Evaluation and Management of Fetal Macrosomia
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;48(2):387-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008.ABSTRACTMacrosomia results from abnormal fetal growth and can lead to serious consequences for the mother and fetus. In cases of suspected macrosomia, patients must be counseled carefully regarding a delivery plan, and Cesarean section should be considered when indicated. Techniques to assess for suspected macrosomia include clinical measurements, ultrasound, and MRI.PMID:33972073 | DOI:10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michelle T Nguyen Joseph G Ouzounian Source Type: research

Evaluation and Management of Fetal Macrosomia
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;48(2):387-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008.ABSTRACTMacrosomia results from abnormal fetal growth and can lead to serious consequences for the mother and fetus. In cases of suspected macrosomia, patients must be counseled carefully regarding a delivery plan, and Cesarean section should be considered when indicated. Techniques to assess for suspected macrosomia include clinical measurements, ultrasound, and MRI.PMID:33972073 | DOI:10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michelle T Nguyen Joseph G Ouzounian Source Type: research

Evaluation and Management of Fetal Macrosomia
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;48(2):387-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008.ABSTRACTMacrosomia results from abnormal fetal growth and can lead to serious consequences for the mother and fetus. In cases of suspected macrosomia, patients must be counseled carefully regarding a delivery plan, and Cesarean section should be considered when indicated. Techniques to assess for suspected macrosomia include clinical measurements, ultrasound, and MRI.PMID:33972073 | DOI:10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michelle T Nguyen Joseph G Ouzounian Source Type: research

Evaluation and Management of Fetal Macrosomia
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;48(2):387-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008.ABSTRACTMacrosomia results from abnormal fetal growth and can lead to serious consequences for the mother and fetus. In cases of suspected macrosomia, patients must be counseled carefully regarding a delivery plan, and Cesarean section should be considered when indicated. Techniques to assess for suspected macrosomia include clinical measurements, ultrasound, and MRI.PMID:33972073 | DOI:10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michelle T Nguyen Joseph G Ouzounian Source Type: research

Evaluation and Management of Fetal Macrosomia
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;48(2):387-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008.ABSTRACTMacrosomia results from abnormal fetal growth and can lead to serious consequences for the mother and fetus. In cases of suspected macrosomia, patients must be counseled carefully regarding a delivery plan, and Cesarean section should be considered when indicated. Techniques to assess for suspected macrosomia include clinical measurements, ultrasound, and MRI.PMID:33972073 | DOI:10.1016/j.ogc.2021.02.008 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michelle T Nguyen Joseph G Ouzounian Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Staging of Bladder Cancer
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;35(3):531-541. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Apr 15.ABSTRACTCystoscopic examination remains the gold standard technique for initial diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa). Despite significant progress in enhanced cystoscopic techniques, blue light cystoscopy and narrow band imaging are the only ones well supported by high-level evidence and, if available, should be used during initial staging of BCa. Multiparametric MRI could be an important imaging tool in local staging of BCa. With ever-expanding targeted therapy and immunotherapy options in both muscle-invasive and non-muscle...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 7, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Vinay Duddalwar Siamak Daneshmand Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Staging of Bladder Cancer
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;35(3):531-541. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Apr 15.ABSTRACTCystoscopic examination remains the gold standard technique for initial diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa). Despite significant progress in enhanced cystoscopic techniques, blue light cystoscopy and narrow band imaging are the only ones well supported by high-level evidence and, if available, should be used during initial staging of BCa. Multiparametric MRI could be an important imaging tool in local staging of BCa. With ever-expanding targeted therapy and immunotherapy options in both muscle-invasive and non-muscle...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 7, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Vinay Duddalwar Siamak Daneshmand Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Staging of Bladder Cancer
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;35(3):531-541. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Apr 15.ABSTRACTCystoscopic examination remains the gold standard technique for initial diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa). Despite significant progress in enhanced cystoscopic techniques, blue light cystoscopy and narrow band imaging are the only ones well supported by high-level evidence and, if available, should be used during initial staging of BCa. Multiparametric MRI could be an important imaging tool in local staging of BCa. With ever-expanding targeted therapy and immunotherapy options in both muscle-invasive and non-muscle...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 7, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Vinay Duddalwar Siamak Daneshmand Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Staging of Bladder Cancer
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;35(3):531-541. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Apr 15.ABSTRACTCystoscopic examination remains the gold standard technique for initial diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa). Despite significant progress in enhanced cystoscopic techniques, blue light cystoscopy and narrow band imaging are the only ones well supported by high-level evidence and, if available, should be used during initial staging of BCa. Multiparametric MRI could be an important imaging tool in local staging of BCa. With ever-expanding targeted therapy and immunotherapy options in both muscle-invasive and non-muscle...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - May 7, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Vinay Duddalwar Siamak Daneshmand Source Type: research

