Transcranial direct current stimulation accelerates the onset of exercise-induced hypoalgesia: a randomised controlled study
Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) describes a transient reduction in pain intensity and sensitivity that follows a single bout of exercise.40 This hypoalgesic response is one mechanism thought to underpin the success of exercise as a conservative treatment for musculoskeletal pain.71 Indeed, there is some evidence demonstrating that short-term pain relief following exercise increases confidence and adherence to regular activity.41,54,74 However, accumulating evidence suggests that a single bout of exercise produces weak or inconsistent effects on pain sensitivity in patients with persistent pain. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 11, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jana Borovskis, Rocco Cavaleri, Felicity Blackstock, Simon J Summers Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Altered brainstem pain modulating circuitry functional connectivity in chronic painful Temporomandibular Disorder
It is well established from preclinical studies that the brainstem contains multiple circuits that can modulate incoming nociceptive information. For example, regions such as the midbrain periaqueductal  gray (PAG), the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), the locus coeruleus (LC), and the subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) can directly and indirectly inhibit and facilitate activity at the primary nociceptive synapse and thus influence nociceptive transmission to higher brain areas.5,7,22,35, 47 Spontaneous activity within this network, particularly within the RVM, is dynamic and can fluctuate between...
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 3, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Emily P. Mills, Rahena Akhter, Flavia Di Pietro, Greg M Murray, Chris C Peck, Paul M. Macey, Luke A. Henderson Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Chronic Pain and Premature Aging – The Moderating Role of Physical Exercise
Chronic pain induces a multitude of harmful effects; recently it has been suggested that chronic pain is also associated with premature aging, manifested in shortened telomere length (TL). However, evidence for this hypothesis is scarce and inconsistent. The aim was twofold: 1) Investigate whether chronic pain is associated with premature aging, and 2) Determine whether physical exercise (PE) moderates this association if it exists. Participants were 116 male subjects, with (n=67) and without chronic pain (n=49). (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Yael Lahav, David Levy, Avi Ohry, Gabi Zeilig, Meir Lahav, Hava Golander, Anat-Chacham Guber, Orit Uziel, Ruth Defrin Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

The Time Course of Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatial Frequency Information: Comparing Pain and Core Emotions
Accurately detecting and interpreting nonverbal expressions of pain is important for caregiving. Although not conceptualised as an emotion, pain can also be communicated through facial expressions 19,32,38. The main method used to explore this takes a component approach, measuring movements of facial muscles during pain 12. However, this may be different to how we process facial expressions in naturalistic environments, where challenging visual conditions mean that specific details are difficult to see, e.g., brief exposure, limited visibility 10,34,43,44. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 6, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Shan Wang, Christopher Eccleston, Edmund Keogh Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Injectable PLGA-coated ropivacaine produces a long-lasting analgesic effect on incisional pain and neuropathic pain
Despite great efforts in research on the control of persistent postsurgical pain during past decades, management of this disorder remains a challenge in a large number of patients59. Systemic administration of analgesic drugs (e.g., opioids) may cause severe side effects, especially when given repeatedly8. Local anesthetics (LA; e.g., ropivacaine (RVC)) have been used widely as simple and effective treatment for persistent pain with absent or reduced adverse effects 39. However, their analgesic effect lasts only several hours after single injection41. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 29, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Xue Tian, He Zhu, Shibin Du, Xue-Qing Zhang, Fuqing Lin, Fengtao Ji, Yung-Hao Tsou, Zhongyu Li, Yi Feng, Kathryn Ticehurst, Stephen Hannaford, Xiaoyang Xu, Yuan-Xiang Tao Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

DACC Resting State Functional Connectivity as a Predictor of Pain Symptoms Following Motor Vehicle Crash: A Preliminary Investigation
Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of traumatic injuries in the United States – second only to falls – and account for over 20% of all severe injuries that require hospital care.21 While a host of negative outcomes accompany MVCs, chief among these is the experience of severe pain symptoms, which affect up to 80% of MVC survivors immediately after injury.9 In terms of the long-term prognosis of pain outcomes, there is considerable variability. Large-scale and population-based studies demonstrate that anywhere from 12-40% of MVC survivors continue to suffer from pain months after injury. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 28, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jacklynn M. Fitzgerald, Emily L. Belleau, Lauren E. Ehret, Colleen Trevino, Karen J. Brasel, Christine Larson, Terri deRoon-Cassini Source Type: research

