Autonomic Regulation of Nociceptive and Immunologic Changes in a Mouse Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Chronic pain is a world-wide public health problem costing the US economy alone more than $600 billion annually 15. Due in part to our evolving understanding of this heterogeneous group of conditions, the recently revised International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) substantially reclassifies chronic pain in comparison to earlier schemes and includes a new category of “Chronic Postsurgical or Posttraumatic Pain” with the foremost diagnostic criterion being pain lasting three months or longer from the time of injury 55. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 23, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Peyman Sahbaie, Wen-Wu Li, Tian-Zhi Guo, Xiao-you Shi, Wade S. Kingery, J David Clark Source Type: research

Pain science education plus exercise therapy in chronic nonspecific spinal pain: a systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials
Chronic nonspecific spinal pain (CNSP) is defined as a chronic pain experienced in musculoskeletal structures of the spine. CNSP is characterized by a significant emotional distress or functional disability which cannot be attributed directly to a known disease or damage process 38. CNSP represents the leading worldwide cause of years lived with disability 47 and it is responsible for a high social and financial burden in developed countries 11,19. Findings from literature accounted that one-fifth of overall workers with CNSP takes some absence over a period of six months 50. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 19, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Lorenzo Bonatesta, Juan D. Ruiz-C árdenas, Luis Fernández-Azorín, Juan J. Rodríguez-Juan Source Type: research

Chronic Pain Prevalence and Factors Associated with High Impact Chronic Pain following Total Joint Arthroplasty: An Observational Study
Knee, hip, and shoulder arthroplasty are among the most frequently performed orthopaedic surgeries in the United States.15 Total knee and hip arthroplasty have had notable success in improving physical function and quality of life.18 However, overall effectiveness is limited by the 15-30% of patients that report chronic pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA).32 This issue is not unique to joint arthroplasty as across all surgical procedures chronic postoperative pain is experienced by 10-50% of individuals. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 19, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Steven Z. George, Michael P. Bolognesi, Nrupen A. Bhavsar, Colin T. Penrose, Maggie E. Horn Source Type: research

Delay and effort-based discounting, and the role of bodily awareness, in people experiencing long-term pain: A cross-sectional study
Our physiological and emotional state influences the way we behave and make decisions.23 Pain is an unpleasant experience involving both physiological and emotional components, making its presence likely to influence decision-making. Indeed, people with chronic pain show increased risk-taking compared with pain-free controls, both in laboratory studies,6,25,57 and in decision-making related to health, including elevated rates of cigarette smoking63 and alcohol use.33 (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 19, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Aleksandra M. Herman, Tasha R. Stanton Source Type: research

The role of workplace bullying in low back pain: a study with civil servants from a middle-income country
Low back pain (LBP) is a major public health problem around the world27, and it is one of the most common complaints in occupational health, with high prevalence in several groups of workers37,45,70. It is also a major cause of sick leave, disability and absenteeism worldwide, resulting in high costs for institutions and for society9,15,39,63. The point prevalence of current LBP and the period prevalence of LBP (in the last month and the last year) in the general population are 11.9%, 23.2%, and 38.0%, respectively27. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 19, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Prof. Fernando R. Feij ó, Prof. Neil Pearce, Neice Müller Xavier Faria, Maitê Peres Carvalho, Prof. Ana Laura Sica Cruzeiro Szortyka, Prof. Paulo Antonio Barros Oliveira, Prof. Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa Source Type: research

Making Pain Research More Inclusive: Why and How
An extensive body of research documents inequities in pain outcomes and the quality of pain care by sociodemographic and health characteristics. These include, but are not limited to, racialized group/ethnicity, age, sex and gender identity, disability status and socioeconomic position.11,34,43,59,61-63 These same characteristics affect inclusion in pain research, such that the minoritized and marginalized groups who already receive inferior pain care and are the most burdened by pain are underrepresented in studies which ultimately seek to alleviate pain. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 19, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Mary R. Janevic, Vani A. Mathur, Staja Q. Booker, Calia Morais, Samantha M. Meints, Katherine A. Yeager, Salimah H. Meghani Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Substance P serum degradation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome – another piece of the puzzle?
In a previous study, we demonstrated that the serum peptidase system might be less efficient in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Since the neuropeptide substanc P (SP) contributes to inflammation in CRPS, we now investigated the metabolism of SP in CRPS specifically. An SP metabolism assay was performed in 24 CRPS patients, which constitute a subgroup of our previous investigation on BK degradation. In addition, we included 26 healthy controls (24 newly recruited plus 2 from our previous investigation), and 13 patients after limb trauma, who did not fulfil the CRPS diagnostic criteria (trauma controls, TC) were inclu...
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 19, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Simone K önig, Christian Engl, Malte Bayer, Fabiola Escolano-Lozano, Heike Rittner, Cora Rebhorn, Frank Birklein Source Type: research