Eye Disease in Medical Practice: What You Should Know and Why You Should Know It
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):397-407. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.001. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTIncidence of cataract, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and glaucoma will significantly increase by 2050. Visual impairment can increase morbidity and mortality in nonocular disease. There are different patterns of vision loss in cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Internists and medical subspecialists play an important role in prevention, detection, and early treatment of eye disease. Awareness of screening guidelines for eye disease as well as a basic ocular history a...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Carol H Schmidt Nicholas J Volpe Paul J Bryar Source Type: research

Ocular Complaints, Disease, and Emergencies in the General Medical Setting
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):409-423. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.002. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTPrimary care physicians see nearly half of all clinical visits, and 2% to 3% of those are for eye complaints. Taking a good ocular history is essential to establishing the diagnosis. Patient complaints fall into several categories including visual change, redness, and pain. Primary care physicians can screen for patients at risk of vision loss from glaucoma, diabetes, and toxic medication and ensure that patients have appropriate eye evaluations. Examination techniques such as direct ophthalmoscopy, evaluation of the red re...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Cynthia A Bradford Andrew T Melson Source Type: research

Ocular Side Effects of Common Systemic Medications and Systemic Side Effects of Ocular Medications
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):425-444. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.003.ABSTRACTWhen prescribing medications, it is important to consider the ocular side effects of common systemic therapy as well as potential systemic side effects of ocular medications. Although not an exhaustive list of medications/classes of medications, this article does include many commonly used drugs and also provides information on some topical therapies commonly used by ophthalmologists. These ocular medications may result in systemic effects and/or alter patients' management of systemic conditions.PMID:33926639 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.00...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Misha F Syed Ahmad Rehmani Matthew Yang Source Type: research

Vision Restoration: Cataract Surgery and Surgical Correction of Myopia, Hyperopia, and Presbyopia
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):445-454. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTCataract surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the United States. The decision to remove a cataract is determined by the patient's ability to perform activities of daily living, such as reading, driving, and watching television. Cataract surgery also offers the potential of spectacle independence with a wide array of premium intraocular lens options. In addition, with the continuing advances in ophthalmology, patients now also have the option of selecting between traditional approaches and femto...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sonia H Yoo Mike Zein Source Type: research

Diabetic and Retinal Vascular Eye Disease
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):455-472. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTThe retinal vasculature is the only neurovascular system directly visible to the human eye, easily evaluated by fundoscopy and many imaging modalities. This window allows physicians to diagnose and treat retinal pathologies and detect systemic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, hypercoagulable/hyperviscosity syndromes, and vasculitis. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common retinal vascular disease, followed by retinal vein and artery occlusion. Patients with these conditions require medical optimization to prevent ...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hong-Gam Le Akbar Shakoor Source Type: research

Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):473-491. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.003. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness. The main risk factor is advancing age, with the severity of vision loss ranging from mild to severe. There is a 25% risk of early AMD and 8% risk of late AMD in patients over the age of 75, with the number of cases expected to increase because of the aging population. Diagnosis of the disease requires a dilated fundus examination. Physicians should be aware of the symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options for AMD to refer appropriately for ophthalmo...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Catherine J Thomas Rukhsana G Mirza Manjot K Gill Source Type: research

Glaucoma
This article reviews the pathophysiology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of glaucoma.PMID:33926643 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.004 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jessica Minjy Kang Angelo P Tanna Source Type: research

Neuro-Ophthalmology for Internists
This article discusses neuro-ophthalmic complaints that frequently present to the internist, including acute vision loss, double vision, and unequal pupils. It focuses on pertinent clinical features of the most common causes of these chief complaints and additionally highlights salient points of history, diagnosis, examination, and management with special emphasis on the signs and symptoms that should prompt expedited evaluation.PMID:33926644 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Neena R Cherayil Madhura A Tamhankar Source Type: research

Ocular Oncology-Primary and Metastatic Malignancies
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):531-550. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.005. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTSeveral neoplastic processes can involve the eye, either primarily or secondary to a systemic malignancy. The most common primary tumors of the eye include conjunctival and uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, conjunctival and intraocular lymphoma, and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Metastatic spread from systemic malignancies, especially of the breast and lung, also can involve the eye. A combination of ophthalmologic examination, ancillary testing, and cytologic/histopathologic evaluation leads to accurate diagnosis. Manag...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Basil K Williams Maura Di Nicola Source Type: research

