Non-coplanar VMAT plans for lung SABR to reduce dose to the heart: a planning study.
This study aimed to compare the plan quality of non-coplanar partial arc (NPA) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to that of coplanar partial arc (CPA) VMAT for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 20 patients treated for lung cancer with the SABR VMAT technique and whose lung tumors were close to the heart were retrospectively selected for this study. For the CPA VMAT, three coplanar half arcs were used while two coplanar half arcs and one noncoplanar arc rotating 315°-45° with couch rotations of 315° ± 5° were used for the NPA VMAT. For each patie...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Kim ST, An HJ, Kim JI, Yoo JR, Kim HJ, Park JM Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Fully automated and comprehensive MRI-based Left-Ventricular contractility analysis in Post-Chemotherapy breast cancer patients.
This study investigated the occurrence of cardiotoxicity-related left-ventricular (LV) contractile dysfunction in breast cancer patients following treatment with antineoplastic chemotherapy agents (CTA). METHODS: A validated and automated MRI-based LV contractility analysis tool consisting of quantization-based boundary detection, unwrapping of image phases and the meshfree Radial Point Interpolation Method was used toward measuring LV chamber quantifications (LVCQ), 3D strains and torsions in patients and healthy subjects. Data were acquired with the Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) sequence on 21...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Karr J, Cohen MV, Cohen CV, McQuiston SP, Figarola MS, Malozzi CM Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Prognostic utility of serial 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent tri-modality treatment.
CONCLUSION: Serial 18F-FDG-PET/CT is a potentially reliable non-invasive method to predict recurrence in patients with LARC. Volumetric parameters were the best predictors. This could be potentially important in risk-stratifying patients who may benefit from conservative management. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This paper will add to the literature in risk-stratifying, using PET/CT, in patients with LARC based on prognosis. This will potentially improve outcomes with an increasing trend towards conservative management. PMID: 31617737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Fernando S, Lin M, Pham TT, Chong S, Ip E, Wong K, Chua W, Ng W, Lin P, Lim S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Double reading in breast cancer screening: considerations for policy-making.
Abstract In this article, we explore the evidence around the relative benefits and harms of breast cancer screening using a single radiologist to examine each female's mammograms for signs of cancer (single reading), or two radiologists (double reading). First, we briefly explore the historical evidence using film-screen mammography, before providing an in-depth description of evidence using digital mammography. We classify studies according to which exact version of double reading they use, because the evidence suggests that effectiveness of double reading is contingent on whether the two radiologists are blinded...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Taylor-Phillips S, Stinton C Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Standardized acquisition and post-processing of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion in patients with brain tumors, cerebrovascular disease and dementia: comparability of post-processing software.
This study evaluates the results of perfusion analysis with two established software solutions in a large series of patients with different diseases when a highly standardized processing workflow is ensured. METHODS: Multicenter data of 260 patients (80 with brain tumors, 124 with cerebrovascular disease and 56 with dementia examined with the same MR protocol) were analyzed. Raw data sets were processed with two software suites: Olea sphere and NordicICE. Group differences were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Perfusion metrics were significantly different for all examined diseases in the ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Schmidt M, Knott M, Hoelter P, Engelhorn T, Elna Marie L, Than N, Marco E, Doerfler A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

MRI native T1 and T2 mapping of myocardial segments in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: tissue remodeling manifested prior to structure changes.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the local myocardial segments in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by MRI T1 and T2 mapping, and to investigate how tissue remodeling correlates with structural and functional remodeling in HCM. METHODS: 47 patients with HCM and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent cardiac MRI at 3.0 T. Native T1 and T2 values, end-diastolic wall thickness (EDTH), and percentage of systolic wall thickening (PSWT) were assessed in the left ventricular segments according to the American Heart Association model. Myocardial segments were...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Huang L, Ran L, Zhao P, Tang D, Han R, Ai T, Xia L, Tao Q Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Non-invasive assessment of early stage diabetic nephropathy by DTI and BOLD MRI.
