Wu et al (J Infect Dis 2016; 214[suppl 3]:S326-32)
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Reply to Lagier et al
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khanna, S., Button, J. E., Lombardo, M.-J., Vulic, M., Henn, M. R., Cook, D. N., Pomerantz, R. J., Hohmann, E. L. Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Critical Microbiological View of SER-109
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lagier, J.-C., Cadoret, F., Raoult, D. Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reply to Mori
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siegers, J. Y., van Riel, D. Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Vaccination Effectively Prevents Central Nervous System Invasion by Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Through the Olfactory Pathway: A Proposed Mechanism of Neuroprotection
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mori, I. Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

The Early Adaptive Immune Response in the Pathophysiological Process of Pneumococcal Meningitis
Conclusions. B and T cells are important effector cells delaying the spread of pneumococci from the brain to the systemic circulation and shaping the immune response, thereby prolonging the survival of the host in the absence of antibiotic treatment. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ribes, S., Nessler, S., Heide, E.-C., Malzahn, D., Perske, C., Brück, W., Nau, R. Tags: PATHOGENESIS AND HOST RESPONSE Source Type: research

The Third Signal Cytokine Interleukin 12 Rather Than Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Contributes to the Functional Restoration of Hepatitis D Virus-Specific T Cells
Conclusions. This investigation of virus-specific T-cell immunity in patients with HDV infection, the largest to date, revealed premature aging of immune cells and impaired T-cell functionality. This could be restored by blocking inhibitory pathways and, in particular, by supplementing with IL-12. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schirdewahn, T., Grabowski, J., Owusu Sekyere, S., Bremer, B., Wranke, A., Lunemann, S., Schlaphoff, V., Kirschner, J., Hardtke, S., Manns, M. P., Cornberg, M., Wedemeyer, H., Suneetha, P. V. Tags: PATHOGENESIS AND HOST RESPONSE Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Ascaris Infection Among Pigs in Iowa
Ascaris is a large roundworm parasite that infects humans and pigs throughout the world. Molecular markers have been used to study parasite transmission in Ascaris-endemic and -nonendemic regions of the world. In the United States, ascariasis still persists in commercial swine and has been designated a neglected disease of poverty in humans. However, relatively few data are available for evaluation of zoonotic transmission. In the present study, we obtained adult worms from abattoirs and characterized each worm on the basis of the gene encoding nuclear internal transcribed sequence (ITS) and mitochondrial cox1. Restriction...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jesudoss Chelladurai, J., Murphy, K., Snobl, T., Bader, C., West, C., Thompson, K., Brewer, M. T. Tags: PARASITES Source Type: research

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis During Live Malaria Sporozoite Immunization Induces Long-Lived, Homologous, and Heterologous Protective Immunity Against Sporozoite Challenge
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce prot...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hobbs, C. V., Anderson, C., Neal, J., Sahu, T., Conteh, S., Voza, T., Langhorne, J., Borkowsky, W., Duffy, P. E. Tags: PARASITES Source Type: research

Monocyte Activation Is Associated With Worse Cognitive Performance in HIV-Infected Women With Virologic Suppression
We examined immune activation and cognition in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods. Blood levels of activation markers, soluble CD163 (sCD163), soluble CD14 (sCD14), CRP, IL-6, and a gut microbial translocation marker (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP)) were measured in 253 women (73% HIV-infected). Markers were compared to concurrent (within ± one semiannual visit) neuropsychological testing performance. Results. Higher sCD163 levels were associated with worse overall performance and worse verbal learning, verbal memory, executi...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Imp, B. M., Rubin, L. H., Tien, P. C., Plankey, M. W., Golub, E. T., French, A. L., Valcour, V. G. Tags: HIV/AIDS Source Type: research

