Systemic social and emotional learning: Promoting educational success for all preschool to high school students.
Abstract Social and emotional learning (SEL) has become more central to education because of demand from educators, parents, students, and business leaders alongside rigorous research showing broad, positive impacts for students and adults. However, all approaches to SEL are not equal. Systemic SEL is an approach to create equitable learning conditions that actively involve all Pre-K to Grade 12 students in learning and practicing social, emotional, and academic competencies. These conditions require aligned policies, resources, and actions at state and district levels that encourage local schools and communities ...
Source: The American Psychologist - October 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mahoney JL, Weissberg RP, Greenberg MT, Dusenbury L, Jagers RJ, Niemi K, Schlinger M, Schlund J, Shriver TP, VanAusdal K, Yoder N Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Ronald Melzack (1929-2019).
Abstract Presents an obituary of Ronald Melzack (1929-2019). Melzack died on Sunday, December 22, 2019, at 10:00 p.m. News of his death spread like wildfire through the network of long-time friends and colleagues who had heard of his imminent passing. At that moment, the world lost a compassionate and caring soul, an advocate for chronic pain sufferers around the globe, and a giant in the international pain community. He is survived by his wife of 59 years, Lucy (née Birch), their son, Joel, and daughter, Lauren. Ron is known for four major accomplishments: establishing Canada's first multidisciplinary pain...
Source: The American Psychologist - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Katz J Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Judith Rich Harris (1938-2019).
Abstract Presents an obituary of Judith Rich Harris (1938-2019). Judith Rich was born in Brooklyn on February 10, 1938, the daughter of Sam and Fran Lichtman Rich. After a freshman year at the University of Arizona, she earned a bachelor's degree in psychology at Brandeis in 1959. She earned a master's degree from Harvard in 1961 and later that year married her fellow graduate student Charles Harris, who became a researcher in visual perception at AT&T Bell Labs. From the 1960s through the 1980s, she published experimental papers in perception and visual search, including one with S. S. Stevens, a pioneer in m...
Source: The American Psychologist - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pinker S Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Lawrence S. Wrightsman (1931-2019).
Abstract Presents an obituary of Lawrence S. Wrightsman (1931-2019). Lawrence ("Larry") Samuel Wrightsman Jr. was born in Houston, Texas, on October 31, 1931, son of a schoolteacher and a petroleum engineer, and was raised in the River Oaks neighborhood. In the early 1940s, Wrightsman participated in a national radio show called Quiz Kids while 10 years old and still in elementary school; he later described this as his "intellectual peak." Larry majored in psychology at Southern Methodist University, minoring in journalism. He served as editor of the college newspaper and worked as a reporter f...
Source: The American Psychologist - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Crandall CS, Brigham JC, Kassin SM Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

John F. Santos (1924-2020).
Abstract John F. Santos, a pioneer in gerontology, was born May 23, 1924, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Following World War II Army service, he completed bachelor's, master's, and doctorate degrees in psychology from Tulane University (PhD, 1958). John married Mary Alice Nesmith in 1946. They had five children. Recognition of Santos's service and contributions included APA's Division 20 fellow (1985), the division's 2006 Lifetime Achievement Award for Continuous Support of Research & Training in the Psychology of Adult Development and Aging, and the 2009 creation of the John Santos Distinguished Program Developme...
Source: The American Psychologist - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: McIntosh JL, Hubbard RW Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Bonnie Burstow (1945-2020).
Abstract Bonnie Burstow, PhD, a university professor, feminist psychotherapist, and antipsychiatry activist and scholar, died on January 4, 2020, in Toronto, Canada. Bonnie Judith Grower was born on March 6, 1945, in Winnipeg, Canada. Burstow obtained a bachelor's degree in philosophy and English (Manitoba), a master's degree in English (Toronto), a Master of Education degree in educational theory (Toronto), and a doctorate in educational theory with a focus on adult education and counseling psychology in 1982 (Toronto). She taught English, drama, social work, and adult education across various universities in Can...
Source: The American Psychologist - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Adam S Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Optimism versus pessimism as predictors of physical health: A comprehensive reanalysis of dispositional optimism research.