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of our hospital. MR images were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla MR system (Discovery MR750, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA). Thirty diabetic patients were divided into NAU (normal to mildly increased albuminuria, N = 15) and MAU (moderately increased albuminuria, N = 15) group based on the absence or presence of microalbuminuria. Fifteen Controls with sex- and age-matched were enrolled in the study. Prior to MRI scan, all participants were instructed to collect their fresh morning urine samples for quantitative measurement of urinary microalbumin and urinary creatinine. Then, t...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Feng YZ, Ye YJ, Cheng ZY, Hu JJ, Zhang CB, Qian L, Lu XH, Cai XH Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Use of radiobiology in medical jurisprudence, with particular reference to delays in diagnosis and therapeutic onset.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of radiobiological modelling can provide useful insights, with quantitative assessments of probable prior conditions and future outcomes, and thus be of assistance to a Court in deciding the most correct judgement. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study collates prior knowledge about aspects of radiobiology that can be useful in the accumulation of sufficient proof within medico-legal claims involving diagnostic and treatment days. PMID: 31603350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Jones B Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

An open invitation to join the pediatric proton/photon consortium registry to standardize data collection in pediatric radiation oncology.
aliga S, Yeap BY, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Yock TI Abstract OBJECTIVE: The Pediatric Proton/Photon Consortium Registry (PPCR) is a comprehensive data registry composed of pediatric patients treated with radiation. It was established to expedite outcomes-based research. The attributes which allow the PPCR to be a successful collaboration are reviewed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Current eligibility criteria are radiotherapy patients
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lawell MP, Indelicato DJ, Paulino AC, Hartsell W, Laack NN, Ermoian RP, Perentesis JP, Vatner R, Perkins S, Mangona VS, Hill-Kayser CE, Wolden SL, Kwok Y, Chang JH, Wilkinson JB, MacEwan I, Chang AL, Eaton BR, Ladra MM, Gallotto SL, Weyman EA, Bajaj BVM, Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Therapeutic efficacy, Prognostic variables and Clinical Outcome of 177Lu-PSMA-617 PRLT in Progressive mCRPC following multiple lines of treatment: prognostic implications of high FDG uptake on dual tracer PET-CT vis- à-vis Gleason Score in such cohort.
CONCLUSION: 177Lu-PSMA-617PRLT was well-tolerated and able to produce disease control with good symptomatic and biochemical responses in the context of heavily pre-treated mCRPC with progressive disease, with low toxicity profile. Evident association of high FDG uptake was observed with aggressive disease biology coupled with increasing Gleason score and poorer 12 months PFS. Negative PSA-DT following therapy demonstrated longer PFS. The results demonstrate important future role of 177Lu-PSMA-617 PRLT in the treatment of mCRPC. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The present work explored in a large teriary cancer care setting, th...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Suman S, Parghane RV, Joshi A, Prabhash K, Bakshi G, Talole S, Banerjee S, Basu S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Risk of Post-Operative, Pre-Radiotherapy Contralateral Neck Recurrence in Patients Treated with Surgery Followed by Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Human Papilloma Virus-Associated Tonsil Cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients who develop very early contralateral neck disease, between completion of ipsilateral neck dissection and the initiation of radiotherapy, have a higher ratio of positive nodes to total nodes resected in the ipsilateral neck. These findings suggest that proper selection of patients for omission of treatment of the contralateral, node-negative neck should be made with this in mind, with future studies needed to document the impact on toxicity and disease outcomes from such an approach. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Pathologic risk factors in the dissected, ipsilateral neck in patients with tonsil cancer ma...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Gershowitz J, Chao HH, Doucette A, Lukens JN, Swisher-McClure S, Weinstein GS, O'Malley BW, Chalian AA, Rassekh CH, Newman JG, Cohen RB, Bauml JM, Aggarwal C, Lin A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Abdominal visceral adipose tissue is associated with unsuspected pulmonary embolism on routine CT scans in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
CONCLUSION: Higher VAT rather than SAT is associated with an increased risk of unsuspected pulmonary embolism on routine CT scans in hospitalized gastrointestinal cancer patients. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Our findings indicate that VAT is a stronger risk factor for unsuspected pulmonary embolism than BMI and SAT in hospitalized patients with gastrointestinal cancer. PMID: 31595778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Xiao X, Wang Y, Gao Y, Xie Q, Zhou X, Lin L, Dekkers IA, Lamb HJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

T2* mapping and subregion analysis of the tibialis posterior tendon using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.
