Will machine learning end the viability of radiology as a thriving medical specialty?
Abstract There have been tremendous advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning within the past decade, especially in the application of deep learning to various challenges. These include advanced competitive games (such as Chess and Go), self-driving cars, speech recognition, and intelligent personal assistants. Rapid advances in computer vision for recognition of objects in pictures have led some individuals, including computer science experts and health care system experts in machine learning, to make predictions that machine learning algorithms will soon lead to the replacement of the radiologist....
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Chan S, Siegel EL Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Current and future applications of 3D printing in congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery.
Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology in congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery has experienced a rapid development over the last decade. In presence of complex cardiac and extra-cardiac anatomies, the creation of a physical, patient-specific model is attractive to most clinicians. However, at the present time, there is still a lack of strong scientific evidence of the benefit of 3D models in clinical practice and only qualitative evaluation of the models has been used to investigate their clinical use. 3D models can be printed in rigid or flexible materials, and the original size can be augmented...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Milano EG, Capelli C, Wray J, Biffi B, Layton S, Lee M, Caputo M, Taylor AM, Schievano S, Biglino G Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Dose escalation in extracranial stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (DESTROY-1): a multi-arm phase I trial.
CONCLUSIONS: : SBRT delivered in 5 consecutive fractions up to the doses evaluated is well tolerated. The MTD was reached in four (a, b, c and f) of the seven study arms. Recruitment for (d), (e) and (g) arms is still ongoing. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: : In a prospective dose-escalation trial, the MTD of 50 Gy/10 Gy fraction and 35 Gy/7 Gy fraction were defined for primary and metastatic lesions and as boost after prior RT dose ≤50 Gy, respectively. PMID: 30325662 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Deodato F, Macchia G, Cilla S, Ianiro A, Sallustio G, Cammelli S, Buwenge M, Mattiucci GC, Valentini V, Morganti AG Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Diagnostic reference levels and achievable doses for common computed tomography examinations: Results from the japanese nationwide dose survey.
Abstract OBJECTIVES:: To propose a new set of Japanese diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and achievable doses (ADs) for 2017 and to verify the usefulness of Japanese DRLs (DRLs 2015) for computed tomography (CT), by investigating changes in the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) from 2014 to 2017. METHODS:: Detailed information on the CT scan parameters used throughout Japan were obtained by questionnaire survey. The CTDIvol and dose-length product for the 11 commonest adult and 6 commonest paediatric CT examinations were surveyed and compared with 2014 data and DRLs 2015. RESULTS:: Evaluations of adult hea...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Matsunaga Y, Chida K, Kondo Y, Kobayashi K, Kobayashi M, Minami K, Suzuki S, Asada Y Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The importance of safe working legislation for neuroradiologists.
PMID: 30307318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ramachandran S, Foley RW, Venkatesh H Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Independent usefulness of flow phase 99mTc-red blood cell scintigraphy in predicting the results of angiography in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.
CONCLUSIONS:: Negative flow phase scintigraphy can identify patients who will not benefit from CA despite positive dynamic phase scintigraphy. The likelihood of extravasation on CA is higher when performed soon after positive flow phase scintigraphy. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:: Negative flow phase scintigraphy identifies patients who will not benefit from invasive catheter angiography despite positive results on subsequent dynamic phase scintigraphy. Increasing the delay between positive red blood cell scintigraphy and catheter angiography progressively reduces the likelihood of identifying extravasation, which is require...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Gurajala RK, Fayazzadeh E, Nasr E, Shrikanthan S, Srinivas S, Karuppasamy K Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Benign lesion evaluation: Factors causing the "Stiff Rim" Sign in Breast Tissues using Shear-wave Elastography.
