Harnessing brain waves: a review of brain magnetic resonance elastography for clinicians and scientists entering the field.
The objectives of this review are: (1) to give a general overview of the types of measurements that have been obtained with brain MRE in patient populations, (2) to survey the tools currently being used to make these measurements possible, and (3) to highlight brain MRE-based quantitative biomarkers that have the highest potential of being adopted into clinical use within the next 5 to 10 years. The specifics of MRE methodology strategies are described, from wave generation to material parameter estimations. The potential clinical role of MRE for characterizing and planning surgical resection of intracranial tumors and ass...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Arani A, Manduca A, Ehman RL, Huston Iii J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Diagnostic values of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT, CT, and US for Preoperative Lymph Node Staging in Thyroid Cancer: A Network Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSION: The results from this NMA indicate that F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT, CT, and US have complementary diagnostic roles for preoperative staging in thyroid cancer patients. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Using NMA, we comprehensively compared the different diagnostic values and limitations of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT, CT, and US for the preoperative LN staging in thyroid cancer patients. PMID: 33595337 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kim K, Shim SR, Lee SW, Kim SJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Retrospective comparative study of efficacy, safety and outcome of percutaneous intervention for Budd-Chiari syndrome patients with bilirubin less than 3 and 3-6 mg/dl.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Comparing the efficacy, safety and outcome of percutaneous intrervention for Budd-Chiari Syndrome (BCS) patients with bilirubin less than 3 and 3-6 mg dl-1. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 188 BCS patients having serum bilirubin ≤6 mg dl-1 and underwent percutaneous interventions were divided into two groups based on bilirubin level: 151 patients having bilirubin
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Patidar Y, Pal CK, Mukund A, Kumar G, Sarin SK Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Diffusion-weighted MRI of ischemic stroke at 3T: Value of synthetic b-values.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of ischemic stroke. We assessed the value of computed and acquired high b-value DWI in comparison with conventional b = 1000 s mm-2 DWI for ischemic stroke at 3T. METHODS: We included 36 patients with acute ischemic stroke who presented with diffusion abnormalities on DWI performed within 24 h of symptom onset. B-values of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 s mm-2 were acquired. Synthetic images with b-values of 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 s mm-2 were computed. Two readers compared synthetic (syn) and acqu...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sartoretti T, Sartoretti E, Wyss M, Mannil M, van Smoorenburg L, Eichenberger B, Reischauer C, Alfieri A, Binkert C, Sartoretti-Schefer S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

MRI-defined high-risk rectal cancer patients: outcome comparison between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus TME and TME plus adjuvant chemotherapy or TME alone.
CONCLUSION: NCRT may improve DFS and LR rates in patients with MRI-defined high-risk rectal cancer when compared with TME plus ACT or TME alone. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study illustrated the specific benefit of NCRT on the outcome measures of MRI-defined high-risk rectal cancer compared with TME plus ACT or TME alone, which was not clearly clarified in previous studies enrolling all patients with Stage II/III rectal cancer. PMID: 33591799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 16, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Jia X, Xie P, Bi L, Meng X, Wang Z, Hong N, Wang Y Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Detection and staging of radio-recurrent prostate cancer using multiparametric MRI.