The objective of this work was to establish a quantitative MRI T2* mapping method and subregion baseline values in the tibialis posterior tendon in asymptomatic ankles for future clinical application in detecting tendon degeneration. METHODS: Twenty-six asymptomatic volunteers underwent T2* mapping. The tendon was divided axially into seven subregions. Summary statistics for T2* within each subregion were calculated and compared using Tukey post hoc pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: Results are reported for 24 subjects. The mean tibialis posterior tendon T2* was 7 ± 1 ms. Subregion values ranged from 6 &plusm...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lockard CA, Chang A, Clanton TO, Ho CP Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Validation of two-dimensional vertebral body parameters in estimating patient height in elderly patients.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate an important relationship between measurements of the patient's height and the vertebral body. This can be utilised in future research when the patient's height has not been measured. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: In the absence of the patient's height, we demonstrate that two-dimensional vertebral body parameters may be reliably used to standardise morphometric measurements. PMID: 31596119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Waduud MA, Sucharitkul PPJ, Drozd M, Gupta A, Hammond C, Ashbridge Scott DJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Fluid around the distal tibialis posterior tendon on ankle MRI: Prevalence and clinical relevance.
CONCLUSIONS: Fluid signal intensity around the distal 1-2 cm of the TPT is a relatively common finding on ankle MRI. Therefore, care should be taken when reporting ankle MRI studies not to overstate the relevance of this finding. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: There was no statistically significant relationship between medial midfoot pain and the presence of isolated TPT paratendonitis. PMID: 31596120 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lee S, Oliveira I, Li Y, Welck M, Saifuddin A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Interventional Radiology training: A comparison of 5 English-speaking countries.
CONCLUSIONS: With the demand for IR services set to increase over the next few years, it is crucial that more IR specialists are trained to meet this demand. Awareness of training structures in other countries can highlight opportunity and pitfalls, and help ensure the number of highly trained interventional radiologists in the UK continues to grow. PMID: 31596121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Mandal I, Minocha A, Yeung J, Bandula S, Rabouhans J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for detecting extracapsular extension in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: First, our meta-analysis shows moderate sensitivity and high specificity for mpMRI to differentiate ECE from organ-confined prostate cancer before surgery. Second, our meta-analysis shows that mpMRI had no significant differences in performance compared with the former meta-analysis with use of T2-weighted imaging alone or with additional functional MRI. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: It is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of multiparametric MRI in combination of T2-weighted imaging, DWI and DCE-MRI for extracapsular extension detection. PMID: 31596123 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sou...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhang F, Liu CL, Chen Q, Shao SC, Chen SQ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

MRI evaluation of extramural vascular invasion by inexperience radiologist.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: We proposed to determine whether the performance of inexperienced radiologists in determining EMVI in rectal cancer on MRI can be promoted by means of targeted training. METHODS: 230 rectal cancer patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy were included. Pre-therapy and post-therapy MR images and pathology EMVI evaluation were available for cases. 230 cases were randomly divided into 150 training cases and 80 testing cases, including 40 testing case A and 40 testing case B. Four radiologists were included for MRI EMVI evaluation, who were divided into targeted training group an...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang S, Li XT, Zhang XY, Sun RJ, Qu YH, Zhu HC, Guan Z, Sun YS Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

PET imaging of a 68Ga labeled modified HER2 affibody in breast cancers: from xenografts to patients.