CONCLUSIONS:: The "stiff rim" sign can be helpful for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Older patients with a "stiff rim" sign whose benign masses are deep, poorly defined, heterogeneous and have a positive CDFI should be examined more closely to avoid unnecessary false-positives. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:: 1.The "stiff rim" sign can be helpful for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. 2.Positive CDFI, poorly defined margin, heterogeneous internal components , deep depth and older age were significantly associated with the "stiff rim" sign in ben...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Xiang LH, Ma F, Yao M, Xu G, Pu H, Liu H, Fang Y, Wu R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Quantifying the setup uncertainty of a stereotactic murine Micro-Image guided radiation therapy system.
CONCLUSIONS:: Cranial irradiation that can permit positional uncertainties on the order of a millimeter can rely solely on stereotactic coordinates derived from a single daily CBCT. Irradiations of subregions requiring sub-millimeter accuracy require daily image guidance for each mouse. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:: This is the first investigation of stereotactic reproducibility using the X-RAD SmART and it suggests a method for increased efficiency in high throughput experiments. PMID: 30299986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Walb MC, Carlson BL, Sarkaria JN, Tryggestad EJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Will MRI of gastrointestinal function parallel the clinical success of cinecardiac MRI?
Abstract Cine cardiac MRI is generally accepted as the 'gold-standard' for functional myocardial assessment. It only took a few years after the development of commercial MRI systems for functional cardiac imaging to be developed, with ECG gated cine imaging first reported in 1988. The function of the GI tract is more complex to study compared to the heart. However, the idea of having a non-invasive tool to study the GI function that also allows the concurrent assessment of different aspects of this function has become more and more attractive in the gastroenterological field. This review summaries key literature o...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 9, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hoad C, Clarke C, Marciani L, Graves MJ, Corsetti M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Effect of anatomical change on dose distribution during radiotherapy for maxillary sinus carcinoma: passive scattering proton therapy versus volumetric-modulated arc therapy.
Abstract OBJECTIVE:: Maxillary sinus carcinomas are anatomically situated next to many organs at risk (OARs), and anatomical change is often observed during radiotherapy. We analyzed the effect of anatomical change on dose distribution of passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for 20 patients. METHODS:: The first plans were generated based on the first computed tomography (CT) images. The second CT images were acquired after 3 weeks, and the second plans were generated by copying the first plans to the second CT images. The effect of anatomical change was estimate...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Narita Y, Kato T, Ono T, Oyama S, Komori S, Arai K, Abe Y, Harada T, Nakamura T, Wada H, Kikuchi Y, Murakami M, Hosokawa Y Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Feasibility of deriving a novel imaging biomarker based on patient-specific lung elasticity for characterizing the degree of COPD in lung SBRT patients.
CONCLUSIONS:: Overall, the results suggest that, as a biomarker, lung tissue elasticity will lead to new end points for clinical trials and new targeted treatment for COPD subgroups. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:: The derivation of elasticity information directly from 4DCT imaging data is a novel method for performing lung elastography. The work demonstrates the need for a mechanics-based biomarker for representing lung pathophysiology. PMID: 30281329 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hasse K, Neylon J, Min Y, O'Connell D, Lee P, Low DA, Santhanam AP Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The potential impact of ultrathin filter design on dosimetry and relative biological effectiveness in modern image-guided small animal irradiators.
CONCLUSIONS::  These results show that modern image-guided irradiators are quite sensitive to small manufacturing variations in filter thickness, and show a small change in RBE compared to traditional x-ray irradiators. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE::  We quantify the consequences of ultrathin filter design in modern image-guided biological irradiators on relative and absolute dose, and RBE. Our results show these to be small, but not insignificant, suggesting laboratories transitioning between irradiators should carefully design their radiobiological experiments. PMID: 30281330 [PubMed - as supplied by publish...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Poirier Y, Johnstone CD, Kirkby C Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Adverse effects and radiological manifestations of new immunotherapy agents.
Abstract Immunotherapy has had increasing use in Medical Oncology for a diverse range of primary malignancies. There are various types of immunotherapy which are grouped based on mechanism of action. In recent decades, the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) immunotherapies have been at the forefront of Medical Oncology, sparked by very encouraging results. Some patients with metastatic cancer who were previously deemed palliative were seeing durable response rates and significant increased survival with ICIs. The mechanism of action of ICIs vary wildly compared to the conventional, cytotoxic chemotherapy, upon whi...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Tang Y, Szabados B, Leung C, Sahdev A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Aortic valvular imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance: seeking for comprehensiveness.
Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has an emerging role in aortic valve disease evaluation (AVD), becoming an all-in-one technique. CMR evaluation of the anatomy and flow through the aortic valve has a higher reproducibility than echocardiography. Its unique ability of in-vivo myocardial tissue characterization, significantly improves the risk stratification and management of patients. In addition, CMR is equivalent to cardiac computed tomography angiography for trans-aortic valvular implantation and surgical aortic valve replacement planning; on the other hand, its role in the evaluation of ventricu...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: De Rubeis G, Galea N, Ceravolo I, Dacquino GM, Carbone I, Catalano C, Francone M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Long-term follow-up of unresectable medium-large hepatocellular carcinoma nodules treated with radiofrequency ablation using a using multiple-electrode switching system.
Abstract OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) by using a multiple-electrode switching system to treat unresectable medium-large (3.1-6.0 cm) HCC nodules. METHODS:: RFA using a multiple-electrode switching system was performed for HCC nodules with size> 3
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Francica G, Altiero M, Laccetti E, Pezzullo F, Tanga M, Avitabile G, Elameer M, Scaglione M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Imaging tumour hypoxia with oxygen-enhanced MRI and BOLD MRI.
Abstract Hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator for nearly all solid tumours and also is predictive of treatment failure for radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and targeted therapies. Imaging has potential to identify, spatially map and quantify tumour hypoxia prior to therapy, as well as track changes in hypoxia on treatment. At present no hypoxia imaging methods are available for routine clinical use. Research has largely focused on positron emission tomography (PET)-based techniques, but there is gathering evidence that MRI techniques may provide a practical and more readily translational alternati...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: O'Connor J, Robinson S, Waterton J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

18F-FDG-PET/CT features of primary tumours for predicting the risk of recurrence in thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy: potential usefulness of combination of the SUV-related, volumetric, and heterogeneous texture parameters.
CONCLUSION: : For primary MTV> 10.0 cm3 18F-FDG-avid DTCs, the combined use of SUV-related, volumetric, and texture parameters may be more useful to identify high-risk patients than the individual parameters. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: : Combined use of SUV-related, volumetric, and texture parameters may be useful to identify high-risk DTC patients. PMID: 30273012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Nakajo M, Jinguji M, Shinaji T, Tani A, Nakabeppu Y, Nakajo M, Nakajo A, Natsugoe S, Yoshiura T Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The role of imaging in screening special feature.
PMID: 30256684 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 28, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Given-Wilson R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Differentiated thyroid cancer theranostics: radioiodine and beyond.
Abstract The term theranostics is the combination of a diagnostic tool that helps to define the right therapeutic tool for specific disease. It signifies the "we know which sites require treatment (diagnostic scan) and confirm that those sites have been treated (post therapy scan)" demonstrating the achievable tumor dose concept. This term was first used by John Funkhouser at the beginning of the 90's at the same time the concept of personalized medicine appeared. In nuclear medicine theranostics is easy to apply and understand because of an easy switch from diagnosis to therapy with the same vector. It ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Choudhury P, Gupta M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

CT characterization of different pathologic types of subcentimeter pulmonary ground-glass nodular lesions.
Abstract OBJECTIVE:: To explore the computed tomography (CT) characteristics of small lung nodules and improve the diagnosis of pulmonary ground-glass nodules less than 10  mm in size. METHODS:: We retrospectively analyzed CT images of 161 pulmonary nodules (less than 10  mm in size) with spiculation, lobulation, vacuoles and pleural indentation and compared these images with pathological results or follow-up CT images. The relationships between the ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and blood vessels were observed. The GGN-vessel relationship were divided into four type, Type I (pass-by), Type II (pas...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Gao F, Sun Y, Zhang G, Zheng X, Li M, Hua Y Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

A novel data management platform to improve image-guided precision preclinical biological research.
