Meaningful Consent From a Willfully Noninformed Patient
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Michael E. Bowdish, Peter F. Crookes (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Delegating Decision-Making Authority To a Surrogate
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Lainie Friedman Ross (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

An Exploration of Myths, Barriers, and Strategies for Improving Diversity Among STS Members
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Leah M. Backhus, Jacques Kpodonu, Jennifer C. Romano, Glenn J. Pelletier, Ourania Preventza, David T. CookeDiversity within health care organizations has many proven benefits, yet women and other groups remain underrepresented in cardiothoracic surgery. We sought to explore responses from a Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) survey to identify myths and barriers for informing organizational strategies in the STS and cardiothoracic surgery. We performed a qualitative review of narrative survey responses within three domains ...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database 2019 Annual Report
This article provides the fourth annual summary of the status of the STS National Database. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Patient Satisfaction After Lung Cancer Surgery: Do Clinical Outcomes Affect Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Care Providers and Systems Scores?
ConclusionsOverall HCAHPS satisfaction scores after lung resection for cancer were high and were negatively associated with increasing length of stay. Patient satisfaction may be affected more by the perception of effective communication during prolonged hospitalizations than by complications. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Salvage Surgery After Chemotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy for Initially Unresectable Lung Carcinoma
ConclusionsAlthough cardiopulmonary complications can accompany salvage surgery, the procedure is generally safe. Survival outcome is encouraging, especially in cases with good response to initial treatment. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Should Pathologically Noninvasive Lung Adenocarcinoma Larger Than 3 cm Be Classified as T1a?
ConclusionsThere is a possibility that tumor diameter need not be a consideration for AIS classification. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Reply
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Michael C. Sinclair (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Outcomes of Repair of Kommerell Diverticulum
This study assessed outcomes of open and endovascular repair of this disorder.MethodsBetween 1997 and 2016, 152 adult patients presented with KD at Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, OH), 87 had no intervention, and 65 underwent open repair (n = 55; 19 elephant trunk [ET] procedures [9 with aortic dissection], including 7 frozen ET, and completions with 5 thoracic endovascular aortic repairs, 2 open, and 5 lost to follow-up) or endovascular procedures (n = 10). Non-ET open KD repairs consisted of resection (n = 15), interposition graft (n = 16), patch (n = 4), or aortopexy (n = 1). Maximum KD diamet...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Invited Commentary
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Leonard N. Girardi, Christopher H. Lau (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Invited Commentary
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Vincent Chauvette, Ismail El-Hamamsy (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Single-Stage Management of Dynamic Malperfusion Using a Novel Arch Remodeling Hybrid Graft
ConclusionsThe AMDS provides an effective single-stage malperfusion management strategy. In this study, dynamic malperfusion involving supraaortic, visceral, spinal cord, and lower extremities were treated concurrently with the index standard-of-care operation without delay in life-saving care. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Invited Commentary
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): George L. Hicks (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Invited Commentary
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Bruce D. Spiess (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Early and Midterm Outcomes in High-risk Single-ventricle Patients: Hybrid Vs Norwood Palliation
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Christopher T. Sower, Jennifer C. Romano, Sunkyung Yu, Ray Lowery, Sara K. Pasquali, Jeffrey D. ZampiBackgroundAlthough overall outcomes have improved for single-ventricle patients, substantial morbidity and mortality remain for certain high-risk groups. The hybrid stage I procedure is an alternative to the Norwood operation for stage I palliation, but it remains unclear whether it is associated with improved outcomes in high-risk patients.MethodsThis single-center, nested, case-control study included high-risk patients wit...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Invited Commentary
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Paul J. Chai (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Safety and Efficacy of Vasopressin After Fontan Completion: A Randomized Pilot Study
ConclusionsVasopressin infusion after Fontan completion appears safe and was associated with reduced transpulmonary gradient and chest tube drainage in the early postoperative period. A larger multiinstitutional study may show further outcome benefit. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Surgical Repair of Ebstein’s Anomaly Using a Bicuspidization Approach
ConclusionsThe bicuspidization surgical technique resulted in 91% percent of patients undergoing a successful initial repair. These results suggest this technique may be a viable alternative to the “cone” procedure. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Multicenter Experience With 500 CardioCel Implants Used for the Repair of Congenital Heart Defects
ConclusionsCardioCel has good durability when used for the repair of congenital heart defects. It performs comparably in the systemic and pulmonary circulations in neonates, infants, and older children. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

