Five-Component Model Validation of Reference, Laboratory, and Field Methods of Body Composition Assessment.
This study reports the validity of body fat percentage (BF%) estimates from several commonly employed techniques as compared to a 5-component (5C) model criterion. Healthy adults (n=170) were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), multiple bioimpedance techniques, and optical scanning. Output was also used to produce a criterion 5C model, multiple variants of 3- and 4-component models (3C; 4C), and anthropometry-based BF% estimates. Linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis, and equivalence testing were performed alongside evaluation of the constant error (CE), total erro...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Tinsley GM Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

The Effect of Caloric Restriction on Development and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease: Review of the Current Evidence.
Abstract Caloric Restriction (CR) has anti-aging effects and likely protects from a range of chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Specifically, CR has a positive impact on experimental kidney aging, CKD (diabetic nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease) and acute kidney injury (nephrotoxic, ischemia-reperfusion injury) through such mechanisms as increased autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and DNA repair, and decreased inflammation and oxidative stress. Key molecules contributing to CR-mediated kidney protection include AMPK, sirtuin-1 and PGC1α. However, CKD is a co...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Afsar B, Afsar RE, Copur S, Sag AA, Ortiz A, Kanbay M Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Associations between different types and sources of dietary fiber intake and depressive symptoms in a general population of adults: a cross-sectional study.
Abstract This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between dietary fibers (DF) intake and depressive symptoms in a general adult population in Tianjin, China. A total of 24,306 participants (mean age, 41 years; range 18-91 years) were enrolled. DF intake was assessed using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Socio-demographic, behavioral, health status, and dietary factors were adjusted. In men,...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Xia Y, Liu Y, Zhang S, Zhang Q, Liu L, Meng G, Wu H, Sun S, Wang X, Zhou M, Jia Q, Song K, Wu Q, Niu K, Zhao Y Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

The Effect of Grape Products Containing Polyphenols on C-reactive protein Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Abstract Although grape polyphenols can decrease chronic inflammations, their effect on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels is still controversial. So, this meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of grape products containing polyphenols on CRP concentrations. In order to collect the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the data bases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to March 30, 2020. The random-effects model, standardized mean difference, and 95% confidence interval were applied in data analysis. Meta-analysis was conducted over 17 eligible RCTs containing...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sarkhosh-Khorasani S, Hosseinzadeh M Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Dissimilar regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by leptin in two strains of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio).
Abstract Previous nutritional studies have shown that insulin regulation is different between DT and A strains of gibel carp. As leptin plays a pivotal role in the effects of insulin, we hypothesized that leptin regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism would differ between the two strains. To test our hypothesis, recombinant human leptin was injected into two strains. The results showed that leptin activated PI3K-AKT, AMPK-ACC, and JAK2-STAT signaling pathways in both strains. Hypoglycemia induced by leptin might be due to higher glucose uptake by the liver and muscles together with enhanced glycolytic potential...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wu L, Li H, Xu W, Dong B, Jin J, Han D, Zhu X, Yang Y, Liu H, Xie S Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Probiotics and COVID-19: Think about the link.
Abstract The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly progressing, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Various antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and immunomodulators have been tried without substantial clinical benefits. The severe and critical cases of COVID-19 disease are characterised by gut microbiome dysbiosis, immune dysregulation, hyper-inflammation, and hypercytokinemia (cytokine storm). Therefore, the strategies which target these pathophysiological processes may be beneficial. Probiotics are one such strategy that exerts beneficial effects by manipulation of the gut mic...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Angurana SK, Bansal A Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Protein malnutrition early in life increased apoptosis but did not alter the β-cell mass during gestation.
