Physiological and pathological functions of beta-amyloid in the brain and alzheimer's disease: A review.
Authors: Volicer L Abstract Alzheimer's disease is a major health problem all over the world. The role of beta-amyloid (Aβ) is at the center of investigations trying to discover the disease pathogenesis and to develop drugs for treatment or prevention on Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes both physiological and pathological functions of Aβ and factors that may participate in the disease development. Known genetic factors are trisomy of chromosome 21, mutations of presenilin 1 and 2, and apolipoprotein E4. Lifetime stresses that increase the risk of development of Alzheimer's disease are described...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Combination of exercise training and resveratrol attenuates obese sarcopenia in skeletal muscle atrophy.
Authors: Bai CH, Alizargar J, Peng CY, Wu JP Abstract Obese sarcopenia is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with increases in adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combination of exercise training and resveratrol on the pathological pathway from obesity to sarcopenia, and potential therapy for skeletal muscle declines in physical function. Two animal models were experimented: (1) C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity and resveratrol (low-, middle-, and high-dose) for 4 weeks. (2) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Muscle type from which satellite cells are derived plays a role in their damage response.
Authors: Lin CY, Hou CY, Tsai CM, Chang H Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of satellite cells to muscular atrophies which possess different pathological characteristics and which were induced by distinct damages. Right lower limbs of rats were exposed to denervation or disuse and later its tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus (SOL) muscles were analyzed. After confirming their functional impairments indicated by common but distinct pathological and electrophysiological characteristics, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of Pax7 and Pax3 expressions and the number of Pax7+ve a...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Resveratrol enhances therapeutic effect on pancreatic regeneration in diabetes mellitus rats receiving autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells.
This study aims to investigate if the synergistically protective effect on damaged pancreatic tissues can be observed in STZ-induced DM rats with autologous transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) coupling with oral administration of resveratrol. Pathological conditions can be recognized in DM rats with pancreatic damage, including reduction of islet size, suppression of survival markers, downregulation of AMPK/Sirt1 axis, and activation of apoptotic signaling. Autologous transplantation of ADSC slightly improves pancreatic functions, whereas autologous transplantation of ADSC coupling with oral administration...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Glucose reduces the osmopressor response in connection with the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in red blood cells.
This study was performed in 24 young, healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected at 5 min before and 25 min and 50 min after an ingestion of 10% glucose water 500 mL, water 500 mL, or normal saline 500 mL. We determined glucose and osmolality in plasma, and phosphorylation of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), and FAK in RBC membrane. Our results showed that glucose ingestion reduced the rise of peripheral vascular resistance after water ingestion and upregulated the serine phosphorylation of Glut1. It also lowered both the serine phosphorylation of FAK and tyrosine phosphorylation of AQP1, compared wit...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp. roots extracts on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Authors: Vo TT, Yang NC, Yang SE, Chen CL, Wu CH, Song TY Abstract Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., also named pigeon pea, is widely grown in the tropics and the subtropics. C. cajan roots (CR) and ribs stewed in hot water have been used as a traditional medicine in various cultures to treat diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional components of hot water (WCR) and 50%, 95% ethanol extracts (EECR50 and EECR95) from CR, then evaluating their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The results indicated that EECR95 had higher polyphenol, especially the isoflavones (e.x. daidzein, genistein, a...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Portal vein innervation underlying the pressor effect of water ingestion with and without cold stress.
Authors: Tsai SH, Lin JY, Lin YC, Liu YP, Tung CS Abstract Water-induced pressor response appears mediated through the activation of transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 on hepatic portal circulation in animals. We sought to elucidate the mechanism of portal vein signaling in this response. Forty-five rats were divided into four groups: control rats without water ingestion (WI), control rats with WI, portal vein denervation rats with WI (PVDWI), and TRPV4 antagonist-treated rats with WI (anti-TRPV4WI). Cardiovascular responses were monitored throughout the experiments. Data analysis was performed using descri...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Investigation of effect of tectorigenin (O-methylated isoflavone) on Ca2+ signal transduction and cytotoxic responses in canine renal tubular cells.
