Gene expression profiling of breast cancer cell lines treated with proton and electron radiations.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe in a detailed way the gene expression profiling and pathways activated after electron and proton irradiation in breast cancer cells. Summarizing, although specific pathways are activated in a radiation type-dependent manner, each cell line activates overall similar molecular networks in response to both these two types of ionizing radiation. Advances in knowledge: In the era of personalized medicine and breast cancer target-directed intervention, we trust that this study could drive radiation therapy towards personalized treatments, evaluating possible combined treatments, based on the molecul...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Bravatà V, Minafra L, Cammarata FP, Pisciotta P, Lamia D, Marchese V, Manti L, Cirrone GA, Gilardi MC, Cuttone G, Forte GI, Russo G Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Dosimetric evaluation of VMAT for palliative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To compare the dosimetric consequences of VMAT for high dose palliative thoracic radiotherapy through comparison with conventionally used isocentric parallel opposed field pair of fields (POP). METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with NSCLC who received 36 Gy in 12 fractions using a POP technique were re-planned using a single VMAT arc. Salient dosimetric parameters were compared between the plans using a paired t-Test. RESULTS: VMAT demonstrated dosimetric superiority; all PTV dose parameters were significantly improved and importantly the volume of normal lung receiving a hig...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Iqbal MS, Richmond N, Ogilvie A, Piling K, Willis N, Byrne J, Walker C, West N Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

A perspective on a rapid and radiation-free tracer imaging modality, Magnetic Particle Imaging, with promise for clinical translation.
Abstract Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), introduced at the beginning of the twenty-first century, is emerging as a promising diagnostic tool in addition to the current repertoire of medical imaging modalities. Using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), that are available for clinical use, MPI produces high contrast and highly sensitive tomographic images with absolute quantitation, no tissue attenuation at-depth, and there are no view limitations. The MPI signal is governed by the Brownian and Néel relaxation behavior of the particles. The relaxation time constants of these particles can be ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Chandrasekharan P, Tay ZW, Zhou XY, Yu E, Orendorff R, Hensley D, Huynh Q, Fung KLB, VanHook CC, Goodwill P, Zheng B, Conolly S Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The influence of endorectal filling on rectal cancer staging with MRI.
RG Abstract OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of endorectal filling (EF) on rectal cancer staging. METHODS: Forty-seven patients who underwent a staging MRI of rectal cancer in the period from 2011 to 2014 were included. The MRI protocol included T2W FSE sequences without and with EF at 3 Tesla (EF-MRI). Images were scored by 2 readers for T stage, distance of the lower pole of the tumour to the anorectal junction, distance to the mesorectal fascia (MRF), number of (suspicious) lymph nodes Agreement in T-staging was calculated using the Cohen's kappa value. Comparison of continuous variables was performed ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Stijns R, Scheenen TW, de Wilt JH, Fütterer JJ, Beets-Tan RG Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Diffusion-weighted imaging for staging chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using a meta-analysis. METHODS: Literature databases were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane and Embase to identify relevant articles about DWI in CKD between 1999 and 2017. ADC values were extracted from the healthy group and CKD patients with different stages. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA version 12.0. A random-effects model was performed to acquire the effect estimate, which was expressed as a pooled weighted mean difference (WM...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu H, Zhou Z, Li X, Li C, Wang R, Zhang Y, Niu G Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

A comparison of bladder volumes based on treatment planning Computed Tomography and BladderScan ® BVI 6100 ultrasound device in a prostate radiation therapy population.
CONCLUSION: This is the largest study to date (n = 190), assessing the accuracy of the BladderScan® BVI 6100 in the prostate RT population. The BVI 6100 provides an acceptable indication of bladder volume for use in prostate RT patients for the purposes of monitoring bladder volume. Advances in knowledge: The BladderScan® BVI 6100 provides a convenient and non-irradiating method of indicating BV for use in prostate RT patients. PMID: 29888971 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Mullaney L, O'Shea E, Dunne MT, Thirion PG, Armstrong JG Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of image guided biopsies in small ( < 4cm) renal masses with implications for active surveillance: A systematic review.
Diagnostic accuracy of image guided biopsies in small (
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Paterson C, Ghaemi J, Alashkham A, Biyani CS, Cole B, Baker L, Szewczyk-Bieda M, Nabi G Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Radiation biology and oncology in the genomic era.