Spinal γ-aminobutyric acid interneuron plasticity is involved in the reduced analgesic effects of morphine on neuropathic pain
Morphine administration exerts strong analgesic effects against acute pain, but has diminished efficacy against neuropathic pain.1, 8, 23 Rats with peripheral nerve injury, a neuropathic pain model, are less sensitive to the analgesic effects of morphine than normal animals.20 The analgesic effects of opioids are mainly produced by direct post- and pre-synaptic inhibition of nociceptive transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and activation of the descending inhibitory pathway, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) systems. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 19, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Tadanao Hiroki, Takashi Suto, Jo Ohta, Shigeru Saito, Hideaki Obata Source Type: research

The No Worries Trial: Efficacy of Online Dialectical Behaviour Therapy Skills Training for Chronic Pain (iDBT-Pain) Using A Single Case Experimental Design
Chronic pain frequently co-occurs with heightened negative emotions, such as fear, anger, worry, and low mood.25,33,89,95 Over time negative emotional states become an increasingly prominent feature of chronic pain.53 Anxiety and depression are co-morbid in up to 80 percent of people with chronic pain,2 –4,80 and there is a heightened prevalence of harm avoidance, characterised by excessive worry, fear, and pessimism.39,63,64 Up to 70 percent of people with chronic pain experience sleep problems,22 and compared to the general population, quality of life and well-being are reduced. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 19, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Nell Norman-Nott, Chelsey R. Wilks, Negin Hesam-Shariati, Jessica Schroeder, Jina Suh, Mary Czerwinski, Nancy E. Briggs, Yann Quid é, James McAuley, Sylvia M. Gustin Source Type: research

Pain medication beliefs mediate the relationship between pain catastrophizing and opioid prescription use in patients with chronic non-cancer pain
worldwide29. Use of opioid therapy for CNCP management has increased over the past decade in high income countries3. This is despite prescription opioids having modest effects on CNCP and clinical guidelines cautioning against their use1,8,48. Use of prescription opioids carries risk of significant harms, including adverse side effects, non-prescribed use, and opioid-related mortality2,9,28,66. Opioid dose escalation is common among long-term users25,32 and can also result in increased risk of opioid use disorders, significant disability, mortality and costs6,23,42. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - October 15, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Rachel. A. Elphinston, Michael. J.L. Sullivan, Michele. Sterling, Jason. P. Connor, John. A. Baranoff, Dylan. Tan, Melissa. A. Day Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Masthead
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Source: The Journal of Pain - October 1, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
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Source: The Journal of Pain - October 1, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Table of Contents
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Source: The Journal of Pain - October 1, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Maintaining moderate or vigorous exercise reduces the risk of low back pain at 4 years of follow-up: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Epidemiological studies have shown that maintaining physical activity provides good health benefits, including preventing noncommunicable diseases and mortality.16,23,34 Although physical activity guidelines from leading public health agencies recommend moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous activities,12,35,43 encouraging people to adhere to these recommendations is challenging.5 Furthermore, lockdowns and restrictions on mobility due to the coronavirus 2019 pandemic have impacted the ability to be physically active as a natural part of daily life. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 25, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Takaaki Ikeda, Upul Cooray, Masayasu Murakami, Ken Osaka Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

The prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and non-painful phantom phenomena in a nationwide survey of 3374 unilateral limb amputees
After an amputation, most amputees report phantom limb awareness (PLA), i.e., the continued presence of their removed limb, e.g. 31 which is stable over time 30. In addition, they experience specific sensory and kinesthetic sensations (phantom limb sensations, PLS) or even pain in the amputated body part (phantom limb pain, PLP) e.g. 18. A peculiar phenomenon experienced by some amputees is a shrinking or expansion of the phantom limb, referred to as “telescoping”: the distal part of the limb is relocated to more distal or proximal positions or even moves into the residual limb. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 25, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Martin Diers, Bertram Krumm, Xaver Fuchs, Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Christopher Milde, J örg Trojan, Jens Foell, Susanne Becker, Gerhard Rümenapf, Herta Flor Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Validation of the Nepali version of the self-reported Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) in adults with chronic pain and predominantly low-literacy levels
About one quarter of the world's population experience chronic pain with a significant proportion with neuropathic origin.10, 20 Population prevalence estimates of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics range from 3% to 17%.57 Most of these estimates are derived from developed countries; prevalence estimates of neuropathic pain (NeuP) from developing countries are lacking.42 NeuP is generally more intense and causes greater pain-related interference than non-neuropathic chronic pain,53 and requires different pharmacological approaches to management. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 25, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Saurab Sharma, Cassie Higgins, Paul Cameron, Inosha Bimali, Tim G. Hales, Michael I. Bennett, Lesley Colvin, Blair H. Smith Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Neural recruitment during conventional, burst, and 10-kHz spinal cord stimulation for pain
Research Funding: This research was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (R01 NS105785) and computational resources and services provided by Advanced Research Computing at the University of Michigan. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 25, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Evan R. Rogers, Hans J. Zander, Scott F. Lempka Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Development and Initial Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of a Pain Competence Assessment Tool (PCAT)
Chronic pain (CP) is a serious condition affecting at least 10 percent of the world's population with prevalence closer to 20-25 percent in Canada and the United States [32; 39; 46]. Unlike acute pain, CP is commonly associated with functional disability, emotional distress, sleep, and financial problems [41]. In addition, chronic pain has been the key driver for opioid prescription and a major contributor to the opioid crisis [44; 54]. Despite significant advances in pain research, the management of CP remains a challenge, especially in primary care settings [25]. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 25, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Samah Hassan, Bonnie Stevens, Judy Watt-Watson, Sharon Switzer-McIntyre, John Flannery, Andrea Furlan Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

A clinical description of chronic pain in a general population using ICD-10 and ICD-11 (The HUNT pain examination study)
The majority of our knowledge of chronic pain in the general population comes from self-report studies. During the last three decades most of these population-based surveys have found that 20% to 35% of the general population suffer from chronic pain [4,6,10,22,23,25,27]. Globally, it is estimated that low back pain, migraine, neck pain, other musculoskeletal disorders, osteoarthritis, and tension type headache are rank numbered 1, 2, 6, 7, 12, and 28 with respect to causes of years lived with disability and that respectively 650, 850, 350, 250, 240, and 1560 million people worldwide suffer from these pain-related disorder...
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 18, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Petter C. Borchgrevink, Mari Glette, Astrid Woodhouse, Stephen Butler, Tormod Landmark, P ål Romundstad, Ola Dale, Tore C. Stiles, Kaare H. Bonaa, Dagfinn Thorsvik, Sabina Thünte, Stein Kaasa Source Type: research

Genome-wide epigenomic analyses in patients with nociceptive and neuropathic chronic pain subtypes reveals alterations in methylation of genes involved in the neuro-musculoskeletal system
Chronic pain conditions 40 demonstrate complex interactions between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors, and their etiology and physiopathology remain obscure 19. In 2019, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defined two main types of pain, nociceptive and neuropathic, and established various criteria for their description. Concerning chronic nociceptive pain (NOCI), the trigger is an activation of the nociceptors, either at the surface of the body (i.e., skin) or at a deeper level (i.e., muscle, bones, joints, or tendons), without damage to the somatosensory nervous system. (...
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 18, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Ludwig Stenz, Joane Le Carr é, François Luthi, Philippe Vuistiner, Cyrille Burrus, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Bertrand Léger Source Type: research

Reduced gut microbiome diversity in people with HIV who have distal neuropathic pain
The association of neuropathic pain in people with HIV with reduced gut microbial diversity and dysbiosis raises the possibility that re-establishing a healthy gut microbiota might ameliorate neuropathic pain in HIV by reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory microbial products. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 13, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Ronald J. Ellis, Robert K. Heaton, Sara Gianella, Gibraan Rahman, Rob Knight Source Type: research