En pointe: dancers report their pain less variably than do controls
The perception of pain derives from complex processes modulated at both spinal and super-spinal levels of the central nervous system. Its subjective nature and lack of a gold standard for objective markers impede accurate assessment and diagnosis, communication between patients and healthcare providers, and clinical care. Identifying factors affecting the variability of pain, and how the latter could be modulated, is of importance. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 20, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Rita Canaipa, Diogo Mendon ça, Mariana Agostinho, Vanda Nascimento, Liat Honigman, Roi Treister Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Primary Headache Sufferers: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Efficacy
Despite the efficacy of behavioral therapies (e.g., relaxation, biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral stress-management) and pharmacotherapy for headache management, only about half of patients present benefits that decline within several weeks after treatment [25]. These treatments focus on teaching patients to prevent headache mostly via avoidance of external and internal triggers (things or situations associated with headache emergence: e.g., foods, noises, lights, stress). Though these lead to increased awareness of risk factors and triggers associated with headaches [44], they contribute to the propagation that triggers s...
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 16, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Vasilis S. Vasiliou, Evangelos C. Karademas, Yiolanda Christou, Savvas Papacostas, Maria Karekla Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Predictors of Mucosal and Muscle Pain in Vulvodynia: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the National Vulvodynia Registry
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is defined as pain of at least three months ’ duration localized to the vulvar vestibule and provoked by touch and/or vaginal penetration. The etiology of PVD is unknown. Its prevalence is estimated at 8.3% of adult women.33 PVD is associated with significant psychosocial distress, impaired sexual functioning and diminished quality of life. 4 Currently, no large randomized placebo-controlled trials support an effective pharmacologic treatment for this disorder.24 Few non-controlled studies support interventions such as pelvic floor physical therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and, for...
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Lydia Lo, Georgine Lamvu, Meryl Alappattu, Kathryn Witzeman, Daniela Markovic, Andrea Rapkin Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation and visual illusion effect according to sensory phenotypes in patients with spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain
Neuropathic pain (NP) is a common chronic complication present in around 45% of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients7,38. SCI patients with NP present a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms determined by multiple mechanisms46. Some patients may experience spontaneous pain like burning, dysesthesia and electric shocks, whereas in others the affected body area is numb6. These sensory symptoms sometimes coexist with an increased cutaneous sensibility to mechanical stimuli. All these symptoms perhaps contribute moderate to severe constant pain in the majority of affected subjects, which has a major negative impact on sleep, m...
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 2, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Dolors Soler, David Mori ña, Hatice Kumru, Joan Vidal, Xavier Navarro Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

An Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Pain Concepts Questionnaire in a Low-SES Setting
This study is an initial evaluation of the psychometric properties of a new measure of chronic pain beliefs, the Pain Concepts Questionnaire (PCQ). The PCQ is literacy-adapted and was assessed within a low-SES population. Psychometric proprieties of this measure were promising and could be useful in pain assessment and interventions. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 26, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Andrea K. Newman, Calia A. Morais, Benjamin P. Van Dyke, Beverly E. Thorn Source Type: research

