Adenine decreases hypertrophic effects through interleukin-18 receptor.
In this study, IL-18 induced cardiomyoblast hypertrophy through IL-18R upregulation, which was found to be related to p38 MAPK and PI3 kinase signaling. Adenine, but not AuNPs, showed antihypertrophic effects possibly because of decreased levels of signaling. PMID: 31535629 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effect of taurine on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver and kidney.
In conclusion, alcohol administration led to a significant influence on antioxidant system in the liver and kidney, but simultaneous intake of taurine, along with ethanol, partly attenuated the antioxidant changes in these organs. PMID: 31535630 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Aloperine suppresses human pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via inhibiting inflammatory response.
Authors: Chang Z, Zhang P, Zhang M, Jun F, Hu Z, Yang J, Wu Y, Zhou R Abstract Abnormal pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation is critical pathological feature of pulmonary vascular remodeling that acts as driving force in the initiation and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), ultimately leading to pulmonary hypertension. Aloperine is a main active alkaloid extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal Sophora alopecuroides and possesses outstanding antioxidation and anti-inflammatory effects. Our group found Aloperine has protective effects on monocroline-induced p...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

The effect of visuospatial resolution on discharge variability among motor units and force-discharge relation.
This study investigated the modulation of MU discharges and force-discharge relation due to variations in the spatial resolution of visual feedback, with a particular focus on discharge variability among MUs. Fourteen young adults produced isometric force at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through index abduction, under the conditions of force trajectory displayed with low visual gain (LVG) and high visual gain (HVG). Together with smaller and more complex force fluctuations, HVG resulted in greater variabilities of the mean interspike interval and discharge irregularity among MUs than LVG did. Estimated via smo...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Histone deacetylases in stroke.
Authors: Kao MH, Lin TN Abstract Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Despite an impressive amount of neuroprotective agents that has been identified in experimental stroke, none of them proved efficient in clinical trials. There is a general consensus that an effective treatment requires the ability to interact with not one, but multiple pathophysiological cascades at different levels that induced by the insult - cocktail therapy. Luckily, recent progress in the field of epigenetics revealed that epigenetic modifications had influence on many known pathwa...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Additive and nonadditive effects of salmon calcitonin and omega-3 fatty acids on antioxidant, hematological and bone and cartilage markers in experimental diabetic-osteoarthritic rats.
In conclusion, the combined administration of Sct and N-3 proffer better therapeutic effects than the single therapy; therefore, they could be used in the management of diabetic-osteoarthritic condition. PMID: 31249264 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Altered expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and Soluble Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.
Authors: Ali Z, Khaliq S, Zaki S, Ahmad HU, Lone KP Abstract Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It complicates around 2%-10% pregnancies worldwide due to imbalance between proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, leading to incomplete placentation, ischemia, and endothelial dysfunction. The study was aimed to analyze the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, i.e., VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) from maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) o...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Action of chlorzoxazone on Ca2+movement and viability in human oral cancer cells.
This study examined whether chlorzoxazone altered Ca2+ signaling and cell viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells. [Ca2+]iin suspended cells was measured using the fluorescent Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assay. Chlorzoxazone (250-1000 μM) induced [Ca2+]irises in a concentration-dependent manner. Ca2+ removal reduced the signal by approximately 50%. Mn2+ has been shown to enter cells through similar mechanisms as Ca2+ but quenches fura-2 fluorescence at all excitation wavelengths. Chlorzoxazone (1000 μM) induced Mn2+ influx, suggesting that Ca2+ entry occurred...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Can royal jelly protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats?
This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of RJ against I/R-induced renal disorders. Forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) as sham (0.9% saline) group, I/R group, RJ group (treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day RJ), and I/R + RJ group that were pretreated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day of RJ. The I/R-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by determining leukocyte infiltration and mRNA expression level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α). Antioxidant capacity of kidneys...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Neuropeptide FF modulates neuroendocrine and energy homeostasis through hypothalamic signaling.