CONCLUSION: Our results show MP-MRI has moderate sensitivity (64%) and high specificity (94%) in detecting radio-recurrent intraprostatic disease, though disease tends to be under quantified and under staged. Greater emphasis on dynamic contrast images in overall scoring can improve diagnostic sensitivity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: MP-MRI tends to under quantify and under stage radio-recurrent prostate cancer. DCE has a potentially augmented role in detecting recurrent tumour compared with the de novo setting. This has relevance in the event of any future modified MP-MRI scoring system for the irradiated gland. PMID...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 15, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kowa JY, Soneji N, Sohaib SA, Mayer E, Hazell S, Butterfield N, Shur J, Ap Dafydd D Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Dosimetric feasibility of neurovascular bundle-sparing stereotactic body radiotherapy with periprostatic hydrogel spacer for localized prostate cancer to preserve erectile function.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We aim to test the hypothesis that neurovascular bundle (NVB) displacement by rectal hydrogel spacer combined with NVB delineation as an organ at risk (OAR) is a feasible method for NVB-sparing stereotactic body radiotherapy. METHODS: Thirty-five men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer who underwent rectal hydrogel spacer placement and pre-, post-spacer prostate MRI studies were treated with prostate SBRT (36.25 Gy in five fractions). A prostate radiologist contoured the NVB on both the pre- and post-spacer T2W MRI sequences that were then registered to the CT simulation...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 15, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Hwang ME, Mayeda M, Shaish H, Elliston CD, Spina CS, Wenske S, Deutsch I Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Impact of total variation regularized expectation maximization reconstruction on the image quality of 68Ga-PSMA PET: a phantom and patient study.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of total variation regularized expectation maximization (TVREM) reconstruction on the image quality of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT using phantom and patient data. METHODS: Images of a phantom with small hot sphere inserts and 20 prostate cancer patients were acquired with a digital PET/CT using list-mode and reconstructed with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and TVREM with 7 penalisation factors between 0.01 and 0.42 for 2 and 3 minutes-per-bed (m/b) acquisition. The contrast recovery (CR) and background variability (BV) of the phantom, image noise of the ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Yang FJ, Ai SY, Wu R, Lv Y, Xie HF, PhD YD, Meng QL, Wang F Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Validation of a deep-learning semantic segmentation approach to fully automate MRI-based left-ventricular deformation analysis in cardiotoxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Similar performance metrics and equivalent parameters obtained from comparisons between the atrous networks and vendor tool show that segmentation with the modified, atrous DCNN is applicable for automated LV chamber quantification and subsequent strain analysis in cardiotoxicity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: A novel deep-learning technique for segmenting DENSE images was developed and validated for LV chamber quantification and strain analysis in cardiotoxicity detection. PMID: 33571002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Karr J, Cohen M, McQuiston SA, Poorsala T, Malozzi C Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The clinical effectiveness of reconstructing 18F-sodium fluoride PET/CT bone using Bayesian penalized likelihood algorithm for evaluation of metastatic bone disease in obese patients.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: A new Bayesian penalized likelihood reconstruction algorithm for positron emission tomography (PET) (Q.Clear) is now in clinical use for fludeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT. However, experience with non-FDG tracers and in special patient populations is limited. This pilot study aims to compare Q.Clear to standard PET reconstructions for 18F sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET in obese patients. METHODS: 30 whole body 18F-NaF PET/CT scans (10 patients with BMI 30-40 Kg/m2 and 20 patients with BMI>40 Kg/m2) and a NEMA image quality phantom scans were analyzed using ordered subset expecta...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Usmani S, Ahmed N, Gnanasegaran G, Rasheed R, Marafi F, Alnaaimi M, Omar M, Musbah A, Al Kandari F, De Schepper S, Van den Wyngaert T Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Low-dose whole-body CT using deep learning image reconstruction: image quality and lesion detection.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate image quality and lesion detection capabilities of low-dose (LD) portal venous phase whole-body CT using deep learning image reconstruction (DLIR). METHODS: The study cohort of 59 consecutive patients (mean age 67.2 years) who underwent whole-body LD CT and a prior standard-dose (SD) CT reconstructed with hybrid iterative reconstruction (SD-IR) within one-year for surveillance of malignancy were assessed. The LD CT images were reconstructed with hybrid iterative reconstruction of 40% (LD-IR) and DLIR (LD-DLIR). The radiologists independently evaluated image quality (5-point sc...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Noda Y, Kaga T, Kawai N, Miyoshi T, Kawada H, Hyodo F, Kambadakone A, Matsuo M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Role of in-phase and out-of-phase chemical shift MRI in differentiation of Non-neoplastic versus neoplastic benign and malignant marrow lesions.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine its ability of in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OOP) chemical shift imaging (CSI) to distinguish non-neoplastic marrow lesions, benign bone tumours and malignant bone tumours. METHODS: CSI was introduced into our musculoskeletal tumour protocol in May 2018 to aid in characterisation of suspected bone tumours. The % signal intensity (SI) drop between IP and OOP sequences was calculated and compared to the final lesion diagnosis, which was classified as non-neoplastic (NN), benign neoplastic (BN) or malignant neoplastic (MN). RESULTS: The study included 174 patients (84 male...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: van Vucht N, Santiago R, Pressney I, Saifuddin A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical MRI study: reference values for the measurements of brainstem, cerebellar vermis, and peduncles.
