Genetic analysis and QTL mapping of stalk cell wall components and digestibility in maize recombinant inbred lines from B73 × By804
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Qi Wang, Kun Li, Xiaojiao Hu, Huimin Shi, Zhifang Liu, Yujin Wu, Hongwu Wang, Changling HuangAbstractThe cell wall composition and structure of the maize stalk directly affects its digestibility and in turn its feed value. Previous studies of stem quality have focused mostly on common maize germplasm, and few studies have focused on high-oil cultivars with high grain and straw quality. Investigation of the genetic basis of cell wall composition and digestibility of maize stalk using high-oil maize is desirable for improving maize forage qua...
Source: The Crop Journal - August 10, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Assessment of the individual and combined effects of Rht8 and Ppd-D1a on plant height, time to heading and yield traits in common wheat
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Kunpu Zhang, Junjun Wang, Huanju Qin, Zhiying Wei, Libo Hang, Pengwei Zhang, Matthew Reynolds, Daowen WangAbstractGrain yield in cereal crops is a complex trait controlled by multiple genes and influenced by developmental processes and environment. Here we report the effects of alleles Rht8 and Ppd-D1a on plant height, time to heading, and grain yield and its component traits. Association analysis and quantitative trait locus mapping using phenotypic data from 15 environments led to the following conclusions. First, both Rht8 and Ppd-D1a re...
Source: The Crop Journal - August 10, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Effect of high-nitrogen fertilizer on gliadin and glutenin subproteomes during kernel development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
In this study, we performed the first comparative analysis of gliadin and glutenin subproteomes during kernel development in the elite Chinese wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 under high-N conditions by reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Application of high-N fertilizer led to significant increases in gluten macropolymer content, total gliadin and glutenin content, and the accumulation of individual storage protein components. Of 126 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) induced by high-N conditions, 24 gliadins, 12 high-molecular-weight glut...
Source: The Crop Journal - August 9, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Breeding wheat for resistance to Fusarium head blight in the Global North: China, USA, and Canada
The objective of this paper is to review progress made in wheat breeding for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in China, the United States of America (USA), and Canada. In China, numerous Chinese landraces possessing high levels of FHB resistance were grown before the 1950s. Later, pyramiding multiple sources of FHB resistance from introduced germplasm such as Mentana and Funo and locally adapted cultivars played a key role in combining satisfactory FHB resistance and high yield potential in commercial cultivars. Sumai 3, a Chinese spring wheat cultivar, became a major source of FHB resistance in the USA and Canada, an...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 27, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2019Source: The Crop Journal, Volume 7, Issue 4Author(s): (Source: The Crop Journal)
Source: The Crop Journal - July 25, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Improving the efficiency of the CRISPR-Cas12a system with tRNA-crRNA arrays
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Xixun Hu, Xiangbing Meng, Jiayang Li, Kejian Wang, Hong YuAbstractCRISPR-Cas12a offers a convenient tool for multiplex genome editing in rice. However, the CRISPR-Cas12a system displays variable editing efficiency across genomic loci, with marked influence by CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). To improve the efficiency of the CRISPR-Cas12a system for multiplex genome editing, we identified various architectures and expression strategies for crRNAs. Transformation of binary vectors loaded with engineered CRISPR-Cas12a systems into rice calli and subsequent...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 24, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

A wheat chromosome 5AL region confers seedling resistance to both tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch in two mapping populations
In this study, two recombinant inbred line populations, ‘Bartai’ × ‘Ciano T79’ (referred to as B × C) and ‘Cascabel’ × ‘Ciano T79’ (C × C) were tested for TS and SNB response in order to determine the genetic basis of seedling resistance. Genotyping was performed with the DArTseq genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) platform. A chromosome region on 5AL conferred resistance to TS and SNB in both populations, but the effects were larger in B × C (R2 = 11.2%–16.8%) than in C × C (R2 = 2.5%–9.7%). Additiona...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 20, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance in Chinese wheat landraces