Abstract Radiobiology research is building the foundation for applying genomics in precision radiation oncology. Advances in high-throughput approaches will underpin increased understanding of radiosensitivity and the development of future predictive assays for clinical application. There is an established contribution of genetics as a risk factor for radiotherapy side-effects. An individual's radiosensitivity is an inherited polygenic trait with an architecture that includes rare mutations in a few genes that confer large effects and common variants in many genes with small effects. Current thinking is that some ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kerns S, Chuang KH, Hall W, Werner Z, Chen Y, Ostrer H, West C, Rosenstein B Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Relationship between MRI quantified small bowel motility and abdominal symptoms in Crohn's disease patients-a validation study.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Previous single-centre MRI data suggests an inverse correlation between normal small bowel motility variance and abdominal symptoms in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The current work prospectively assesses this observation in a larger, two-centre study. METHODS: MR enterography datasets were analysed from 82 patients (38 male, aged 16-68), who completed a contemporaneous Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) questionnaire. Dynamic "cine motility" breath-hold balanced steady-state free precession sequences were acquired through the whole small bowel (SB) volume. Regions of interest (RO...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Gollifer RM, Menys A, Makanyanga J, Puylaert CA, Vos FM, Stoker J, Atkinson D, Taylor SA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Oesophageal stenting: Status quo and future challenges.
Abstract Oesophageal stents are widely used for palliating dysphagia from malignant obstruction. They are also used with increasing frequency in the treatment of oesophageal perforation, as well as benign strictures from a variety of causes. Improved oncological treatments have led to prolonged survival of patients treated with palliative intent; as a consequence, stents need to function and last longer in order to avoid repeat procedures. There is also increasing need for meticulous procedure planning, careful selection of the device most appropriate for the individual patient and planned follow-up. Furthermore, ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kaltsidis H, Mansoor W, Park JH, Song HY, Edwards DW, Laasch HU Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Differentiating solid, non-macroscopic fat containing, enhancing renal masses using fast fourier transform analysis of multiphase CT.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of 2D fast Fourier transforms (FFT)-based imaging metrics in differentiating solid, non-macroscopic fat containing, enhancing renal masses using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) images. We quantify image-based intra-tumoral textural variations (indicator of tumor heterogeneity) using frequency-based (FFT) imaging metrics. METHODS: In this Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant, retrospective case-control study, we evaluated 156 patients with predominantly solid, non-macroscopic fat...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Varghese BA, Chen F, Hwang DH, Cen SY, Gill IS, Duddalwar VA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Ovarian serous surface papillary borderline tumor: characteristic imaging features with clinicopathological correlation.
CONCLUSION: SSPBT of the ovary, which has a good prognosis, should be considered as a diagnosis for patients who have bilateral enhancing irregular solid masses with papillary architecture and internal branching, and encasing normal-appearing ovaries. Advances in knowledge: Serous surface papillary borderline tumor of the ovary is unique and has characteristic features. Knowledge of this specific ovarian tumor and radiological suspicion can have important implications for the patient to facilitate management including fertility-preserving surgery. PMID: 29888983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Park SB, Kim MJ, Lee KH, Ko Y Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Technical challenges of imaging & image-guided interventions in obese patients.
Technical challenges of imaging & image-guided interventions in obese patients. Br J Radiol. 2018 Jun 05;:20170931 Authors: Uppot RN Abstract Obese patients challenge imaging departments in their ability to obtain diagnostic quality images and to perform image-guided interventions. These technical challenges include properly accommodating large patients on imaging equipment, adjusting equipment settings to address imaging limitations, and pre-planning and preparation for image-guided interventions to insure safe and successful outcomes. Knowing and addressing these challenges can result in success...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Uppot RN Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Imaging following bariatric surgery: roux-en-y gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and sleeve gastrectomy.
Abstract Morbid obesity is an increasing health problem, and bariatric surgery is a popular treatment option. Radiologists must be familiar with performing and interpreting studies in this patient population. The typical postoperative findings of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) procedures on upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series and computerized tomography (CT) are presented. An overview of the potential complications is provided in addition to a description of potential pitfalls in interpreting these studies. PMID: 29869916 [PubM...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Clayton RD, Carucci LR Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Obesity, metabolic disease and the pancreas - Quantitative imaging of pancreatic fat.