This article reports a reanalysis of data from previously published studies on dispositional optimism. The reanalysis was designed to evaluate whether the presence of optimism or the absence of pessimism predicted positive physical health more strongly. Relevant literatures were screened for studies relating dispositional optimism to physical health. Authors of relevant studies were asked to join a consortium, the purpose of which was to reanalyze previously published data sets separating optimism and pessimism into distinguishable components. Ultimately, data were received from 61 separate samples (N = 221,133). Meta-anal...
Source: The American Psychologist - September 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Scheier MF, Swanson JD, Barlow MA, Greenhouse JB, Wrosch C, Tindle HA Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Any time and place? Digital emotional support for digital natives.
This study assessed a sample of young adults' negative emotions, digital and in-person support for those emotions, and success in regulating them 3 times per day for 14 days (N = 164; 6,530 collective measurement occasions). Participants' social surroundings at the time of each negative emotion and trait levels of social avoidance were also considered. Digital support was expected to be received more often and perceived as more effective for regulating negative emotions when participants were alone and higher in social avoidance. However, with the exception of those higher in social avoidance receiving less digital (and in...
Source: The American Psychologist - September 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Colasante T, Lin L, De France K, Hollenstein T Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

A window into youth and family policy: State policymaker views on polarization and research utilization.
Abstract Psychologists are known for using science to influence public policymaking on criminal justice, education, health, and other specific policies. Little is known, however, about what commonalities exist across youth and family policies and, in particular, how prevalent polarization and research utilization are in political decisions. In response, this article examines how youth and family policies are positioned on the decision-making agenda and who advances them from an overlooked point of view, that of state legislators. Semistructured qualitative interviews inquired about research use, partisan polarizat...
Source: The American Psychologist - September 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bogenschneider K, Day E, Bogenschneider BN Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

How can psychology help reduce gender-based violence and misconduct on college campuses?
Abstract Psychological research has been at the forefront of efforts to document, understand, and prevent sexual harassment, sexual coercion, sexual violence, and intimate partner abuse on college campuses. Collectively, these various forms of gender-based violence and misconduct (GBVM) are highly prevalent on college campuses and exert wide-ranging negative effects on students' mental health and academic success. A recent resolution by the American Psychological Association outlined the field's research contributions and ongoing commitment to help prevent campus sexual assault. Our article builds on this initiati...
Source: The American Psychologist - September 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Webermann AR, Murphy CM Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Implications of culture of honor theory and research for practitioners and prevention researchers.
Abstract Since the seminal publication of Nisbett and Cohen in 1996 linking the higher rates of violence in the Southern United States compared with the Northern United States to a "culture of honor," researchers have paid increasing attention to conceptualizing honor and identifying its underlying psychological mechanisms and its behavioral outcomes. The concern for reputation and other values embedded in culture of honor act as potential sociocultural risk factors for several major social problems in the United States. The aim of this article is to review the recent research on culture of honor and to ...
Source: The American Psychologist - September 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gul P, Cross SE, Uskul AK Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Psychology's role in addressing the dual crises of chronic pain and opioid-related harms: Introduction to the special issue.
Abstract Chronic pain is considered a public health crisis due to its high prevalence, impact, costs, and disparities in pain prevalence and treatment. In parallel, drug overdose, particularly due to opioids, has become an epidemic in the United States, prompting a public health crisis concerning harms associated with both prescribed opioid therapy for chronic pain and illicit opioid use. The purpose of this special issue is to highlight state-of-the-art psychological research that addresses the combined issues of chronic pain and harms associated with opioids. Articles included in this special issue focus on 2 re...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Palermo TM, Kerns RD Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Patterns of opioid use in adolescents receiving prescriptions: The role of psychological and pain factors.
Abstract In the United States, adolescents are routinely prescribed opioids for management of pain. Data suggest that early opioid use, even via a legitimate prescription, can increase risk for opioid misuse. There are surprisingly little data on the nature of pain medication prescribing within pediatric medical settings and adolescent outcomes despite this being the place most youth are introduced to prescription opioids. To address this gap, the current study recruited n = 139 adolescents ages 14-18 years who were prescribed opioid medications for acute noncancer pain in pediatric outpatient medical settings. Da...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wilson AC, Morasco BJ, Holley AL, Feldstein Ewing SW Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Real-time associations between young adults' momentary pain and prescription opioid misuse intentions in daily life.