Authors: Cheng HH, Liang WZ, Liao WC, Kuo CC, Hao LJ, Chou CT, Jan CR Abstract Tectorigenin, a traditional Chinese medicine, is isolated from the flower of plants such as Pueraria thomsonii Benth. It is an O-methylated isoflavone, a type of flavonoid. Previous studies have shown that tectorigenin evoked various physiological responses in different models, but the effect of tectorigenin on cytosolic-free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) and cytotoxicity in renal tubular cells is unknown. Our research explored if tectorigenin changed Ca2+ signal transduction and viability in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) renal tubular cells....
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Repetitively hypoxic preconditioning attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver dysfunction through upregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-dependent mitochondrial Bcl-xl in rat.
Authors: Chou PL, Chen KH, Chang TC, Chien CT Abstract Repetitive hypoxic preconditioning (HP) enforces protective effects to subsequently severe hypoxic/ischemic stress. We hypothesized that HP may provide protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat livers via hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α)/reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent defensive mechanisms. Female Wistar rats were exposed to hypoxia (15 h/day) in a hypobaric hypoxic chamber (5500 m) for HP induction, whereas the others were kept in sea level. These rats were subjected to 45 min of hepatic ischemia by portal vein occlusion ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Ipomoea aquatica extract reduces hepatotoxicity by antioxidative properties following dichlorvos administration in rats.
This study examines the role of IA on Dich-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Sixty-four male rats were divided into eight groups including sham, Dich (4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), IA 1, 2, and 3 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively, orally), and Dich + IA 1, 2, and 3. All treatments were applied daily for 60 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed. The histopathological changes, leukocyte infiltration, and apoptosis were assessed by light and fluorescent microscopy. The serum levels of hepatic enzymes, nitrite oxide (NO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated biochemically...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Muscle activation and intermuscular coherence during forward and backward pedaling.
Authors: Lee MY, Wang RY, Hsu SS, Yang WW, Chen SS, Yang YR Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and intermuscular coherence of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) during forward (FW) and backward (BW) pedaling. Sixteen healthy volunteers performed FW and BW pedaling in 30, 45, and 60 revolutions per minute (RPM), while electromyographic (EMG) signals of the RF and BF were recorded bilaterally to determine integral EMG and intermuscular coherence. BW pedaling showed a statistically significant larger EMG activity on the left BF (P = 0.023) in 30 RPM; on the left BF (P = ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

The expression and significance of serum caveolin-1 in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Authors: Zhu F, Huang J, Wang X, Li P, Yan Y, Zheng Y, He Y, Wu T, Ren Y, Wu R Abstract We investigated the expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in Kawasaki disease (KD) and analyzed its relationship with coronary artery lesions (CALs). Cav-1 participated in the progression of CAL in KD. A total of 68 children with KD (23 with CALs), age matched with a fever control group (F, n = 28) and a normal control group (N, n = 24) were enrolled in this study. Cav-1 expression was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results are the following: (1) Compared with the F and N, Cav-1 expression was significantly ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Sex-related differences in sudomotor function in healthy early twenties focused on activated sweat gland density.
Authors: Park TH, Lee JB, Lee HJ, Yun B Abstract The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference in sudomotor function between healthy males and females in their early twenties by measuring skin surface area and activated sweat gland density (ASGD). The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART), a method for evaluating autonomic nervous system activity, was used for quantification. In QSART, the sweat glands are activated directly or indirectly by the subcutaneous application of neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, through iontophoresis. This series of mechanisms is called the sudom...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Distinct patterns of interleukin-12/23 and tumor necrosis factor α synthesis by activated macrophages are modulated by glucose and colon cancer metabolites.