Protein malnutrition early in life increased apoptosis but did not alter the β-cell mass during gestation. Br J Nutr. 2020 Sep 11;:1-30 Authors: Vial Dahmer DS, da Rosa CA, Silva LR, Arantes VC, de Barros Reis MA, Milanski M, de Moura EG, Lisboa PC, Carneiro EM, Damazo AS, Latorraca MQ Abstract We evaluated whether early life protein restriction alters structural parameters that affect β-cell mass on 15th d and 20th d of gestation in control-fed pregnant (CP), non-pregnant (CNP), protein-restricted pregnant (LPP) and non-pregnant (LPNP) rats from the foetal to the adult life stage as well as...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Vial Dahmer DS, da Rosa CA, Silva LR, Arantes VC, de Barros Reis MA, Milanski M, de Moura EG, Lisboa PC, Carneiro EM, Damazo AS, Latorraca MQ Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Validation of a life-logging wearable camera method and the 24-hour diet recall method for assessing maternal and child dietary diversity.
This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent criterion validity, for assessing maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS), of a LLWC-based image-assisted recall (IAR) and 24-hour recall (24HR). Direct observation was the criterion method. Food/beverage consumption of rural Eastern Ugandan mothers and their 12-23-month-old child (n=211) were assessed, for the same day for each method, and the IAR and 24HR DDS compared with the weighed food record (WFR) DDS using the Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LOA) method of analysis and Cohen's kappa. The relative bias was low for the 24HR (-0.1801 for mothers; -0.1358 for chil...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bulungu ALS, Palla L, Priebe J, Forsythe L, Katic P, Varley G, Galinda BD, Sarah N, Nambooze J, Wellard K, Ferguson EL Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

In vitro ileal and caecal fermentation of fibre substrates in the growing pig given a human-type diet.
This study characterised the in vitro ileal fermentability of different substrates in the growing pig, adopted as an animal model for the adult human, and compared in vitro ileal and caecal fermentation in the pig. Substrates (arabinogalactan 'AG', cellulose, fructooligosaccharide 'FOS', inulin, mucin, citrus pectin, and resistant starch) were fermented in vitro (ileal 2 h, caecal 24 h) with an ileal or caecal inoculum prepared from ileal or caecal digesta collected from growing pigs (n=5) fed a human-type diet for 15 days. The organic matter (OM) fermentability and production of organic acids were determined. In general, ...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 11, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Montoya CA, Blatchford P, Moughan PJ Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Longitudinal dimensions of alcohol consumption and dietary intake in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort (1971-2008).
We examined longitudinal trends in drinking patterns and their association with diet over four decades in ageing US adults from the Framingham Offspring Study (n 4956; baseline mean age 36·2 years). Alcohol intake (drinks/week, drinking frequency, beverage-specific consumption, drinks/occasion) was assessed quadrennially from examinations 1 to 8. Participants were classified as binge drinkers, moderate drinkers or heavy drinkers (4+ and 5+ drinks/occasion; ≤1 and ≤2 drinks/d and>7 and>14 drinks/week for women and men, respectively). Dietary data were collected by a FFQ from examinations 5 to 8 (1991-2008...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 9, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Parekh N, Lin Y, Chan M, Juul F, Makarem N Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

The reliability and relative validity of predefined dietary patterns was higher than of exploratory dietary patterns in the EPIC-Potsdam population.
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to describe reliable and valid dietary pattern scores (DPs). In a total of 134 participants of the EPIC-Potsdam study aged 35-67 years, the FFQ was applied twice (baseline and after one year) to assess its reliability. Within this time (November 1995 - March 1997), twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) as reference instrument were applied to assess the validity of the FFQ. Exploratory DPs were derived by principal component analyses. Investigated predefined DPs were the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and t...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 8, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Jannasch F, Nickel D, Schulze MB Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Obesity, COVID-19 and Innate Immunometabolism.
Abstract As COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, severe disease and mortality has been observed in obese patients. We discuss how obesity and obesity-associated factors such as "meta-flammation", dietary fat intake, and paradoxical suppression of the innate immune response within the pulmonary compartment may be crucial determinants in the host response to a novel viral pathogen. Modulation of immune cell bioenergetics and metabolic potential plays a central role in the innate immune response to infection, and as we strive to combat this new global health threat, immunometabolism of the innate immune ...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 7, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gleeson LE, Roche HM, Sheedy FJ Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Predictors of postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and insulin resistance in adolescents.