In this study, we used maps of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed from the five populations and identified 31 QTL on 16 chromosomes; 10 QTL were new. We constructed a consensus map and identified six meta-QTL (MQTL) and SNP within the MQTL regions using meta-analysis. Two of the MQTL were on chromosome 3BS (3BSd and 3BSc), and one on each of chromosomes 3A, 2D, 3D, and 4D. Twenty-two SNP closely linked to MQTL were converted into breeder friendly Kompetitive Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (KASP) assays, which should be useful for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. (Source: The Crop Journal)
Source: The Crop Journal - July 20, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Breeding wheat for resistance to Fusarium head blight in the Global North: China, USA and Canada
The objective of this paper is to review progress made in wheat breeding for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in China, the United States of America (USA) and Canada. In China, numerous Chinese landraces possessing high levels of FHB resistance were grown before the 1950s. Later, pyramiding multiple sources of FHB resistance from introduced germplasm such as Mentana and Funo and locally adapted cultivars played a key role in combining satisfactory FHB resistance and high yield potential in commercial cultivars. Sumai 3, a Chinese spring wheat cultivar, became a major source of FHB resistance in the USA and Canada, and...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 20, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Identifying key traits in high-yielding rice cultivars for adaptability to both temperate and tropical environments
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Toshiyuki Takai, Patrick Lumanglas, Eliza Vie Simon, Arai-Sanoh Yumiko, Hidetoshi Asai, Nobuya KobayashiAbstractIncreasing rice yield potential is a continuous challenge posed by world population growth. To increase yield potential, favorable alleles of valuable genes need to be accumulated in promising germplasm. We conducted comparative yield trials for two years in Tsukuba, Japan, in a temperate region and at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines, in a tropical region using five high-yielding rice cultivars: Takanar...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Deep neural network algorithm for estimating maize biomass based on simulated Sentinel 2A vegetation indices and leaf area index
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Xiuliang Jin, Zhenhai Li, Haikuan Feng, Zhibin Ren, Shaokun LiAbstractAccurate estimation of biomass is necessary for evaluating crop growth and predicting crop yield. Biomass is also a key trait in increasing grain yield by crop breeding. The aims of this study were (i) to identify the best vegetation indices for estimating maize biomass, (ii) to investigate the relationship between biomass and leaf area index (LAI) at several growth stages, and (iii) to evaluate a biomass model using measured vegetation indices or simulated vegetation indic...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Basal internode elongation of rice as affected by light intensity and leaf area
The objectives of this study were (1) to identify key factors affecting the elongation of basal internodes and (2) to establish a quantitative relationship between basal internode length and canopy indices. An inbred rice cultivar, Yinjingruanzhan, was grown in two split-plot field experiments with three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg N ha−1 in early season and 0, 90, and 180 kg N ha−1 in late season) as main plots, three seedling densities (16.7, 75.0, and 187.5 seedlings m−2) as subplots, and three replications in the 2015 early and late seasons in Guangzhou, China. Light intensity at base of ca...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Effect of high‑nitrogen fertilizer on gliadin and glutenin subproteomes during kernel development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
In this study, we performed the first comparative analysis of gliadin and glutenin subproteomes during kernel development in the elite Chinese wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 under high-N conditions by reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Application of high-N fertilizer led to significant increases in gluten macropolymer content, total gliadin and glutenin content, and the accumulation of individual storage protein components. Of 126 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) induced by high-N conditions, 24 gliadins, 12 high-molecular-weight glut...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Synergistic roles of LAX1 and FZP in the development of rice sterile lemma
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Yidong Wang, Shanshan Wei, Yubing He, Lang Yan, Rongchen Wang, Yunde ZhaoAbstractRice florets are subtended by two sterile lemmas, whose origin and biological functions have not been studied extensively. Here we demonstrate that two putative transcription factors, LAX PANICLE1 (LAX1) and FRIZZY PANICLE (FZP), synergistically control the development of sterile lemmas. Both LAX1 and FZP are previously known for their roles in panicle and floret development. Disruption of either LAX1 or FZP greatly reduces the number of floret development. We ge...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Generation of selectable marker-free soft transgenic rice with transparent kernels by downregulation of SSSII-2