Abstract Managing pain has been identified (mainly through retrospective reports) as a robust motivator for individuals engaging in prescription opioid misuse. However, surprisingly little work has directly examined whether momentary pain experiences are associated with prescription opioid misuse in daily life. Participants included 297 young-adult college students recruited on the basis of recent prescription drug misuse. Ecological momentary assessment over a 28-day period was utilized to collect participants' pain experiences and prescription opioid misuse intention and behavior. Hierarchical generalized linear...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Papp LM, Kouros CD, Curtin JJ Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

The relative contribution of pain and psychological factors to opioid misuse: A 6-month observational study.
Abstract There is a pressing need to better understand the factors contributing to prescription opioid misuse among patients with chronic pain. Cross-sectional studies have been conducted in this area, but longitudinal studies examining the determinants of prescription opioid misuse repeatedly over the course of opioid therapy have yet to be conducted. The main objective of this study was to examine the relative contribution of pain and psychological factors to the occurrence of opioid misuse among patients with chronic pain prescribed opioids. Of particular interest was to examine whether pain intensity and psych...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Martel MO, Edwards RR, Jamison RN Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Patient race and opioid misuse history influence provider risk perceptions for future opioid-related problems.
Abstract In response to the dual public health crises of chronic pain and opioid use, providers have become more vigilant about assessing patients for risk of opioid-related problems. Little is known about how providers are making these risk assessments. Given previous studies indicating that Black patients are at increased risk for suboptimal pain care, which may be related to stereotypes about drug abuse, the current study examined how patient race and previous opioid misuse behaviors impact providers' risk assessments for future prescription opioid-related problems. Physician residents and fellows (N = 135) vie...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hirsh AT, Anastas TM, Miller MM, Quinn PD, Kroenke K Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic factor underlying co-occurring chronic pain and problematic opioid use.
Abstract Chronic pain is a common and costly condition, and some people with chronic pain engage in problematic opioid use. There is a critical need to identify factors underlying this co-occurrence, so that treatment can be targeted to improve outcomes. We propose that difficulty with emotion regulation (ER) is a transdiagnostic factor that underlies the co-occurrence of chronic pain and problematic opioid use (CP-POU). In this narrative review, we draw from prominent models of ER to summarize the literature characterizing ER in chronic pain and CP-POU. We conclude that chronic pain is associated with various ER ...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Aaron RV, Finan PH, Wegener ST, Keefe FJ, Lumley MA Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Comorbid chronic pain and opioid misuse in youth: Knowns, unknowns, and implications for behavioral treatment.
Abstract Chronic pain and opioid misuse occur in pediatric populations and can be associated with a range of negative adverse outcomes that may persist into adulthood. While the association between chronic pain, opioid prescribing, and opioid-related adverse consequences is reasonably well established in adults, the relation in pediatric patients is not well understood and the long-term impact of opioid exposure during childhood is yet to be fully revealed. The present review draws from the available literature on chronic and acute pediatric pain prevalence and treatment, opioid misuse, and adolescent substance us...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pielech M, Lunde CE, Becker SJ, Vowles KE, Sieberg CB Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Pain rehabilitation's dual power: Treatment for chronic pain and prevention of opioid-related risks.
Abstract The purpose of this article is to provide a data-driven exploration of an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program (PRP) as a viable option for addressing the dual crises of chronic pain and opioid use. Psychologists are crucial providers in the PRP, in both intervention and leadership roles. There is well-established literature supporting pain rehabilitation as an effective treatment for chronic pain and functioning, but there are few studies examining the effects of pain rehabilitation on opioid misuse risk. We evaluated data from 60 patients with diverse chronic pain conditions who completed an in...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Crouch TB, Wedin S, Kilpatrick RL, Christon L, Balliet W, Borckardt J, Barth K Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement reduces opioid dose in primary care by strengthening autonomic regulation during meditation.
Abstract The current opioid crisis was fueled by escalation of opioid dosing among patients with chronic pain. Yet, there are few evidence-based psychological interventions for opioid dose reduction among chronic pain patients treated with long-term opioid analgesics. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), which was designed to target mechanisms underpinning chronic pain and opioid misuse, has shown promising results in 2 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and could facilitate opioid sparing and tapering by bolstering self-regulation. Here we tested this hypothesis with secondary analyses of data from a ...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Garland EL, Hudak J, Hanley AW, Nakamura Y Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Contributions of psychology to research, treatment, and care of pregnant women with opioid use disorder.