NIH's Helping to End Addiction Long-termSM Initiative (NIH HEAL Initiative) Clinical Pain Management Common Data Element Program
The Helping to End Addiction Long-termSM Initiative (NIH HEAL InitiativeSM) is an aggressive trans-NIH effort to speed solutions to stem the national opioid public health crisis, including through improved pain management. Toward this end, the NIH HEAL Initiative launched a common data element (CDE) program to ensure that NIH-funded clinical pain research studies would collect data in a standardized way.NIH HEAL Initiative staff launched a process to determine which pain-related core domains should be assessed by every clinical pain study and what questionnaires are required to ensure that the data is collected uniformly. ...
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 8, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Laura Dover Wandner, Anthony F. Domenichiello, Jennifer Beierlein, Leah Pogorzala, Guadalupe Aquino, Andrew Siddons, Linda Porter, Jane Atkinson, NIH Pain Consortium Institute Center Representatives Tags: Focus Article Source Type: research

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces secondary hyperalgesia induced by low frequency electrical stimulation in healthy volunteers
Empirical evidence demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of reducing pain both in healthy and chronic pain populations.17,28,38 It is postulated that a weak electrical current delivered by a DC stimulator modulates pain by altering the membrane potential of the neurons at the target cortical site.14,15 The application of tDCS using a positively charged electrode (i.e., anode; atDCS) over the left motor cortex (M1) or the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) reduced pain in numerous chronic pain conditions and experimentally-induced pain in healthy individuals reviewed by. (Sourc...
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 6, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Lechi Vo, Nicole Ilich, Hakuei Fujiyama, Peter D. Drummond Source Type: research

Low somatosensory cortex excitability in the acute stage of low back pain causes chronic pain
Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of years lost to disability worldwide 104 with an economic burden comparable to cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental health, and autoimmune diseases 61. Up to 40% of people who experience an episode of acute LBP (defined as pain lasting less than six weeks)24,85 develop chronic pain (pain lasting longer than three months) 22,36, and interventions designed to prevent the development of chronic LBP during have not been effective 8,32,41,77,91.  A critical issue is the lack of robust mechanistic explanations for chronic LBP; in 85 – 95% of LBP cases 26,43,108, a pathoanato...
Source: The Journal of Pain - September 4, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Luke C Jenkins, Wei-Ju Chang, Valentina Buscemi, Matthew Liston, Patrick Skippen, Aidan G Cashin, James H McAuley, Siobhan M Schabrun Source Type: research

Masthead
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Source: The Journal of Pain - August 31, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
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Source: The Journal of Pain - August 31, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 31, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Assessing Multisensory Sensitivity Across Scales: Using the Resulting Core Factors to Create the Multisensory Amplification Scale
Chronic pain is challenging to treat clinically. Mechanism-based approaches have been widely advocated,10 yet are limited in clinical practice by inadequate markers to reflect the underlying pathologies. However, emerging evidence suggests elevated multisensory sensitivity (MSS) may be a factor associated with chronic pain. While there is a lack of clear consensus on a definition of elevated MSS, it has been generally described as sensory hypersensitivity to multiple non-painful stimuli.53 People with a chronic pain condition have reported heightened sensitivity to normal daily sensations more frequently than healthy, pain...
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 26, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: D Wang, S Casares, K Eilers, S Hitchcock, R Iverson, E Lahn, M Loux, C Schnetzer, LA Frey-Law Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with non-specific chronic low back pain in community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years and older: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem that causes functional limitations and suboptimal quality of life in older adults4; 23; 26; 49. The United Nations has recently recognized that LBP is one of the leading causes of disability among individuals aged 60 years or over, leading to significant disability, as well as great economic and social costs41. A systematic review including 28 studies concluded that the prevalence of chronic low back pain (CLBP) (lasting for more than 3 months) progressively increased from the third decade of life to 60 years of age35. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 23, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Charles KW Wong, Rebecca YW Mak, Terence SY Kwok, Joshua SH Tsang, Marco YC Leung, Martha Funabashi, Luciana Macedo, Liz Dennett, Arnold YL Wong Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The use of virtual reality in back pain rehabilitation: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Back pain continues to be a global issue with serious health and economic consequences, and has been the greatest contributor to years lived with disability over the last thirty years. 138 Its prevalence increases regardless of age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and world region. 46, 142 Numerous factors can be attributed to the heterogeneous presentation of back pain. These include difficulty in accurate diagnosis, prognosis and availability of effective treatment options that reduce the reliance on invasive surgical and opiate-based pharmacological intervention. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 20, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Martine Bordeleau, Alexander Stamenkovic, Pier-Alexandre Tardif, James Thomas Source Type: research