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Zhihao Xu, Meimei Yu, Youwei Yin, Cenwen Zhu, Wen Ji, Changquan Zhang, Qianfeng Li, Honggen Zhang, Shuzu Tang, Hengxiu Yu, Qiaoquan LiuAbstractThe amylose content (AC) of rice endosperm starch varies from 0 to 35%, and is associated with rice cooking and eating quality. Soft rice has low AC, generally between 6% and 15%, and its eating quality is high whether it is consumed hot or cold. However, the appearance quality of current soft rice cultivars needs to be improved, especially opaque endosperm. Conventional genetic engineering has improve...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Draft genome sequence of a less-known wild Vigna: Beach pea (V. marina cv. ANBp-14-03)
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Awnindra Kumar Singh, A. Velmurugan, Debjyoti Sen Gupta, Jitendra Kumar, Ravi Kesari, Aravind Konda, Narendra Pratap Singh, Sibnarayan Dam Roy, Utpal Biswas, R. Rahul Kumar, Sanjay SinghAbstractBeach pea or beach cowpea (Vigna marina (Burm.) Merr.) belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is a close relative of cultivated Vigna species such as adzuki bean (V. angularis), cowpea (V. unguiculata), mung bean (V. radiata), and blackgram (V. mungo), and is distributed throughout the tropics. With its ability to tolerate salt stress, beach pea has great ...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 18, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Transcriptome and QTL analyses reveal candidate genes for fiber quality in Upland cotton
In this study, 780 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in developing fibers at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) in Gossypium hirsutum acc. DH962 and G. hirsutum cv. Jimian 5 using RNA-seq. Of 15 stable QTL for fiber quality identified in the same two parents in previous studies, 4, 3, 6, 1 and 1 QTL were associated with fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS), micronaire (MIC), fiber elongation (FE) and fiber length uniformity ratio (FU), respectively. Integration of DEGs and QTL allowed the identification of 31 genes in 9 QTL regions, of which 25 were highly expressed in fibers based on the transcriptome dat...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 17, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Comparative FISH and molecular identification of new stripe rust resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium ssp. trichophorum introgression lines
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Jianbo Li, Qiheng Chen, Peng Zhang, Tao Lang, Sami Hoxha, Guangrong Li, Zujun YangAbstractThinopyrum intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJsJsStSt) has been hybridized extensively with common wheat and has proven to be a valuable germplasm source for improving disease resistance, quality attributes, and yield potential in wheat. We characterized new disease resistant wheat-Th. intermedium derivatives A1082 and A5-5 using sequential multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH), genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), PCR-based landma...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 17, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Genetic bases of source-, sink-, and yield-related traits revealed by genome-wide association study in Xian rice
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Yun Wang, Yunlong Pang, Kai Chen, Laiyuan Zhai, Congcong Shen, Shu Wang, Jianlong XuAbstractThe source-sink relationship determines the ultimate grain yield. We investigated the genetic basis of the relationship between source and sink and yield potential in rice. In two environments, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with sink capacity (total spikelet number per panicle and thousand-grain weight), source leaf (flag leaf length, flag leaf width and flag leaf area), source-sink relationship (total spikelet number to flag l...
Source: The Crop Journal - July 17, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Suppression of starch synthase I (SSI) by RNA interference alters starch biosynthesis and amylopectin chain distribution in rice plants subjected to high temperature
Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Qian Zhao, Xiaoxia Du, Zhanyu Han, Yu Ye, Gang Pan, Muhammad-Asad-Ullah Asad, Qifa Zhou, Fangmin ChengAbstractBased on known cDNAs of rice starch synthase isoforms, we constructed dsRNA interference vectors for starch synthase I (SSI) to produce transgenic plants containing starch with a moderately high amylose content. We investigated the effect of SSI suppression on grain quality traits, starch biosynthesis, and amylopectin chain distribution in rice plants exposed to two different temperature regimes. The activities and transcripts of BEs,...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 27, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Overexpression of BnKCS1-1, BnKCS1-2, and BnCER1-2 promotes cuticular wax production and increases drought tolerance in Brassica napus
In this study, orthologs of KCS1 and CER1 in Arabidopsis, designated BnKCS1-1, BnKCS1-2, and BnCER1-2, were isolated from Brassica napus. Transcription of BnKCS1-1 and BnKCS1-2 in B. napus were induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and drought treatment, while transcription of BnCER1-2 was induced only by drought treatment. All three gene transcripts decreased significantly when plants were treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or subjected to cold stress. Overexpression of BnKCS1-1, BnKCS1-2, and BnCER1-2 under the control of the CaMV35S promoter led to a significant increase in cuticular wax on transgenic B. napus leaves. BnKCS1...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 11, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Effects of the Fhb1 gene on Fusarium head blight resistance and agronomic traits of winter wheat