CONCLUSION: This study provides age-specific normal mean values for various linear dimensions and ratios of the posterior fossa structures with documentation of measurements' variability according to gender, age, and their interaction. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: It provides a valuable reference in the clinical practice for easier differentiation between physiological and pathological conditions of the posterior fossa structures especially various neurodegenerative diseases and congenital anomalies. PMID: 33571018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Metwally MI, Alkhalik Basha MA, AbdelHamid GA, Nada MG, Ali RR, Frere RAF, Elshetry ASF Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Low-dose CT urography using deep learning image reconstruction: a prospective study for comparison with conventional CT urography.
CONCLUSION: It is feasibility to provide comparable image quality while reducing 71% radiation dose in low-dose CTU with a deep learning image reconstruction algorithm compared to the conventional CTU with ASIR-V. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: (1) CT urography with deep learning reconstruction algorithm can reduce the radiation dose by 71% while still maintaining image quality. PMID: 33571034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Cheng Y, Han Y, Li J, Fan G, Cao L, Li J, Jia X, Yang J, Guo J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Paediatric bone lesions: diagnostic accuracy of imaging correlation and CT-guided needle biopsy for differentiating benign from malignant lesions.
CONCLUSION: CT-NB represents a safe and very effective tool for differentiating benign and malignant lesions in children presenting with a suspected primary bone tumour. Suspected radiological diagnosis plays a pivotal role in the management of indeterminate biopsy results. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Paediatric bone tumours pose a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The interpretation of the imaging findings is essential for the successful management of indeterminate histological results. PMID: 33565896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Vidoni A, Pressney I, Saifuddin A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Radiology for medical students: Do we teach enough? A national study.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that medical students do not receive enough radiology teaching. This needs to be addressed by Universities in collaboration with the NHS in an effort to bring up this up to line with other developed countries and prepare students for the GMC MLA. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: (1) There is insufficient time allocated in Medical Students' curriculum to Radiology.(2) Radiology teaching in medical schools fall short of University Lead Clinician Teachers' and GMC expectations of medical students at graduation. PMID: 33560874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Chew C, O'Dwyer PJ, Sandilands E Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic features of uterine cervical lesions.
Abstract Currently, ultrasound (US) is a valuable imaging tool for the initial assessment and evaluation of the female genital organs, uterus, and adnexa. However, it is easy to overlook the uterine cervix while conducting a pelvic US. Uterine cervical lesions may range from benign to malignant in nature. Therefore, meticulous examination with US may play a key role in assessing uterine cervical lesions. Although there is substantial overlap in the US findings across various uterine cervical lesions, some US features, in tandem with clinical characteristics, may suggest a specific diagnosis. Familiarity with the c...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Oh H, Park SB, Park HJ, Lee ES, Hur J, Choi W, Choi BI Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Performance of an artificial intelligence system for bone age assessment in Tibet.
CONCLUSION: The AI BA system developed for Han Chinese children living in flat regions could enable to assess BA accurately in Tibet where medical resources are limited. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: AI-based BA system may serve as an effective and efficient solution to assess BA in Tibet. PMID: 33560889 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang F, Cidan W, Gu X, Chen S, Yin W, Liu Y, Shi L, Pan H, Jin Z Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of malignant non-mass breast lesions and exploration of diagnostic criteria.