American Board of Thoracic Surgery 10-Year Maintenance of Certification Exam Improves and Validates Knowledge Acquisition
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Yolonda L. Colson, Joe B. Putnam, Stephen C. Yang, James I. Fann, Ara A. Vaporciyan, Joseph A. Dearani, David R. Jones, Mark S. Allen, Bryan F. Meyers, Cameron D. Wright, Richard J. Shemin, William A. Baumgartner, David A. FullertonBackgroundPrevious “high-stakes” examinations by the American Board of Thoracic Surgery (ABTS) required remote testing, were noneducational, and were not tailored to individual practices. Given the ABTS mission of public safety and diplomate education, the ABTS Maintenance of Certific...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

A Potentially Malignant Giant Esophageal Paraganglioma
We report a 39-year-old man with a giant high-risk esophageal paraganglioma who underwent a hybrid minimally invasive 3-hole esophagectomy. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Pneumonectomy for Complications of Congenital Pulmonary Venous Stenosis
In this report, we describe a 37-year-old woman with known congenital unilateral pulmonary venous stenosis and a unilateral hypoplastic right pulmonary artery who presented with recurrent episodes of hemoptysis, requiring multiple catheter-based interventions, and symptomatic pleural effusions, requiring multiple large-volume thoracenteses. The patient underwent successful video-assisted thoracoscopic pneumonectomy with resolution of symptoms. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Reoperation With Coronary Reimplantation After Takeuchi Repair of Bland-White-Garland Syndrome
We present a 1-year-old boy with Bland-White-Garland syndrome (anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery) who underwent coronary reimplantation. He had previously undergone a Takeuchi procedure at 7 months of age. He was hospitalized because the patency of the intrapulmonary tunnel to the left coronary could not be confirmed by routine computed tomography in an outpatient facility. The left coronary reimplantation was performed by extending the coronary artery with an autologous pulmonary artery wall. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient’s left ventricular function had imp...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Transconal Unroofing of Anomalous Left Main Coronary Artery From Right Sinus With Trans-septal Course
We describe a novel transconal approach to effectively unroof the trans-septal left main coronary artery. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Partial Resection of a Huge Left Ventricle Cardiac Fibroma in an Asymptomatic Child
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Haisong Bu, Yibo Gong, Li XieAn asymptomatic, 9-year-old boy was referred to our institution for a left ventricular cardiac mass incidentally discovered during a medical examination. The patient was asymptomatic and physical examination was unremarkable. Chest radiography showed an abnormal heart shadow in the left ventricle field. Echocardiography revealed an echo-bright mass attached to the left ventricle free wall with mitral obstruction or compromise to the flow. Computed tomography was performed, from which a large, we...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Combined Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery With Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation: Are We There Yet?
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Kamal S. Ayyat, Ahmed Argawi, Meinhard Mende, Gustav Steinhoff, Michael A. Borger, Ahmed M. Deebis, Kenneth R. McCurry, Jens GarbadeBackgroundAlthough the safety and feasibility of combined coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) transplantation have been proven, the efficacy of this approach remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of this procedure.MethodsElectronic databases were systematically searched...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Optimal Management to Maintain Fontan-like Circulation During Left Ventricular Assist Device Support
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Teruhiko Imamura (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Reply
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Naoto Fukunaga, Vivek Rao (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Reply
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Lawrence M. Wei, J. Scott Rankin, Vinay Badhwar (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Length of Intensive Care Unit Stay: An Unneglectable Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Dong Tian, Yu Wang, Long-Qi Chen (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Reply
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Mikita Fuchita, Sikandar H. Khan, Babar A. Khan (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

The Role of Anatomic Resection in Pulmonary Metastasectomy
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Hu Liao, Zhilan Xiao (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Reply
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): John R. Handy, Michael Lanuti (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Fostering the Future of Cardiac Surgery Around the World
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 108, Issue 6Author(s): Dominique Vervoort, Jessica G.Y. Luc (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Avoiding manipulation of the aorta reduces the adverse events: of course, but which manipulations?
PMID: 31765614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Specchia L, Melone M, Santarpino G Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

A rare cause of misplaced port catheter: episternal ossicles with abundant fibrous capsule.
PMID: 31765615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Lee HY, Huang WL, Cheng LL, Huang LT Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Multiple pulmonary resections for Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Cancer at Two Chinese Centers.
CONCLUSIONS: MPR is valid for patients with synchronous and metachronous LCMPS. PMID: 31765616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Kang X, Zhang C, Zhou H, Zhang J, Yan W, Zhong WZ, Chen KN Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