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Teng Li, Hongjun Zhang, Yiwen Huang, Zhenqi Su, Yun Deng, Hongwei Liu, Chunyan Mai, Guangjun Yu, Huili Li, Liqiang Yu, Tongquan Zhu, Li Yang, Hongjie Li, Yang ZhouAbstractThe gene Fhb1 has been used in many countries to improve wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. To make better use of this gene in the Yellow-Huai River Valleys Winter Wheat Zone (YHWZ), the most important wheat-producing region of China, it is desirable to elucidate its effects on FHB resistance and agronomic traits in different genetic backgrounds. Based on a diagnost...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Mapping QTL affecting the vertical distribution and seed set of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] pods
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Shiping Liu, Hong Xue, Kaixin Zhang, Ping Wang, Daiqun Su, Wenbin Li, Shichao Xu, Jianan Zhang, Zhongying Qi, Yanlong Fang, Xiyu Li, Yue Wang, Xiaocui Tian, Jie Song, Jiajing Wang, Chang Yang, Sitong Jiang, Wenxia Li, Hailong NingAbstractNumber of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod are quantitative, multigenic traits and important components of yield in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Pods are distributed unevenly in the upper, middle, and lower segments of the plant and this distribution is affected by sowing date (SD). A population...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Intron-targeted gene insertion in rice using CRISPR/Cas9: A case study of the Pi-ta gene
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Yang Xu, Fangquan Wang, Zhihui Chen, Jun Wang, Wen-Qi Li, Fangjun Fan, Yajun Tao, Ling Zhao, Weigong Zhong, Qian-Hao Zhu, Jie YangAbstractIntron-targeted gene insertion strategy using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated Cas9) has been shown to be a potential tool for crop genetic improvement by targeted mutagenesis or gene replacement of an elite allele into widely cultivated rice varieties. The rice blast resistant protein Pi-ta, differs from its susceptible counterpart, pi-ta, by a single ...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Primary metabolite contents are correlated with seed protein and oil traits in near-isogenic lines of soybean
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Jie Wang, Pengfei Zhou, Xiaolei Shi, Na Yang, Long Yan, Qingsong Zhao, Chunyan Yang, Yuefeng GuanAbstractSoybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is an important source of human dietary protein and vegetable oil. A strong negative correlation between protein and oil contents has hindered efforts to improve soybean seed quality. The metabolic and genetic bases of soybean seed composition remain elusive. We evaluated metabolic diversity in a soybean near-isogenic line (NIL) population derived from parents (JD12 and CMSD) with contrasting seed oil conten...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Molecular mapping and candidate gene analysis of the semi-dominant gene Vestigial glume1 in maize
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Chaoxian Liu, Yuanzeng Zhao, Yang Bai, Xiaomin Lu, Weibin Song, Liping Qin, Yilin CaiAbstractThe glume is an organ of the maize spikelet and plays important roles in anther and kernel development. Vestigial glume1 (Vg1) is a classic mutant associated with ligule and glume development. Here we report the phenotypic characterization, fine mapping, and candidate gene analysis of the Vg1 mutant. Vg1 is a semi-dominant and pleiotropic gene, and also affects plant height, ear height, and tassel length. Vg1 ligule degeneration begins at the first lea...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Increasing fidelity and efficiency by modifying cytidine base-editing systems in rice
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Ruiying Qin, Shengxiang Liao, Juan Li, Hao Li, Xiaoshuang Liu, Jianbo Yang, Pengcheng WeiAbstractThe efficiency of plant cytidine base-editing systems is limited, and unwanted mutations frequently occur in transgenic plants. We increased the cytidine editing frequency and fidelity of the plant base editor 3 (BE3) and targeted activation-induced cytidine deaminase (CDA) (target-AID) systems by coexpressing three copies of free uracil–DNA glycosylase (UDG) inhibitor (UGI). The editing efficiency of the improved BE3 and CDA systems reached ...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Transcriptome profiling reveals phase-specific gene expression in the developing barley inflorescence
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Huiran Liu, Gang Li, Xiujuan Yang, Hendrik N.J. Kuijer, Wanqi Liang, Dabing ZhangAbstractThe shape of an inflorescence varies among cereals, ranging from a highly branched panicle in rice to a much more compact spike in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). However, little is known about the molecular basis of cereal inflorescence architecture. We profiled transcriptomes at three developmental stages of the barley main shoot apex — spikelet initiation, floral organ differentiation, and floral organ growth — ...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Ameliorative effects of potassium on drought-induced decreases in fiber length of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are associated with osmolyte dynamics during fiber development