In conclusion, glucose metabolites from CRC triggered distinct changes in the cytokine profiles in macrophages. The downregulation of death-inducing TNFα and upregulation of Th1/17-polarizing IL-12/IL-23 axis in macrophages caused by exposure to cancer-derived glucose metabolites may contribute to tumor progression. PMID: 32056981 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Physiological stress against simulated 200-m and 500-m sprints in world-class boat paddlers.
Authors: Senakham N, Punthipayanon S, Senakham T, Sriyabhaya P, Sriramatr S, Kuo CH Abstract To characterize physiological stress response against simulated short-distance sprints among world-class paddlers. Thirteen dragon boat gold medalists performed 200-m and 500-m simulated race trials on a kayak ergometer in a randomized, counter-balanced, crossover fashion. During the 200-m and 500-m sprints, oxygen consumption (VO2) increased from 8.7 to 31.2 ml/kg/min and from 8.0 to 32.7 ml/kg/min within 60 s, respectively. A plateau of 35 ml/kg/min below maximal VO2(VO2max) (39.7 ± 6.3 ml/kg/min) was reached at 75...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on serum irisin, adropin, and cholesterol levels in the winter season: Indoor training versus outdoor training.
Authors: Ozbay S, Ulupınar S, Şebin E, Altınkaynak K Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aerobic training performed indoors and outdoors on irisin, adropin, and cholesterol levels in winter. Thirty-two healthy males participated in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: outdoor group (n = 16) and indoor group (n = 16). They then performed 40-min aerobic running exercises 4 days/week for 18 weeks. The outdoor group trained at -5°C-5°C environmental temperature, while the indoor group trained at 21°C-25°C. Blood samples were collected be...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Formosan wood mice (Apodemus semotus) exhibit more exploratory behaviors and central dopaminergic activities than C57BL/6 mice in the open field test.
Authors: Shieh KR, Yang SC Abstract Three-quarters of the lands in Taiwan are over 1000 m above sea level. Formosan wood mice (Apodemus semotus), also called Taiwanese field mice, are largely found at altitudes of 1400 ~ 3700 m and are the dominant rodents in these areas. Notably, Formosan wood mice show high levels of exploratory behaviors, not only in the wild but also in laboratory situations. Therefore, in this study, we examined the behavioral responses and central dopaminergic activities of male C57BL/6J mice and Formosan wood mice in the open field test. Dopamine and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyla...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Beneficial effects of a negative ion patch on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammation, and exercise performance in badminton athletes.
Authors: Ho CS, Lee MC, Chang CY, Chen WC, Huang WC Abstract Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) are widely applied and accepted for therapeutic purposes because of their numerous benefits. Negative ion treatment belongs to one of the critical categories defined by the National Center for CAM, with such treatment capable of air purification and ameliorating emotional disorders (e.g., depression and seasonal affective disorder). Negative ions can be produced naturally and also by a material with activated energy. Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) often occurs due to inadequate warm up, high-intensity ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

The role of genotype/phenotype at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Rs1130409 in renal cell carcinoma.
In this study, we aim at evaluation the role of the Asp148Glu (rs1130409) variant at apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) gene in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and the contribution of different genotypes to its transcriptional mRNA levels. In the case-control study, 92 RCC patients and 580 cancer-free patients matched by age and gender were recruited. The apurinic/APE genotyping work was conducted with typical restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology after polymerase chain reaction. At the meanwhile, thirty renal tissue samples with variant genotypes were examined for their apurinic/APE mRNA and protein e...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Contrasting actions of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 on glucose tolerance in rats.
Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.4103/CJP.CJP_61_19]. PMID: 32056987 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Mechanistic insight of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in modulating lung cancer growth.
Authors: Prince GMSH, Yang TY, Lin H, Chen MC Abstract Lung harbors the growth of primary and secondary tumors. Even though numerous factors regulate the complex signal transduction and cytoskeletal remodeling toward the progression of lung cancer, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a previously known kinase in the central nervous system, has raised much attention in the recent years. Patients with aberrant Cdk5 expression also lead to poor survival. Cdk5 has already been employed in various cellular processes which shape the fate of cancer. In lung cancer, Cdk5 mainly regulates tumor suppressor genes, carcinogenesi...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Identification of the force-velocity curve on dynamic resistance exercise for rats.