Methadone in Pain Management: A Systematic Review
Pain is a significant contributor to a poor quality of life for many patients. Acute pain, typically lasting less than three months, is inadequately managed in over 40% of patients13,30. Chronic pain, which persists for greater than three months following the initial tissue damage, is estimated to have a prevalence over 60%30,51. Long-term use of pharmacologic agents in patients with chronic pain presents additional challenges, including opioid tolerance and treatment failure of anti-depressant medications31,64. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 26, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Verina Hanna, Helen Senderovich Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Exposure to contact sports results in maintained performance during experimental pain
Athletes who play contact sports have a higher pain tolerance and report lower pain intensity than other athletes31,30,33. These reduced pain responses may result in contact athletes being able to cope better, and therefore perform better in pain than non-contact athletes34. Evidence suggests that performance in both complex and simple motor tasks tends to decline during painful stimulation in the general population5 (. It is clear that some athletes are able to maintain performance despite the pain inherent in high contact sports such as rugby, however the mechanisms underpinning this ability are not yet fully understood....
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 26, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: C. Thornton, D. Sheffield, A. Baird Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and Foot Reaction Time in Older Adults
Chronic musculoskeletal pain affects more than half of older people,31 and poses serious risks leading to mobility decline and falls in older adults.9,20,40,45 It has been reported that musculoskeletal pain and specifically multisite pain are associated with slower gait speed and increased gait variability.8,39 Although studies have examined cognitive factors contributing to falls and several have determined a relationship between pain and falls,16,45 little research has explored mechanisms underlying the relationship between chronic musculoskeletal pain and falls. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 26, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Yurun Cai, Suzanne G. Leveille, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Jonathan F. Bean, Brad Manor, Robert R. McLean, Tongjian You Source Type: research

Exercise-induced hypoalgesia in healthy individuals and people with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) is a reduction in pain that occurs during or following a single bout of exercise. This phenomenon has been studied for almost 40 years with diverse methodology3,16. The magnitude of EIH appears to vary according to the modality, dose, and intensity of exercise performed23,24,32, the type of noxious stimulus used to evoke pain39, the method used to quantify pain (e.g. threshold, tolerance, rating)39, the site of pain assessment (e.g. over an exercised or non-exercised area and over bone or muscle)28,37,53, and the timing of pain assessment (e.g. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 26, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Michael A. Wewege, Matthew D. Jones Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Inter-individual differences in the responses to pain neuroscience education in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is an educational approach used in the management of chronic pain. PNE aims to reconceptualise an individuals ’ understanding of their pain as less threatening to facilitate rehabilitation23. Since its inception PNE has become increasingly popular in clinical practice24. Our group recently published a mixed-methods systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of PNE for adults with chronic mus culoskeletal pain (CMP)39. Quantitatively we found no evidence to indicate that PNE results in clinically important changes over control for pain or disability. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 21, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: James A Watson, Cormac G Ryan, Greg Atkinson, Philip Williamson, Dominic Ellington, Robbie Whittle, John Dixon, Denis J Martin Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the PROMIS Pediatric Pain Intensity Measure in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Pain
Appropriate management of pediatric pain relies on accurate assessment of pain intensity. The gold standard for assessing pain intensity is by self-report: “pain is what the patient says it is, and occurs when he or she says it does”.36 A number of patient-reported pain intensity measures are widely used in pediatric populations, including visual analog scales (VAS35), numeric rating scales (NRS11,33), and faces pain scales (FPS-R1,32); however the psychometric precision of these measures are limited. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 20, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Constance A. Mara, Susmita Kashikar-Zuck, Natoshia Cunningham, Kenneth R. Goldschneider, Bin Huang, Carlton Dampier, David D. Sherry, Lori Crosby, Jennifer Farrell Miller, Kimberly Barnett, Esi M. Morgan Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the PROMIS ® Pediatric Pain Intensity Measure in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Pain
Appropriate management of pediatric pain relies on accurate assessment of pain intensity. The gold standard for assessing pain intensity is by self-report: “pain is what the patient says it is, and occurs when he or she says it does”.27 A number of patient-reported pain intensity measures are widely used in pediatric populations, including visual analog scales (VAS 26), numeric rating scales (NRS 28,32), and faces pain scales (FPS-R 2,18); however the psychometric precision of these measures are limited. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 20, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Constance A. Mara, Susmita Kashikar-Zuck, Natoshia Cunningham, Kenneth R. Goldschneider, Bin Huang, Carlton Dampier, David D. Sherry, Lori Crosby, Jennifer Farrell Miller, Kimberly Barnett, Esi M. Morgan Source Type: research