This study showed that drought decreased fiber length by reducing Vmax, and K application ameliorates the decline in fiber elongation due to drought by enhancing osmolytes accumulation and their contribution to OP in fiber cells. (Source: The Crop Journal)
Source: The Crop Journal - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Deep genotyping of the gene GmSNAP facilitates pyramiding resistance to cyst nematode in soybean
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Yu Tian, Bo Liu, Xuehui Shi, Jochen C. Reif, Rongxia Guan, Yinghui Li, Lijuan QiuAbstractSoybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a highly destructive pathogen. The soybean host genome harbors at least two major genes for resistance (rhg1 and Rhg4), as well as a minor locus (SCN3-11). In the present study, a splicing site in GmSNAP11, the potential causal gene of SCN3-11, was identified by comparison of the GmSNAP11 cDNA sequences generated from resistant and susceptible soybean accessions. The sequence information was used to design a codominant CAPS m...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Characterization of a new hexaploid triticale 6D(6A) substitution line with increased grain weight and decreased spikelet number
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Zhiyu Feng, Zhongqi Qi, Dejie Du, Mingyi Zhang, Aiju Zhao, Zhaorong Hu, Mingming Xin, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu NiAbstractHexaploid triticale (×Triticosecale, AABBRR) is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Transferring D-genome chromosomes or segments from common wheat (Triticum aestivum) into hexaploid triticale is attractive in improving its economically important traits. Here, a hexaploid triticale 6D(6A) substitution line Lin 456 derived from the cross between the octoploid triticale line H400 and...
Source: The Crop Journal - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2019Source: The Crop Journal, Volume 7, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: The Crop Journal)
Source: The Crop Journal - May 31, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Rice-duck co-culture benefits grain 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline accumulation and quality and yield enhancement of fragrant rice
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Meijuan Li, Ronghua Li, Shiwei Liu, Jia'en Zhang, Hao Luo, Shuqing QiuAbstractRice-duck co-culture is an integrated farming technology that benefits rice production, grain quality, and ecological sustainability in paddy fields. However, little is known about the effects of rice-duck co-culture on enzyme activity involved in the biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), the volatile that gives fragrant rice its' distinctive and sought-after aroma. The present study aimed to examine the influence of rice-duck co-culture on the photosynthesis...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 25, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Identification of SNP and InDel variations in the promoter and 5′ untranslated regions of γ-tocopherol methyl transferase (ZmVTE4) affecting higher accumulation of α-tocopherol in maize kernel
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Abhijit Kumar Das, Rashmi Chhabra, Vignesh Muthusamy, Hema Singh Chauhan, Rajkumar Uttamrao Zunjare, Firoz HossainAbstractDeficiency of vitamin-E or tocopherol causes neurological and cardiovascular disorders in humans. Though maize kernel is rich in total tocopherol, the level of α-tocopherol possessing the highest vitamin-E activity is low. Mutant allele of ZmVTE4 with deletion of 7 bp and 118 bp (0/0: most favorable haplotype) in 5′UTR and promoter region, respectively significantly enhances α-tocopherol in maize kern...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 10, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Identification of powdery mildew resistance loci in wheat by integrating genome-wide association study (GWAS) and linkage mapping
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Genqiao Li, Xiangyang Xu, Chengcheng Tan, Brett F. Carver, Guihua Bai, Xuewen Wang, J. Michael Bonman, Yanqi Wu, Robert Hunger, Christina CowgerAbstractWheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is a disease of increasing importance globally due to the adoption of high yielding varieties and modern sustainable farming technologies. Growing resistant cultivars is a preferred approach to managing this disease, and novel powdery mildew resistance genes are urgently needed for new cultivar development. A genome-wide association study...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 10, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Rice-duck co-culture farming benefits grain 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline accumulation and quality and yield enhancement of fragrant rice
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Meijuan Li, Ronghua Li, Shiwei Liu, Jia'en Zhang, Hao Luo, Shuqing QiuAbstractRice-duck co-culture farming is an integrated farming technology that benefits rice production, grain quality, and ecological sustainability in paddy fields. However, little is known about the effects of rice-duck co-culture farming on enzyme activity involved in the biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), the volatile that gives fragrant rice its' distinctive and sought-after aroma. The present study aimed to examine the influence of rice-ducks on photosynthes...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Genetic mapping of QTL for agronomic traits and grain mineral elements in rice