Malaria Parasitemia and Parasite Density in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-Infected Adults Following Discontinuation of Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis
Background. Cotrimoxazole (CTX) discontinuation increases malaria incidence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals. Rates, quantity, and timing of parasitemia rebound following CTX remain undefined. Methods. Serial specimens from a trial of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) randomized to continue (the CTX arm) or discontinue (the STOP-CTX arm) were examined for malaria parasites by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specimens obtained at enrollment and then quarterly for 12 months and at sick visits were assessed; multiplic...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ottichilo, R. K., Polyak, C. S., Guyah, B., Singa, B., Nyataya, J., Yuhas, K., John-Stewart, G., Waitumbi, J. N. Tags: HIV/AIDS Source Type: research

Redeploying {beta}-Lactam Antibiotics as a Novel Antivirulence Strategy for the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections
We report a new approach to the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections by demonstrating that oxacillin can be used to significantly attenuate the virulence of MRSA despite the pathogen being resistant to this drug. Using mechanistic in vitro assays and in vivo models of invasive pneumonia and sepsis, we show that oxacillin-treated MRSA strains are significantly attenuated in virulence. This effect is based primarily on the oxacillin-dependent repression of the accessory gene regulator quorum-sensing system and altered cell wall architecture, which in turn lead to increased susceptibility...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Waters, E. M., Rudkin, J. K., Coughlan, S., Clair, G. C., Adkins, J. N., Gore, S., Xia, G., Black, N. S., Downing, T., O'Neill, E., Kadioglu, A., O'Gara, J. P. Tags: BACTERIA Source Type: research

Humanized Mice Reproduce Acute and Persistent Human Adenovirus Infection
Severe human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are an increasing threat for immunosuppressed individuals, particularly those who have received stem cell transplants. It has been previously hypothesized that severe infections might be due to reactivation of a persistent infection, but this hypothesis has been difficult to test owing to the lack of a permissive in vivo model of HAdV infection. Here we established a humanized mouse model that reproduces features of acute and persistent HAdV infection. In this model, acute infection correlated with high mortality, weight loss, liver pathology, and expression of viral proteins in se...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rodriguez, E., Ip, W. H., Kolbe, V., Hartmann, K., Pilnitz-Stolze, G., Tekin, N., Gomez-Medina, S., Munoz-Fontela, C., Krasemann, S., Dobner, T. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

2-Year Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of Vigoo Enterovirus 71 Vaccine in Healthy Chinese Children: A Randomized Open-Label Study
This study evaluated the 2-year efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the Vigoo enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine. Method. In an initial phase 3 study, we randomly assigned healthy infants and children aged 6–35 months (ratio, 1:1) to receive 2 doses of either EV71 vaccine (5120 participants) or placebo (5125 participants) at days 0 and 28, and followed them for 12 months after vaccination. In this extended follow-up study, we continued to evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the EV71 vaccine for up to 2 years. Results. Overall efficacy was 94.84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.53%–98...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wei, M., Meng, F., Wang, S., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Mao, Q., Hu, Y., Liu, P., Shi, N., Tao, H., Chu, K., Wang, Y., Liang, Z., Li, X., Zhu, F. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

A Live Attenuated Chimeric West Nile Virus Vaccine, rWN/DEN4{Delta}30, Is Well Tolerated and Immunogenic in Flavivirus-Naive Older Adult Volunteers
This study evaluated rWN/DEN430 in flavivirus-naive adults aged 50–65 years and found it to be safe and immunogenic. Outbreaks of WNV infection tend to be unpredictable, and a safe and effective vaccine will be an important public health tool. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pierce, K. K., Whitehead, S. S., Kirkpatrick, B. D., Grier, P. L., Jarvis, A., Kenney, H., Carmolli, M. P., Reynolds, C., Tibery, C. M., Lovchik, J., Janiak, A., Luke, C. J., Durbin, A. P., Pletnev, A. G. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Severity of Plasma Leakage Is Associated With High Levels of Interferon {gamma}-Inducible Protein 10, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 During Dengue Virus Infection
Conclusions. This study identified several key markers for exacerbated dengue pathogenesis, notably plasma leakage. This will allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of DHF and DSS in patients with dengue. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Her, Z., Kam, Y.-W., Gan, V. C., Lee, B., Thein, T.-L., Tan, J. J. L., SIgN Immunomonitoring Platform, Lee, L. K., Fink, K., Lye, D. C., Renia, L., Leo, Y.-S., Ng, L. F. P. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Significant Correlation Between the Infant Gut Microbiome and Rotavirus Vaccine Response in Rural Ghana
Conclusions. The intestinal microbiome composition correlates significantly with RVV immunogenicity and may contribute to the diminished RVV immunogenicity observed in developing countries. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harris, V. C., Armah, G., Fuentes, S., Korpela, K. E., Parashar, U., Victor, J. C., Tate, J., de Weerth, C., Giaquinto, C., Wiersinga, W. J., Lewis, K. D. C., de Vos, W. M. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