Exercise interventions for persistent non-specific low back pain – does matching outcomes to treatment targets make a difference? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Exercise is a core recommended treatment for patients with persistent non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) in almost all international guidelines 49,62 with no evidence that one type of exercise is superior to another 41. NSLBP has the highest consultation prevalence among musculoskeletal conditions, and is most frequently managed in primary care 54. Despite the documented benefits of exercise more generally 5, 3, the standardised mean differences (SMDs) between exercise for NSLBP and non-exercise comparison/control interventions in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are small to moderate 3,41, suggesting that they provide,...
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 20, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Lianne Wood, Nadine E Foster, Martyn Lewis, Annette Bishop Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Research Methods and Reporting Quality of Randomized Clinical Trials of Spinal Cord Stimulation for Pain
The use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for the treatment of chronic pain was first described in 1967.67 Its development was based on the gate-control theory of pain, introduced a few years earlier by Melzack and Wall, who hypothesized that a “gate” in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord dictated transmission of nociception within the central nervous system.49 The hypothetical gate could be closed when stimulation of large diameter myelinated fibers associated with touch, pressure, or vibration predominated over stimulation of thinner , unmyelinated pain fibers, in turn attenuating or eliminating noxious signal...
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 20, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Ewan McNicol, McKenzie Ferguson, Kathleen Bungay, Emily L. Rowe, Sam Eldabe, Jennifer S. Gewandter, Salim M. Hayek, Nathaniel Katz, Brian H. Kopell, John Markman, Ali Rezai, Rod S. Taylor, Dennis C. Turk, Robert H. Dworkin, Richard B. North, Simon Thomson Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Education and Pain Among Adults Aged 30 –49 in the United States
Pain is strongly influenced by social characteristics such as educational attainment.19 Indeed, education is one of the most powerful determinants of health in general.47 While an extensive literature has documented educational disparities for various health outcomes,9,50,66 research on the relationship between education and pain is surprisingly limited. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 19, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Anna Zajacova, Richard G Rogers, Eric Grodsky, Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Individualized augmented reality training reduces phantom pain and cortical reorganization in amputees: A proof of concept study
Phantom limb pain (PLP) may be relieved using a visual representation of an intact limb. However, patients with distorted (telescoped) phantoms seem unable to associate with visualizations of intact limbs. A virtual arm visualization was matched to the individual's phantom perception and controlled in an augmented reality (AR) intervention. Seven PLP participants with telescoped phantoms performed eight supervised home-based AR-training sessions (45 min each) within two weeks. The virtual arm was superimposed in AR onto their residual limb and controlled using electromyography from the residual limb. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 19, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Mikkel Th øgersen, Jamila Andoh, Christopher Milde, Thomas Graven-Nielsen, Herta Flor, Laura Petrini Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

The Relationship between Education and Pain among Adults Aged 30-49 in the United States
Pain is strongly influenced by social characteristics such as educational attainment.19 Indeed, education is one of the most powerful determinants of health in general.47 While an extensive literature has documented educational disparities for various health outcomes,9, 50, 66 research on the relationship between education and pain is surprisingly limited. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 19, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Anna Zajacova, Richard G Rogers, Eric Grodsky, Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Comparing central pain processing in individuals with non-traumatic neck pain and healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Neck pain is prevalent40 and up to 80% of people with this problem experience long-term pain and disability.10 Globally, this problem ranked the fourth greatest cause of disability out of 291 conditions studied in the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study39, with around 29 million disability-adjusted life-years reported in 2016.28 Neck pain is generally classified into traumatic (whiplash-associated disorders) and non-traumatic neck pain. Most people suffer from non-traumatic neck pain, which is defined as pain in the neck and/or shoulder regions (with or without referral of pain into the upper limb(s)) without trauma or spe...
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 19, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Yanfei Xie, Deokhoon Jun, Lucy Thomas, Brooke Coombes, Venerina Johnston Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