Abstract The association between pancreatic fat, obesity and metabolic disease is well-documented, and although a potentially exciting target for novel therapies, remains poorly understood. Non-invasive quantitative imaging-derived biomarkers can provide insights into pathophysiology and potentially provide robust trial endpoints for development of new treatments. In this review, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease and associations with metabolic factors, obesity and diabetes. We then explore approaches to pancreatic fat quantification using ultrasound, computed to...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Sakai NS, Taylor SA, Chouhan MD Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Doppler ultrasound follow-up of middle hepatic vein tributaries-interposition vessel graft in recipients of living donor liver transplantation using modified right lobe grafts.
This study included 240 consecutive LDLT recipients in whom 564 MHVTs (>5 mm) were reconstructed using IVG. Regular follow-up Doppler US was performed to assess the patency of the MHVTs-IVG and, if there was an obstruction, to evaluate for the establishment of collateral drainage. MHVTs with obstruction were subdivided into those with and without intrahepatic veno-venous collaterals on Doppler US and were correlated with computed tomography (CT) scans. RESULTS: MHVTs-IVG obstruction was identified in 137 patients with 227 MHVTs on follow-up Doppler US (6.2 ± 4.7 months). Ninety patients with 149 MHVTs...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Lee S, Kim KW, Jeong SY, Lee KJ, Kim SY, Song GW, Lee SG Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The utilisation of convolutional neural networks in detecting pulmonary nodules: a review.
Abstract Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related fatality in the world. Patients display few or even no signs or symptoms in the early stages, resulting in up to 75% of patients diagnosed in the later stages of the disease. Consequently, there has been a call for lung cancer screening amongst at-risk populations. The early detection of malignant pulmonary nodules in computed tomography (CT) is one of the suggested methods proposed to diagnose early-stage lung cancer; however, the reported sensitivity of radiologists' ability to accurately detect pulmonary nodules ranges widely from 30% to 97%. 2...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Murphy A, Gaillard F, Skalski M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Shear wave elastography in the evaluation of renal parenchymal stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of shear wave elastography (SWE)-derived estimates of Young's modulus (YM) as an indicator to detect abnormal renal tissue diagnosed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: The study comprised 106 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and 203 control subjects. Conventional ultrasound was performed to measure the kidney length and cortical thickness. SWE imaging was performed to measure renal parenchymal stiffness. Diagnostic performance of SWE and conventional ultrasound were correlated with serum creatinine, urea levels and eGFR. RESULTS: Pears...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Leong SS, Wong JHD, Md Shah MN, Vijayananthan A, Jalalonmuhali M, Ng KH Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Utility of quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and normalized apparent diffusion coefficient ratios in the diagnosis of clinically significant peripheral zone prostate cancer.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements and normalized ADC ratios in multiparametric MRI for the diagnosis of clinically significant peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer particularly among equivocally suspicious prostate lesions. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 95 patients with PZ lesions by PI-RADSv2 criteria, and who underwent subsequent MRI-US fusion biopsy, was approved by an institutional review board. Two radiologists independently measured ADC values in regions of interest(ROIs) of PZ lesions and ca...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - June 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Nguyen TB, Ushinsky A, Yang A, Nguyentat M, Fardin S, Uchio E, Lall C, Lee T, Houshyar R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Cone-beam computed tomography improves the detection of injured vessels and involved vascular territories in patients with bleeding of uncertain origin.
CONCLUSION: In complex cases of suspected haemorrhage, CBCT images can aid the interventionalist in detecting bleeding sites as well as narrowing down the number of involved vascular territories and thereby identifying feeding arteries of the bleeding source. Advances in knowledge: CBCT showed no improvement in image quality. However, in complex bleeding cases CBCT information might aid in treatment planning. CBCT improves visualization of bleeding vessels and involved feeding arteries. Particularly less experienced interventionalists might benefit from the 3D information gathered by CBCT. PMID: 29848014 [PubMed - as ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ulrich G, Roland S, Dominik K, Rüdiger H, Sasan P, Mehra T, Konstantin N, Gerd G Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Relationship between background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI and pathological tumor response in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI and pathological tumor responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients. METHODS: A panel of 372 MRI from 186 pathologically confirmed breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were selected. BPE was classified into four categories before and after NAC. The association between BPE and the pathological tumor response to NAC, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and molecular subtypes were analyzed. We also evaluated the associations between the baseline BPE before NAC a...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Oh SJ, Chae EY, Cha JH, Shin HJ, Choi WJ, Kim HH Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The vast potential and bright future of neuroimaging.