Abstract Postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of insulin resistance in adolescents is increasing, but it is unknown how adolescent participant characteristics such as BMI, waist circumference, fitness and maturity offset may explain responses to a standard meal. The aim of the present study was to examine how such participant characteristics affect the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to an ecologically valid mixed meal. Data from the control trials of three separate randomised, crossover experiments were pooled, resulting in a tota...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 7, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Williams RA, Dring KJ, Cooper SB, Morris JG, Sunderland C, Nevill ME Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

The impact of sarcopenia and decrease in skeletal muscle mass in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer during FOLFIRINOX therapy.
Abstract Sarcopenia, defined as decrease in skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and strength, might be associated with reduced survival. We investigated the impact of sarcopenia and decrease in SMM in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer during FOLFIRINOX (FX). Consecutive 69 patients who received FX were evaluated. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) (cm2/m2) was used to evaluate SMM. The cut-off value of sarcopenia was defined as SMI
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 4, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Uemura S, Iwashita T, Ichikawa H, Iwasa Y, Mita N, Shiraki M, Shimizu M Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Olive oil and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.
Abstract Olive oil consumption has been suggested to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk, likely due to its high monounsaturated fatty acid and polyphenol content. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between olive oil and breast cancer risk, including assessing the potential for a dose-response association. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) through June 2020, identifying 10 observational studies (two prospective studies and 8 case-control studies) for inclusion in the present meta-...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 4, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sealy N, Hankinson SE, Houghton SC Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Organic food consumption and Gluten-free diet, is there a link? results in French adults without celiac disease.
We described their sociodemographic and dietary profiles. The study population included participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort who both completed a food exclusion questionnaire and an organic semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (n=23,468). Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were compared using ANCOVA models adjusted for age, sex and energy intake. Associations between gluten avoidance and organic food consumption as well as places of food purchase were investigated with multivariable logistic regression. Participants avoiding gluten were more likely to be women and had a healthier dietary ...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 4, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Perrin L, Allès B, Julia C, Hercberg S, Touvier M, Lairon D, Baudry J, Kesse-Guyot E Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

The association between maternal fat-soluble vitamin concentrations during pregnancy and infant birth weight in China.
Abstract Fat-soluble vitamins during pregnancy are of vital importance for fetal growth and development. The present study aimed at exploring the association between vitamin A, E and D status during pregnancy and birth weight. A total of 19,640 women with singleton deliveries from a retrospective study were included. Data were collected by the hospital electronic information system. Maternal serum vitamin A, E and D concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the association between the vitamins status and low birth weight (LBW) or macrosomia. Women with excessive v...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 4, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Yang W, Jiao M, Xi L, Han N, Luo S, Xu X, Zhou Q, Wang H Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Decline of nutritional status in the first week of hospitalization predicts longer length of stay and hospital readmission during six-month follow-up.
In conclusion, deterioration of NS was more often identified by severe weight loss than by decline in SGA category. While both methods were associated with prolonged LOS, only changes in SGA predicted hospital readmission. These findings reinforce the importance of nutritional monitoring and provide guidance for further research to prevent short-term NS deterioration from being left undetected. PMID: 32878650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Nutrition)
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 3, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Lima J, Teixeira PP, Eckert IDC, Burgel CF, Silva FM Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Dietary fibre intake and its associations with depressive symptoms in a prospective adolescent cohort.