NMDA receptor modulates spinal iron accumulation via activating DMT1(-)IRE in remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia
Mounting data from animal and observational human studies are raising the concern that opioids, commonly used to supply sufficient analgesia in general anesthesia, may cause paradoxical pain amplification after their exposure which is called opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH).3,4,10,20,32 In particular, the phenomenon of hyperalgesia is responsible for weakening antinociception from sustained medication, thereby leading to irritable allodynia and supplemental drug consumption.3 The μ-opioid receptor agonist remifentanil is an important component in clinical anesthesia, while it is definitely inclined to induce hyperalges...
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 19, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Ruichen Shu, Linlin Zhang, Hao Zhang, Yuan Li, Chunyan Wang, Lin Su, Hongwei Zhao, Guolin Wang Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

A Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Trial on the Effect of Plasma Tetrahydrocannabinol Levels on Pain Reduction in Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Preclinical studies note that a major cannabinoid receptor, CB1, is expressed in pain modulating regions, suggesting that cannabinoids binding to the CB1 receptor may modulate nociceptive transmission.13 The majority of work in this area has focused on the partial CB1 agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Indeed, there is recent evidence showing nociceptive benefits of inhaled cannabis containing THC as low as 1.3% [26, but other work suggests analgesia occurs only with higher potencies (eg, 9.4%;21). (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 18, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Mark S. Wallace, Thomas D. Marcotte, J.H. Atkinson, Hayley Treloar Padovano, Marcel Bonn-Miller Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Once an avoider always an avoider? Return of pain-related avoidance after extinction with response prevention
Contemporary theories emphasize the pivotal role of avoidance behaviour in the development and chronification of pain-related disability.24,43,44 Avoiding pain-related stimuli (e.g. movements) is adaptive when pain is acute, but persisting avoidance leads to functional disability through the disengagement from daily-life activities.43,44 Further, it prevents the disconfirmation of erroneous catastrophic beliefs21 and, paradoxically, maintains pain-related fear by conveying the message that a threat really exists. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 14, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Rena Gatzounis, Ann Meulders Source Type: research

Psychosocial predictors of acute and chronic pain in adolescents undergoing major musculoskeletal surgery
Acute and chronic pain are common experiences after major surgery. Compared to younger children, adolescents are at elevated risk for both acute and chronic pain following surgery.22,46 Negative consequences include delayed recovery and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL),45,47,49 making effective pain management a high priority. Despite high prevalence of acute pain (>50%)37,45 and chronic pain (20%),19,26,38,47,53 risk factors for postsurgical pain in youth remain largely unknown.51 Given the influence of a large range of biopsychosocial factors on development of chronic pain,14 it is possible that a diffe...
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 14, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jennifer A. Rabbitts, Tonya M. Palermo, Chuan Zhou, Alagumeena Meyyappan, Lucas Chen Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Increased CSF Levels of Apolipoproteins and Complement Factors in Trigeminal Neuralgia Patients –In Depth Proteomic Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is an extremely painful neurological disorder, characterized by short-lasting stabbing facial pain within the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve.29 It affects females more than men (ratio 1:1.5) and the prevalence varies between .07% and .3%.24,27 Neuroimaging- and cadaver studies imply that the disease is mainly caused by a neurovascular conflict (NVC) at the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve, however, this does not seem to be the only etiology. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Sami Abu Hamdeh, Payam Emami Khoonsari, Ganna Shevchenko, Torsten Gordh, Hans Ericson, Kim Kultima Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Avoiding Based on Shades of Gray: Generalization of Pain-Related Avoidance Behavior to Novel Contexts
Pain-related fear and avoidance are known contributors to the transition from acute to chronic pain.6,24,25 Catastrophic misinterpretations of pain may generate pain-related fear, which in turn prompts avoidance behavior to protect the body from further damage. When avoidance behavior serves to reduce/eliminate genuine bodily threat, it is highly adaptive. However, in chronic pain, and in the absence of actual threat, avoidance behavior ceases to be protective, and may initiate a pathway towards disability. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Ann Meulders, Mathijs Franssen, Janne Claes Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