CONCLUSION:: A novel preclinical data management system can be designed to improve preclinical workflow, facilitate data exchange between researchers, and support translation to clinical trials. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:: A preclinical data management system such as the one proposed here would greatly benefit preparation, execution and analysis of biological experiments, and will eventually facilitate translation to clinical trials. PMID: 30260242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Persoon L, Hoof SV, Kruijssen FV, Granton P, Sanchez Rivero A, Beunk H, Dubois L, Doosje JW, Verhaegen F Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Improving image quality with model-based iterative reconstruction at quarter of nominal dose in upper abdominal CT.
Abstract OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the ability of a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) for improving image quality in upper abdominal CT with quarter of the normal dose, in comparison with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) at normal dose. METHODS:: 40 upper abdominal patients were randomly divided into two groups: normal-dose group (n = 20) with tube current modulation for noise index (NI) of 10 HU and 40% ASiR reconstruction; low-dose group (n = 20) with NI = 20  HU in the delay phase and MBIR and 40%ASiR. Images in the delay phase were compared. The CT values and standard de...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhang X, Chen J, Yu N, Ren Z, Tian Q, Tian X, He T, Guo C Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Unified platform for multimodal voxel-based analysis to evaluate tumour perfusion and diffusion characteristics before and after radiation treatment evaluated in metastatic brain cancer.
Abstract OBJECTIVE:: Early changes in tumour behaviour following stereotactic radiosurgery ) are potential biomarkers of response. To-date quantitative model-based measures of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI parameters have shown widely variable findings, which may be attributable to variability in image acquisition, post-processing and analysis. Big data analytic approaches are needed for the automation of computationally intensive modelling calculations for every voxel, independent of observer interpretation. METHODS:: This unified platform is a voxel-based, multimodality arc...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Coolens C, Driscoll B, Foltz W, Svistoun I, Sinno N, Chung C Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Detection of noncalcified breast cancer in patients with extremely dense breasts using digital breast tomosynthesis compared with Full-Field digital mammography.
Abstract OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the tumour visibility and diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in patients with noncalcified T1 breast cancer. METHODS:: Medical records of 106 females with noncalcified T1 invasive breast cancer who underwent DBT and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) between January 2012 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. To assess tumour visibility (score 1 - 3), all DBT and FFDM images were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to clinicopathologic information. A reference standard was established by an unblinded consensus review of all images. Clini...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Yi A, Chang JM, Shin SU, Chu AJ, Cho N, Noh DY, Moon WK Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Autoimmune epilepsy: Findings on MRI and FDG-PET.
We describe various presentations of autoimmune encephalopathy which have specifically presented with seizure and describe reported imaging findings. This is organized as a review of the more common autoantibodies which can specifically precipitate seizure according to the intracellular or extracellular location of the targeted antigen. For each antibody, we illustrate their pathophysiology, characteristic clinical presentations with typical effective treatments and prognoses and imaging findings on MRI and PET/CT exams. Parenchymal involvement is variable with the limbic structures typically affected; however, non-limbic ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Guerin J, Watson RE, Carr CM, Liebo GB, Kotsenas AL Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Measurement of splenic stiffness by 2D-shear wave elastography in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction.
CONCLUSION: The SS measured by 2D-SWE is not an accurate predictor of variceal grade and thus bleeding in patients of EHPVO. Advances in knowledge: EHPVO is a vascular pathology with most patients showing splenomegaly and preserved liver function. Although, elastography of spleen has been shown to be useful in patients with cirrhosis for predicting portal hypertension, it does not seem to be helpful in patients with EHPVO. PMID: 30226081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Madhusudhan KS, Kilambi R, Shalimar, Sahni P, Sharma R, Srivastava DN, Gupta AK Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

AGuIX ® from bench to bedside-Transfer of an ultrasmall theranostic gadolinium-based nanoparticle to clinical medicine.