We examined the association between dietary fibre intake (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) food frequency questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Youth Beck Depression Inventory) in adolescents with prospective data from the Raine Study Gen2 14- and 17-year follow-ups (n=1260 and 653). Odds of moderate/extreme (clinically relevant) depressive symptoms by quartile of fibre intake were calculated using mixed-effects logistic regression for all participants, in a paired sample without moderate/extreme depressive symptoms at year 14, and in a sub-sample of participants with available inflamm...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 3, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Swann OG, Breslin M, Kilpatrick M, O'Sullivan TA, Mori TA, Beilin LJ, Lin A, Oddy WH Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Prospective associations of the original Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system and three variants with weight gain, overweight and obesity risk: results from the French NutriNet-Sant é cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthier diets defined using the Food Standards Agency-NPS and related systems were associated with weight gain and overweight risk, which is an important indicator of one validity dimension of NPSs, supporting their use in public policies for diet-related chronic diseases prevention. PMID: 32878658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Nutrition)
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 3, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Egnell M, Seconda L, Neal B, Mhurchu CN, Rayner M, Jones A, Touvier M, Kesse-Guyot E, Hercberg S, Julia C Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Consumption of ultra-processed foods and non-communicable diseases-related nutrient profile in Portuguese adults and elderly (2015-2016): The Upper project.
This study aims to investigate the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and its association with non-communicable diseases (NCDs)-related nutrient profile of adult and elderly population in Portugal. Cross-sectional data from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2015-2016) of the Portuguese population has been analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls and food items were classified according to the NOVA system. We estimated the percentage of dietary energy provided by each of the NOVA food groups and assessed the NCD-related nutrient profile of the overall diet across...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 3, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: de Miranda RC, Rauber F, de Moraes MM, Afonso C, Santos C, Rodrigues S, Levy RB, Upper group Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Mortality in relation to profiles of clinical features in Ghanaian severely undernourished children aged 0 - 59 months - an observational study.
Abstract Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with a complex pattern of various clinical conditions. We investigated how risk factors cluster in children with SAM, the relationship between clusters of risk factors and mortality as well as length of stay in children with SAM. A prospective observational study design was used. Data were extracted from medical records of 601 infants and children aged 0-59 months admitted and treated for SAM in three Ghanaian referral hospital between June 2013-June 2018. Among the 601 medical records extracted, 99 died. Three clusters of medical features clearly emerged from...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 2, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Asare H, Carboo J, Nel ED, Dolman RC, Conradie C, Lombard MJ, Ricci C Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Increased vegetable and fruit intake is associated with reduced failure rate of tuberculosis treatment: a hospital-based cohort study in China.
Abstract Increased intake of vegetables and fruits has been associated with reduced risk of tuberculosis infection. Vegetables and fruits exert immunoregulatory effects and may be beneficial for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. However, it is not clear whether vegetables and fruits have an adjuvant treatment effect on tuberculosis. Furthermore, limited research has been conducted on the effects of colour categories and specific types of vegetables on tuberculosis treatment outcome. Between 2009 and 2013, a hospital-based cohort study was conducted in Linyi, Shandong Province, China. Treatment outcome was ascertain...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 2, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Xu L, Wang J, Zhao S, Zhang J, Xiong K, Cai J, Wang Q, Lin S, Ma Y, Ma A Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Associations of early-year exposure to famine with abdominal fat accumulation are independent of family history of diabetes and physical activity.
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the association of early-year exposure to famine with abdominal fat accumulation and function, and further evaluate the influence of first-degree family history of diabetes and physical activity on this association. The present work analyzed parts of the REACTION study. A total of 3033 women were enrolled. Central obesity was defined as waist circumferences (W) ≥ 85 cm. Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was used to evaluate visceral adipose distribution and function. Partial correlation analysis showed body mass index (BMI), W, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and C...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 2, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Hu X, Wen J, Yu W, Yang L, Pan W, Xu K, Chen X, Li Q, Chen G, Gu X Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Beneficial effect on serum cholesterol levels, but not glycaemic regulation, after replacing SFA with PUFA for three days: a randomised crossover trial.
e-Hansen VH Abstract Replacing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces serum cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease risk. The effect on glycaemic regulation is however, less clear. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the short-term effect of replacing dietary SFA with PUFA on glycaemic regulation.Seventeen healthy, normal-weight participants completed a 25-day double blind, randomised, and controlled, two-period crossover study. Participants were allocated to either interventions with PUFA products or SFA products (control) in a random ord...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 2, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gaundal L, Myhrstad MCW, Leder L, Byfuglien MG, Gjøvaag T, Rud I, Retterstøl K, Holven KB, Ulven SM, Telle-Hansen VH Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Nutritional Contributions of Food Pantries and Other Sources to the Diets of Rural, Midwestern Food Pantry Users in the U.S.