Authors: Santana HAP, Miotto H, Silva KKS, Dellagrana RA, Almeida JA Abstract The aim of this study was to identify force-velocity and power-velocity curves in climbing activity protocols, used as dynamic resistance exercise in rats. Eighteen 45-day-old male Wistar rats (weight = 211.9 ± 5.2 g) were evaluated. After familiarization to the climbing procedure, the animals performed an incremental climbing test (load relative to 75% of the body mass at first stage, followed by 30 g increments with and 120 s recovery between climbs) to determine the maximum carrying capacity (MCC). After this, the animals climbe...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Sex differences and the modulating effects of gonad intactness on behavioral conformity in a mouse model.
Authors: Cherng CG, Yu L Abstract Although gender differences in conformity are noticed in human studies, cultural norms and psychosocial factors inevitably affect such differences. Biological factors, especially the gonadal hormones and the brain regions involved, contributing to the sex differences in behavioral conformity remained scarcely explored. To prevent psychosocial and cultural norm confounds, intact and gonadectomized male and female mice were used to assess the modulating effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral conformity and such conformity-related brain regions using an approach of choice paradigm....
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Changes in the microvasculature and hemostatic system in rats after insonation.
This study aimed to examine the effect of 7-day in-air insonation on the microvasculature and hemostatic system of rats. The study included 28 male Wistar rats. A group of study animals was insonated over 7 days at a frequency of 25 kHz. The emitters were installed in a vertical position at a distance of 10 cm from both the sidewalls of a coarse wire cage. The sound pressure was 89.0 dB and power flux density was 7.73 ± 0.03 W/cm2. The microvasculature values of the study rats obtained by laser Doppler flowmetry were compared to those of control animals. To evaluate the hemostatic system, an integral research method...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Sex Differences in antiaging response to short- and long-term high-intensity interval exercise in rat cardiac muscle: Telomerase activity, total antioxidant/oxidant status.
This study was conducted to investigate the sex-dependent responses of telomerase enzyme activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the ratio of TAC/TOS to short- and long-term high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in cardiac muscle of male and female rats. Forty adult Wistar rats were randomly allocated to six groups: male and female HIIE with short-term intervals (MHIIESh and FHIIESh, respectively), male and female HIIE with long-term intervals (MHIIEL and FHIIEL, respectively), and controls groups. Telomerase activity, TAC, and TOS levels were examined immediately after exercise in the...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Contrasting actions of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 on glucose tolerance in rats.
Authors: Chaunchaiyakul R, Leelayuwat N, Wu JF, Huang CY, Kuo CH Abstract Ginsenoside profile of Panax ginseng is changing with season and cultivated soil. Yet, dose-response relationship of main ginsenosides on metabolic measures has not been documented in vivo. Here, we examined glucose and insulin responses after an oral glucose challenge (0.5 g/kg body weight) at various doses (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg of body weight) under acute and chronic Rb1 and Rg1 supplemented conditions. The results show that Rb1 (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg body weight) increased, whereas Rg1 (0.01 mg/kg body weight) decreased postprandial glu...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

The impact of high-intensity laser therapy on oxidative stress, lysosomal enzymes, and protease inhibitor in athletes.
Authors: Sielski Ł, Sutkowy P, Katarzyna PO, Woźniak A, Skopkowska A, Woźniak B, Czuczejko J Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the effect of one session of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) on the levels of selected oxidative stress parameters, lysosomal hydrolases, and anti-inflammatory serine protease inhibitor in the peripheral blood of amateur athletes with torn or pulled tendons of the ankle or the knee joint. The group of injured athletes comprised 16 males and females aged 16.3 ± 1.3 years, while the control group of 14 healthy, noninjured amateur athletes of both sexes (controls; age 1...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Blood dopamine level enhanced by caffeine in men after treadmill running.