Abstract Significant advances in anatomical and functional neuroimaging techniques have allowed researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain in action. The field of neuroimaging currently includes newer and faster scanners, improved image quality, higher spatial and temporal resolution, and diverse methods of acquisition and analysis. Beyond simply imaging brain structures, these developments enable quantitative assessment of the microstructural and functional architecture, perfusion, and metabolism of the brain. The resultant highly granular data have the potential to greatly improve characterization of neur...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Wintermark M, Colen R, Whitlow CT, Zaharchuk G Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Appropriateness of CT scans for patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain.
CONCLUSION: This data suggests that a large proportion of CT scans for patients with acute abdominal pain are not clinically indicated or are being performed prior to adequate clinical workup. Optimising CT scan requests for this patient group will improve use of health care resources. Advances in knowledge: Both radiologists and general surgeons agree that there is no indication for an abdominal CT scan for a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain in a median of 21% of the cases. PMID: 29848017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: de Burlet KJ, MacKay M, Larsen P, Dennett ER Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Image Quality Comparison of Two Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR, ASiR-V) Algorithms and Filtered Back Projection in Routine Liver CT.
CONCLUSION: Both ASiR and ASiR-V improved the objective and subjective image quality for routine liver CT compared with FBP. ASiR-V provided further image quality improvement with higher acceptable percentage than ASiR, and ASiR-V60% had the highest image quality score. Advances in knowledge: Both ASiR and ASiR-V significantly reduce image noise compared with conventional FBP reconstruction ASiR-V with 60% blending percentage provides the highest image quality score in routine liver CT. PMID: 29848018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Chen LH, Jin C, Li JY, Wang GL, Jia YJ, Duan HF, Pan N, Guo JX Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

90-kVp low-tube-voltage CT pulmonary angiography in combination with advanced modelled iterative reconstruction algorithm: effects on radiation dose, image quality, and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of pulmonary embolism.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate low-tube-voltage 90-kVp computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with advanced modelled iterative reconstruction algorithm (Admire) compared to 120-kVp equivalent dual-energy acquisition with regards to radiation exposure, image quality, and diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE) assessment. METHODS: CTPA studies of 40 patients with suspected PE (56.7 ± 16.3 years) performed on a third-generation 192-slice dual-source CT scanner were retrospectively included. 120-kVp equivalent linearly-blended (60% 90-kVp, 40% 150-kVp) and 90-kVp images were reconstruct...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Leithner D, Gruber-Rouh T, Beeres M, Wichmann JL, Mahmoudi S, Martin SS, Lenga L, Albrecht MH, Booz C, Vogl TJ, Scholtz JE Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Different MR features for differentiation of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma according to tumor size.
CONCLUSION: Valuable MR features and clinical factors varied for differential diagnosis of IMCCs and HCCs according to tumor size. Advances in knowledge: MR features for differential diagnosis of large IMCC and HCC (>3 cm) are in keeping with that recommended by LI-RADS. However, for small IMCCs and HCCs (≤3 cm), only rim enhancement on arterial phase and target appearance at DWI are reliable predictors. PMID: 29791202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ni T, Shang XS, Wang WT, Hu XX, Zeng MS, Rao SX Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Effect of CT window settings on size measurements of the solid component in sub-solid nodules: Evaluation of prediction efficacy of the degree of pathological malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of size measurements of the solid components in pulmonary subsolid nodules with different CT window settings and to evaluate the degree of pathological malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma.  Methods: The preoperative chest CT images and pathological data of 125 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The analysis included 127 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas that manifested as subsolid nodules. All subsolid nodules were divided into two groups: 69 in group A, including 22 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS) and 47 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas (MIA)...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu SY, Li Q, Gu YF, Fan L, Li QC, Xiao Y Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Intestinal transplants: review of normal imaging appearance and complications.