A Randomized, Controlled, Observer-Blinded Phase 1 Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine With or Without Alum Adjuvant
Conclusions. The RSV-PreF vaccine elicited rapid RSV neutralizing antibody responses in healthy young men, with an acceptable adverse event profile. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Langley, J. M., Aggarwal, N., Toma, A., Halperin, S. A., McNeil, S. A., Fissette, L., Dewe, W., Leyssen, M., Toussaint, J.-F., Dieussaert, I. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Clinical and Socioeconomic Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children
We examined the children and obtained nasal swabs for the detection of RSV during each respiratory illness. The parents filled out daily symptom diaries throughout the study. Results. Of 6001 medically attended respiratory infections, 302 (5%) were caused by RSV. Per 1000 children, the average annual RSV infection incidence rates among children aged
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heikkinen, T., Ojala, E., Waris, M. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Reducing Health Regrets in a Changing Climate
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Levy, K. Tags: PERSPECTIVE Source Type: research

Redeploying {beta}-Lactams Against Staphylococcus aureus: Repurposing With a Purpose
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bayer, A. S., Xiong, Y. Q. Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiome as Possible Key to Understanding and Improving Rotavirus Vaccine Performance in High-Disease Burden Settings
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Iturriza-Gomara, M., Cunliffe, N. A. Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Vaccines Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus: The Time Has Come
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Englund, J. A., Chu, H. Y. Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