Authors: Lee JB, Lee HJ, Lee SJ, Kim TW Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma dopamine and serum serotonin levels in humans with and without caffeine (CAFF) ingestion during treadmill running exercise. Thirty male volunteers participated in the randomized experiment involving two groups: CON (n = 15, 200 mL of tap water) versus CAFF (n = 15, 3 mg/kg CAFF and 200 mL tap water). After treadmill running, the dopamine level was significantly increased in the CAFF group (P
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Action of citral on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis in juvenile mice.
Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.4103/CJP.CJP_32_19]. PMID: 31793466 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Action of citral on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis in juvenile mice.
In this study, we examined the direct membrane effects of citral and how citral mediates responses on the SG neurons of the Vc in juvenile mice using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Under high chloride pipette solution, citral showed repeatable inward currents that persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin, a voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker, and 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione, a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist. However, the citral-induced inward currents were partially blocked by picrotoxin, a gamma-aminobutyric aci...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effects of cannabinoid modulation on hypothalamic nesfatin-1 and insulin resistance.
This study investigated nesfatin-1 and insulin resistance in 72-h rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-deprived mice under the effects of cannabinoid, and cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R blocking. Sixty mice were exposed to 72-h sleep deprivation. Groups and drug administrations were as follows: Group 1 (control) received injection of vehicle. Group 2 received WIN 55,212,2. Group 3 received AM251 (CB1R antagonist) followed by WIN 55,212,2 injection. Group 4 received SR144528 (CB2R antagonist) followed by WIN 55,212,2 injection. Group 5 received only AM251. Group 6 received only SR144528. Blood samples were collected 1 h afte...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Glycine tomentella hayata extract and its ingredient daidzin ameliorate cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and oxidative stress through the action of antioxidation, anti-fibrosis, and anti-inflammation.
Authors: Wu KC, Lin WY, Sung YT, Wu WY, Cheng YH, Chen TS, Chiang BJ, Chien CT Abstract We explored the therapeutic potential of intragastric administration of traditional Chinese medicine Glycine tomentella Hayata (I-Tiao-Gung [ITG]) extract and its major component Daidzin on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis, oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and bladder hyperactivity in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into control, CYP (200 mg/kg), CYP+ITG (1.17 g/kg/day), and CYP+Daidzin (12.5 mg/kg/day) groups. We measured the voiding function by the transcystometrogram and evaluated the pathology with the ...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Adrenergic receptor beta-3 rs4994 (T > C) and liver X receptor alpha rs12221497 (G > A) polymorphism in Pakistanis with metabolic syndrome.
Adrenergic receptor beta-3 rs4994 (T>C) and liver X receptor alpha rs12221497 (G>A) polymorphism in Pakistanis with metabolic syndrome. Chin J Physiol. 2019 Sep-Oct;62(5):196-202 Authors: Zafar U, Khaliq S, Ali Z, Lone KP Abstract The present study aimed to determine the association of adrenergic receptor beta-3 (ADRB3) rs4994 T>C and liver X receptor alpha (LXR-α) rs12221497 G>A polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (Met S) and the related traits in Pakistanis. Patients of Met S were recruited from the Endocrinology and Diabetic Clinic of Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore, over the time sp...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Magnesium sulfate attenuates lipopolysaccharides-induced acute lung injury in mice.
In this study, Kunming mice were intravenously injected with LPS through tail vein to establish the ALI model and in parallel, A549 cells were used to establish cell model. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lung tissue, lung permeability index, hematoxylin and eosin staining, cytokines in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), neutrophil counts in BALF, LPS-induced A549 cell apoptosis as well as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) expression in both mice and A549 cells were detected. Our results demonstrated that MgSO4 significantly attenua...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

The association of matrix metalloproteinas-2 promoter polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility in Taiwan.