Abstract Intestinal transplant (IT) is one of the least common forms of organ transplant but is increasing both in volume of cases and number of centers performing intestinal transplants, with the busiest centers in North America and Europe. IT can be performed in isolation or as part of a multivisceral transplant (MVT). Intestinal failure either in the form of short gut syndrome or functional bowel problems is the primary indication for IT. The normal post-surgical anatomy can be variable due to both recipient anatomy in regard to amount of residual bowel and status of native vasculature as well as whether the tr...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hakim B, Myers DT, Williams TR, Nagai S, Bonnett J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The role of upper airway morphology in apnea versus hypopnea predominant obstructive sleep apnea patients: an exploratory study.
PMID: 29770707 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Xu J Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

In Reply to Xu: the role of upper airway morphology in apnea versus hypopnea predominant obstructive sleep apnea patients: an exploratory study.
r T PMID: 29770708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Özer T Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Lessons learned from the PRESERVE trial.
Abstract The recently published PRESERVE trial is presently the largest and most comprehensive clinical trial comparing commonly applied strategies for prevention of iodinated contrast-induced acute kidney injury in high-risk patients. The fundamental conclusion of the PRESERVE trial is that oral acetylcysteine and intravenous sodium bicarbonate are not superior to simple intravenous hydration with isotonic saline for the prevention of contrast-induced renal sequelae. In this commentary, we discuss the results in the context of selected past major trials, and provide insights into the strengths and potential weakn...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Partovi S, Trischman T, Kang PS Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

The diagnostic value of using combined MR diffusion parameters to differentiate between low- and high-grade meningioma.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that combined MR diffusion parameters consisting of ADCmin, RD, and FA can differentiate high-grade from low-grade meningioma with a diagnostic accuracy of 96.2%. Advances in knowledge: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that a combined use of all MR diffusion parameters provides higher diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation of low- from high-grade meningioma. Our study shows that any of the model combinations was superior to use of any individual MR diffusion parameters for differentiation between low and high grade meningioma. A combination of ADCmin, RD, and...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Aslan K, Gunbey HP, Tomak L, Incesu L Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Carotid artery stenosis screening: Where are we now?
Abstract Stroke poses a significant burden on healthcare and is the second largest cause of death globally. Both medical and surgical interventions to reduce the risk of stroke in asymptomatic patients have been shown to be effective but identifying the target at risk population is more problematic. Screening for carotid artery stenosis offers one pathway for this, as there is some correlation between risk of stroke and extent of stenosis. Identification of patients who are at risk of cardiovascular disease as well as stroke, allows initiation of effective medical treatment of modifiable risk factors to address th...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Mortimer R, Nachiappan S, Howlett DC Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy and complications of CT-guided core needle lung biopsy of solid and part-solid lesions.
CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of CT-guided CNB for diagnosing malignancy was comparable for solid and part-solid lesions. The frequency of hemorrhage on the follow up CT was higher in patients with part-solid lesions, but there were no significant differences in major hemorrhage and pneumothorax for solid and part-solid lesions. Advances in knowledge: The diagnostic yield of CT-guided CNB for diagnosing malignancy is comparable for solid and part-solid lesions. Although the post procedural hemorrhage occurs more frequently in part-solid lesions, the occurrence of symptomatic major hemorrhage is not significantly diff...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Yun S, Kang H, Shin YG, Kim BS, Park JG, Jung MJ Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Imaging of suspected pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis in obese patients.
Abstract Obesity is a growing problem around the world, and radiology departments frequently encounter difficulties related to large patient size. Diagnosis and management of suspected venous thromboembolism, in particular deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), are challenging even in some lean patients, and can become even more complicated in the setting of obesity. Many obstacles must be overcome to obtain imaging examinations in obese patients with suspected PE and/or DVT, and to ensure that these examinations are of sufficient quality to diagnose or exclude thromboembolic disease, or to esta...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Cascio V, Hon M, Haramati LB, Gour A, Spiegler P, Bhalla S, Katz D Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Theranostics of prostate cancer: from molecular imaging to precision molecular radiotherapy targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen.
Abstract Alterations at the molecular level are a hallmark of cancer. Prostate cancer is associated with the overexpression of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in a majority of cases, predominantly in advanced tumors, increasing with the grade or Gleason's score. PSMA can be selectively targeted using radiolabelled PSMA ligands. These small molecules binding the PSMA can be radiolabelled with gamma-emitters like 99mTc and 111In or positron emitters like 68Ga and 18F for diagnosis as well as with their theranostic pairs such as 177Lu (beta-emitter) or 225Ac (alpha-emitter) for therapy. This review summariz...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kulkarni HR, Singh A, Langbein T, Schuchardt C, Mueller D, Zhang J, Lehmann C, Baum RP Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Evaluating the effect of increased pitch, iterative reconstruction and dual source CT on dose reduction and image quality.
