving a "major permanent injury" were more likely to pay out money, but of all claims, only 30% result in a monetary pay out. Consideration of "high-risk misses" may help to direct a history, examination, testing, and discharge instructions.PMID:3421539...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michael B Weinstock Heath Jolliff Source Type: research

Just Breathe: Tips and Highlights for Managing Pediatric Respiratory Distress and Failure
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):493-508. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.004. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTAnatomically, the airway is ever changing in size, anteroposterior alignment, and point of most narrow dimension. Special considerations regarding obesity, chronic and acute illness, underlying developmental abnormalities, and age can all affect preparation and intervention toward securing a definitive airway. Mechanical ventilation strategies should focus on limiting peak inspiratory pressures and optimizing lung protective tidal volumes. Emergency physicians should work toward minimizing risk of peri-intubation hypox...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Megan J Cobb Source Type: research

Diagnostic Applications of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):509-527. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.005.ABSTRACTPoint-of-care ultrasound has become an essential part of pediatric emergency medicine training and practice. It can have significant clinical benefits, including improving diagnostic accuracy and decreasing length of stay, and does not require radiation exposure for patients. In this review, we summarize the current diagnostic point-of-care ultrasound applications in pediatric emergency medicine, their evidence, and techniques.PMID:34215400 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Margaret Lin-Martore Aaron E Kornblith Source Type: research

Procedural Applications of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Pediatric Emergency Medicine
This article reviews ultrasound guidance for the following pediatric emergency medicine procedures: soft tissue (abscess incision and drainage, foreign body identification and removal, and peritonsillar abscess drainage), musculoskeletal and neurologic (hip arthrocentesis, peripheral nerve blocks, and lumbar puncture), vascular access (peripheral intravenous access and central line placement), and critical care (endotracheal tube placement, pericardiocentesis, thoracentesis, and paracentesis). By incorporating ultrasound, emergency physicians caring for pediatric patients have the potential to enhance their procedural scop...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ashkon Shaahinfar Zahra M Ghazi-Askar Source Type: research

Pediatric Hematologic and Oncologic Emergencies
This article presents a review of the most commonly encountered pediatric hematologic and oncologic complications that emergency physicians and providers need to know.PMID:34215402 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.007 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Kathleen Stephanos Sarah B Dubbs Source Type: research

Neck Trauma: Cervical Spine, Seatbelt Sign, and Penetrating Palate Injuries
This article presents a review of the most up-to-date literature on pediatric neck trauma.PMID:34215403 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.008 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Nichole McCollum Sabrina Guse Source Type: research

Child Maltreatment and Neglect
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):589-603. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.009. Epub 2021 Jun 11.ABSTRACTEmergency medicine clinicians are mandated reporters, legally, which obligates clinicians to report any behavior suspicious for child maltreatment to local authorities. Pediatric patients often present to the emergency department with concern for physical injury and other pervasive complaints. In some cases, these injuries are nonaccidental. To appropriately advocate and protect children from further physical and emotional trauma, it is important for clinicians to recognize the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment ...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Riham Mazen Alwan Nisa S Atigapramoj Source Type: research

Cardiac Emergencies in Kids
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):605-625. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.010. Epub 2021 Jun 14.ABSTRACTEncountering a child with congenital heart disease after surgical palliation in the emergency department, specifically the single-ventricle or ventricular assist device, without a basic familiarity of these surgeries can be extremely anxiety provoking. Knowing what common conditions or complications may cause these children to visit the emergency department and how to stabilize will improve the chance for survival and is the premise for this article, regardless of practice setting.PMID:34215405 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ashley M Strobel Leen Alblaihed Source Type: research

Pediatric Fever
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):627-639. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.011. Epub 2021 Jun 9.ABSTRACTPediatric fever is a common complaint in children. The most common cause is self-limited viral infection. However, neonates and young infants are evaluated and treated differently than older, vaccinated, and clinically evaluable children. Neonates should be admitted to the hospital, young infants in the second month of life may be risk stratified, and those deemed low risk on testing may be sent home with close follow-up. Children older than 2 months may be evaluated clinically for signs of bacterial infection that requ...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emily Rose Source Type: research

Technology-Dependent Children
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):641-660. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.014. Epub 2021 Jun 9.ABSTRACTThere are a growing number of medically complex children with implanted devices. Emergency physicians with a basic knowledge of these devices can troubleshoot and fix many of the issues that may arise. Recognition of malfunction of these devices can reduce morbidity and mortality among this special population. In this article, we review common issues that may arise in children with gastrostomy tubes, central nervous system shunts, cochlear implants, and vagal nerve stimulators.PMID:34215407 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.0...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Alamelu Natesan Solomon Behar Source Type: research

Ear, Nose, Throat: Beyond Pharyngitis: Retropharyngeal Abscess, Peritonsillar Abscess, Epiglottitis, Bacterial Tracheitis, and Postoperative Tonsillectomy
This article provides the emergency physician with the tools needed to decipher between the mundane and the critical, variations in presentation, and their emergent management. All of them require early recognition for any airway compromise or obstruction in order to avoid serious complications.PMID:34215408 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.012 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mahsa Akhavan Source Type: research

New Designer Drugs
This article discusses the opioid epidemic and several emerging opioids, including buprenorphine, loperamide, fentanyl, fentanyl derivatives, and others. Kratom, a plant occasionally used for opiate detoxification, along with the sedatives etizolam and phenibut, will be discussed. Lastly, this article discusses the phenethylamines and marijuana.PMID:34215409 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.04.013 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michael Levine Frank Lovecchio Source Type: research

Pediatric Emergencies
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):xiii-xiv. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.06.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34215410 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.06.002 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Amal Mattu Source Type: research

Pearls of Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;39(3):xv-xvi. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2021.06.001.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34215411 | DOI:10.1016/j.emc.2021.06.001 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - July 3, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Le Mimi Lu Ilene Claudius Christopher S Amato Source Type: research