Authors: Chen GL, Wang SC, Shen TC, Tsai CW, Chang WS, Li HT, Wu CN, Chao CY, Hsia TC, Bau DT Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP2) has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of cancer. However, the contribution of various genotypes of MMP2 to lung cancer is controversial and not yet been examined in Taiwan. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the association of MMP2 genotypes with lung cancer risk among Taiwanese. In this hospital-based, case-control study, 358 lung cancer patients and 716 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the genotypic distributions of MMP...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Association between adiposity and fasting serum levels of appetite-regulating peptides: Leptin, neuropeptide Y, desacyl ghrelin, peptide YY(1-36), obestatin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and agouti-related protein in nonobese participants.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between adiposity parameters and fasting serum levels of appetite-regulating peptides: leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), desacyl ghrelin, peptide YY(1-36), obestatin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and agouti-related protein in 30 healthy, non-obese subjects. Thirty European Caucasian adult participants were included in the study (17 men and 13 women). Body composition (body fat and lean body mass) was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Concentrations of peptides in serum were assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay....
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Lifetime overproduction of circulating angiotensin-(1-7) in rats attenuates the increase in skeletal muscle damage biomarkers after exhaustive exercise.
Authors: Becker LK, Totou NL, Oliveira MF, Coelho DB, de Oliveira EC, Motta-Santos D, Silami-Garcia E, Campagnole-Santos MJ, Santos RAS Abstract Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-[1-7]) can modulate glucose metabolism and protect against muscular damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lifetime increase of circulating levels of Ang-(1-7) at exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). Sprague-Dawley (SD) and transgenic rats TGR(A1-7)3292 (TR) which overproduce Ang-(1-7) (2.5-fold increase) were submitted to ESE. The data showed no differences in time to exhaustion (SD: 4.90 ± 1.37 h vs. TR: 5.15 &plusm...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - November 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Adenine decreases hypertrophic effects through interleukin-18 receptor.
In this study, IL-18 induced cardiomyoblast hypertrophy through IL-18R upregulation, which was found to be related to p38 MAPK and PI3 kinase signaling. Adenine, but not AuNPs, showed antihypertrophic effects possibly because of decreased levels of signaling. PMID: 31535629 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Effect of taurine on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver and kidney.
In conclusion, alcohol administration led to a significant influence on antioxidant system in the liver and kidney, but simultaneous intake of taurine, along with ethanol, partly attenuated the antioxidant changes in these organs. PMID: 31535630 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Aloperine suppresses human pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via inhibiting inflammatory response.
Authors: Chang Z, Zhang P, Zhang M, Jun F, Hu Z, Yang J, Wu Y, Zhou R Abstract Abnormal pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation is critical pathological feature of pulmonary vascular remodeling that acts as driving force in the initiation and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), ultimately leading to pulmonary hypertension. Aloperine is a main active alkaloid extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal Sophora alopecuroides and possesses outstanding antioxidation and anti-inflammatory effects. Our group found Aloperine has protective effects on monocroline-induced p...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

The effect of visuospatial resolution on discharge variability among motor units and force-discharge relation.
This study investigated the modulation of MU discharges and force-discharge relation due to variations in the spatial resolution of visual feedback, with a particular focus on discharge variability among MUs. Fourteen young adults produced isometric force at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through index abduction, under the conditions of force trajectory displayed with low visual gain (LVG) and high visual gain (HVG). Together with smaller and more complex force fluctuations, HVG resulted in greater variabilities of the mean interspike interval and discharge irregularity among MUs than LVG did. Estimated via smo...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Histone deacetylases in stroke.
Authors: Kao MH, Lin TN Abstract Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Despite an impressive amount of neuroprotective agents that has been identified in experimental stroke, none of them proved efficient in clinical trials. There is a general consensus that an effective treatment requires the ability to interact with not one, but multiple pathophysiological cascades at different levels that induced by the insult - cocktail therapy. Luckily, recent progress in the field of epigenetics revealed that epigenetic modifications had influence on many known pathwa...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Additive and nonadditive effects of salmon calcitonin and omega-3 fatty acids on antioxidant, hematological and bone and cartilage markers in experimental diabetic-osteoarthritic rats.