CONCLUSION: In summary, this study indicates the significant efficiency of the 68Ga labeled HER2 affibody. Preclinical and clinical studies support the possibility of monitoring HER2 levels in breast cancers using 68Ga-NOTA-MAL-Cys-MZHER2:342. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The research investigated the feasibility of a 68Ga labeled HER2 affibody modified with a hydrophilic linker for breast cancer PET imaging. Favorable outcomes showed that the probe might be valuable for determining HER2 status of the disease. PMID: 31593482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Xu Y, Wang L, Pan D, Yu C, Mi B, Huang Q, Sheng J, Yan J, Wang X, Yang R, Yang M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Imaging anatomy of the retrotympanum: variants and their surgical implications.
Abstract The retrotympanic anatomy is complex and variable but has received little attention in the radiological literature. With advances in CT technology and the application of cone beam CT to temporal bone imaging, there is now a detailed depiction of the retrotympanic bony structures.With the increasing use of endoscopes in middle ear surgery, it is important for the radiologist to appreciate the nomenclature of the retrotympanic compartments in order to aid communication with the surgeon. For instance, in the context of cholesteatoma, clear imaging descriptions of retrotympanic variability and pathological in...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Burd C, Pai I, Connor S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Dual-energy CT characterization of winter sports injuries.
Abstract CT is a readily available imaging modality for cross-sectional characterization of acute musculoskeletal injuries in trauma. Dual-energy CT provides several additional benefits over conventional CT, namely assessment for bone marrow edema, metal artifact reduction, and enhanced assessment of ligamentous injuries. Winter sports such as skiing, snowboarding, and skating can result in high speed and high energy injury mechanisms; dual-energyCT is well suited for the characterization of those injuries. PMID: 31573325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Hickle J, Walstra F, Duggan P, Ouellette H, Munk P, Mallinson P Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Pregnancy success and outcomes after uterine fibroid embolization: updated review of published literature.
Abstract Females with symptomatic leiomyomas (fibroids) wishing to maintain fertility are faced with difficult treatment choices. These include uterine fibroid embolization (UFE), myomectomy, hormonal therapy, MRI high intensity focused ultrasound, and myolysis. This review focuses on UFE, one of the most commonly accepted minimally invasive procedural choices among patients with symptomatic fibroids wishing to retain the option of becoming pregnant in the future, and makes comparisons to myomectomy which has historically been the surgical choice for fertility-preserving fibroid treatment. Pubmed and Google Schola...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Ludwig P, Huff TJ, Shanahan MM, Stavas JM Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Multiparametric MRI in differentiation between muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer with vesical imaging reporting and data system (VI-RADS) application.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate role of Multiparametric MRI in differentiation between invasive and non-invasive bladder cancer and accuracy of vesical imaging reporting and data system (VI-RADS) score. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty patients diagnosed as cancer bladder were enrolled in this study, mp-MRI including conventional (T1WI and high resolution T2WI) and functional sequences (Diffusion WI and DCE-MRI) were done, all data were regrouped to evaluate the accuracy of each separate sequence and mp-MRI in distinguishing non-muscle invasive from muscle-invasive tumors, with VI-RADS score application and compa...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Makboul M, Farghaly S, Abdelkawi IF Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Advances in nasopharyngeal carcinoma-"West meets East".
Advances in nasopharyngeal carcinoma-"West meets East". Br J Radiol. 2019 Oct;92(1102):20199004 Authors: Chua ML, Sun Y, Supiot S PMID: 31526301 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Chua ML, Sun Y, Supiot S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Recent advances in MRI of the head and neck, skull base and cranial nerves: New and evolving sequences, analyses and clinical applications.
Abstract MRI is an invaluable diagnostic tool in the investigation and management of patients with pathology of the head and neck. However, numerous technical challenges exist, owing to a combination of fine anatomical detail, complex geometry (that is subject to frequent motion) and susceptibility effects from both endogenous structures and exogenous implants. Over recent years, there have been rapid developments in several aspects of head and neck imaging including higher-resolution, isotropic 3D sequences, diffusion-weighted and diffusion-tensor imaging as well as permeability and perfusion imaging. These have ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Touska P, Connor SEJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Paediatric proton therapy.