Abstract Food pantries provide free food to individuals at nutritional risk given lack of available foods. Frequent use of food pantries is associated with higher dietary quality; however, neither the nutrient contributions of food pantries to participant diets, nor their relationship with household food security are known. This cross-sectional analysis used secondary data from rural food pantry participants, including sociodemographic characteristics, household food security, and 24-hour recalls. Mean intakes of selected food groups and nutrients from food pantries, supermarkets, other stores and restaurants, and...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 2, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Liu Y, Desmond NE, Wright BN, Bailey RL, Dong T, Craig BA, Eicher-Miller HA Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Restricted vs unrestricted oral intake in high output end-jejunostomy patients referred to reconstructive surgery.
CONCLUSION: Restricted oral intake seems to be more effective for prevention of HPN-related complications and shortening of time to surgery. Unrestricted oral intake appears to provoke uncontrolled losses of body energy and protein, inhibiting weight gain. PMID: 32873362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Nutrition)
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 2, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Sobocki J, Zaczek Z, Jurczak P, Lachowicz K, Kunecki M, Groszek P, Majewska K, Panczyk M, Forbes A Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Effect of temperature and/or sweetness of beverages on body composition in rats.
Abstract Sweetened beverages are associated with obesity, but the failure of non-caloric sweeteners to curb obesity suggests that other elements are involved. In addition, beverages are mainly consumed cold, and humans activate various processes when exposed to external temperature variations. However, the effect of internal temperature variations through the ingestion of cold beverages is far from clear. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the temperature of the beverages on body composition. Sprague Dawley rats (5-6week-old males) had free access to food and beverage for 8 weeks. Energy i...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - September 1, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ragi ME, El-Helou N, El-Mallah C, Eid A, Obeid OA Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Dietary lipid and n-3 LC-PUFA levels impact growth performance and lipid metabolism of juvenile mud crab, Scylla paramamosain.
Abstract An 8 weeks feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA levels on growth performance, tissue fatty acid profiles and relative expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain). Ten isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain five n-3 LC-PUFA levels at 7 % and 12 % dietary lipid levels. Highest weight gain and specific growth rate were observed in crabs fed the diets with 19.8 and 13.2 mg g-1 n-3 LC-PUFA at 7 % and 12 % lipid, respectively. Moisture and lipid contents in hepatopancreas and muscle were significantly influenced by dietary n-3...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 28, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Wang X, Jin M, Cheng X, Luo J, Jiao L, Betancor MB, Tocher DR, Zhou Q Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Nutritional status, diet and viral respiratory infections: perspectives for SARS-CoV-2.
Abstract COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic in 2020. Host preparation to combat the virus is an important strategy to avoid COVID-19 severity. Thus, the relationship between eating habits, nutritional status, and their effects on the immune response and further implications in viral respiratory infections are important topics discussed in this revision. Malnutrition causes the most diverse alterations in the immune system, suppressing of the immune response and increasing the susceptibility to infecti...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 26, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Morais AHA, Aquino JS, Silva-Maia JKD, Vale SHL, Maciel BLL, Passos TS Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

The effect of soy consumption on inflammatory biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.