Diseases of the Eyelids and Orbit
This article provides a foundational overview of eyelid and orbital anatomy, as well as common and key disorders that may confront internists and medical subspecialists.PMID:33926646 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.007 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emily Li Christopher B Chambers Source Type: research

Inpatient Ophthalmology Consultations
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):563-576. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.006. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTComprehensive patient care requires an integrated approach that often includes different specialties. Of these specialties, Ophthalmology stands out with its variable pathologic conditions, unique tools, and special examination techniques, which are not part of the standard training of internal medicine or other specialties. The authors review prior studies focused on inpatient ophthalmology consultations, common reasons for inpatient ophthalmology consultation, and the recommended approach to the most common ocular complai...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Dilraj S Grewal Hesham Gabr Source Type: research

When to Refer
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):xv-xvi. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 2.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33926648 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.001 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jack Ende Source Type: research

Eye Care for the Internist
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):xvii-xviii. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33926649 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.002 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Paul J Bryar Nicholas J Volpe Source Type: research

Imaging Surveillance of Gliomas: Role of Basic and Advanced Imaging Techniques
Radiol Clin North Am. 2021 May;59(3):395-407. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2021.01.006.ABSTRACTIt is essential to be aware of widely accepted criteria for grading of treatment response in both high-grade and low-grade gliomas. These criteria primarily take into account responses of measurable and nonmeasurable lesions on T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and postcontrast images to determine a final category of response for the patient. The additional role that other advanced imaging techniques, such as diffusion and perfusion imaging, can play in the surveillance of these tumors is discussed in this article.PMID:3392...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jayapalli Rajiv Bapuraj Krishna Perni Diana Gomez-Hassan Ashok Srinivasan Source Type: research

Eye Disease in Medical Practice: What You Should Know and Why You Should Know It
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):397-407. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.001. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTIncidence of cataract, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and glaucoma will significantly increase by 2050. Visual impairment can increase morbidity and mortality in nonocular disease. There are different patterns of vision loss in cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Internists and medical subspecialists play an important role in prevention, detection, and early treatment of eye disease. Awareness of screening guidelines for eye disease as well as a basic ocular history a...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Carol H Schmidt Nicholas J Volpe Paul J Bryar Source Type: research

Ocular Complaints, Disease, and Emergencies in the General Medical Setting
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):409-423. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.002. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTPrimary care physicians see nearly half of all clinical visits, and 2% to 3% of those are for eye complaints. Taking a good ocular history is essential to establishing the diagnosis. Patient complaints fall into several categories including visual change, redness, and pain. Primary care physicians can screen for patients at risk of vision loss from glaucoma, diabetes, and toxic medication and ensure that patients have appropriate eye evaluations. Examination techniques such as direct ophthalmoscopy, evaluation of the red re...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Cynthia A Bradford Andrew T Melson Source Type: research

Ocular Side Effects of Common Systemic Medications and Systemic Side Effects of Ocular Medications
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):425-444. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.003.ABSTRACTWhen prescribing medications, it is important to consider the ocular side effects of common systemic therapy as well as potential systemic side effects of ocular medications. Although not an exhaustive list of medications/classes of medications, this article does include many commonly used drugs and also provides information on some topical therapies commonly used by ophthalmologists. These ocular medications may result in systemic effects and/or alter patients' management of systemic conditions.PMID:33926639 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.00...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Misha F Syed Ahmad Rehmani Matthew Yang Source Type: research

Vision Restoration: Cataract Surgery and Surgical Correction of Myopia, Hyperopia, and Presbyopia
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):445-454. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTCataract surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the United States. The decision to remove a cataract is determined by the patient's ability to perform activities of daily living, such as reading, driving, and watching television. Cataract surgery also offers the potential of spectacle independence with a wide array of premium intraocular lens options. In addition, with the continuing advances in ophthalmology, patients now also have the option of selecting between traditional approaches and femto...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sonia H Yoo Mike Zein Source Type: research

Diabetic and Retinal Vascular Eye Disease
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):455-472. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTThe retinal vasculature is the only neurovascular system directly visible to the human eye, easily evaluated by fundoscopy and many imaging modalities. This window allows physicians to diagnose and treat retinal pathologies and detect systemic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, hypercoagulable/hyperviscosity syndromes, and vasculitis. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common retinal vascular disease, followed by retinal vein and artery occlusion. Patients with these conditions require medical optimization to prevent ...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hong-Gam Le Akbar Shakoor Source Type: research

Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):473-491. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.003. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness. The main risk factor is advancing age, with the severity of vision loss ranging from mild to severe. There is a 25% risk of early AMD and 8% risk of late AMD in patients over the age of 75, with the number of cases expected to increase because of the aging population. Diagnosis of the disease requires a dilated fundus examination. Physicians should be aware of the symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options for AMD to refer appropriately for ophthalmo...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Catherine J Thomas Rukhsana G Mirza Manjot K Gill Source Type: research

Glaucoma
This article reviews the pathophysiology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of glaucoma.PMID:33926643 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.004 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jessica Minjy Kang Angelo P Tanna Source Type: research

Neuro-Ophthalmology for Internists
This article discusses neuro-ophthalmic complaints that frequently present to the internist, including acute vision loss, double vision, and unequal pupils. It focuses on pertinent clinical features of the most common causes of these chief complaints and additionally highlights salient points of history, diagnosis, examination, and management with special emphasis on the signs and symptoms that should prompt expedited evaluation.PMID:33926644 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Neena R Cherayil Madhura A Tamhankar Source Type: research

Ocular Oncology-Primary and Metastatic Malignancies
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):531-550. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.005. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTSeveral neoplastic processes can involve the eye, either primarily or secondary to a systemic malignancy. The most common primary tumors of the eye include conjunctival and uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, conjunctival and intraocular lymphoma, and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Metastatic spread from systemic malignancies, especially of the breast and lung, also can involve the eye. A combination of ophthalmologic examination, ancillary testing, and cytologic/histopathologic evaluation leads to accurate diagnosis. Manag...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Basil K Williams Maura Di Nicola Source Type: research

Diseases of the Eyelids and Orbit
This article provides a foundational overview of eyelid and orbital anatomy, as well as common and key disorders that may confront internists and medical subspecialists.PMID:33926646 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.007 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emily Li Christopher B Chambers Source Type: research

Inpatient Ophthalmology Consultations
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):563-576. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.006. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTComprehensive patient care requires an integrated approach that often includes different specialties. Of these specialties, Ophthalmology stands out with its variable pathologic conditions, unique tools, and special examination techniques, which are not part of the standard training of internal medicine or other specialties. The authors review prior studies focused on inpatient ophthalmology consultations, common reasons for inpatient ophthalmology consultation, and the recommended approach to the most common ocular complai...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Dilraj S Grewal Hesham Gabr Source Type: research

When to Refer
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):xv-xvi. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 2.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33926648 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.001 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jack Ende Source Type: research

Eye Care for the Internist
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):xvii-xviii. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33926649 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.002 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Paul J Bryar Nicholas J Volpe Source Type: research

Imaging Surveillance of Gliomas: Role of Basic and Advanced Imaging Techniques
Radiol Clin North Am. 2021 May;59(3):395-407. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2021.01.006.ABSTRACTIt is essential to be aware of widely accepted criteria for grading of treatment response in both high-grade and low-grade gliomas. These criteria primarily take into account responses of measurable and nonmeasurable lesions on T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and postcontrast images to determine a final category of response for the patient. The additional role that other advanced imaging techniques, such as diffusion and perfusion imaging, can play in the surveillance of these tumors is discussed in this article.PMID:3392...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jayapalli Rajiv Bapuraj Krishna Perni Diana Gomez-Hassan Ashok Srinivasan Source Type: research

Eye Disease in Medical Practice: What You Should Know and Why You Should Know It
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):397-407. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.001. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTIncidence of cataract, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and glaucoma will significantly increase by 2050. Visual impairment can increase morbidity and mortality in nonocular disease. There are different patterns of vision loss in cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Internists and medical subspecialists play an important role in prevention, detection, and early treatment of eye disease. Awareness of screening guidelines for eye disease as well as a basic ocular history a...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Carol H Schmidt Nicholas J Volpe Paul J Bryar Source Type: research

Ocular Complaints, Disease, and Emergencies in the General Medical Setting
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):409-423. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.002. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTPrimary care physicians see nearly half of all clinical visits, and 2% to 3% of those are for eye complaints. Taking a good ocular history is essential to establishing the diagnosis. Patient complaints fall into several categories including visual change, redness, and pain. Primary care physicians can screen for patients at risk of vision loss from glaucoma, diabetes, and toxic medication and ensure that patients have appropriate eye evaluations. Examination techniques such as direct ophthalmoscopy, evaluation of the red re...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Cynthia A Bradford Andrew T Melson Source Type: research