Abstract Proton beam therapy is a highly conformal form of radiation therapy, which currently represents an important therapeutic component in multidisciplinary management in paediatric oncology. The precise adjustability of protons results in a reduction of radiation-related long-term side-effects and secondary malignancy induction, which is of particular importance for the quality of life. Proton irradiation has been shown to offer significant advantages over conventional photon-based radiotherapy, although the biological effectiveness of both irradiation modalities is comparable. This review evaluates current d...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Thomas H, Timmermann B Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Can thoracic nodes oligometastases be safely treated with image guided hypofractionated radiation therapy?
CONCLUSION: IG-HRT for thoracic nodes was safe and feasible. Higher RT doses were correlated to better LC and should be taken in consideration at least in patients with isolated nodal metastases and colorectal histology. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Radiotherapy is safe and effective treatment for thoracic nodes metastases, higher radiotherapy doses are correlated to better LC. Oligometastatic patients can receive IG-HRT also for thoracic nodes metastases. PMID: 31529985 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Franceschini D, Bianciardi F, Mazzola R, De Rose F, Gentile P, Alongi F, Scorsetti M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Clinical application of Contrast-enhanced ultrasound after percutaneous renal tumor ablation.
CONCLUSION: After percutaneous RFA of renal tumors, the effectiveness of CEUS in the follow-up assessment of residual and recurrent tumors is basically the same as that of contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the follow-up assessment of residual and recurrent tumors after RFA is basically the same as that of contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. Combining multiple follow-up methods may improve the detection rate of residual or recurrent tumors. PMID: 31509441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Guo F, Hu B, Chen L, Li J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

CT-morphologic and CT-textural patterns of response in inoperable soft tissue sarcomas treated with pazopanib - a preliminary retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Most frequent patterns of response to pazopanib were tumor liquefaction and necrosis. Single CT-textural features show strong association with the response to pazopanib - although limited in relation to specific response patterns. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Tumor liquefication and necrosis are important patterns of response to pazopanib. CT-texture analysis has limited associations with specific response patterns. PMID: 31509443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Esser M, Kloth C, Thaiss WM, Reinert CP, Kraus MS, Gast GC, Horger M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Emerging techniques in atherosclerosis imaging.
Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic immunomodulated disease that affects multiple vascular beds and results in a significant worldwide disease burden. Conventional imaging modalities focus on the morphological features of atherosclerotic disease such as the degree of stenosis caused by a lesion. Modern CT, MR and positron emission tomography scanners have seen significant improvements in the rapidity of image acquisition and spatial resolution. This has increased the scope for the clinical application of these modalities. Multimodality imaging can improve cardiovascular risk prediction by informing on the consti...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Syed MB, Fletcher AJ, Forsythe RO, Kaczynski J, Newby DE, Dweck MR, van Beek EJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Restricting motion effects in CT coronary angiography.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of coronary CT image blur using multi segment reconstruction algorithm. METHODS: Cardiac motion was simulated in a Catphan. CT coronary angiography was performed using 320 × 0.5 mm detector array and 275 ms gantry rotation. 1, 2 and 3 segment reconstruction algorithm, three heart rates (60, 80 and 100bpm), two peak displacements (4, 8 mm) and three cardiac phases (55, 35, 75%) were used. Wilcoxon test compared image blur from the different reconstruction algorithms. RESULTS: Image blur for 1, 2 and 3 segments in: 60 bpm, 75% R-R interval an...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Kashani H, Wright G, Ursani A, Liu G, Hashemi M, Paul N Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Advances in neurodegenerative and psychiatric imaging: introductory editorial.