CONCLUSIONS: CEUS has a high specificity in malignant NML diagnosis based on the diagnostic criteria including enhancement degree, enhancement area, and radial or penetrating vessels, but with lower sensitivity than BI-RADS-US. The combination of CEUS and BI-RADS-US is an effective diagnostic tool with both high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignant NMLs. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: In this study, we assessed the diagnostic value of CEUS for malignant NMLs and constructed a feasible diagnostic criterion. We further revealed that the combination of CEUS and BI-RADS-US has a high diagnostic value for mal...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhang F, Jin L, Li G, Jia C, Shi Q, Du L, Wu R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

First experience of efficacy and radiation exposure in 320-detector row CT fluoroscopy-guided interventions.
CONCLUSION: The 320-detector row CTF interventions achieved a high success rate. Dose reduction in post-interventional CT provides patient dose reduction without decreasing the technical success rates. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This is the first study on the relationship between various interventional outcomes and patient exposure to radiation in 320-detector row CTF-guided interventions, suggesting a new perspective on dose reduction. PMID: 33544633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Yamamoto S, Matsumoto T, Suda S, Tomita K, Kamei S, Hashida K, Imai Y, Endo K, Murakami K, Hasebe T Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Longitudinal study of the morphological and T2* changes of knee cartilages of marathon runners using prototype software for automatic cartilage segmentation.
CONCLUSIONS: The marathon had some effects on the thickness, volume, and T2* value of the knee cartilages. The thickness and volume of knee cartilage in most sub-regions were without significantly changes post-marathon compared with pre-marathon. T2* value of knee cartilage in most sub-regions was increased right after marathon and recovered 2 months later. The TLP and TMA subregions needed follow-up after marathon. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The morphological and T2* changes of knee cartilage after marathon were evaluated by MRI and automatic segmentation software. This study was the first to use cartilage automatic segm...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhang P, Yu B, Zhang R, Chen X, Shao S, Zeng Y, Cui J, Zhao J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Impact of CT convolution kernel on robustness of radiomic features for different lung diseases and tissue types.
In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of different CT reconstruction kernels on the stability of radiomic features and the transferability between different diseases and tissue types. Three lung diseases were evaluated, i.e. non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and interstitial lung disease related to systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD) as well as four different tissue types, i.e. primary tumor, largest involved lymph node ipsilateral and contralateral lung. METHODS: Pre-treatment non-contrast enhanced CT scans from 23 NSCLC, 10 MPM and 12 SSc-ILD patients were collected retrospecti...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Denzler S, Vuong D, Bogowicz M, Pavic M, Frauenfelder T, Thierstein S, Eboulet EI, Maurer B, Schniering J, Gabryƛ HS, Schmitt-Opitz I, Pless M, Foerster R, Guckenberger M, Tanadini-Lang S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pathologic nipple discharge: indications and imaging findings.
Abstract Pathologic nipple discharge (PND) is typically unilateral, spontaneous, involves a single duct, and is serous or bloody in appearance. In patients with PND, breast MRI can be helpful as an additional diagnostic tool when conventional imaging with mammogram and ultrasound are negative. MRI is able to detect the etiology of nipple discharge in 56-61% of cases when initial imaging with mammogram and ultrasound are negative. Advantages to using MRI in evaluation of PND include good visualization of the retroareolar breast and better evaluation of posterior lesions which may not be well evaluated on mammograms...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Samreen N, Madsen LB, Chacko C, Heller SL Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Comparison between the ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT criteria of 2011 and 2018 for Usual Interstitial Pneumonia on HRCT: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant higher degree of diagnostic agreement is observed when applying the revised 2018 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT radiological criteria for UIP compared to those of 2011. The inter-rater variability for categorizing the HRCT patterns is moderate for both classification systems, independent of experience in HRCT interpretation. The major advantage of the current guidelines is the better subdivision in the categories with a lower diagnostic certainty for UIP. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: - In 2018, a revision of the 2011 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT radiological criteria for UIP was published, part of diagnostic...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Wuyts LL, Camerlinck M, De Surgeloose D, Vermeiren L, Ceulemans D, Clukers J, Slabbynck H Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The effects of the skull on CT imaging of the brain: a skull and brain phantom study.