Abstract The number of women with opioid use disorder (OUD) in the United States has risen precipitously. Pregnant women with OUD are a particularly vulnerable subset of addicted women with unique characteristics and needs. Many of them are impoverished, have strenuous life circumstances, are affected by past and current trauma, and have high rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Their addiction can compromise their and their infant's health, particularly without sufficient treatment including prenatal care, medication-assisted treatment (MAT), and social and behavioral care. Furthermore, these women's needs are oft...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Preis H, Inman EM, Lobel M Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Guest editorial: Psychologists aim to HEAL the opioid and pain crises.
Abstract The opioid and pain crises affect every domain of family and community life with two million Americans living with opioid addiction, and 46,802 people dying from opioid overdoses in 2018 alone (National Center for Health Statistics, 2019). In addition, over 50 million Americans experience chronic pain, and half of those people suffer from chronic pain daily. Opioids are widely used to treat acute and chronic pain, and the lack of widespread access to nonpharmacological strategies to manage pain has contributed to the misuse of opioids. In fiscal year 2018, Congress added $500 million to the NIH's base app...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wandner LD, Aklin WM, Freed MC Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Bertram H. Raven (1926-2020).
Abstract Memorializes Bertram H. Raven (1926-2020). Raven is best known for his theoretical and empirical work, beginning in the 1950s with John (Jack) French, on the bases of social power, a widely recognized framework for studying interpersonal influence. In 1956, Bert joined the UCLA faculty and played a leadership role in developing the social psychology area. Bert also served as president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and editor of the Journal of Social Issues. He was a fellow of five divisions of the American Psychological Association and received many significant recognitions. ...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Erchul WP Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Rhoda K. Unger (1939-2019).
Abstract Memorializes Rhoda K. Unger (1939-2019). Unger was a feminist empiricist psychologist who advocated for the importance of asking the right questions. Her academic work, her activism, and her engagement with psychology as a discipline were all informed by a heartfelt and enduring commitment to social justice. Laudably, she mentored, encouraged, and supported countless early career feminist scholars as they found their way in the discipline. In 1998, Rhoda became professor emerita after almost 30 years at Montclair State University and joined Brandeis University as resident scholar at the Women's Studies Re...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Capdevila R Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Bertram Paul Karon (1930-2019).
Abstract Memorializes Bertram Paul Karon (1930-2019). Karon taught in the Psychology Department at Michigan State University (MSU) from 1962 until 2010. In 1988 Karon founded the Michigan Council for Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, an organization dedicated to studying classical and contemporary psychoanalysis and training psychoanalysts and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapists. He was a fellow of several American Psychological Association (APA) divisions, served as president of Division 39 (Society for Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Psychology) in 1990-1991, and was on the APA Council of Representati...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Woody RH Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Michael A. Wallach (1933-2020).
Abstract Memorializes Michael A. Wallach (1933-2020). Mike spent most of his career as a professor of psychology at Duke University from 1962 to 2004. He was a fellow of the American Psychological Association's divisions of general psychology, experimental psychology, personality and social psychology, psychology of aesthetics, creativity and the arts, and educational psychology. Mike's early work included contributions on modes of thinking in young children, the distinction between intelligence and creativity, and risk-taking behavior. He also served as editor of the Journal of Personality from 1963 to 1972. (Psy...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Drake RE Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

The COVID-19 telepsychology revolution: A national study of pandemic-based changes in U.S. mental health care delivery.
This study used a cross-sectional, national online design to recruit 2,619 licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, psychologists performed 7.07% of their clinical work with telepsychology, which increased 12-fold to 85.53% during the pandemic, with 67.32% of psychologists conducting all of their clinical work with telepsychology. Psychologists projected that they would perform 34.96% of their clinical work via telepsychology after the pandemic. Psychologists working in outpatient treatment facilities reported over a 26-fold increase in telepsychology use during the pandemic, ...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pierce BS, Perrin PB, Tyler CM, McKee GB, Watson JD Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the workplace: Implications, issues, and insights for future research and action.