PMID: 31424288 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 20, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Kotsenas AL, Vernooij MW, Port JD Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Quantitative assessment of early Type 2 diabetic cataracts using T1,T2-mapping techniques.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of T1 and T2-mapping techniques in evaluating early Type 2 diabetic cataracts. METHODS: Totally, 28 patients with Type 2 diabetes was prospectively collected, and 28 non-diabetic patients were collected as control group. All patients included had ophthalmological exploration and all patients underwent orbital MRI examination with T1 and T2-mapping on a Siemens-Skyra 3.0T scanner. T1 and T2 values of the lens nucleus were measured by region of interest (ROI) method based on Siemens-Syngo workstation. Two sample t-test was used to anal...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Ma J, Xu X, Wang S, Wang R, Yu N Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Association between MRI background parenchymal enhancement and lymphovascular invasion and estrogen receptor status in invasive breast cancer.
This study aimed to investigate the association between BPE and clinical characteristics (including age, menopausal status, and tumor histological characteristics) in patients with invasive breast cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 163 patients with invasive breast cancer (164 lesions, 1 patient had bilateral cancer) confirmed by surgery and pathological examination, treated between January 2014 and December 2016 at our university (Kunming Medical University). The patients were divided into two groups: extremely minimal and mild enhancement (low BPE group, n = 78) vs moderate and marked enhancement (hi...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Li J, Mo Y, He B, Gao Q, Luo C, Peng C, Zhao W, Ma Y, Yang Y Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The quantitative neuroradiology initiative framework: application to dementia.
Abstract There are numerous challenges to identifying, developing and implementing quantitative techniques for use in clinical radiology, suggesting the need for a common translational pathway. We developed the quantitative neuroradiology initiative (QNI), as a model framework for the technical and clinical validation necessary to embed automated segmentation and other image quantification software into the clinical neuroradiology workflow. We hypothesize that quantification will support reporters with clinically relevant measures contextualized with normative data, increase the precision of longitudinal compariso...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Goodkin O, Pemberton H, Vos SB, Prados F, Sudre CH, Moggridge J, Cardoso MJ, Ourselin S, Bisdas S, White M, Yousry T, Thornton J, Barkhof F Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Comparison of regional lung perfusion response on longitudinal MAA SPECT/CT in lung cancer patients treated with and without functional tissue-avoidance radiation therapy.
CONCLUSION: Functional lung avoidance planning may promote increased post-treatment perfusion in low dose regions for select patients, though inter-patient variability remains high in unbalanced cohorts. These preliminary findings form testable hypotheses that warrant subsequent validation in larger cohorts within randomised or case-matched control investigations. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This novel preliminary study reports differences in dose-response relationships between patients receiving functional lung avoidance radiation therapy (FLARE-RT) and those receiving conventionally planned radiation therapy (LUNG-RT). F...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Thomas HMT, Lee HJ, Zeng J, Sasidharan BK, Kinahan PE, Miyaoka RS, Vesselle HJ, Rengan R, Bowen SR Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Reward, control & decision-making in cannabis use disorder: insights from functional MRI.
Reward, control & decision-making in cannabis use disorder: insights from functional MRI. Br J Radiol. 2019 Jul 31;:20190165 Authors: Fatima H, Howlett AC, Whitlow CT Abstract The recreational consumption of cannabis has increased significantly across the world with an estimated 180 million people currently using. In the United States, 4.1 million are currently diagnosed with cannabis use disorder. Cannabis dependence and abuse was combined into a single entity as a behavioral disorder with a problematic pattern of cannabis use and termed cannabis use disorder by the Diagnostic and S...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Fatima H, Howlett AC, Whitlow CT Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Beyond the bones and joints: a review of ligamentous injuries of the foot and ankle on 99mTc-MDP-SPECT/CT.
This article provides a case-based pictorial review of the 99mTc-MDP-SPECT/CT appearances of the various ligamentous injuries of the foot and ankle with case examples and MRI correlation where available, most of which have yet to be described. The typical patterns of bone tracer uptake and associated CT abnormalities that may be observed are discussed. PMID: 31365277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Mandegaran R, Dhillon S, Jen H Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Breast microcalcifications: The UK RCR 5-point breast imaging system or BI-RADS; which is the better predictor of malignancy?