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Gwen Iris Descalsota-Empleo, Amery Amparado, Mary Ann Inabangan-Asilo, Frances Tesoro, James Stangoulis, Russell Reinke, B.P. Mallikarjuna SwamyAbstractMalnutrition is one of the prevailing health problems worldwide, affecting a large proportion of the populations in rice-consuming countries. Breeding rice varieties with increased concentrations of elements in the grain is considered the most cost-effective approach to alleviate malnutrition. Development of molecular markers for high grain concentrations of essential elements, particularly Zn...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Exogenous application of glycine betaine improved water use efficiency in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) via modulating photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidative capacity under conventional and limited irrigation conditions
This study was conducted to explore the role of exogenously applied GB in improving WUE and plant physiological and biochemical responses in winter wheat subjected to conventional or limited irrigation during the 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 growing seasons. Exogenous application of GB significantly enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide under limited irrigation conditions. Furthermore, GB-treated plants maintained higher leaf relative water content and membrane stability, which led to higher chlorophyll content and gas exchange attributes for bet...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Fine mapping of qTGW10-20.8, a QTL having important contribution to grain weight variation in rice
In this study, QTL analysis for grain weight, grain length, and grain width was performed using populations derived from crosses between major parental lines of three-line indica hybrid rice. A total of 27 QTL for grain weight were detected using three recombinant inbred line populations derived from the crosses Teqing/IRBB lines, Zhenshan 97/Milyang 46, and Xieqingzao/Milyang 46. Of these, 10 were found in only a single population and the other 17 in two or all three populations. Nine of the 17 common QTL were located in regions where no QTL associated with grain weight have been cloned and one was selected for fine-mappi...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm64 derived from wild emmer (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) is tightly linked in repulsion with stripe rust resistance gene Yr5
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Deyun Zhang, Keyun Zhu, Lingli Dong, Yong Liang, Genqiao Li, Tilin Fang, Guanghao Guo, Qiuhong Wu, Jingzhong Xie, Yongxing Chen, Ping Lu, Miaomiao Li, Huaizhi Zhang, Zhenzhong Wang, Yan Zhang, Qixin Sun, Zhiyong LiuAbstractStripe rust and powdery mildew are both devastating diseases for durum and common wheat. Pyramiding of genes conferring resistance to one or more diseases in a single cultivar is an important breeding approach to provide broader spectra of resistances in wheat improvement. A new powdery mildew resistance gene originating fr...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Involvement of sulfur assimilation in the low β subunit content of soybean seed storage protein revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis
The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the β subunit and sulfur-containing amino acid composition, and the potential regulatory mechanism. The β subunit was independently accumulated in comparison with other major subunits (α/α′, acidic, basic, and A3) during seed filling, and a low level of β subunit content (BSC) was formed during the accumulation process. In low-BSC mature seeds, crude protein, oil content, and fatty acid composition were not changed, but sulfur-containing amino acids (Cys + Met) in the low-BSC seeds increased significantly (by 31.5%), ...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

TaCML36, a wheat calmodulin-like protein, positively participates in an immune response to Rhizoctonia cerealis
In this study, we isolated TaCML36 gene encoding a wheat calmodulin-like protein, and studied its defense role in protection against R. cerealis. Transcription of TaCML36 was significantly elevated by both R. cerealis infection and exogenous ethylene treatment. Transcription was higher in resistant wheat lines than in susceptible ones. There were copies of TaCML36 on chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D. The TaCML36 protein is composed of 183 amino acids and contains two calcium-binding EF-hand domains. Subcellular localization assays in wheat indicated that TaCML36 localizes in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Virus-induced gene sil...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Developing green super rice varieties with high nutrient use efficiency by phenotypic selection under varied nutrient conditions