AGuIX® from bench to bedside-Transfer of an ultrasmall theranostic gadolinium-based nanoparticle to clinical medicine. Br J Radiol. 2018 Sep 18;:20180365 Authors: Lux F, Tran VL, Thomas E, Dufort S, Rossetti F, Martini M, Truillet C, Doussineau T, Bort G, Denat F, Boschetti F, Angelovski G, Detappe A, Crémillieux Y, Mignet N, Doan BT, Larrat B, Meriaux S, Barbier E, Roux S, Fries P, Müller A, Abadjian MC, Anderson C, Canet-Soulas E, Bouziotis P, Barberi-Heyob M, Frochot C, Verry C, Balosso J, Evans M, Sidi-Boumedine J, Janier M, Butterworth K, McMahon S, Prise K, Aloy MT, Ardail D, Rodriguez-La...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Lux F, Tran VL, Thomas E, Dufort S, Rossetti F, Martini M, Truillet C, Doussineau T, Bort G, Denat F, Boschetti F, Angelovski G, Detappe A, Crémillieux Y, Mignet N, Doan BT, Larrat B, Meriaux S, Barbier E, Roux S, Fries P, Müller A, Abadjian MC, Anderso Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia: CT findings, clinical outcomes and assessment of the diameter of the superior mesenteric artery: Don't forget the reperfusion process!
PMID: 30215531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Mazzei MA, Gentili F, Mazzei FG, Grassi R, Volterrani L Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Pre-clinical imaging for establishment and comparison of orthotopic non-small cell lung carcinoma: in search for models reflecting clinical scenarios.
Conclusion Our developed orthotopic NSCLC tumours have similarity with biological growth behaviour comparable to that seen in the clinic and could therefore be used as attractive models to study tumour biology and evaluate new therapeutic strategies. The use of human cancer cell lines facilitates testing of different genomic tumour profiles that may affect treatment outcomes. Advances in knowledge The combination of different imaging modalities to identify tumour growth with subsequent use in treatment planning and orthotopic transplantation techniques to develop initially single lesions to ultimate metastases pave the way...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Aktar R, Dietrich A, Tillner F, Kotb S, Löck S, Willers H, Baumann M, Krause M, Bütof R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The feasibility of synthetic MRI in breast cancer patients: comparison of T2 relaxation time with multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping method.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare the T2 relaxation times acquired with synthetic MRI to those of multi-echo spin-echo sequences and to evaluate the usefulness of synthetic MRI in the clinical setting. METHODS: From January 2017 to May 2017, we included 51 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, who underwent additional synthetic MRI and multi -echo spin-echo (MESE) T2 mapping sequences. Synthetic MRI technique uses a multiecho and multi-delay acquisition method for the simultaneous quantification of physical properties such as T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density image map. A radiologist with 9 ye...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Jung Y, Gho SM, Back SN, Ha T, Kang DK, Kim TH Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Effect of androgen deprivation and radiation therapy on MRI fiber tractography in prostate cancer: Can we assess treatment response on imaging?
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated utility in using tractography as a biomarker in prostate cancer patients post treatment. Advances in knowledge: Quantitative DTI fiber tractography is a promising imaging biomarker to quantitatively assess treatment response in the setting of post-androgen deprivation and radiation therapy for prostate cancer. PMID: 30209952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hedgire S, Kilcoyne A, Tonyushkin A, Mao Y, Uyeda JW, Gervais DA, Harisinghani MG Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Bi-Plane and single plane angiography: a study to compare contrast usage and radiation doses for adult cardiac patients in diagnostic studies.
This study compares the performance of bi-plane coronary angiography against single plane angiography in terms of the volume of contrast used (ml) and the total Dose Area Product (DAP) (uGym2) to the patient measured directly via flat panel detectors. METHODS: A total of 5176 adult diagnostic cardiac angiograms from a hospital in Brisbane, Australia were retrospectively studied. Patients with aortograms, iliac or femoral artery imaging, and stenting or graft interventions were excluded. T-tests were used to compare means, and confounding variables were compared using multivariate regression. This quantified the effect...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Smith K, Crowhurst J, Walters D, Starkey D Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Value of PET/MRI for assessing tumor resectability in NSCLC - intra-individual comparison with PET/CT.