Abstract OBJECTIVES: In the UK RCR 5-point breast imaging system (UKS), radiologists grade mammograms from 1 to 5 according to suspicion for malignancy, however unlike BI-RADS, no lexicon of descriptors is published. The aim of this study was to determine whether strict categorisation of microcalcifications (MCC) according to BI-RADS was a better predictor of malignancy than the UKS and whether these descriptors could be used within the UKS. METHODS: A retrospective review of 241 cases, with MCC on mammography, who underwent biopsy was performed. Morphology, distribution, extent, UKS score, BI-RADS category a...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Metaxa L, Healy N, O'Keeffe SA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Validation of objective assessment of renal lesions contrast enhancement using Region of Interest (ROI) measurements on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
CONCLUSION: The percentage change in ROI values (SII) can be a helpful tool in the objective assessment of true enhancement of renal masses and can supplement subtraction images. The minimum threshold for enhancement in our study was 23%. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Enhancement of a renal lesion can be determined using the objective tool of ROI measurements in the pre- and post-contrast MR images with a percentage change of 20% or above indicating enhancement. This is an additional objective tool, which in conjunction with the subtraction images may improve detection and appropriate diagnosis of renal lesions. It could als...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 31, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Al Salmi IS, Halperin J, Al-Douri F, Leung V, Patlas M, Alabousi A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Association analysis between quantitative MRI features and hypoxia-related genetic profiles in prostate cancer: a pilot study.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) imaging features and hypoxia-related genetic profiles in prostate cancer. METHODS: In vivo mpMRI was acquired from six patients prior to radical prostatectomy. Sequences included T 2 weighted (T2W) imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and blood oxygen-level dependent imaging. Imaging data were co-registered with histology using three-dimensional deformable registration methods. Texture features were extracted from T 2W images and parametric maps from functional MRI. Full transcriptome genetic p...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Sun Y, Williams S, Byrne D, Keam S, Reynolds HM, Mitchell C, Wraith D, Murphy D, Haworth A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Frequency and impact of incidental findings on computed tomography during work-up for transcatheter aortic valve implantation: single centre experience and review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: Clinically significant IFs are detected in more than 1 in 10 of patients undergoing CT as part of a TAVI work-up, although just over half of these patients still receive aortic valve intervention. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study is the largest UK cohort, which, when combined with a review of existing literature, provides a clear picture of the frequency and clinical impact of IFs found at CT for TAVI assessment. PMID: 31359789 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Hinton J, Gough S, Ahmed H, Gabara L, Rawlins J, Calver A, Shah BN, Rakhit D, Shambrook J, Harden S, Peebles C, Abbas A, Curzen N Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular ultrashort echo time to map fibrosis - Promises and challenges.
Abstract Increased collagen, or fibrosis, is an important marker of disease and may improve identification of patients at risk. In addition, fibrosis imaging may play an increasing role in guiding therapy and monitoring its effectiveness. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most frequently used modality to detect, visualize and quantify fibrosis non-invasively. However, standard MRI techniques used to phenotype cardiac fibrosis such as delayed enhancement and extracellular volume determination by T1 mapping, require the administration of gadolinium-based contrast and are particularly difficult to use in patien...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Schuijf J, Ambale-Venkatesh B, Kassai Y, Kato Y, Kasuboski L, Ota H, Caruthers SD, Lima JA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Treatment planning for Proton therapy: What is needed in the next 10 years?
PW Abstract Treatment planning is the process where the prescription of the radiation oncologist is translated into a deliverable treatment. With the complexity of contemporary radiotherapy, treatment planning cannot be performed without a computerised Treatment Planning System. Proton Therapy enables highly conformal treatment plans with a minimum of dose to tissues outside the target volume, but to obtain the most optimal plan for the treatment, there are a multitude of parameters that need to be addressed. In this review areas of ongoing improvements and research in the field of PT treatment planning are ident...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Nystrom H, Jensen MF, Nyström PW Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Lumbar spine radiographs - is it time for widespread adoption of posteroanterior projection?