W, Shaw JD, Sirola N, Wanberg CR, Whillans A, Wilmot MP, Vugt MV Abstract The impacts of COVID-19 on workers and workplaces across the globe have been dramatic. This broad review of prior research rooted in work and organizational psychology, and related fields, is intended to make sense of the implications for employees, teams, and work organizations. This review and preview of relevant literatures focuses on (a) emergent changes in work practices (e.g., working from home, virtual teamwork) and (b) emergent changes for workers (e.g., social distancing, stress, and unemployment). In addition, potential moderating ...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kniffin KM, Narayanan J, Anseel F, Antonakis J, Ashford SP, Bakker AB, Bamberger P, Bapuji H, Bhave DP, Choi VK, Creary SJ, Demerouti E, Flynn FJ, Gelfand MJ, Greer LL, Johns G, Kesebir S, Klein PG, Lee SY, Ozcelik H, Petriglieri JL, Rothbard NP, Rudolph Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Mental health and clinical psychological science in the time of COVID-19: Challenges, opportunities, and a call to action.
ld AW, McKay D, McLaughlin KA, Mendle J, Miller AB, Neblett EW, Nock M, Olatunji BO, Persons JB, Rozek DC, Schleider JL, Slavich GM, Teachman BA, Vine V, Weinstock LM Abstract COVID-19 presents significant social, economic, and medical challenges. Because COVID-19 has already begun to precipitate huge increases in mental health problems, clinical psychological science must assert a leadership role in guiding a national response to this secondary crisis. In this article, COVID-19 is conceptualized as a unique, compounding, multidimensional stressor that will create a vast need for intervention and necessitate new p...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gruber J, Prinstein MJ, Clark LA, Rottenberg J, Abramowitz JS, Albano AM, Aldao A, Borelli JL, Chung T, Davila J, Forbes EE, Gee DG, Hall GCN, Hallion LS, Hinshaw SP, Hofmann SG, Hollon SD, Joormann J, Kazdin AE, Klein DN, La Greca AM, Levenson RW, MacDon Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Making sense of crisis: Charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic leadership in response to COVID-19.
Abstract The incursion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reached global scale in 2020, requiring a response from leaders worldwide. Although the virus is a ubiquitous problem, world leaders have varied appreciably in their responses resulting in substantially different outcomes in terms of virus mitigation, population health, and economic stability. One explanation for this inconsistency is that leaders have taken differential approaches to making sense of the crisis that, in turn, have driven their approaches to decision making and communication. The present article elaborates on the role of leaders as sense...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Crayne MP, Medeiros KE Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Religion and reactance to COVID-19 mitigation guidelines.
Abstract During the current COVID-19 pandemic, religious gatherings have become intense hot spots for the spread of the virus. In this research, we focus on the religiosity of communities to examine whether religiosity helps or hinders adherence to mitigation policies such as shelter-in-place directives. Prior research has made opposing predictions as to the influence of religiosity. One stream predicts greater adherence because of rule-abiding norms and altruistic tendencies, whereas another has predicted lower adherence as a reaction against the restriction of personal and religious freedom. We used shelter-in-p...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: DeFranza D, Lindow M, Harrison K, Mishra A, Mishra H Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

"Pride and prejudice" pathways to belonging: Implications for inclusive diversity practices within mainstream institutions.
"Pride and prejudice" pathways to belonging: Implications for inclusive diversity practices within mainstream institutions. Am Psychol. 2020 Aug 10;: Authors: Brannon TN, Lin A Abstract Within mainstream institutions such as colleges and universities, scientists and social leaders, alike, are faced with persistent and new challenges to forging paths toward inclusion among marginalized group members (e.g., Latino/a/x and African Americans). Integrating theoretical perspectives that conceptualize identity among marginalized groups as tied to culture and strengths with literatures on threat and...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brannon TN, Lin A Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Coping and tolerance of uncertainty: Predictors and mediators of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract The current pandemic wave of COVID-19 has resulted in significant uncertainty for the general public. Mental health and examining factors that may influence distress have been outlined as key research priorities to inform interventions. This research sought to examine whether intolerance of uncertainty and coping responses influence the degree of distress experienced by the U.K. general public during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a cross-sectional online questionnaire design, participants were recruited (N = 842) using snowball sampling over a 10-day period in the early "lockdown" phase of the pa...