CONCLUSIONS: In NSCLC the use of PET/MRI, including a dedicated pulmonary MR imaging protocol, provides a comparable diagnostic value for determination of tumor resectability compared to PET/CT. Advances in knowledge: Our findings suggest that whole body PET/MRI can safely be used for the local staging of NSCLC patients. Further studies are warranted to determine whether it is feasible to integrate an imaging sequence in a whole body PET/MRI setting with the potential advantage of detection of liver or brain metastases. PMID: 30209954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Messerli M, Barbosa F, Marcon M, Muehlematter UJ, Stolzmann P, Warschkow R, Delso G, Ter Voert EE, Huellner MW, Frauenfelder T, Veit-Heibach P Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Combined application of isotropic Three-Dimensional fast spin echo (3D-FSE-Cube) With 2-point Dixon fat/water separation (FLEX) and 3D-FSE-Cube in MR Dacryocystography.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the image quality of magnetic resonance dacryocystography (MRD) using 3D-FSE-Cube and 3D-FSE-Cube-Flex sequences to examine the lacrimal drainage system (LDS). METHOD: Twenty-one healthy volunteers underwent 3D-FSE-Cube and 3D-FSE-Cube-Flex MRD after topical administration of compound sodium chloride eye drops. Two radiologists assessed LDS images in a blinded fashion. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of fluid-filling and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of fluid-turbinate were compared between the two sequences. Overall image quality, sharpness, artefacts, visualization of ana...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu P, Wang Q, Peng C, Luo B, Zhang J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Determination of mammographic breast density using a deep convolutional neural network.
CONCLUSION: The dCNN allows for accurate classification of breast density based on the ACR BI-RADS system. The proposed technique may allow accurate, standardized, and observer independent breast density evaluation of mammographies. Advances in Knowledge: Standardized classification of mammographies by a dCNN could lead to a reduction of falsely classified breast densities, thereby allowing for a more accurate breast cancer risk assessment for the individual patient and a more reliable decision, whether additional ultrasound is recommended. PMID: 30209957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ciritsis A, Rossi C, De Martini I, Eberhard M, Marcon M, Becker AS, Berger N, Boss A Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Colonic distention and patient acceptance of CT colonography: supine/prone versus left/right lateral scanning.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate and complete the colonic distention and patient acceptance of CT colonography (CTC) in the supine/prone and left/right lateral positions. METHODS: A total of 220 consecutive patients were alternately allocated to the supine/prone positioning or left/right lateral positioning group. Two readers scored the degree of colonic distention by segment using a 4-point Likert scale (4 = optimal, 3 = adequate, 2 = inadequate, 1 = collapsed). In addition, patients were asked to rate the discomfort due to positioning during each scan using a 3-point animated face scale (3 = di...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Takahashi N, Nagata K, Iyama A, Mikami T, Kanazawa H, Saito H Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Dosimetric assessment of tumor control probability in intensity and volumetric modulated radiotherapy plans.
This study examines several radiobiological models for the calculation of tumor control probability (TCP) of intensity modulated radiotherapy plans for the treatment of lung, prostate, and head and neck (H&N) cancers. METHODS: Dose volume histogram (DVH) data from the intensity modulated radiotherapy plans of 36 lung, 26 prostate, and 87  H&N cases were evaluated. The Poisson, Niemierko, and Marsden models were used to calculate the TCP of each disease group treatment plan. The calculated results were analyzed for correlation and discrepancy among the three models, as well as different treatment sites u...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang H, Cooper BT, Schiff P, Sanfilippo NJ, Wu SP, Hu KS, Das IJ, Xue J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

CT texture analysis of the liver for assessing hepatic fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus.