Ocular Side Effects of Common Systemic Medications and Systemic Side Effects of Ocular Medications
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):425-444. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.003.ABSTRACTWhen prescribing medications, it is important to consider the ocular side effects of common systemic therapy as well as potential systemic side effects of ocular medications. Although not an exhaustive list of medications/classes of medications, this article does include many commonly used drugs and also provides information on some topical therapies commonly used by ophthalmologists. These ocular medications may result in systemic effects and/or alter patients' management of systemic conditions.PMID:33926639 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.00...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Misha F Syed Ahmad Rehmani Matthew Yang Source Type: research

Vision Restoration: Cataract Surgery and Surgical Correction of Myopia, Hyperopia, and Presbyopia
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):445-454. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTCataract surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the United States. The decision to remove a cataract is determined by the patient's ability to perform activities of daily living, such as reading, driving, and watching television. Cataract surgery also offers the potential of spectacle independence with a wide array of premium intraocular lens options. In addition, with the continuing advances in ophthalmology, patients now also have the option of selecting between traditional approaches and femto...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sonia H Yoo Mike Zein Source Type: research

Diabetic and Retinal Vascular Eye Disease
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):455-472. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.004. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTThe retinal vasculature is the only neurovascular system directly visible to the human eye, easily evaluated by fundoscopy and many imaging modalities. This window allows physicians to diagnose and treat retinal pathologies and detect systemic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, hypercoagulable/hyperviscosity syndromes, and vasculitis. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common retinal vascular disease, followed by retinal vein and artery occlusion. Patients with these conditions require medical optimization to prevent ...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hong-Gam Le Akbar Shakoor Source Type: research

Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):473-491. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.003. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness. The main risk factor is advancing age, with the severity of vision loss ranging from mild to severe. There is a 25% risk of early AMD and 8% risk of late AMD in patients over the age of 75, with the number of cases expected to increase because of the aging population. Diagnosis of the disease requires a dilated fundus examination. Physicians should be aware of the symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options for AMD to refer appropriately for ophthalmo...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Catherine J Thomas Rukhsana G Mirza Manjot K Gill Source Type: research

Glaucoma
This article reviews the pathophysiology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of glaucoma.PMID:33926643 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.004 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jessica Minjy Kang Angelo P Tanna Source Type: research

Neuro-Ophthalmology for Internists
This article discusses neuro-ophthalmic complaints that frequently present to the internist, including acute vision loss, double vision, and unequal pupils. It focuses on pertinent clinical features of the most common causes of these chief complaints and additionally highlights salient points of history, diagnosis, examination, and management with special emphasis on the signs and symptoms that should prompt expedited evaluation.PMID:33926644 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.005 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Neena R Cherayil Madhura A Tamhankar Source Type: research

Ocular Oncology-Primary and Metastatic Malignancies
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):531-550. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.005. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTSeveral neoplastic processes can involve the eye, either primarily or secondary to a systemic malignancy. The most common primary tumors of the eye include conjunctival and uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, conjunctival and intraocular lymphoma, and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Metastatic spread from systemic malignancies, especially of the breast and lung, also can involve the eye. A combination of ophthalmologic examination, ancillary testing, and cytologic/histopathologic evaluation leads to accurate diagnosis. Manag...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Basil K Williams Maura Di Nicola Source Type: research

Diseases of the Eyelids and Orbit
This article provides a foundational overview of eyelid and orbital anatomy, as well as common and key disorders that may confront internists and medical subspecialists.PMID:33926646 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.007 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emily Li Christopher B Chambers Source Type: research

Inpatient Ophthalmology Consultations
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):563-576. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.02.006. Epub 2021 Apr 2.ABSTRACTComprehensive patient care requires an integrated approach that often includes different specialties. Of these specialties, Ophthalmology stands out with its variable pathologic conditions, unique tools, and special examination techniques, which are not part of the standard training of internal medicine or other specialties. The authors review prior studies focused on inpatient ophthalmology consultations, common reasons for inpatient ophthalmology consultation, and the recommended approach to the most common ocular complai...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Dilraj S Grewal Hesham Gabr Source Type: research

When to Refer
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):xv-xvi. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 2.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33926648 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.001 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jack Ende Source Type: research

Eye Care for the Internist
Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):xvii-xviii. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33926649 | DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2021.03.002 (Source: The Medical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - April 30, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Paul J Bryar Nicholas J Volpe Source Type: research