Source: The American Psychologist - August 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rettie H, Daniels J Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

No body is expendable: Medical rationing and disability justice during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract The health threat posed by the novel coronavirus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic has particular implications for people with disabilities, including vulnerability to exposure and complications, and concerns about the role of ableism in access to treatment and medical rationing decisions. Shortages of necessary medical equipment to treat COVID-19 have prompted triage guidelines outlining the ways in which lifesaving equipment, such as mechanical ventilators and intensive care unit beds, may need to be rationed among affected individuals. In this article, we explore the realities of medical rationing, and...
Source: The American Psychologist - July 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Andrews EE, Ayers KB, Brown KS, Dunn DS, Pilarski CR Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Applying relationship science to evaluate how the COVID-19 pandemic may impact couples' relationships.
Abstract The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly altered people's daily lives and created multiple societal challenges. One important challenge of this unique stressor is maintaining well-functioning intimate relationships, which are inextricably tied to emotional and physical health. Yet research on romantic relationships shows that external stressors such as economic hardship, demanding jobs, and disasters can threaten the quality and stability of couples' relationships. Research within relationship science investigating how external stressors and existing vulnerabilities shape couple functioning c...
Source: The American Psychologist - July 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pietromonaco PR, Overall NC Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Individual differences and changes in subjective wellbeing during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This study examined changes in subjective wellbeing between December 2019 and May 2020 and how stress appraisals and coping strategies relate to individual differences and changes in subjective wellbeing during the early stages of the pandemic. Data were collected at 4 time points from 979 individuals in Germany. Results showed that, on average, life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect did not change significantly between December 2019 and March 2020 but decreased between March and May 2020. Across the latter timespan, individual differences in life satisfaction were positively related to controllability app...
Source: The American Psychologist - July 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zacher H, Rudolph CW Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Words or numbers? Communicating probability in intelligence analysis.
Abstract Intelligence analysis is fundamentally an exercise in expert judgment made under conditions of uncertainty. These judgments are used to inform consequential decisions. Following the major intelligence failure that led to the 2003 war in Iraq, intelligence organizations implemented policies for communicating probability in their assessments. Virtually all chose to convey probability using standardized linguistic lexicons in which an ordered set of select probability terms (e.g., highly likely) is associated with numeric ranges (e.g., 80-90%). We review the benefits and drawbacks of this approach, drawing o...
Source: The American Psychologist - July 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dhami MK, Mandel DR Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Expanding psychology training pathways for public policy preparedness across the professional lifespan.
Abstract Psychological and behavioral health policies are critical in the successful public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychologists trained in policy and advocacy can lead efforts to integrate psychological science and mental health considerations into policy responses to the pandemic. The authors summarize existing opportunities and propose expanding training opportunities, including undergraduate and graduate coursework, seminars, online, one-time trainings, continuing education, and postdoctoral fellowships. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved). PMID: 32686944 [PubM...
Source: The American Psychologist - July 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Glassgold JM, Wolff JR Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

COVID-19 and ageism: How positive and negative responses impact older adults and society.
This article examines positive and negative responses toward older adults in the United States during the pandemic and the consequences for older adults and society using data from the pandemic in the United States (and informed by data from other countries) as well as past theorizing and empirical research on views and treatment of older adults. Specifically, positive responses can reinforce the value of older adults, improve older adults' mental and physical health, reduce ageism, and improve intergenerational relations, whereas negative responses can have the opposite effects. However, positive responses (social distanc...
Source: The American Psychologist - July 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Monahan C, Macdonald J, Lytle A, Apriceno M, Levy SR Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Toward personalized psychotherapy: The importance of the trait-like/state-like distinction for understanding therapeutic change.
This article introduces the distinction between trait-like (TL) and state-like (SL) components of any mechanism of change (the TLSL distinction) as a potential key to the black box of psychotherapy. TL refers to individual differences between patients; SL refers to changes occurring within the patient over the course of treatment. The TLSL distinction explains why past research, which conflated the two, has produced conflicting results, and predicts the conditions under which consistent results can be obtained. Data collected so far show support for the importance of the TLSL distinction and point the way toward personaliz...
Source: The American Psychologist - July 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zilcha-Mano S Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Leveraging the power of mutual aid, coalitions, leadership, and advocacy during COVID-19.