CONCLUSION: CT texture features may be associated with hepatic fibrosis and have utility in staging fibrosis, particularly at advanced levels. Advances in knowledge: CT texture analysis may be helpful in detecting and staging hepatic fibrosis, particularly at advanced levels. CT measures like CT texture analysis can be retrospectively evaluated without special equipment. PMID: 30182750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Lubner MG, Jones D, Kloke J, Said A, Pickhardt PJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Computed tomography derived assessments of regional muscle volume: Validating their use as predictors of whole body muscle volume in cancer patients.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) derived regional skeletal muscle volume (SMV) measurements to predict whole body SMV in patients with melanoma. METHODS: 148 patients with advanced melanoma who underwent whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/CT were studied. Whole body SMV was measured on CT and used as the reference standard. CT derived regional measures of SMV were obtained in the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs. Models were developed on a discovery cohort (n-98), using linear regression to model whole body SMV as a function of each regional measure, an...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Halpenny DF, Goncalves M, Schwitzer E, Golia Pernicka J, Jackson J, Gandelman S, Moskowitz CS, Postow M, Mourtzakis M, Caan B, Jones LW, Plodkowski AJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Recommendations for clinical translation of nanoparticle-enhanced radiotherapy.
Wakefield G, Williams NR, Yaghini E, Royle G Abstract A multi-disciplinary cooperative for nanoparticle-enhanced radiotherapy (NERT) has been formed to review the current status of the field and identify key stages towards translation. Supported by the Colorectal Cancer Healthcare Technologies Cooperative, the cooperative comprises a diverse cohort of key contributors along the translation pathway including academics of physics, cancer and radio-biology, chemistry, nanotechnology and clinical trials, clinicians, manufacturers, industry, standards laboratories, policy makers and patients. Our aim was to leverage o...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ricketts K, Ahmad R, Beaton L, Cousins B, Critchley K, Davies M, Evans S, Fenuyi I, Gavriilidis A, Harmer QJ, Jayne D, Jefford M, Loizidou M, Macrobert A, Moorcroft S, Naasani I, Ong ZY, Prise KM, Rannard S, Richards T, Schettino G, Sharma RA, Tillement O Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

An introduction to the clinical practice of theranostics in oncology.
Abstract The medical speciality of theranostic nuclear oncology has taken three-quarters of a century to move the stern light cast retrospectively by single-centre clinical reports, to the forepeak in the bow of our theranostic craft, where prospective randomised controlled multicentre clinical trials now illuminate the way forward. This recent reorientation of nuclear medicine clinical research practice to align with that of standard medical and radiation oncology protocols, reflects the paradigm shift toward individualised molecular oncology and precision medicine. Theranostics is the epitome of personalised med...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Turner JH, Coleridge ST, Santayana G Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Acute hematological toxicity during post-operative bowel sparing image-guided intensity modulated radiation with concurrent cisplatin.
Conclusion The IMRT arm of NCT01279135 (PARCER study) that employed strict bowel constraints had unintentional but desirable BM sparing. None of the BM subvolume DVH parameters could be validated on multivariate analysis. Advances in knowledge The prospective study reports feasibility of bone marrow sparing with bowel sparing post-operative pelvic IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy for cervical cancer. The present study reports low incidence of hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity during post-operative chemoradiation with IMRT. As both whole bone and freehand pelvis BM contours predicted for HT, hence an easier method...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Lewis S, Chopra S, Naga P, Pant S, Dandpani E, Bharadwaj N, Mahantshetty U, Engineer R, Swamidas J, Ghosh J, Gupta S, Shrivastava S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Computer-based automatic classification of trabecular bone pattern can assist radiographic bone quality assessment at dental implant site.
CONCLUSION: Automatic classification performed better than subjective classification with a prediction model comprising only structure-related parameters. Advances in knowledge: Computer-aided trabecular bone pattern assessment based on morphometric parameters could assist objectivity in clinical bone quality classification. PMID: 30175923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo L, Van Dessel J, van Lenthe GH, Lambrichts I, Jacobs R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The role of imaging in obesity special feature.
PMID: 30160536 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Taylor SA, Carucci LR Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle uptake as noninvasive marker of aortic wall inflammation on MRI: proof of concept study.