Authors: Lin YT, Chen JC Abstract Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is known as a morphine-modulating peptide and was first isolated in 1985. It has been characterized as an RF-amide peptide. The traditional role of NPFF is mediation of the pain response, and it displays both anti-opioid and pro-opioid actions through central nervous system. In the recent decade, additional evidence has revealed some untraditional features of NPFF, such as regulation of the neuroendocrine system, energy homeostasis, anti-inflammation, pain transmission, and peripheral modulation of adipose tissue macrophages. Neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Autophagy: A potential target for rescuing sepsis-induced hepatic failure.
Authors: Hsu C Abstract Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units worldwide; however, it remains a scientific and clinical challenge in modern medicine. An excessive inflammatory response associated with high level of reactive oxygen species results in mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of the unfolded protein response leading to subsequent energetic organ failure in septic patients. In addition to blocking the inflammatory cascade directly, new strategies focusing on host endogenous adaption to severe infection may hold better promise for improving outcomes in septic patients. Autophagy is...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Knockdown of protein kinase CK2 blocked gene expression mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced serum response element.
Authors: Yang SP, Lo CY, Tseng HM, Chao CC Abstract One of the principal signaling pathway outcomes from brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the activation of antiapoptotic pathways. In addition to the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, BDNF activates protein kinase CK2 to mediate its neuroprotective effect. The inhibition of CK2 activity has been shown to induce apoptosis. Although serum response element (SRE)-mediated transcription has been reported to be activated by BDNF and that the phosphorylation of serum response factor (SRF) by CK2 has been shown to...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Different susceptibilities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts to glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts and examine the responses of osteoclasts to the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. We demonstrated the biphasic effects of exogenous glucocorticoid on osteoblastic mitochondrial functions and elevated intracellular oxidative stress in a dose- and time-dependent manner. On comparison, similar treatment did not induce mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress in osteoclasts. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species was decreased in osteoclasts. The differences are not due to varying efficiency of cel...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Prepulse inhibition and acoustic startle response in young healthy Chinese.
In conclusion, this research provides more data of behavioral characteristics of PPI and ASR in young healthy Chinese. Chinese in this study shows a higher habituation and PPI than Caucasians in previous studies. PMID: 31243178 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Differential effects of sympatholytic agents on the power spectrum of rats during the cooling-induced hemodynamic perturbations.
We examined the difference of two effector arms of sympathetic outflows, the sympathoadrenal system, and postganglionic sympathetic neurons, their role in CEHP genesis by using two sympatholytic agents, fusaric acid (FA, dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor) and guanethidine (GUA, norepinephrine-depleting drug). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 6, each), an intraperitoneal injection of control vehicle saline or FA or GUA and then all rats were subjected to a 10-min CS trial. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), dicrotic notch (Dn), power spectrum of blood pressure variability a...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Retraction: Effects of combined administration of alfacalcidol and risedronate on cancellous and cortical bone mass of the tibia in glucocorticoid-treated young rats.
Authors: PMID: 31243180 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Retraction: Effects of alendronate and alfacalcidol on the femoral bone mass and bone strength in orchidectomized rats.
Authors: PMID: 31243181 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

New face and faster online publication process.
Authors: Hsieh PS PMID: 30942192 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factors: Potential novel targets for regenerative therapy of osteoarthritis.
Authors: Chen TM, Chen YH, Sun HS, Tsai SJ Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder and is the leading cause of disability of people, which negatively impact people's physical and mental health. Although OA causes great socioeconomic burden and individual suffering, no effective treatment options are provided so far. This is partially resulted from poor regenerative activity of articular cartilage and our incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanism of OA. Traditional drug therapies such as acetaminophen and opioids are effective in relieving pain but do not reverse cartilage damage and...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Atrial electrical remodeling induced by chronic ischemia and inflammation in patients with stable coronary artery disease.