CONCLUSIONS: Beam hardening by the skull lowers the measured HU values of the brain. The effects, which can impact quantitative imaging, may be mitigated by a virtual monochromatic energy source. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Beam hardening by the skull lowers the measured radiodensity of the brain. The effects may be mitigated by a virtual monochromatic energy source. PMID: 33533635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Cauley KA, Yorks PJ, Flora S, Fielden SW Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of hemorrhagic complications of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: a primer for residents.
Abstract Hemorrhagic complications are uncommon after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. The presenting features include bleeding through or around the drainage catheter, hematemesis or melena. Diagnosis requires cholangiography, CT angiography or conventional angiography. Minor venous hemorrhage is managed by catheter repositioning, clamping or upgrading to a larger bore catheter. Major vascular injuries require percutaneous or endovascular procedures like embolization or stenting. A complete knowledge of these complications will direct the interventional radiologist to take adequate precautions to reduc...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Pulappadi VP, Srivastava DN, Madhusudhan KS Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

A pilot study on lung cancer detection based on regional metabolic activity distribution in digital low-dose 18F-FDG PET.
CONCLUSION: This pilot study indicates that segment-based, quantitative PET parameters of low-dose PET reconstructions could be used to automatically detect lung cancer with high sensitivity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Automated assessment of PET parameters in low-dose PET may aid for an early detection of lung cancer. PMID: 33529052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Messerli M, Muehlematter UJ, Fassbind S, Franzen D, Ferraro DA, Huellner MW, Treyer V, Curioni-Fontecedro A, Burger IA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Overview of MRI for pulmonary functional imaging.
Abstract Morphological evaluation of the lung is important in the clinical evaluation of pulmonary diseases. However, the disease process, especially in its early phases, may primarily result in changes in pulmonary function without changing the pulmonary structure. In such cases, the traditional imaging approaches to pulmonary morphology may not provide sufficient insight into the underlying pathophysiology. Pulmonary imaging community has therefore tried to assess pulmonary diseases and functions utilizing not only nuclear medicine, but also CT and MR imaging with various technical approaches. In this review, we...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ohno Y, Hanamatsu S, Obama Y, Ueda T, Ikeda H, Hattori H, Murayama K, Toyama H Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Multiparametric transvaginal ultrasound in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer in post-menopausal bleeding: diagnostic performance of a transvaginal algorithm and reproducibility amongst less experienced observers.
CONCLUSION: When real-time ultrasound is performed with good technique, utilizing multiple parameters, it is possible to diagnose endometrial cancer with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: when real-time ultrasound is performed with good technique, utilizing multiple parameters, it is possible to diagnose endometrial cancer with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility. PMID: 33529055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Abdalla S, Abou-Taleb H, Badary DM, Ali WA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Dosimetric impact of random spot positioning errors in intensity modulated proton therapy plans of small and large volume tumors.
CONCLUSION: The dosimetric impact of different error scenarios in spot positioning becomes more prominent for treatment plans involving smaller target volume compared to plans involving larger target volumes. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Provides information on the dosimetric impact of various possible spot positioning errors and its dependence on the tumor volume in intensity modulated proton therapy. PMID: 33529057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Arjunan M, Krishnan G, Sharma DS, M P N, Patro KC, Thiyagarajan R, Srinivas C, Jalali R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance neurography of the head and neck: state of the art, anatomy, pathology and future perspectives.