CONCLUSION: This proof of concept study suggests that greater uptake of ferumoxytol in the aortic wall in cancer patients without visible atherosclerosis may be the expression of increased inflammation. Advances in knowledge: Ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxide enhanced MRI can offer an imaging biomarker for quantitative estimation of aortic inflammation preceding atherosclerosis. PMID: 30160173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hedgire S, Krebill C, Wojtkiewicz G, Oliveira I, Ghoshhajra BB, Hoffmann U, Harisinghani MG Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor: comparison of performance in supine vs. left lateral body position.
CONCLUSIONS: In lateral position more patients were able to evacuate with similar grades of pelvic floor de-scent compared to supine position. MRD in lateral position may be a valuable alternative for patients unable to defecate in supine position. Advances in knowledge: In lateral position more patients were able to evacuate during MRD MRD in lateral position may be an alternative for patients unable to defecate in supine position. PMID: 30160176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Schawkat K, Pfister B, Parker H, Heinrich H, Barth BK, Weishaupt D, Fox M, Reiner CS Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Lumbar plexus in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: evaluation with simultaneous T2 mapping and neurography method with SHINKEI.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of simultaneous T2 mapping and neurography with nerve-sheath signal increased with inked rest-tissue rapid acquisition of relaxation enhancement imaging (SHINKEI) in the lumbar plexus to distinguish patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) from healthy controls. METHODS: Our institutional review boards approved this retrospective study, and written informed consent was waived. 10 patients with CIDP from 2015 to 2017 were studied along with 5 healthy controls on a 3 T scanner. The T2 relaxation time and the size of the dorsal root gan...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hiwatashi A, Togao O, Yamashita K, Kikuchi K, Momosaka D, Nakatake H, Yamasaki R, Ogata H, Yoneyama M, Kira JI, Honda H Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Split-bolus contrast injection protocol enhances the visualization of the thoracic vasculature and reduced radiation dose during chest CT.
Abstract Objective To investigate the visualization of mediastinal lymph nodes during thoracic CT employing a multiphasic contrast media (CM) protocol. Methods Institutional review board approved retrospective study consisting of 300 patients with known chest malignancy. Patients were allocated to one of two CM protocols: Protocol A, consisted of dual bolus (Phase 1:100 ml CM followed by 100 ml saline chaser) i.v. injected at 2.5 ml s-1; Protocol B employed 100 ml of CM using a multiphasic injection protocol (Phase 1 and 2:60 ml contrast and saline, followed by Phase 3 and 4:40 ml contrast and saline injected at 2...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Zein-El-Dine S, Mohamad M, Chmaisse A, Chahwan S, Asmar K, El-Merhi F, Saade C Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Contrast dose reduction with shortened injection durations in coronary CT angiography on 16-cm Wide-detector CT scanner.
CONCLUSION: It is feasible to shorten contrast injection to 8 s in CCTA on wide-detector CT systems to significantly reduce contrast dosage, maintain adequate enhancement and reduce contrast-related artifacts. Advances in knowledge: (1) Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) scans with shortened contrast medium injection duration and late triggering are feasible with a 16-cm wide-detector CT system (2) Compared with the conventional CCTA with 10 s contrast injection duration, the new contrast injection protocol of using shortened injection duration (to 8 s) and late triggering reduces contrast dose to 36.2&thi...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Qu TT, Li JY, Jiao XJ, Zhang XL, Song ZF, Guo YX, Guo JX Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Targeting the vasculature of tumours: combining VEGF pathway inhibitors with radiotherapy.
Abstract The development of blood vessels by the process of angiogenesis underpins the growth and metastasis of many tumour types. Various angiogenesis inhibitors targeted against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and its receptors have entered the clinic more than a decade ago. However, despite substantial clinical improvements, their overall efficacy proved to be significantly lower than many of the pre-clinical studies had predicted. Antiangiogenic agents have been combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and more recently immunotherapy in many pre-clinical and clinical studies in an effort to impro...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kanthou C, Tozer G Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research