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Phantom studies and a prior patient study have shown up to 53% effective dose reduction when lumbar spine radiographs are acquired PA instead of AP. Since November 2017, Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust has acquired all standing lumbar spine radiographs PA. The aim of this study was to locally evaluate dose and image quality in both projections and survey current UK practice. METHODS: 80 outpatients having a standing lumbar spine radiograph (40 AP; 40 PA) had their Dose Area Product recorded at a constant KV and Focus Film Distance. Effective dose was calculated using PCXM...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 29, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Green C, Karnati G, Thomson K, Subramanian A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Cross-sectional pictorial review of IgG4-related disease.
Abstract Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the infiltration of one or more organs with IgG4-positive plasma cells resulting in inflammatory lesions and fibrosis. Although the pancreas is the most commonly affected organ, involvement of extra pancreatic organs is an increasingly recognized manifestation of the disease. Patients may be asymptomatic and serum IgG4 concentrations may be elevated or normal. Treatment consists of glucocorticosteroid treatment, with excellent response. A definitive diagnosis requires histopathology with imaging playing a key role in av...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Kurowecki D, Patlas MN, Haider E, Alabousi A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Relationship between heart rate and optimal reconstruction phase in coronary CT angiography performed on a 256-slice multi-detector CT.
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between heart rate (HR) and optimal reconstruction Phase in prospectively ECG-triggered coronary CT angiography (CCTA) performed on a newly introduced 256-slice multi detector CT (MDCT). METHODS: All the cases were selected retrospectively from the patients scheduled for CCTA in our department between January and April 2017. The scanner selected the optimal exposure phase based on 10 s ECG recordings. To ensure the success of CCTA, the operator also checked patient's age, breathing control, emotional status and past medical history to decide whether the automaticall...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Yang CC, Law WY, Lu KM, Wu TH Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence for precision education in radiology.
Abstract In the era of personalized medicine, the emphasis of health care is shifting from populations to individuals. Artificial intelligence (AI) is capable of learning without explicit instruction and has emerging applications in radiology. Whereas much attention has focused on teaching radiology trainees about AI, here our goal is to instead focus on how AI might be developed to better teach radiology trainees. While the idea of using AI to improve education is not new, the application of AI to medical and radiological education remains very limited. Based on the current educational foundation, we highlight an...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Duong MT, Rauschecker AM, Rudie JD, Chen PH, Cook TS, Bryan RN, Mohan S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Adjuvant volumetric modulated arc therapy compared to 3d conformal radiation therapy for newly diagnosed soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities: outcome and toxicity evaluation.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of adjuvant volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in terms of toxicity and local control (LC) in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremities. METHODS: From 2004 to 2016, 109 patients were treated, initially using 3DCRT and subsequently with VMAT. Clinical outcome was evaluated by contrast-enhanced MRI, thoracic and abdominal CT 3 months after treatments and then every 6 months. Toxicity was evaluated with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scale version 4.3. RE...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Di Brina L, Fogliata A, Navarria P, D'Agostino GR, Franzese C, Franceschini D, De Rose F, Comito T, Bertuzzi A, Marrari A, Colombo P, Quagliuolo V, Santoro A, Scorsetti M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Update in pediatric nasopharynx undifferentiated carcinoma.
Abstract Many of the principles established in adults with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) apply to children, adolescents and young adults (AYA). However, NPC in young patients should be distinguished from the adult form by several points. This review focuses mainly on differences between adult and pediatric NPC. The role of biology and genetics in pediatric NPC is discussed. Systemic treatment modalities including type of chemotherapy induction, timing of treatment, role of immunotherapy as adjuvant treatment, or in relapsing/ metastatic diseases are reported. Radiation modalities (doses, techniqu...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - July 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Claude L, Jouglar E, Duverge L, Orbach D Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research