The Outpatient Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Older Children
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Simoes, E. A. F. Tags: EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Chikungunya in the Americas: Recommendations and Conclusions
Discovered in 1953, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulated in Africa and Southeast Asia, with periodic outbreaks, for many years. Highly efficient transmission following a genetic mutation of the virus in 2005 caused its global spread. Associated with significant morbidity, CHIKV creates a large public health burden, and despite various efforts, there are currently no licensed vaccines nor specific treatments. To garner a better understanding of the virus, identify gaps in knowledge, and guide the development of more-effective interventions, the World Health Organization and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disea...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Graham, B. S., Repik, P. M., Yactayo, S. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Monoclonal Antibodies as Prophylactic and Therapeutic Agents Against Chikungunya Virus
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is responsible for considerable epidemics worldwide and recently emerged in the Americas in 2013. CHIKV may cause long-lasting arthralgia after acute infection. With currently no licensed vaccines or antivirals, the design of effective therapies to prevent or treat CHIKV infection is of utmost importance and will be facilitated by increased understanding of the dynamics of chikungunya. In this article, monoclonal antibodies against CHIKV as viable prophylactic and therapeutic agents will be discussed. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clayton, A. M. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Chikungunya Virus Vaccines: Viral Vector-Based Approaches
In 2013, a major chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic reached the Americas. In the past 2 years,>1.7 million people have been infected. In light of the current epidemic, with millions of people in North and South America at risk, efforts to rapidly develop effective vaccines have increased. Here, we focus on CHIKV vaccines that use viral-vector technologies. This group of vaccine candidates shares an ability to potently induce humoral and cellular immune responses by use of highly attenuated and safe vaccine backbones. So far, well-described vectors such as modified vaccinia virus Ankara, complex adenovirus, vesicular sto...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ramsauer, K., Tangy, F. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Whole-Inactivated and Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Strategies for Chikungunya Virus
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a global public health threat, having been identified in>60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. There is no cure for or licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. Initial attempts at CHIKV vaccine development began in the early 1960s. Whole-inactivated and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are 2 of the current approaches being evaluated. Success of these approaches is dependent on a safe, well-tolerated vaccine that is immunogenic and deployable in regard to manufacturing, stability, and delivery characteristics. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: DeZure, A. D., Berkowitz, N. M., Graham, B. S., Ledgerwood, J. E. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Development of Vaccines for Chikungunya Fever
Chikungunya fever, an acute and often chronic arthralgic disease caused by the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has reemerged since 2004 to cause millions of cases. Because CHIKV exhibits limited antigenic diversity and is not known to be capable of reinfection, a vaccine could serve to both prevent disease and diminish human amplification during epidemic circulation. Here, we review the many promising vaccine platforms and candidates developed for CHIKV since the 1970s, including several in late preclinical or clinical development. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each, as well as the commercial and r...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Erasmus, J. H., Rossi, S. L., Weaver, S. C. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Animal Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe joint pain in humans. Although acute symptoms often resolve within a few days, chronic joint and muscle pain can be long lasting. In the last decade, CHIKV has caused widespread outbreaks of unprecedented scale in the Americas, Asia, and the Indian Ocean island regions. Despite these outbreaks and the continued expansion of CHIKV into new areas, mechanisms of chikungunya pathogenesis and disease are not well understood. Experimental animal models are indispensable to the field of CHIKV research. The most commonly used experime...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Haese, N. N., Broeckel, R. M., Hawman, D. W., Heise, M. T., Morrison, T. E., Streblow, D. N. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Surveillance for Chikungunya and Dengue During the First Year of Chikungunya Virus Circulation in Puerto Rico
After chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission was detected in Puerto Rico in May 2014, multiple surveillance systems were used to describe epidemiologic trends and CHIKV-associated disease. Of 28 327 cases reported via passive surveillance, 6472 were tested for evidence of CHIKV infection, and results for 4399 (68%) were positive. Of 250 participants in household cluster investigations, 70 (28%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection. Enhanced surveillance for chikungunya at 2 hospitals identified 1566 patients who tested positive for CHIKV, of whom 10.9% were hospitalized. Enhanced surveillance for fatal cases enabled iden...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sharp, T. M., Ryff, K. R., Alvarado, L., Shieh, W.-J., Zaki, S. R., Margolis, H. S., Rivera-Garcia, B. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Laboratory Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infections and Commercial Sources for Diagnostic Assays
Detection of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) or viral RNA is the primary laboratory test used to diagnose infection in serum collected 5 days of illness. Commercially available CHIKV IgM–detection assays include lateral flow rapid tests, IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (MAC-ELISAs), and indirect immunofluorescence tests. Nine commercial CHIKV IgM detection assays were evaluated at 3 reference laboratories to provide guidance to public health diagnostic laboratories on their performance parameters. Sensitivity of the rapid tests and 3 MAC-ELISAs was
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Johnson, B. W., Russell, B. J., Goodman, C. H. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Bridging the Gap Between Experimental Data and Model Parameterization for Chikungunya Virus Transmission Predictions
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has experienced 2 major expansion events in the last decade. The most recently emerged sublineage (ECSA-V) was shown to have increased efficiency in a historically secondary vector, Aedes albopictus, leading to speculation that this was a major factor in expansion. Subsequently, a number of experimental studies focused on the vector competence of CHIKV, as well as transmission modeling efforts. Mathematical models have used these data to inform their own investigations, but some have incorrectly parameterized the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of the mosquitoes, using vector competence data. Ve...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christofferson, R. C., Mores, C. N., Wearing, H. J. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Perspectives and Challenges in Entomological Risk Assessment and Vector Control of Chikungunya
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is primarily spread by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito vectors. Because there is no licensed vaccine for CHIKV, identifying ways to reduce or eliminate mosquito populations is the most effective strategy to immediately halt transmission to man. Strategies to assess the entomological risk and to control the vector are absolutely crucial to demolishing the rise of CHIKV. This review provides perspectives in entomological risk assessment and vector control, challenges for both, and gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed through rigorous research and multidisciplinary collaboratio...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Diallo, M., Dia, I., Diallo, D., Diagne, C. T., Ba, Y., Yactayo, S. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Invasiveness of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Vectorial Capacity for Chikungunya Virus
In this review, we highlight biological characteristics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, 2 invasive mosquito species and primary vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), that set the tone of these species' invasiveness, vector competence, and vectorial capacity (VC). The invasiveness of both species, as well as their public health threats as vectors, is enhanced by preference for human blood. Vector competence, characterized by the efficiency of an ingested arbovirus to replicate and become infectious in the mosquito, depends largely on vector and virus genetics, and most A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations thus fa...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lounibos, L. P., Kramer, L. D. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