In conclusion, the combined administration of Sct and N-3 proffer better therapeutic effects than the single therapy; therefore, they could be used in the management of diabetic-osteoarthritic condition. PMID: 31249264 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Altered expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and Soluble Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.
Authors: Ali Z, Khaliq S, Zaki S, Ahmad HU, Lone KP Abstract Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It complicates around 2%-10% pregnancies worldwide due to imbalance between proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, leading to incomplete placentation, ischemia, and endothelial dysfunction. The study was aimed to analyze the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, i.e., VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) from maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) o...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Action of chlorzoxazone on Ca2+movement and viability in human oral cancer cells.
This study examined whether chlorzoxazone altered Ca2+ signaling and cell viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells. [Ca2+]iin suspended cells was measured using the fluorescent Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assay. Chlorzoxazone (250-1000 μM) induced [Ca2+]irises in a concentration-dependent manner. Ca2+ removal reduced the signal by approximately 50%. Mn2+ has been shown to enter cells through similar mechanisms as Ca2+ but quenches fura-2 fluorescence at all excitation wavelengths. Chlorzoxazone (1000 μM) induced Mn2+ influx, suggesting that Ca2+ entry occurred...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Can royal jelly protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats?
This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of RJ against I/R-induced renal disorders. Forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) as sham (0.9% saline) group, I/R group, RJ group (treated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day RJ), and I/R + RJ group that were pretreated for 15 consecutive days by gavage with 300 mg/kg/day of RJ. The I/R-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by determining leukocyte infiltration and mRNA expression level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α). Antioxidant capacity of kidneys...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Neuropeptide FF modulates neuroendocrine and energy homeostasis through hypothalamic signaling.
Authors: Lin YT, Chen JC Abstract Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is known as a morphine-modulating peptide and was first isolated in 1985. It has been characterized as an RF-amide peptide. The traditional role of NPFF is mediation of the pain response, and it displays both anti-opioid and pro-opioid actions through central nervous system. In the recent decade, additional evidence has revealed some untraditional features of NPFF, such as regulation of the neuroendocrine system, energy homeostasis, anti-inflammation, pain transmission, and peripheral modulation of adipose tissue macrophages. Neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Autophagy: A potential target for rescuing sepsis-induced hepatic failure.
Authors: Hsu C Abstract Sepsis is the leading cause of death in intensive care units worldwide; however, it remains a scientific and clinical challenge in modern medicine. An excessive inflammatory response associated with high level of reactive oxygen species results in mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of the unfolded protein response leading to subsequent energetic organ failure in septic patients. In addition to blocking the inflammatory cascade directly, new strategies focusing on host endogenous adaption to severe infection may hold better promise for improving outcomes in septic patients. Autophagy is...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Knockdown of protein kinase CK2 blocked gene expression mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced serum response element.
Authors: Yang SP, Lo CY, Tseng HM, Chao CC Abstract One of the principal signaling pathway outcomes from brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the activation of antiapoptotic pathways. In addition to the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, BDNF activates protein kinase CK2 to mediate its neuroprotective effect. The inhibition of CK2 activity has been shown to induce apoptosis. Although serum response element (SRE)-mediated transcription has been reported to be activated by BDNF and that the phosphorylation of serum response factor (SRF) by CK2 has been shown to...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research

Different susceptibilities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts to glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts and examine the responses of osteoclasts to the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. We demonstrated the biphasic effects of exogenous glucocorticoid on osteoblastic mitochondrial functions and elevated intracellular oxidative stress in a dose- and time-dependent manner. On comparison, similar treatment did not induce mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress in osteoclasts. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species was decreased in osteoclasts. The differences are not due to varying efficiency of cel...
Source: The Chinese Journal of Physiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Chin J Physiol Source Type: research