Abstract Inflammation is a major cause of chronic diseases. Several studies have investigated the effects of soy intake on inflammatory biomarkers; however, the results are equivocal. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that evaluated the effect of soy consumption on inflammatory biomarkers. Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar were systematically searched, up to and including May 2020, for clinical trials that evaluated the effects of soy and soy products on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-2...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 20, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Rezazadegan M, Mirjalili F, Clark CCT, Rouhani MH Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Impact of improving eating habits and rosmarinic acid supplementation on rat vascular and neuronal system in the metabolic syndrome model.
Abstract Decreasing high fat and high carbohydrate intake, together with the administration of natural bioactive drugs is assumed to have a protective effect in the prevention and amelioration of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of diet improvement and/or a phenolic compound - rosmarinic acid (RA) administration (100 mg/kg/day) on metabolic as well as functional changes of vessels and hippocampus caused by MetS-like conditions. MetS-like conditions were induced by high-fat-fructose diet (HFFD) in Prague hereditary hypertriacylglycerolemic rats. The effect of diet improvement ...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 20, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Michalikova D, Tyukos Kaprinay B, Brnoliakova Z, Sasvariova M, Krenek P, Babiak E, Frimmel K, Bittner Fialova S, Stankovicova T, Sotnikova R, Gasparova Z Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

1H NMR metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal urinary metabolites as biomarker candidates in response to protein undernutrition in adult rats.
In conclusion, urinary taurine and TMAO levels substantially responded to protein undernutrition. Furthermore, changes in hepatic levels of these metabolites and gene expressions associated with their metabolic pathways were also reflected in their fluctuating urinary levels. Thus, taurine and TMAO could act as non-invasive urinary biomarker candidates to detect protein undernutrition. PMID: 32814607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Nutrition)
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 20, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Komatsu Y, Wada Y, Izumi H, Shimizu T, Takeda Y, Aizawa T Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Salt taste perception and blood pressure levels in population-based samples: the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS).
In conclusion, the high thresholds of salt perception were inversely associated with salt intake for Akita middle-aged men and with blood pressure levels for Akita middle-aged and elderly men and middle-aged women. PMID: 32814612 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Nutrition)
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 20, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Kudo A, Kitamura A, Imano H, Cui R, Umesawa M, Yamagishi K, Ohira T, Muraki I, Hayama-Terada M, Kiyama M, Iso H, for CIRCS Investigators Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Nutritional status of micronutrients as a possible and modifiable risk factor for COVID-19: a UK perspective.
Abstract Recent scientific evidence has indicated that the elderly have increased risk of COVID-19 infections, with over-70s and 80s being hardest hit-especially residents of care homes and in clinical settings, ethnic minorities, people who work indoors and those who are overweight and obese. Other potential risk factors include lack of exposure to sunlight, darker skin pigmentation, comorbidities, poor diet, certain medications, disadvantaged social and economic status, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol. A key question is to understand how and why certain groups of people...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 20, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Richardson DP, Lovegrove JA Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Dietary changes in early-stage breast cancer patients from pre-surgery and over the 12 months post-surgery.
In conclusion, breast cancer patients reported only minor dietary changes from 12 months pre-surgery and during the 12 months post-surgery. PMID: 32811572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Nutrition)
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Brunvoll SH, Thune I, Bertheussen GF, Fjeldheim F, Flote VG, Frydenberg H, Lundgren S, Skjerven H, Lømo J, Fagerland MW, McTiernan A, Schlichting E, Hjartåker A Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Sugar sweetened beverage consumption is associated with visceral fat in children.
Abstract Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with visceral fat partitioning in adults, however the underlying mechanisms in childhood remain unclear and warrant exploration. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between SSB consumption and body fat in children aged 9-13y and the potential modifying effect of children's sex and serum cortisol levels. A sample of n=2665 Greek schoolchildren participated in the 'Healthy Growth Study' and anthropometric, body composition, dietary intake, and serum cortisol data were assessed. SSB was defined as low (2 servings/d). W...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gallagher C, Moschonis G, Lambert KA, Karaglani E, Mavrogianni C, Gavrili S, Manios Y, Erbas B Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Long-term vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment in middle-aged male mice.