How Chikungunya Virus Virology Affects Its Epidemiology and Transmission: Implications for Influencing Public Health
Chikungunya virus has been causing a series of ongoing epidemics around the globe for the past 12 years. During that time, estimates indicate that>4 million cases occurred worldwide. Despite the magnitude of these outbreaks and the broad interest in understanding the virus and disease, significant gaps still exist in our knowledge base. An in-depth understanding of the basic virological elements that can affect the epidemiology of the agent is critical for future development of control and treatment products. This work describes how knowledge of various viral genetic and structural elements has begun to advance the deve...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Powers, A. M. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Chikungunya Pathogenesis: From the Clinics to the Bench
Chikungunya alphavirus has caused large epidemics worldwide and leads to acute incapacitating polyarthralgia. The inflammatory reaction over several days will drive robust innate and humoral responses essential to control the infection. Critically, fatal cases and mother-to-child transmission have also been described. Chikungunya can give rise to chronic musculoskeletal diseases, which can last for months to years, particularly in elderly individuals, and occasionally leads to seronegative rheumatoid arthritis–like pathologies. Histopathological studies of patient biopsy specimens and animal models have revealed that...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gasque, P., Bandjee, M. C. J., Reyes, M. M., Viasus, D. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Chikungunya in the Americas
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in the Americas in late 2013 to cause substantial acute and chronic morbidity. About 1.1 million cases of chikungunya were reported within a year, including severe cases and deaths. The burden of chikungunya is unclear owing to inadequate disease surveillance and underdiagnosis. Virus evolution, globalization, and climate change may further CHIKV spread. No approved vaccine or antiviral therapeutics exist. Early detection and appropriate management could reduce the burden of severe atypical and chronic arthritic disease. Improved surveillance and risk assessment are needed to mitigate the ...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yactayo, S., Staples, J. E., Millot, V., Cibrelus, L., Ramon-Pardo, P. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Chikungunya: Its History in Africa and Asia and Its Spread to New Regions in 2013-2014
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes febrile illness with severe arthralgia in humans. There are 3 circulating CHIKV genotypes, Asia, East/Central/South Africa, and West Africa. CHIKV was first reported in 1953 in Tanzania, and up until the early 2000s, a few outbreaks and sporadic cases of CHIKV were mainly reported in Africa and Asia. However, from 2004 to 2005, a large epidemic spanned from Kenya over to the southwestern Indian Ocean region, India, and Southeast Asia. Identified in 2005, the E1 glycoprotein A226V mutation of the East/Central/South Africa ge...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zeller, H., Van Bortel, W., Sudre, B. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Meeting the Challenge of Epidemic Chikungunya
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Morens, D. M., Fauci, A. S. Tags: CHIKUNGUNYA Source Type: research

Foreword
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fanning, M., Touchette, N. Tags: FOREWORD Source Type: research

Reviewers
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Source Type: research

Dengue Vaccine Efficacy: Not a Zero Sum Game
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Halstead, S. B. Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Adaptation to Potassium-Limitation Is Essential for Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia Pathogenesis
Conclusions. For the first time, A. baumannii KdpE is shown to be crucial to pneumonia onset, and targeting this system can be a viable approach to treating these fatal infections. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Samir, R., Hussein, S. H., Elhosseiny, N. M., Khattab, M. S., Shawky, A. E., Attia, A. S. Tags: BACTERIA Source Type: research