Abstract Magnetic resonance neurography allows for the selective visualization of peripheral nerves and is increasingly being investigated. Whereas in the past, the imaging of the extracranial cranial and occipital nerve branches was inadequate, more and more techniques are now available that do allow nerve imaging. This basic review provides an overview of the literature with current state of the art, anatomical landmarks and future perspectives. Furthermore, we illustrate the possibilities of the three-dimensional CRAnial Nerve Imaging (3D CRANI) MR-sequence by means of a few case studies. PMID: 33513024 [P...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 29, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Van der Cruyssen F, Croonenborghs TM, Renton T, Hermans R, Politis C, Jacobs R, Casselman J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Multiparametric MR evaluation of uterine leiomyosarcoma and STUMP versus leiomyoma in symptomatic women planned for high frequency focussed ultrasound: accuracy of imaging parameters and interobserver agreement for identification of malignancy.
CONCLUSION: Irregular/ill-defined lesion margin best distinguished LMS/STUMP from LM with good interrater reliability. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Assessment of agreement regarding MR parameters distinguishing LM from LMS and STUMP has not previously been undertaken in a cohort including a large number of patients with LMS. This will help inform evaluation of females considering minimally invasive LM treatment. PMID: 33507806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Aminzadeh P, Alibrahim E, Dobrotwir A, Paul E, Goergen S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Prostate cancer GTV delineation with biparametric MRI and 68Ga-PSMA-PET: comparison of expert contours and semi-automated methods.
This study evaluated interobserver and intermodality variability of delineations on biparametric MRI (bpMRI), consisting of T2 weighted (T2W) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) sequences, and 68Ga-PSMA-PET/CT; and compared manually delineated GTV contours with semi-automated segmentations based on quantitative thresholding of intraprostatic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and standardised uptake values (SUV). METHODS: 16 patients who had bpMRI and PSMA-PET scanning performed prior to any treatment were eligible for inclusion. Four observers (two radiation oncologists, two radiologists) manually delineated the DIL on: (...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Hearn N, Blazak J, Vivian P, Vignarajah D, Cahill K, Atwell D, Lagopoulos J, Min M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Quantifying MRI T1 relaxation in flowing blood: implications for arterial input function measurement in DCE-MRI.
CONCLUSIONS: The T1 measurement of flowing blood using standard DCE- MRI sequences are subject to large measurement errors which are non-linear in relation to flow velocity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This work qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrates the difficulties of accurately measuring the T1 of flowing blood using DCE-MRI over a wide range of physiologically realistic flow velocities and pulsatilities. Sources of error are identified and proposals made to reduce these. PMID: 33507818 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Gwilliam MN, Collins DJ, Leach MO, Orton MR Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Hysterosalpingography findings of leiomyomas and how they look in artistic eyes: new diagnostic signs.
This study aims to improve the process of training on the diagnostic appearances of leiomyomas in hysterosalpingography by aligning the images with patterns found in nature that can be easily remembered by radiologists. PMID: 33502912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ahmadi F, Hosseini F, Javam M, Pahlavan F Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Enhancement patterns of the normal facial nerve on three-dimensional T1W fast spin echo MRI.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: With increasing neuroimaging applications of contemporary three-dimensional T1W fast spin echo (3D T1W FSE) sequences, it was aimed to reappraise the normal patterns of skull base facial nerve gadolinium enhancement. METHODS: Pre- and post-gadolinium 3D T1W fast spin echo imaging studies (n = 64) were retrospectively analysed in patients without suspected facial nerve pathology. Two independent observers scored the signal at each of six skull base facial nerve segments. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare changes in signal between pre- and post-gadolinium sequences at each locat...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Warne R, Carney OM, Wang G, Connor S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Association between 18F-FDG metabolic activity and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression using 22C3 immunohistochemistry assays in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resection specimens.
This study sought to investigate the association between 18F-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) scans and different programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression conditions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: From October 2017 to December 2019, NSCLC was retrospectively identified in 419 consecutive patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans and PD-L1 expression tests using the PD-L1 22C3 assay. The association between clinicopathological characteristics and PD-L1 expression was assessed. RESULTS: The frequency of PD-L1-positive tumours was 38.2% (160/419) in ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhao L, Liu J, Wang H, Shi J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The influence of small field output factors simulated uncertainties on the calculated dose in VMAT plans for brain metastases: a multicentre study.