The Concerns About Pain (CAP) Scale: A Patient-Reported Outcome Measure of Pain Catastrophizing
Chronic pain has a significant impact at both the individual and societal level.18,21,28 In addition to intensity and interference, psychosocial and behavioral contributors are critical for understanding the experience of pain and developing effective treatments.16,28 Pain catastrophizing (PC) has been recognized as an important and consistent psychosocial predictor of pain-related outcomes (eg, pain intensity, disability, and psychological function).4,7,14,20,26,32,58,74,75,77 (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Dagmar Amtmann, Alyssa M. Bamer, Kendra S. Liljenquist, Penney Cowan, Rana Salem, Dennis C. Turk, Mark P. Jensen Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Clinician-patient movement synchrony mediates social group effects on interpersonal trust and perceived pain
Pain is a primary reason patients seek medical care and is a feature of a large number of clinical disorders. Pain is also an unfortunate consequence of many medical procedures that can become chronic and debilitating 65,98,99,117. Pain in post-operative and other contexts is associated with poor mental health, disability, and costs in work productivity and family relationships 2,3,7,18,25,51,105,142,145. Prevention and effective relief of acute pain may improve clinical outcomes, avoid clinical complications, save healthcare resources, and improve quality of life 36. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Pavel Goldstein, Elizabeth A. Reynolds Losin, Steven R. Anderson, Victoria R. Schelkun, Tor D. Wager Source Type: research

Increased CSF levels of apolipoproteins and complement factors in trigeminal neuralgia patients – in depth proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is an extremely painful neurological disorder, characterized by short-lasting stabbing facial pain within the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve 29. It affects females more than men (ratio 1:1.5) and the prevalence varies between 0.07 – 0.3% 24, 27. Neuroimaging- and cadaver studies imply that the disease is mainly caused by a neurovascular conflict (NVC) at the root entry zone (REZ) of the trigeminal nerve, however, this does not seem to be the only etiology 48. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Sami Abu Hamdeh, Payam Emami Khoonsari, Ganna Shevchenko, Torsten Gordh, Hans Ericson, Kim Kultima Source Type: research

“What Should I Do First?” The Effect of Manipulated Goal Conflict on Affect, Motivation, and Helping Behavior in Chronic Pain Couples
Social support, especially from romantic partners, is an important resource for individuals with chronic pain (ICPs)4. Providing sufficient and high-quality help may, however, be a challenge for partners17,36. Research has shown that some helping behaviors (e.g., solicitous behaviors) may have unfavorable effects on patient outcomes4,8,26,36,37 and that partners may appraise their helping role as stressful, which depletes their ability to provide effective support3,23,56. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Sara Kindt, Liesbet Goubert, Lies De Ruddere, Annmarie Cano, Maarten Vansteenkiste Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

The Concerns About Pain (CAP) Scale: A patient reported outcome measure of pain catastrophizing
Chronic pain has a significant impact at both the individual and societal level.18,21,28 In addition to intensity and interference, psychosocial and behavioral contributors are critical for understanding the experience of pain and developing effective treatments.16,28 Pain catastrophizing (PC) has been recognized as an important and consistent psychosocial predictor of pain-related outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, disability, and psychological function).4,7,14,20,26,32,58,74,75,77 (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Dagmar Amtmann, Alyssa M. Bamer, Kendra S. Liljenquist, Penney Cowan, Rana Salem, Dennis C. Turk, Mark P. Jensen Source Type: research

Avoiding based on shades of grey: Generalization of pain-related avoidance behavior to novel contexts
Pain-related fear and avoidance are known contributors to the transition from acute to chronic pain.6,24,25 Catastrophic misinterpretations of pain may generate pain-related fear, which in turn prompts avoidance behavior to protect the body from further damage. When avoidance behavior serves to reduce/eliminate genuine bodily threat, it is highly adaptive. However, in chronic pain, and in the absence of actual threat, avoidance behavior ceases to be protective, and may initiate a pathway towards disability. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Ann Meulders, Mathijs Franssen, Janne Claes Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Time course of attention interruption after transient pain stimulation
Human brains perceive an enormous amount of information in any given moment. It is crucial for survival that individuals can allocate more attentional resources to relevant information. In particular, threatening stimuli can capture attentional resources at the expense of other, neutral, stimuli.2 The abilities to detect and respond to bodily threats rapidly are undoubtedly adaptive to survival. While attention is useful in protecting the pursuit of current goals and ongoing behavior from less important demands, in an unpredictable and potentially dangerous environment, it may be necessary to interrupt ongoing behavior to ...
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Wenxiao Gong, Jifang Li, Fei Luo Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Reconnecting the Brain with the Rest of the Body in Musculoskeletal Pain Research
This article will outline some important gaps that stand in the way of understanding chronic musculoskeletal pain, as well as areas where substantial knowledge exists but is “siloed” in different fields of medicine that need better integration. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - June 13, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Helene M. Langevin Tags: Focus Article Source Type: research