CONCLUSION: The combination of a high pitch protocol with iterative reconstruction allows significant dose reduction in routine chest and abdominal scans whilst maintaining or improving diagnostic image quality, with a further reduction in thoracic scans with stellar detectors. Advances in knowledge: High pitch imaging with iterative reconstruction is a tool that can be used to reduce dose without sacrificing image quality. PMID: 29762055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Gariani J, Martin SP, Botsikas D, Becker CD, Montet X Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Fracture of ankle: MRI using opposed-phase imaging obtained from turbo spin-echo modified Dixon image shows improved sensitivity.
This study included 95 CT-confirmed ankle fractures with additional MRI of the ankle using a TSE modified Dixon technique. Two groups of images were analyzed independently: Group 1 - imaging group without OP imaging; Group 2 - imaging group with OP imaging. Readers assessed the images using a 4-point confidence score to detect fractures. During the first review session, the fracture site was blinded. For the second review session, the fracture site was provided. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. RESULTS: In both sessions, the sensitivity for Group2 was significantly greater than that for...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: You JH, Kim IH, Hwang J, Lee HS, Park EH Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Comparison of image quality and radiation exposure between conventional imaging and gemstone spectral imaging in abdominal CT examination.
CONCLUSION: GSI reduces the radiation exposure slightly, however maintains or even improves image quality. These results may warrant the application of GSI in patients referred for abdominal CT. Advances in knowledge: Compared to conventional polychromatic imaging, gemstone spectral imaging reduces the radiation exposure slightly, however maintains or even improves image quality in abdominal CT. These findings may warrant the application of gemstone spectral imaging in patients referred for abdominal CT. PMID: 29762057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Fang T, Deng W, Law MW, Luo L, Zheng L, Guo Y, Chen H, Huang B Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver oligometastases: predictive factors of local response by 18F-FDG-PET/CT.
CONCLUSIONS: According to current findings, pre-SBRT SUV max and SUV mean could be predictable of local response in liver oligometastases. Advances in knowledge: Present findings could support the hypothesis that FDG-PET/CT may be a powerful tool to predict tumor control. Specifically, current results might be helpful for clinicians in the decision-making process regarding liver oligometastatic patient selection as well as the individual therapy stratification distinguishing between slowly local progressing patients and rapidly progressing patients. PMID: 29750538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Briti...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Mazzola R, Fersino S, Alongi P, Di Paola G, Gregucci F, Aiello D, Tebano U, Pasetto S, Ruggieri R, Salgarello M, Alongi F Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Short-term high precision radiotherapy for early prostate cancer with concomitant boost to the dominant lesion: ad interim analysis and preliminary results of phase II trial AIRC-IG-13218.
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data about early toxicity of an extreme hypofractionated schedule with concomitant boost on the DIL are encouraging. The higher number of patients expected for the trial and a longer follow-up are needed to confirm these results. Advances in knowledge: The use of mpMRI to identify and boost the DIL is an innovative and interesting approach to PCa. Our preliminary findings suggest that dose escalation using DIL boost and extremely hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens might be a safe approach, allowing for short and effective treatment of organ-confined PCa. PMID: 29750539 [PubMed - as sup...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Timon G, Ciardo D, Bazani A, Marvaso G, Riva G, Volpe S, Volpe S, Renne G, Petralia G, Zerini D, Rojas DP, Dicuonzo S, Maestri D, Pansini F, Cambria R, Fodor C, Cattani F, Golino F, Scroffi V, De Lorenzo D, De Cobelli O, Orecchia R, Jereczek-Fossa BA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Read-out segmented echo planar diffusion imaging of the female pelvis- utility in endometrial carcinoma- a preliminary experience.