This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment. All mice except controls were fed with vitamin D deficient (VDD) diets, beginning from their early life. The absolute and relative kidney weights on postnatal week (PNW)20 were decreased in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in female pups. A mild pathological damage was observed in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in females. Further analysis showed that VDD-induced pathological damage was aggravated, accompanied by renal disfunction in 40-week-old male pups. An obvious collagen deposition was observed in VDD diet-fed...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zhang ZH, Luo B, Xu S, Zhang ZC, Xing WY, Chen YH, Zhang C, Wang H, Xie DD, Xu DX Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Effects of dietary terrestrial oils supplemented with L-carnitine on growth, antioxidant capacity, lipid metabolism and inflammation in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).
In conclusion, these results suggested that the supplementation of 800 mg/kg L-carnitine in the diet with terrestrial oils mixture could increase growth, antioxidant capacity, fatty acid oxidation and decrease the expression of inflammatory genes in large yellow croaker. PMID: 32812526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Nutrition)
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 19, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Li X, Chen Q, Chen Q, Mai K, Ai Q Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Relative validity of food frequency questionnaires to assess food items, energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake in children and adolescents: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
This study aimed to evaluate the relative validity of FFQs, in comparison with other methods, in assessing dietary intake of children and adolescents, through a systematic review. Four electronic databases (Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) found 67 articles, which met the inclusion criteria (healthy children and adolescents from 3 to 18 years; journal articles written in English, Spanish and Portuguese between 1988 and March 2019; results showing the comparison between the FFQ with other methods of assessment of dietary intake). The articles were analyzed by two independent reviewers. A meta-analysis was conducte...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 18, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Saravia L, Miguel-Berges ML, Iglesia I, Nascimento-Ferreira MV, Perdomo G, Bove I, Slater B, Moreno LA Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Comparing the effects of whey and casein supplementation on nutritional status and immune parameters in patients with chronic liver disease - a randomized double-blind controlled trial.
This study compared the effects of whey protein isolate (WP) and casein (CA) supplementation on nutritional status and immune parameters of CLD patients who were randomly assigned to take 20 g of WP or CA twice a day as a supplement for 15 days. Body composition, muscle functionality and plasmatic immunomarkers were assessed before and after supplementation. Patients were also classified according to the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) into less (MELD
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 18, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Mizubuti YGG, Vieira ELM, Silva TA, d'Alessandro MO, Generoso SV, Teixeira AL, Lima AS, Correia MITD Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Influence of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
, Gomes KB Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined as a reproductive endocrine disease that results in a low-grade inflammatory and prooxidant state. Dietary factors, including omega-3 fatty acids, may have a key role in improving metabolic disorders in PCOS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in patients with PCOS. A systematic literature search of Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus and Lilacs, until November 2019, was conducted. Randomized clinical trials ...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 17, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Tosatti JAG, Alves MT, Cândido AL, Reis FM, Araújo VE, Gomes KB Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Association between consumption frequency of honey and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: results from a cross-sectional analysis based on the TCLSIH Cohort Study.
Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence has suggested the protective effects of honey consumption against metabolic syndrome, but the association between honey intake and NAFLD is still unclear. We investigated how the consumption frequency of honey was associated with NAFLD in the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 21,979 adults aged 20-90 years. NAFLD was diagnosed based on the ultrasound-diagnosed fatty liver without significant alcohol intake and other liver diseases. Diet information, including consumption freq...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 17, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Zhang S, Wu X, Bian S, Zhang Q, Liu L, Meng G, Yao Z, Wu H, Gu Y, Wang Y, Sun S, Wang X, Zhou M, Jia Q, Song K, Niu K Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Association of Organic Food Consumption with Obesity in a Nationally Representative Sample.