CONCLUSION: The aim of our study was to evaluate how small fields OFs inaccuracies can affect the dose calculation in VMAT brain radiosurgery treatments plans. It was observed that simulated OFs errors, return dosimetric calculation accuracies within the 3% between concurrent plans analysed in terms of percentage dose differences at selected dose/volume points of the PTV coverage and OARs sparing. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: First multicentre study involving different Planning/Linacs about undetectable errors in commissioning output factor for small fields. PMID: 33481637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: T...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Clemente S, Falco MD, Cagni E, Talamonti C, Boccia M, Gino E, Lorenzini E, Rosica F, Russo S, Alparone A, Zefiro D, Fiandra C Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Sexual organ-sparing with hydrogel spacer injections for rectal cancer radiotherapy: a feasibility pilot study.
CONCLUSIONS: For organ preservation protocols and selected sexually active female patients, use of hydrogel spacers can be considered to spare sexual organs from the high radiotherapy dose levels. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: For females with advanced rectal tumor, a spacer implant between the rectum and the vagina before nCRT is feasible and reduces doses delivered to the vagina. PMID: 33481641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Achard V, Ris F, Rouzaud M, Puppa G, Buchs NC, De Perrot T, Koessler T, Picardi C, Zilli T Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Gender is a determinant of carotid artery stiffness independent of age and blood pressure.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify the gender-specific differences in carotid artery structural and stiffening parameters by radiofrequency ultrasound (RFU) with an automatic arterial stiffness analyzing system. METHODS: Seventy-two consecutive individuals (32 males and 40 females, age range from 36 to 62 years) with no history of significant cardiovascular diseases or carotid artery plaques were enrolled between September and December 2017. Quality intima-media thickness (QIMT) and quality arterial stiffness (QAS) parameters were automatically computed, including pulse wave velocity (PWV), vascular distension, ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang Z, Li W, Liu W, Tian J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Frequency and characterization of ancillary chest CT findings in COVID-19 pneumonia.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Ground-glass opacity and consolidation are recognized typical features of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia on Chest CT, yet ancillary findings have not been fully described. We aimed to describe ancillary findings of COVID-19 pneumonia on CT, to define their prevalence, and investigate their association with clinical data. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our CT chest cases with coupled reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). Patients with negative rt-PCR or without admission chest CT were excluded. Ancillary findings included: vessel enlargement, subpleur...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Silva M, Ledda RE, Schiebler M, Balbi M, Sironi S, Milone F, Affanni P, Milanese G, Sverzellati N Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Which is the optimally defined vestibular cross-section to diagnose unilateral Meniere's disease with delayed post-gadolinium 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI?
CONCLUSION: Inferior axial or sagittal vestibular cross-sections are more accurate for the diagnosis of MD ears and have excellent reproducibility. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The choice of vestibular cross-section influences both the ability to distinguish MD from asymptomatic contralateral ears, and the optimum threshold ES:SEPS value. PMID: 33449817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 15, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Connor S, Hulley K, Burd C, Amin N, Pai I Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluation of adrenal lesions with CT/MRI correlation.
Abstract Most of the adrenal masses are incidentally detected. Multiphasic CT forms the mainstay for diagnosis and characterization of adrenal masses. MRI can further be used if the masses are indeterminate on CT scan. But as these investigations are expensive with risk of radiation exposure, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is currently under evaluation to assess its utility to act as a screening modality to differentiate benign vs malignant adrenal masses This investigative modality is relatively safe and can be used in patients having renal dysfunction or allergy to CT contrast. We, hereby, present a pictori...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Aggarwal A, Das CJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

PI3K inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy resistant oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Targeting of PI3K signalling is a promising therapeutic strategy for OAC patients who have repressed miR-187 expression and do not respond to conventional neo-CRT. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This is the first study evaluating the effect of PI3K inhibition on radiosensitivity in OAC, with a particular focus on patients that do not respond to neo-CRT. We have shown for the first time that targeting of PI3K signalling is a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for OAC patients who do not respond to conventional neo-CRT. PMID: 33434085 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Edge SD, Renard I, Pyne E, Li C, Moody H, Roy R, Beavis AW, Archibald SJ, Cawthorne CJ, Maher SJ, Pires IM Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Risk of vertebral fractures: evaluation on vertebral trabecular attenuation value and hydroxyapatite concentration in patients by chest spectral CT.
CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative assessment with spectral CT may appear as higher accuracy than that of conventional CT imaging to analyze risk of vertebral fractures. Hydroxyapatite concentration measured with chest spectral CT may be used to evaluate risk of bone fractures. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Hydroxyapatite concentration measured with chest spectral CT may be used to evaluate risk of bone fractures. PMID: 33417486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ma Q, You Y, Hou X, Cheng X, Yang Z, Ma D, Wang Z Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Imaging features based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for predicting vessels encapsulating tumor clusters (VETC) in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative and quantitative imaging features of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI integrating laboratory examination can provide good diagnostic performance. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: VETC is a novel identified microvascular pattern; associations between imaging features and VETC status have not been investigated. Preoperative diagnosis of VETC status in HCC is essential to help predict the outcome of patients and make a decision for the therapeutic schedule. PMID: 33417489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Fan Y, Yu Y, Hu M, Wang X, Du M, Guo L, Hu C Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Does ATTRACT change our DVT management practice?
Abstract In 2017, the long awaited results of the ATTRACT trial were published in the New England Journal of Medicine leaving the scientific community with disappointment as the study did not show the expected results. Producing not the expected outcome is not uncommon in science - furthermore, it is important to disapprove common beliefs. But has the ATTRACT trial really the power to change our practice? Are the results correct in terms of evidence based on the methods used? PMID: 33411566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Das M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of repeat Y90 radioembolization to the same hepatic arterial territory.
CONCLUSION: Repeat TARE with glass microspheres was an effective and safe treatment strategy for disease management in patients with residual or recurrent disease to the similar hepatic arterial territories without any major treatment related toxicity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Although safety and efficacy of repeat radioembolism has been studied, no study has focused on repeat treatment to similar hepatic arterial territories. The current study shows that repeat treatment to the same hepatic arterial territory is as safe as single treatment to the same territory. PMID: 33411569 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Badar W, Van Ha T, Zangan S, Navuluri R, Pillai A, Baker T, Dalag L, Han R, Ahmed O Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Digital breast tomosynthesis: sensitivity for cancer in younger symptomatic women.
CONCLUSIONS: Where available, DBT merits first-line use in the under 60 age group in symptomatic breast clinics, particularly in women known to have very dense breasts. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study is one of very few to address the accuracy of DBT in symptomatic rather than screening patients. It quantifies the diagnostic gains of DBT in direct comparison with standard digital mammography, supporting informed decisions on appropriate use of DBT in this population. PMID: 33411577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Whelehan P, Ali K, Vinnicombe S, Ball G, Cox J, Farry P, Jenkin M, Lowry K, McIntosh SA, Nutt R, Oeppen R, Reilly M, Stahnke M, Steel J, Sim YT, Warwick V, Wilkinson L, Zafeiris D, Evans AJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Apparent diffusion coefficient values of cryptorchid testes and malignant transformation of cryptorchidism (MTC) (seminoma) in postpubertal patients.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging signal contrast can be quantified by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, which reflect the diffusion properties of the examined tissue and are helpful for identifying pathology. To determine ADC values of cryptorchid testes in post-pubertal patients and assess performance for characterizing cryptorchid testes. METHODS: The medical records from 35 patients with unilateral scrotal vacuity were retrospectively reviewed. Data were analyzed in three groups: Group A, normal testes (i.e. the contralateral testes of the patients with cryptorchidism or MTC); Group...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu R, Li J, Jiang Y, Wu Z, Chen Y, Li R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research