It Has Been Quite a Year —And the USASP Was Born
There had been no thoughts of a US Association for the Study of Pain (USASP), at least that we were aware of, prior to the fall of the American Pain Society (APS). But the dust had not even begun to settle on the news that the members of the APS had voted to file for Chapter 7, when we started discussions with friends and colleagues about whether there were any other pain research organizations in the United States that reflected the multidisciplinary nature of the field and therefore could meet the needs of the US-based pain researchers. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - May 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Michael S Gold, Jennifer Haythornthwaite Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - May 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - May 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - May 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

The Journal of Pain Enters a New Era
Now that The Journal of Pain has been revived, many of you may not know why publication was interrupted or how it became the flagship journal of a new organization, the United States Association for the Study of Pain (USASP). It's an interesting chapter in the history of The Journal that included a bankruptcy, organizing anew, begging and bidding, and negotiating a new publishing contract. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - March 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: G.F. Gebhart, Michael S. Gold Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - March 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - March 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - March 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Low Back Pain
Chronic low back pain conditions are highly prevalent and constitute the leading cause of disability worldwide. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS), have combined to create the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT). The AAPT initiative convened a working group to develop diagnostic criteria for chronic low back pain. The working group identified three distinct low back pain conditions which result in a vast public health burden across the lifesp...
Source: The Journal of Pain - February 6, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: John D. Markman, Katarzyna Czerniecka-Foxx, Partap S. Khalsa, Salim Michel Hayek, Anthony L. Asher, John D. Loeser, Roger Chou Source Type: research

AAAPT Diagnostic Criteria for ACUTE ABDOMINAL AND PERITONEAL PAIN AFTER SURGERY
Abdominal and peritoneal pain after surgery is common and burdensome, yet the lack of standardized diagnostic criteria for this type of acute pain impedes basic, translational, and clinical investigations. The collaborative effort among the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION), American Pain Society (APS), and American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM) Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) provides a systematic framework to classify acute painful conditions. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - January 29, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Mark C. Bicket, Michael C. Grant, Michael J. Scott, Gregory W. Terman, Elizabeth C. Wick, Christopher L. Wu Tags: Focus Article Source Type: research

Evolution of Analgesic Tolerance and Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia over 6 months: Double-blind randomized trial incorporating experimental pain models
Contributors to the ongoing epidemic of prescription opioid abuse, addiction, and death include opioid tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and possibly opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Thirty stable chronic non-malignant pain patients entered a six-month long, randomized, double-blind, dose-response, two-center trial of the potent opioid levorphanol, conducted over a decade ago during an era of permissive opioid prescribing. Eleven were taking no opioids at study entry and eleven were taking between 35-122 morphine equivalents (MEQ). (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - January 29, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Michael C. Rowbotham, Mark Wallace Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Biased partner perceptions of women's pain self-efficacy in postpartum pain during intercourse: A dyadic longitudinal examination
Childbirth is a significant risk factor for the development of persistent pain problems (e.g., 9, 28, 85), including pain during intercourse 14, 17, 34, 53, 62. Approximately 37% of women report pain during intercourse at three months postpartum, which persists for 31% at six months postpartum 73. Pain during intercourse substantially interferes with couples ’ sexual functioning, and in turn, their quality of life (e.g., 63, 73, 81). Biomedical factors such as mode of delivery and severity of delivery pain have been implicated in the persistence of this pain in the first six months postpartum73. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - January 29, 2020 Category: Materials Science Authors: Meghan A. Rossi, Jessica A. Maxwell, Natalie O. Rosen Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research