We present the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study assessing the association of organic food consumption with BMI and obesity in a representative lifespan French sample (INCA3 study). Objective methods were used to measure BMI and several potentially confounding variables were controlled for. In total, 1,775 children and adolescents, and 2,121 adults underwent anthropometric measurements and completed questionnaires concerning their dietary habits and lifestyle. Unadjusted models systematically revealed negative associations between organic food consumption and both BMI and obesity across all age groups. The...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 17, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gosling CJ, Goncalves A, Ehrminger M, Valliant R Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Validation and calibration of the Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) for children, used in the Growing Up Milk - Lite (GUMLi) randomised controlled trial.
Abstract The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk - Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015-2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and cali...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 17, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Lovell AL, Davies PSW, Hill RJ, Milne T, Matsuyama M, Jiang Y, Chen RX, Heath AM, Grant CC, Wall CR Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Effects of maternal supplementation with fully oxidised β-carotene on the reproductive performance and immune response of sows, as well as the growth performance of nursing piglets.
Effects of maternal supplementation with fully oxidised β-carotene on the reproductive performance and immune response of sows, as well as the growth performance of nursing piglets. Br J Nutr. 2020 Aug 14;:1-9 Authors: Chen J, Chen J, Zhang Y, Lv Y, Qiao H, Tian M, Cheng L, Chen F, Zhang S, Guan W Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dietary fully oxidised β-carotene (OxBC, C40H60O15) supplementation during the perinatal period on immune status and productivity in a sow model. At day 85 of pregnancy, 150 sows were allocated to one of three dietary treatments wit...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chen J, Chen J, Zhang Y, Lv Y, Qiao H, Tian M, Cheng L, Chen F, Zhang S, Guan W Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

The impact of EPA and DHA on ceramide lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome.
Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia. Consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) enriched in saturated fatty acids leads to the accumulation of ceramide (Cer), the central molecule in sphingolipid metabolism. Elevations in plasma and tissue Cer are found in obese individuals, and there is evidence to suggest Cer lipotoxicity contributes to MetS. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown to improve MetS parameters including IR, inflammation and hypertriglyceridemia; however, whether these impr...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Walchuk C, Wang Y, Suh M Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Consumption of ultra-processed foods and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that high consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) is associated with an increase in non-communicable diseases, overweight and obesity. The present study systematically reviewed all observational studies that investigated the association between UPF consumption and health status. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar was conducted, and reference lists of included articles were checked. Only cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies were included. At the end of the selection process, twenty-three studies (ten cross-sectional...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Pagliai G, Dinu M, Madarena MP, Bonaccio M, Iacoviello L, Sofi F Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Insufficient dietary choline aggravates disease severity in a mouse model of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.
Abstract Dietary choline, which is converted to phosphatidylcholine (PC) in intestinal enterocytes, may benefit inflammatory bowel disease patients who typically have reduced intestinal choline and PC. The present study investigated the effect of dietary choline supplementation on colitis severity and intestinal mucosal homoeostasis using a Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis model. C57BL/6J mice were fed three isoenergetic diets differing in choline level: choline-deficient (CD), choline-sufficient (CS) and choline-excess (CE) for 3 weeks prior to infection with C. rodentium. The effect of dietary choline level...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Ju T, Kennelly JP, Jacobs RL, Willing BP Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research

Maternal supplementation with uridine influences fatty acids and amino acids constituents of offspring in a sow-piglet model.
The objective of the current study was to investigate the cumulative effects of maternal supplementation with nucleotides in the form of uridine (UR) on fatty acids and amino acids constituents of neonatal piglets. A total of 52 pregnant sows with similar parity were assigned randomly and equally into the control (CON) group (fed a basal diet) or UR group (fed a basal diet with 150g/t UR). The experiment started on d 85 of gestation and ended on the day of delivery. The reproductive performance was recorded, and placenta, blood and liver samples of neonatal piglets were collected before consuming colostrum during farrowing...
Source: The British Journal of Nutrition - August 14, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Gao LM, Liu YL, Zhou X, Zhang Y, Wu X, Yin YL Tags: Br J Nutr Source Type: research