Induction of an Immune-Protective T-Cell Repertoire With Diverse Genetic Coverage by a Novel Viral-Vectored Tuberculosis Vaccine in Humans
Conclusions. These data support further clinical development of this candidate vaccine. Our approach helps fill the gap in clinical tuberculosis vaccine development. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jeyanathan, M., Damjanovic, D., Yao, Y., Bramson, J., Smaill, F., Xing, Z. Tags: BACTERIA Source Type: research

Genomic Characteristics Behind the Spread of Bacteremic Group A Streptococcus Type emm89 in Finland, 2004-2014
Background. Many countries worldwide have reported increasing numbers of emm89 group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections during last decade. Pathogen genetic factors linked to this increase need assessment. Methods. We investigated epidemiological characteristics of emm89 GAS bacteremic infections, including 7-day and 30-day case-fatality rates, in Finland during 2004–2014 and linked them to whole-genome sequencing data obtained from corresponding strains. The Fisher exact test and exact logistic regression were used to compare differences between bacteremic infections due to emm89 GAS belonging to different g...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Latronico, F., Nasser, W., Puhakainen, K., Ollgren, J., Hyyryläinen, H.-L., Beres, S. B., Lyytikäinen, O., Jalava, J., Musser, J. M., Vuopio, J. Tags: BACTERIA Source Type: research

Measles Outbreak Among Previously Immunized Healthcare Workers, the Netherlands, 2014
Conclusions. Measles occurred in 6 twice-vaccinated HCWs, despite 2 having adequate pre-exposure neutralizing antibodies. None of the twice-vaccinated cases had severe measles, and none had onward transmission, consistent with laboratory findings suggesting a secondary immune response. Improving 2-dose MMR coverage among HCWs would have likely reduced the size of this outbreak. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hahne, S. J. M., Nic Lochlainn, L. M., van Burgel, N. D., Kerkhof, J., Sane, J., Yap, K. B., van Binnendijk, R. S. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 9-Expressed ZMapp in Mice Confers Protection Against Systemic and Airway-Acquired Ebola Virus Infection
Adeno-associated viral vectors can be used as a platform for delivering biological countermeasures against pandemic and biological threats. We show that vector delivery of two antibody components of the ZMapp product is effective in mice against systemic and airway challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of Ebola virus. This platform provides a generic manufacturing solution and overcomes some of the delivery challenges associated with repeated administration of the protective protein. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Limberis, M. P., Tretiakova, A., Nambiar, K., Wong, G., Racine, T., Crosariol, M., Xiangguo, Q., Kobinger, G., Wilson, J. M. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Direct-Acting Antiviral-Induced Hepatitis C Virus Clearance Does Not Completely Restore the Altered Cytokine and Chemokine Milieu in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C
Conclusions. Chronic HCV infection appears to disrupt the milieu of soluble inflammatory mediators even after viral clearance. Thus, HCV cure does not lead to complete immunological restitution. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hengst, J., Falk, C. S., Schlaphoff, V., Deterding, K., Manns, M. P., Cornberg, M., Wedemeyer, H. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research

Reduction in Vaccine-Type Human Papillomavirus Prevalence Among Women in the United States, 2009-2012
Between 2009 and 2012, the proportion of young women in the United States completing the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine doubled. To understand how quickly this increased uptake is affecting women in the United States, we evaluated the prevalence of vaccine-type (VT) HPV strains among young women in national data sets from 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. Among 18–26-year-old women, the prevalence of VT HPV decreased markedly over a short interval, from 15.4% in 2009–2010 to 8.5% in 2011–2012 (prevalence ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, .28–.92), and the prevalence of high-risk VT HPV de...
Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Berenson, A. B., Laz, T. H., Rahman, M. Tags: VIRUSES Source Type: research