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Zilhas Ahmed Jewel, Jauhar Ali, Yunlong Pang, Anumalla Mahender, Bart Acero, Jose Hernandez, Jianlong Xu, Zhikang LiAbstractThe development of green super rice varieties with improved nutrient use efficiency (NuUE) is a vital target area to increase yield and make it more stable under rainfed conditions. In the present study, we followed an early backcross (BC) breeding approach by using a high-yielding and widely adapted Xian variety, Weed Tolerant Rice 1 (WTR-1), as a recipient and a Geng variety, Hao-An-Nong (HAN), as a donor. Starting fro...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Physiological and genome-wide gene expression analyses of cold-induced leaf rolling at the seedling stage in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Jingfang Dong, Junliang Zhao, Shaohong Zhang, Tifeng Yang, Qing Liu, Xingxue Mao, Hua Fu, Wu Yang, Bin LiuAbstractLeaf rolling and discoloration are two chilling-injury symptoms that are widely used as indicators for the evaluation of cold tolerance at the seedling stage in rice. However, the difference in cold-response mechanisms underlying these two traits remains unknown. In the present study, a cold-tolerant rice cultivar, Lijiangxintuanheigu, and a cold-sensitive cultivar, Sanhuangzhan-2, were subjected to low-temperature treatments and ...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

OstMAPKKK5, a truncated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5, positively regulates plant height and yield in rice
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Yahui Liu, Yu Zhu, Xuding Xu, Fan Sun, Jingshui Yang, Liming Cao, Xiaojin LuoAbstractRice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major food crop worldwide. Plant height and yield are important agronomic traits of rice. Several genes regulating plant height and/or yield have been cloned. However, the molecular mechanisms coordinating plant height and yield are not fully characterized. Here, we report a novel gene, OstMAPKKK5 that encodes a truncated variant of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (OsMAPKKK5) lacking an intact kinase domain. Tran...
Source: The Crop Journal - April 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: The Crop Journal, Volume 7, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: The Crop Journal)
Source: The Crop Journal - April 2, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Development and identification of a dwarf wheat-Leymus mollis double substitution line with resistance to yellow rust and Fusarium head blight
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Jixin Zhao, Yang Liu, Xueni Cheng, Yuhui Pang, Jiachuang Li, Zhenqi Su, Jun Wu, Qunhui Yang, Guihua Bai, Xinhong ChenAbstractLeymus mollis (Trin.) Pilger (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm,), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits for genetic improvement of wheat, including strong, short stems, long spikes with numerous spikelets, tolerance to drought and cold stresses, and resistance to many fungal and bacterial diseases. In the present study, a wheat–L. mollis double substitution line DM96 was sele...
Source: The Crop Journal - January 31, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Co-location of QTL for Sclerotinia stem rot resistance and flowering time in Brassica napus
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Jian Wu, Peipei Chen, Qing Zhao, Guangqin Cai, Yue Hu, Yang Xiang, Qingyong Yang, Youping Wang, Yongming ZhouAbstractSclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is one of the most devastating diseases of Brassica napus worldwide. Both SSR resistance and flowering time (FT) adaptation are major breeding goals in B. napus. However, early maturing rapeseed varieties, which are important for rice-rapeseed rotation in China, are often highly susceptible to SSR. Here, we found that SSR resistance was significantl...
Source: The Crop Journal - January 31, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

Genetic variations in plant architecture traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) revealed by a genome-wide association study
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Tianwang Wen, Baosheng Dai, Tao Wang, Xinxin Liu, Chunyuan You, Zhongxu LinAbstractPlant architecture traits influence crop yield. An understanding of the genetic basis of cotton plant architecture traits is beneficial for identifying favorable alleles and functional genes and breeding elite cultivars. We collected 121 cotton accessions including 100 brown-fiber and 21 white-fiber accessions, genotyped them by whole-genome resequencing, and phenotyped them in multiple environments. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 11 qu...
Source: The Crop Journal - January 31, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

High-density SNP genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping for resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: The Crop JournalAuthor(s): Lirui Cheng, Xiaocui Chen, Caihong Jiang, Bing Ma, Min Ren, Yazeng Cheng, Dan Liu, Ruimei Geng, Aiguo YangAbstractGenetic linkage maps are essential for studies of genetics, genomic structure, and genomic evolution, and for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). Identification of molecular markers and construction of genetic linkage maps in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), a classical model plant and important economic crop, have remained limited. In the present study we identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mark...
Source: The Crop Journal - January 31, 2019 Category: Food Science Source Type: research