Authors: Serban RC, Balan AI, Perian M, Pintilie I, Somkereki C, Huţanu A, Scridon A Abstract The pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) includes low-grade chronic inflammation. At its turn, inflammation is known to promote myocardial structural remodeling and to increase vulnerability to atrial arrhythmias. Meanwhile, the impact of chronic inflammation on the electrophysiological properties of the atria remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the impact of low-grade chronic inflammation on atrial electrophysiology in patients with stable CAD undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Circ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Possible nitric oxide mechanism involved in the protective effect of L-theanine on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia.
In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of LT on haloperidol (HAL)-induced orofacial dyskinesia (OD) in rats. HAL treatment (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 21 days) induced OD; significant increases (P
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Modulation of glycinergic inhibition on respiratory rhythmic hypoglossal bursting in the rat.
Authors: Lee KZ, Hwang JC Abstract The hypoglossal nerve displays respiratory rhythmic bursting and is composed of preinspiratory and inspiratory activity which is important in maintaining upper airway patency. The present study was designed to examine the modulatory role of glycinergic inhibition in respiratory rhythmic hypoglossal bursting. The activity of the phrenic nerve, as well as the medial and lateral branches of the hypoglossal nerve, was recorded simultaneously in urethane-anesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats in response to moderate and high levels of sustained lung inflation. The results ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Low expression of pentraxin 3 and nuclear factor-like 2 implying a relatively longer overall survival time in gliomas.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that high PTX3 expression implied aggressive tumor behavior and shorter survival time in glioma patients. In addition, our results also showed that gliomas with low PTX3 and Nrf2 immunohistochemical expression could imply a longer overall survival time. Therefore, the combination of lower PTX3 and Nrf2 immunohistochemical expression may be important in offering a better prognosis in gliomas, although the detailed mechanism is yet to be elucidated. PMID: 30942197 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Host-Microbiota Interaction and Intestinal Epithelial Functions under Circadian Control: Implications in Colitis and Metabolic Disorders.
Authors: Huang YJ, Pai YC, Yu LC Abstract Commensal microbes are involved in intestinal homeostasis, and the dysregulation of host-microbe interactions may lead to the development of local and systemic disorders. Recent evidence indicated that microbiota dysbiosis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolism-related disorders. The circadian clock system originally identified in the brain was later found in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the light-controlled central clock in the brain is responsible for the synchronization of peripheral clocks, the timing of meal consumptio...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Exploration of Niflumic Acid ’s Action on Ca²⁺ Movement and Cell Viability in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.
This study examined the effect of niflumic acid on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in suspended cells were monitored by using the fluorescent Ca²⁺-sensitive dye fura- 2. Cell viability was examined by using 4-[3-[4-lodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio- 1,3-benzene disulfonate] water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1). In MG63 cells, niflumic acid at concentrations of 250-750 μM evoked [Ca²⁺]i rises concentration-dependently. Niflumic acid-evoked Ca²⁺ entry was confirmed by Mn²⁺-induced q...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Xueshuantong for Injection Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.
In conclusion, our findings suggested that XST could provide protection against DN through reduction of RAGE accumulation, decreasing inflammation, inhibition of renal fibrosis, and blocking the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. PMID: 30580505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation from Healthy Donors Reduced Alcohol-induced Anxiety and Depression in an Animal Model of Chronic Alcohol Exposure.
Authors: Xu Z, Liu Z, Dong X, Hu T, Wang L, Li J, Liu X, Sun J Abstract Alcohol addiction can cause brain dysfunction and threatens both individuals and society. Recently, emerging studies have suggested the dysbiosis of gut microbiota induced by alcohol exposure contributed to the reward-seeking behaviors as well as anxiety, depression. In the current study, animal model of chronic alcohol exposure was established by providing mice with gradient concentrations of alcohol from 2%, 4%, and 6% to 8% for 21 days. Moreover, three fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) plans were innovatively designed to explore the pot...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and ‘Essence of Chicken’ on Physical Fatigue Recovery and Exercise Performance Improvement.