It is not Hemi-Mustard nor Hemi-Senning: It is the clock that ticks (Reply).
PMID: 31765617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Francois K Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Modified Blood Patch Used to Treat a High Output Chyle Leak after McKeown Esophagectomy.
We report a case of a post McKeown esophagectomy patient with a high output chyle leak despite intraoperative thoracic duct ligation, which was successfully treated with a modified blood patch through a neck drain. PMID: 31765618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Sesti J, Luker J, Decker J, Paul S Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Impact of phrenic nerve palsy on late Fontan circulation (Commentary).
PMID: 31765619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Hsia TY Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Sternal Reconstruction Using Customized 3D-Printed Titanium Implants.
In this report we describe the use of custom-designed 3D-printed titanium implants to reconstruct the anterior chest wall, including the sternum and adjacent ribs, in two patients. These are the first cases to be reported in the USA, and amongst a handful performed around the world. PMID: 31765620 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Kamel MK, Cheng A, Vaughan B, Stiles B, Altorki N, Spector JA, Port JL Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Rescue aortic root replacement for endocarditis after TAVR.
PMID: 31765621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Bagozzi L, Bottio T, Gerosa G Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Successful treatment of bronchial obstruction after lobectomy in a patient with scoliosis.
Abstract Scoliosis can cause various respiratory complications, even in the natural course, because of rearrangement of the intrathoracic anatomy due to chest wall deformity. We experienced a patient with scoliosis who developed acute respiratory failure due to bronchial obstruction induced by bronchial compression by the dorsal thoracic vertebra after right upper lobectomy for cancer. The symptom resolved after mobilization of the ipsilateral lower lobe which was achieved by releasing the inferior pulmonary vein by U-shaped pericardial dissection with division of the pulmonary ligament. When planning lobectomy fo...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 22, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Aoki M, Ueda K, Maeda K, Morizono S, Umehara T, Kariatsumari K, Tokuda Y, Kamimura G, Takeda AH, Nagata T, Sato M Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Left Ventricular Reconstruction With Mitral Surgery. Do not delay and continue to improve repair
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Francesco Nappi (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

The Future is Now: The 2020 Evolution of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Felix G. Fernandez (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Gossypiboma Mimicking FDG-avid Lung Nodule
We present the case of a 55 year old female presenting with a FDG-avid lung nodule 8 months after a coronary artery bypass graft procedure. This mass was later discovered to be a gossypiboma caused by retained surgical sponge material. There have been prior reports of intra-thoracic gossypiboma presenting with various imaging findings, however none that have presented as a PET-avid lung nodule mimicking a malignancy.Retained surgical sponge material can be a complication for both intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic procedures. In some cases, this material is not discovered in the immediate post-operative period and presents...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Surgical treatment in patients with aortic regurgitation due to Takayasu arteritis
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Ying Zhang, Peng Fan, Huimin Zhang, Wenjun Ma, Lei Song, Haiying Wu, Jun Cai, Xianliang ZhouAbstractBackgroundAortic regurgitation is a common complication in patients with Takayasu arteritis. Severe aortic regurgitation requires surgical treatment. We investigated the outcomes of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and composite graft replacement (CGR) in patients with Takayasu arteritis and aortic regurgitation.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the data of 41 patients with TA and aortic regurgitation treated by AVR (n = 23) an...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Impact of Substance Use Disorder on Midterm Mortality after Valve Surgery for Endocarditis (Commentary)
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Javier G. Castillo (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Valve interstitial cell-specific cyclooxygenase-1 associated with calcification of aortic valves.
CONCLUSIONS: VIC-specific COX1 overexpression played a crucial role in calcification by promoting osteoblast differentiation in aortic valve tissues. PMID: 31760051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Sakaue T, Hamaguchi M, Aono J, Nakashiro KI, Shikata F, Kawakami N, Oshima Y, Kurata M, Nanba D, Masumoto J, Yamaguchi O, Higashiyama S, Izutani H Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Modified transcatheter Hufnagel procedure as a bridge to surgical aortic valve replacement.
This report illustrates a potential role of modified Hufnagel's procedure as a bridge to definitive surgery. PMID: 31760052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Fukuhara S, Hobbs R, Chetcuti SJ, Patel HJ Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research