Reframe the Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent-Led Memory-Reframing Intervention
Pain in childhood is ubiquitous and occurs across a variety of settings (e.g., injuries, procedural, illness-related pain). How pain is managed in childhood sets the stage for pain experiences into adulthood with poorly managed pain leading to long-term consequences (e.g., fear of needles26, healthcare avoidance40). To date, pediatric pain management has focused on the child's immediate pain experience50. However, children's memories of past pain are a more robust predictor of future pain and distress than their actual initial experience of pain itself30. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 20, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Maria Pavlova, Tatiana Lund, Cara Nania, Madison Kennedy, Susan Graham, Melanie Noel Source Type: research

Dorsal root ganglion stimulation for chronic pain: Hypothesized mechanisms of action
Dorsal root ganglion stimulation (DRGS) is a neuromodulation therapy for chronic pain that is refractory to conventional medical management. Currently, the mechanisms of action of DRGS-induced pain relief are unknown, precluding both our understanding of why DRGS fails to provide pain relief to some patients and the design of neurostimulation technologies that directly target these mechanisms to maximize pain relief in all patients. Due to the heterogeneity of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), the analgesic mechanisms could be attributed to the modulation of one or many cell types within the DRG and the nu...
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 20, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Robert D. Graham, Vishwanath Sankarasubramanian, Scott F. Lempka Source Type: research

Widespread pressure delivered by a weighted blanket reduces chronic pain: A randomized controlled trial
Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide 73. Efforts at treatment have spawned an ongoing opioid crisis, exposing the need for nondrug treatment options 113. Chronic pain is amenable to modulation by cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness meditation 107, 112, 146, 162. However, such therapies require resources and training, highlighting a need for more accessible complementary approaches. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 20, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jennifer N. Baumgartner, Desiree Quintana, Linda Leija, Nathaniel M. Schuster, Kelly A. Bruno, Joel P. Castellanos, Laura K. Case Source Type: research

Chronic Pain Severity and Sociodemographics: An Evaluation of the Neurobiological Interface
Chronic pain is associated with changes in the brain. In individuals with knee pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA), there is evidence of reduced gray matter volumes in prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and postcentral cortices9, 48 and longer OA pain duration is associated with thinner cortex in multiple regions3. Subcortical structures also demonstrate volume and morphological changes in individuals with knee OA54. Further evidence that OA-related pain influences brain structure is supported by reports of increased gray matter volume following surgical interventions for knee and hip OA37, 47, 86. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 20, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jared J Tanner, Josue Cardoso, Ellen L Terry, Staja Q Booker, Toni L Glover, Cynthia Garvan, Hrishikesh Deshpande, Georg Deutsch, Song Lai, Roland Staud, Adrianna Addison, David Redden, Burel R Goodin, Catherine C Price, Roger B Fillingim, Kimberly T Sibi Source Type: research

Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Machine Learning Algorithms for Classifying Pain Intensity, Phenotype or Treatment Outcomes Using Electroencephalogram Data
Accurate assessment of pain is challenging due to the complex interplay between biological and psychological processes, but it is vital for understanding the effectiveness of clinical pain management 19,80,106. Traditionally, pain is evaluated using interviews, observations, psychological screening and rating scales 11,19,38,101. Whilst behavioural tools are valuable, developments are needed to individualise clinical care further, as many conventional methods fail in individuals who cannot accurately communicate their pain, such as infants and those with dementia 11,39. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 20, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Tyler Mari, Jessica Henderson, Michelle Maden, Sarah Nevitt, Rui Duarte, Nicholas Fallon Source Type: research

Producing clinically meaningful reductions in disability: A causal mediation analysis of a patient education intervention
Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem;27 experienced by 7% of the global population at any time.24 Most people experiencing an acute episode of LBP report severe pain intensity and interference with daily function.26 This LBP related disability is the leading cause of years lived with disability worldwide,24 contributing to substantial personal hardship23 and economic burden.18,35 (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 15, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Aidan G. Cashin, Hopin Lee, Adrian C. Traeger, G. Lorimer Moseley, Markus H übscher, Steven J. Kamper, Ian W. Skinner, James H. McAuley Source Type: research