In this study, we combined these two ingredients together (designated as CEG) to evaluate their synergistic effects on physiological adaption on exercise fatigue and physical activities. The ICR strain mice were allocated as 0, 833, 1666, and 4165 mg/kg dose groups and administrated by oral gavage consecutively for 4 weeks. Physical activities including grip strength and aerobic endurance were evaluated. Various fatigue-associated biochemical variables such as lactate, BUN or CK were also evaluated. The levels of liver and muscle glycogen were measured as an indicator of energy storage at the end of the experiment. Safety ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Preoperative Leukocyte Counts Increase Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Obese Patient Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.
In this study, we sought to determine whether the white blood cell (WBC) response may be an additional predictor for postoperative morbidities in obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 1,171 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups based on their body mass index (BMI): non-obese (BMI
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Anti-Fatigue, Antioxidation, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Eucalyptus Oil Aromatherapy in Swimming-Exercised Rats.
Authors: Lin TC, Wang SH, Huang CC, Lai YC, Song TY, Tsai MS Abstract Eucalyptus globulus possesses important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the anti-fatigue, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptus essential oil after swimming exercise using an animal model. Male Sprague– Dawley rats were administered eucalyptus oil (200 μL/h) daily via inhalation (15 min), and anti-fatigue effects were assessed following eucalyptus essential oil administration for 2 or 4 weeks when forced to swim until exhaustion while carrying ~5% body we...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Importance of PLC-Dependent PI3K/AKT and AMPK Signaling in RANTES/CCR5 Mediated Macrophage Chemotaxis.
Authors: Chien HC, Chan PC, Tu CC, Day YJ, Hung LM, Juan CC, Tian YF, Hsieh PS Abstract Regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), also known as chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), has been reported to facilitate macrophage migration, which plays a crucial role in tissue inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics and underlying mechanism of RANTES on macrophage chemotaxis under physiological and pathological conditions. The study was conducted on macrophage RAW264.7 cell and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from CCL receptor 5 (CCR5) knockout mice...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of Asenapine and Paliperidone on Depression, Anxiety and Analgesy in Mice: Alterations in Brain Neurotrophic Factors, Neurogenesis, and Blood Enzyme Levels.
Authors: Gumuslu E, Mutlu O, Kokturk S, Ulak G, Eraldemir FC, Tatar OC, Yasar AB, Tanyeri P, Akar F, Erden F Abstract Schizophrenia, an important brain neurodevelopmental disorder, is observed in 1% of the global population. New-generation antipsychotics have been developed as alternatives to typical antipsychotics for more effective and safe therapy. Chronic administration of asenapine and paliperidone compared to haloperidol on depression, anxiety and analgesy in the forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and hot plate tests were examined in mice. Moreover effects of drugs, on expression levels of b...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Vasodilatory Effects of Aloperine in Rat Aorta and Its Possible Mechanisms.
In this study, aloperine caused concentration-dependent relaxations in aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, but this effect was not observed in KCl-pretreated rings. Removal of endothelium showed no influence on vasodilatory effects of aloperine. In addition, preincubation with NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester and indomethacin did not inhibit the vasodilatory effects of aloperine, suggesting that the vasodilative action is endothelium-independent. Relaxant responses to aloperine were inhibited by tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine. However, the vasorelaxant effect of aloperine was also not influenced by the pr...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors Cooperatively Modulate Pacemaker Activity of Intestinal Cells of Cajal.
Authors: Liu HN, Hirata H, Okuno Y, Okabe M, Furukawa K Abstract The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin control the peristaltic movement of the gut that consists of propagating waves of rhythmic contraction and relaxation. While intestinal cells of Cajal (ICC) serve as a pacemaker in the gut, the effect of dopamine on the pacemaker activity of ICC remains unknown. Here, we report that together with serotonin receptors, the dopamine receptor D₂ contributes to maintaining [Ca²⁺]i oscillations in ileum ICC. When the antagonist for the D₂ receptor was applied to the cell cluster or the tissue culture p...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Serotonin ₆ Receptors in the Prelimbic Cortex are Involved in the Regulation of Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Rat 6-Hydroxydopamine Parkinson’s Disease Model.