CONCLUSION: rs-ep-DWI is a new imaging arsenal in imaging of the female pelvis in general, however further reduction in imaging time and improvement in signal to noise may be desirable. Advances in knowlegde: rs-ep-DWI affords lesser imaging artifacts from susceptibility and geometric distortion; at a higher time dividend and may find a place in oncological imaging. PMID: 29750540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ghosh A, Singh T, Singla V, Bagga R, Srinivasan R, Khandelwal N Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Doppler ultrasonography in liver transplant recipients with hepatic artery dissection: association of doppler abnormalities with disease severity.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Role of Doppler ultrasonography (US) in determining radiologic and clinical significance of hepatic artery dissection (HAD) is not known. To determine the frequency of abnormalities on Doppler ultrasonography in liver transplant recipients with hepatic artery dissection and to evaluate association between Doppler abnormalities and disease severity. METHODS: 107 LT recipients with HAD between January 2008 and December 2016 were included, in whom Doppler US was performed within the week of diagnosis. Patients with HAD were subdivided into with/without Doppler abnormality groups, and inter-gr...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Jeong SY, Kim KW, Kim JS, Lee S, Kim SY, Song GW, Lee SG Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of dynamic ultrasound scanning in the diagnosis of equivocal ventral hernias with surgical comparison.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms that ultrasound scans are effective in the diagnosis of equivocal ventral hernias. Advances in knowledge: The accuracy of ultrasound scanning specifically for ventral hernias is quantified, and are comparable to that of groin hernias. PMID: 29745748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Jayaram PR, Pereira FD, Barrett JA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Clinical audit of the completion of CT scan request forms.
CONCLUSION: There is still room for improvement in the completion of CT scan requests at UHSM. The poor completion of the forms and use of poor abbreviations can have a detrimental effect on the reporting and therefore care of the patient. It is important that this problem is tackled appropriately. Advances in Knowledge: There is scope for improvement in the completion of CT request forms. This audit highlights this issue and provides the basis for implementing larger studies looking at completion of radiological request forms. PMID: 29745751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Rawoo R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Modelling the influence of treatment time on radiosurgery single treatment biological effectiveness to produce protective dose modification factors.
CONCLUSION: The models allow better analysis of radio-surgical treatment time data and guidance to the choice of dose to match the overall time. Although this study is based on Gamma Knife treatments, in principle the methods will also apply to any radio-surgical technique, so that dose-time compensations can be made between differing techniques. Advances in Knowledge: The new BED equation-based framework is relevant to optimise radio-surgical treatments. PMID: 29745754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Jones B, Hopewell JW Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Influences of clinical experience in the quantification of morphometric sarcopaenia: a cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Both manual tracing and semi-automated technique quantification methods of measuring TPMA are highly reproducible and independent of assessor bias and clinical experience. Advances in Knowledge: Either of the commonly used techniques to measure TPMA may be reliably used by an individual with appropriate training. We describe a relationship to facilitate comparison between these methods by which sarcopaenia may be quantified in patients with routine CT imaging. PMID: 29745763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Waduud MA, Drozd M, Linton E, Wood B, Manning J, Bailey MA, Hammond C, Scott JA Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

A proof of concept for epidemiological research using structured reporting with pulmonary embolism as a use case.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: This paper studies the possibilities of an integrated IT-based workflow for epidemiological research in pulmonary embolism using freely available tools and structured reporting. METHODS: We included a total of 521 consecutive cases which had been referred to the radiology department for computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Free-text reports were transformed into structured reports using a freely available IHE-MRRT-compliant reporting platform. D-dimer values were retrieved from the hospitals laboratory results system. All information was ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Daniel PDS, Sonja S, Gordon A, Aline MK, Christoph D, Peter M, Roman K Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

EUPS-argues that lung cancer screening should be implemented in 18 months.
PMID: 29722546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Field JK, Baldwin DR, Devaraj A, Oudkerk M Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Liver fat imaging - a clinical overview of ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging.
Abstract Hepatic steatosis is a frequently encountered imaging finding that may indicate chronic liver disease, the most common of which is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is implicated in the development of systemic diseases and its progressive phenotype, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leads to increased liver-specific morbidity and mortality. With the rising obesity epidemic and advent of novel therapeutics aimed at altering metabolism, there is a growing need to quantify and monitor liver steatosis. Imaging methods for assessing steatosis range from simple and qualitative to complex and hi...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - May 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhang Y, Fowler KJ, Hamilton G, Cui J, Sy EZ, Balanay M, Hooker JC, Szeverenyi NM, Sirlin CB Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research