Battle of the appraisals: Pain-related Injustice versus Catastrophizing as Mediators in the Relationship between Pain Intensity and 3-month Outcomes in Adolescents with Chronic Pain
Pain appraisals, defined as assessments or evaluations of one's pain experience, are closely tied to pain intensity and functional outcomes [20,22,79]. Appraisal theories hold that emotional episodes – which include feeling, cognitive, somatic, motor, and motivational components – stem from evaluations of a stimulus (e.g., pain) as relevant to and/or (in)congruent with a goal or concern (e.g., daily functioning, valued activities), thereby engendering behavioral efforts to facilitate goals a nd adjust to environmental demands [42]. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 14, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Megan M. Miller, Amy E. Williams, Eric. L. Scott, Zina Trost, Adam T. Hirsh Source Type: research

Pain relief reverses hippocampal abnormalities in trigeminal neuralgia
Chronic pain adversely affects cognitive performance and significantly impacts quality of life 58,63. Chronic pain patients frequently experience poor memory and concentration, often accompanied by increased anxiety and depression 3,8,14,15,23,35 –37,40,57,64,66–68,74,75,82,85,90,102. The hippocampal formation consists of anatomically and functionally distinct subfields including the subiculum, Cornu Ammonis (CA1 – CA4), and dentate gyrus (DG). These subcortical regions play a significant role in memory formation 51, emotional processi ng, and stress modulation 103. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 7, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Alborz Noorani, Peter Shih-Ping Hung, Jia Y. Zhang, Kaylee Sohng, Normand Laperriere, Massieh Moayedi, Mojgan Hodaie Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Anger as a mechanism of injustice appraisals in pediatric chronic pain
Pain-related injustice appraisals focus on pain severity, irreparable loss, and blame and unfairness surrounding pain-related suffering [71]. These appraisals have been identified as an important cognitive-emotional factor in the pain experience of adults [12,40,41,59,64,72,73,74,77,90] and, more recently, children [2,17,46,47,48,49, Miller, 2019]. Pain-related injustice is associated with worse functioning for youth with chronic pain [2,17,46,47,48,49,Miller, 2019]. In a cross-sectional study by Miller and colleagues [47], pain-related injustice predicted unique variability in physical disability and emotional, social, an...
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 7, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Megan M. Miller, Amy E. Williams, Eric. L. Scott, Zina Trost, Adam T. Hirsh Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Pupillary reflexes in complex regional pain syndrome: asymmetry to arousal stimuli suggests an ipsilateral locus coeruleus deficit
In complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the initial response to limb injury evolves into an intractably painful condition associated with sensory, autonomic, motor and trophic disturbances 5,41. Sensory disturbances often encompass much of the body, particularly on the affected side 10-12,15,39, possibly due to central sensitization and/or failure of inhibitory pain controls. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 7, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Peter D. Drummond, Philip M. Finch Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Cross-national trends of chronic back pain in adolescents: results from the HBSC study, 2001-2014
Back pain is a common chronic pain problem in adolescents [20,22]. Moreover, back pain and chronic back pain in children and adolescents is associated with lower levels of well-being, higher medical care requirements and costs, and functional limitations [1,12,13,28,33,35]. A review of 27 systematic reviews on back pain in children and adolescents found that its monthly prevalence ranges from 18% to 24%. In most, but not all, of the reviews, the prevalence of back pain was higher for girls than boys, and increased with age [23]. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 2, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Rub én Roy, Santiago Galán, Elisabet Sánchez-Rodríguez, Mélanie Racine, Ester Solé, Mark P. Jensen, Jordi Miró Source Type: research

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Source: The Journal of Pain - August 1, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
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Source: The Journal of Pain - August 1, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - August 1, 2021 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Worst Pain Severity Profiles of Oncology Patients Are Associated with Significant Stress and Multiple Co-Occurring Symptoms
Unrelieved pain occurs in approximately 55% of oncology patients during active treatment and over 35% of these patients report moderate to severe pain.111 Outpatients receiving chemotherapy can experience pain as a result of the cancer itself, associated treatments (e.g., chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, aromatase inhibitors-induced arthralgia, granulocyte-colony stimulating factors-induced bone pain), and/or other comorbid conditions (e.g., musculoskeletal disorders).22, 77, 88, 108 Despite the tremendous symptom burden associated with unrelieved pain, as well as the significant decrements in quality of life (Q...
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 20, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Joosun Shin, Carolyn Harris, Kate Oppegaard, Kord M. Kober, Steven M. Paul, Bruce A. Cooper, Marilyn Hammer, Yvette Conley, Jon D. Levine, Christine Miaskowski Source Type: research