Serotonin₆ Receptors in the Prelimbic Cortex are Involved in the Regulation of Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Rat 6-Hydroxydopamine Parkinson’s Disease Model. Chin J Physiol. 2018 Aug 24;61 Authors: Zhang YM, Guo Y, Du CX, Zhang J, Lv SX, Liu J Abstract The role of serotonin₆ (5-HT₆) receptors in the regulation of anxiety is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson’s disease-related anxiety. Here we examined whether 5-HT₆ receptors in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) involve in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine les...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - August 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Farnesoid X Receptor Activation Modulates Calcium Homeostasis in Rat Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Authors: Zhang R, Peng L, Ran H, Fan Y, Zhao Y, Cao F Abstract The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is expressed in the vasculature; our previous work showed that FXR regulated vascular reactivity through NO mechanism. The underlying mechanism for the regulation of vascular tension by FXR remains unclear. The present work was designed to investigate whether FXR regulates calcium homeostasis in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Protein abundances of angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors (AT₁R, AT₂R), bradykinin type 1 and 2 receptors (B₁R, B₂R), and t...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - August 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effect of Captopril on Ca ²⁺ Homeostasis and Cell Viability in Human Hepatoma Cells.
This study examined whether captopril altered Ca²⁺ homeostasis and viability in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in suspended cells were monitored by using the fluorescent Ca²⁺-sensitive dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by using 4-[3-[4-lodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio-1,3-benzene disulfonate] water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1). Captopril at concentrations of 500-3000 μM induced [Ca²⁺]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. Ca²⁺ removal reduced the signal by approximately 15%. Mn²⁺ has been shown to enter cells through simi...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - August 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Glutathione S-Transferase Pi is Involved in the Growth of Mice.
Authors: Dong X, Rui B, Yin F, Chen D, Li L, Yin Z, Luo L Abstract Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTpi) is the most important subtribe of GSTs protein superfamily, and plays an important role in the process of detoxification, antioxidant and antiinflammation. Here we use a GSTpi inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX), to evaluate the effect of GSTpi on the growth of mice. Mice treated with NBDHEX have heavier weight and longer length. But there is no significant difference in ratios of the weights of brain, kidney, lung, spleen, liver and heart to the whole body weight and Lee’...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - August 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Differential Expression of Phosphorylated ERK and c-Fos of Limbic Cortices Activities in Response to Tactile Allodynia of Neuropathic Rats.
In this study, we used two kinds of molecular markers to investigate the neuronal activity changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex (IC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the neuropathic rats under tactile allodynia. We used spared nerve injury of the sciatic nerve (SNI) as the neuropathic pain model. Two weeks after SNI surgery, we applied repetitive allodynic stimulation to the conscious rats. After stimulation, the rats were sacrificed, and the immunohistochemistry of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and c-Fos was performed. Quantification of immunoreactive cells was carr...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - August 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

A Novel Swimming Performance Test in Rats.
In conclusion, we have presented in detail a novel protocol for practically and satisfactorily measuring swimming performance in rats characterized by low variability in the time to exhaustion. This protocol, with the appropriate modifications, can be applied to a wide spectrum of experimental treatments. PMID: 29962175 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effect of Lactobacillus Plantarum TWK10 on Improving Endurance Performance in Humans.
Authors: Huang WC, Hsu YJ, Li H, Kan NW, Chen YM, Lin JS, Hsu TK, Tsai TY, Chiu YS, Huang CC Abstract Microbiota is currently an important issue in disease and health and many studies have revealed it to play an important role in physiological homeostasis and health promotion. Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), isolated from Taiwan pickled vegetables, is a well-known probiotic microorganism. In a recent animal study, it was shown that supplementation of mice with L. plantarum TWK10 (TWK10) could increase muscle mass, improve exercise performance and exert anti-fatigue effects. In order to examine the ergogenic...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Zerumbone from Zingiber zerumbet Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced ICAM-1 and Cytokines Expression via p38 MAPK/JNK-I κB/NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Model of Acute Lung Injury.
In conclusion, zerumbone could be a potential protective agent for ALI, possibly via expression of ICAM-1, IL-1β, and MIP-2. The protective mechanism of zerumbone was by reversing the activation of p38 MAPK/JNK-IκB/NF-κB pathway. PMID: 29962177 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

A Single Bout of Exercise Reduces Postprandial Lipemia but Has No Delayed Effect on Hemorheological Variables.
In conclusion, brisk walking effectively reduced postprandial TG concentration, but has no significant impact on postprandial blood viscosity, RBC deformation index and RBC aggregation index. PMID: 29962178 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Low-Intensity Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction Increases Muscle Strength without Altering hsCRP and Fibrinogen Levels in Healthy Subjects.
This study aimed to investigate alterations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen levels in healthy subjects after five weeks of low intensity resistance training (LIRT) with blood flow restriction (BFR) on increasing strength in comparison with high intensity resistance training (HIRT) and LIRT alone, and to evaluate aspects related to the relative safety of LIRT + BFR. Eighteen healthy subjects were randomized into 3 groups. The HIRT group: 70% of One-Repetition Maximum (1-RM); LIRT + BFR group: 30% of 1-RM with BFR (a modified 13-cm wide cuff was used); LIRT group: 30% of 1-RM. The peak torque of...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Angiostrongylus Cantonensis-Conditioned Culture Medium Induces Myelin Basic Protein Alterations via Erk1/2 and NF- κB Activation in Rat RSC 96 Schwann Cells.
Angiostrongylus Cantonensis-Conditioned Culture Medium Induces Myelin Basic Protein Alterations via Erk1/2 and NF-κB Activation in Rat RSC 96 Schwann Cells. Chin J Physiol. 2018 May 10;61 Authors: Chin JP, Chen CM, Lee TH, Chou CW, Lu CY Abstract Eating of excessive raw or undercooked environmental snails produces Angiostrongyliasis demyelination caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2-nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in RSC 96 Schwann cells ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - May 12, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction on Reproductive Hormones in Female Rats.
Authors: Liu J, Guo M, Hu X, Weng X, Tian Y, Xu K, Heng D, Liu W, Ding Y, Yang Y, Zhang C Abstract Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian histology was evaluated with H&E staining, and gene p...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - May 12, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Swimming Exercise Induced Reversed Expression of miR-96 and Its Target Gene NaV1.3 in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats.
This study introduced a new and potential miRNA-dependent mechanism for exerciseinduced protective effects against diabetic thermal hyperalgesia. PMID: 29689688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Synergistic Effects of Psychosocial Stress and Mild Peripheral Infection on Inducing Microglial Activation in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus and Long-Lasting Deficits in Hippocampus-Related Memory.
Authors: Tzeng WY, Su CC, Sun LH, Cherng CG, Yu L Abstract Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to mode...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 19, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Activates Motor Cortex Pyramidal Tract Neurons by a Process Involving Local Glutamate, Gaba and Dopamine Receptors in Hemi-Parkinsonian Rats.
Authors: Chuang CF, Wu CW, Weng Y, Hu PS, Yeh SR, Chang YC Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease. Here, we investigated how DBS applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) influenced the neural activity in the motor cortex. Rats, which had the midbrain dopaminergic neurons partially depleted unilaterally, called the hemi-Parkinsonian rats, were used as a study model. c-Fos expression in the neurons was used as an indicator of neural activity. Application of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) upon the STN was used to mimic the DBS treatment. The motor cortices in...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - March 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Inverse Correlation between Methylation and Expression of the Delta-like Ligands (DLL1) Gene in Gastric Cancer.
This study aimed to explore if the Notch pathway was abnormally regulated during gastric tumorigenesis. To achieve the goal, Delta-like ligands (DLL1) gene expression, Notch upstream signal, promoter methylation and its correlation with DLL1 expression were examined by methylation-specific PCR and real time (RT)-PCR in cultured gastric cancer cell lines or gastric cancer patient samples. Immunostainings and tissue arrays (n = 40) were used to confirm the DLL1 expression was down-regulated in cancer cells. Transient or stable Notch1 active domain (NICD)-overexpression suppressed proliferation of the gastric cells but the in...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - March 13, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research