Characterization of Hyperacute Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective Study
The vast majority of individuals with longstanding spinal cord injury (SCI) report chronic pain11, and about 50% have neuropathic pain37. Compared to other forms of pain (e.g., musculoskeletal), neuropathic pain is often more severe and refractory to conventional pharmacological interventions15. The negative impact on quality of life and societal burden (e.g., healthcare expenses) highlights the unmet and urgent need for novel therapies33, 40. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 20, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jan Rosner, Michael Negraeff, Lise M. B élanger, Angela Tsang, Leanna Ritchie, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong, Sean Christie, Jefferson R. Wilson, Sanjay Dhall, Raphaele Charest-Morin, John Street, Tamir Ailon, Scott Paquette, Nicolas Dea, Charles G. Fisher, Marce Source Type: research

Pediatric pain screening tool: A simple 9-item questionnaire predicts functional and chronic postsurgical pain outcomes after major musculoskeletal surgeries
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is an important entity recognized as a diagnosis in International Classification of Diseases, ICD-1144;55 and a sizable problem in children with an incidence of 14.5-38%.28 Chronic pain in children is knoen to lead to significant functional disability, poor quality of life23;39, and increased health care costs.14;41 Chronic pain also increases the risk of anxiety, depression and somatic complaints in children and their parents.51 Hence, ability to predict CPSP risk is critical to enable initiation of preventive strategies in high-risk patients. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 16, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Suryakumar Narayanasamy, Fang Gang, Lili Ding, Kristie Geisler, Susan Glynn, Arjunan Ganesh, Madhankumar Sathyamoorthy, Victor Garcia, Peter Sturm, Vidya Chidambaran Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

Applying the NIA Health Disparities Research Framework to Identify Needs and Opportunities in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Research
Chronic musculoskeletal pain, pain experienced in areas of the body involving muscles, joints, ligaments, and/or tendons; affects 116 million Americans and is a leading cause of disability, loss of work, and loss of participation in life activities10, 33, 39, 103. A number of factors contribute toward the development and persistence of chronic musculoskeletal pain: biological (co-morbidities and age-related health changes); sociocultural (depression, anxiety, coping patterns, and social support); behavioral (smoking, lack of exercise, and poor-quality diet); and environmental (low education, lack of quality health care, an...
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 16, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Monika Patel, Alisa J. Johnson, Staja Q. Booker, Emily J. Bartley, Shreela Palit, Keesha Powell-Roach, Ellen L. Terry, Dottington Fullwood, Lucas DeMonte, Angela M. Mickle, Kimberly T. Sibille Source Type: research

Cognitive Biases in Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Pain
Pain is a common problem in diabetes. Almost 60% of individuals with diabetes experience persistent pain, frequently in the form of neuropathic pain 4. Further, individuals with diabetes who experience pain tend to have worse physical functioning and mental health than individuals without pain 4,22. As Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes, representing approximately 90% of diabetes cases 46, identifying the factors that contribute to pain and associated disability in individuals with T2D is essential for developing effective treatments. (Source: The Journal of Pain)
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 16, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Jemma Todd, Daniel Rudaizky, Patrick Clarke, Louise Sharpe Tags: Original Reports Source Type: research

The Pediatric Pain Screening Tool (PPST) can Rapidly Identify Elevated Pain and Psychosocial Symptomatology in Treatment-Seeking Youth with Acute Musculoskeletal Pain
Acute musculoskeletal pain is common during childhood and adolescence13, 14. While many youth with acute pain recover from symptoms, data suggest 30% develop persistent musculoskeletal pain11. Given data showing factors such as sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and pain-related fear are associated with pain-related disability and quality of life in the acute pain period2, 10, screening for elevated pain and psychosocial symptomatology in the acute care setting is important. While preventive interventions for youth with acute musculoskeletal pain have not been developed, data gathered in the acute care setting can in...
Source: The Journal of Pain - July 10, 2021 Category: Materials Science Authors: Amy L. Holley, Wendy Gaultney, Hayley Turner, Anna C. Wilson Source Type: research