This article describes COVID-19 as an unprecedented catalyst for social transformation that underscores the need for multilevel and cross-sectoral solutions to address systemic changes to improve health equity for all. The authors propose that the American Psychological Association (APA) and its membership can initiate systemic change, in part, by (a) supporting mutual aid organizations that prioritize the needs of vulnerable communities; (b) leveraging the efforts and strides APA psychologists have already made within the association, in the profession, and in policymaking to attend to the health equity and the needs of m...
Source: The American Psychologist - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Domínguez DG, García D, Martínez DA, Hernandez-Arriaga B Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

The psychology of American racism.
Abstract American racism is alive and well. In this essay, we amass a large body of classic and contemporary research across multiple areas of psychology (e.g., cognitive, developmental, social), as well as the broader social sciences (e.g., sociology, communication studies, public policy), and humanities (e.g., critical race studies, history, philosophy), to outline seven factors that contribute to American racism: (a) Categories, which organize people into distinct groups by promoting essentialist and normative reasoning; (b) Factions, which trigger ingroup loyalty and intergroup competition and threat; (c) Segr...
Source: The American Psychologist - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Roberts SO, Rizzo MT Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Health service psychology education and training in the time of COVID-19: Challenges and opportunities.
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to health service psychology (HSP) education and training but also presents tremendous opportunities for growth that will persist well past the resolution of this public health crisis. The present article addresses three aims in understanding the challenges and opportunities faced by the HSP education and training community. First, it describes challenges to HSP education and training created by the COVID-19 pandemic, including the need to maintain the integrity of training; facilitate trainee progress; continue clinical service delivery; manage the...
Source: The American Psychologist - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bell DJ, Self MM, Davis C, Conway F, Washburn JJ, Crepeau-Hobson F Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

The trajectory of loneliness in response to COVID-19.
Abstract Social distancing and "stay-at-home" orders are essential to contain the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19), but there is concern that these measures will increase feelings of loneliness, particularly in vulnerable groups. The present study examined change in loneliness in response to the social restriction measures taken to control the coronavirus spread. A nationwide sample of American adults (N = 1,545; 45% women; ages 18 to 98, M = 53.68, SD = 15.63) was assessed on three occasions: in late January/early February 2020 (before the outbreak), in late March (during the President's initial "15...
Source: The American Psychologist - June 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Luchetti M, Lee JH, Aschwanden D, Sesker A, Strickhouser JE, Terracciano A, Sutin AR Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Flattening the emotional distress curve: A behavioral health pandemic response strategy for COVID-19.
This article proposes a framework for managing the behavioral health impacts of the COVID-19 global pandemic. This framework aligns and should be integrated with an existing public health pandemic intervals model. It includes six phases of a behavioral health pandemic response strategy: preplanning, response readiness, response mobilization, intervention, continuation, and amelioration. The ways behavioral health specialists can capitalize on their competence in the leadership, prevention, education, service, research, and advocacy domains within each behavioral health pandemic response phase are articulated. Behavioral he...
Source: The American Psychologist - June 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kaslow NJ, Friis-Healy EA, Cattie JE, Cook SC, Crowell AL, Cullum KA, Del Rio C, Marshall-Lee ED, LoPilato AM, VanderBroek-Stice L, Ward MC, White DT, Farber EW Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown on trust, attitudes toward government, and well-being.
Abstract The contagiousness and deadliness of COVID-19 have necessitated drastic social management to halt transmission. The immediate effects of a nationwide lockdown were investigated by comparing matched samples of New Zealanders assessed before (Nprelockdown = 1,003) and during the first 18 days of lockdown (Nlockdown = 1,003). Two categories of outcomes were examined: (a) institutional trust and attitudes toward the nation and government and (b) health and well-being. Applying propensity score matching to approximate the conditions of a randomized controlled experiment, the study found that people in the pand...
Source: The American Psychologist - June 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sibley CG, Greaves LM, Satherley N, Wilson MS, Overall NC, Lee CHJ, Milojev P, Bulbulia J, Osborne D, Milfont TL, Houkamau CA, Duck IM, Vickers-Jones R, Barlow FK Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Ethical considerations for psychologists in the time of COVID-19.
Abstract Psychologists are in a position to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic through research, practice, education, and advocacy. However, concerns exist about the ethical implications associated with transitioning from face-to-face to online or virtual formats as necessitated by stay-at-home orders designed to enforce the social distancing required to flatten the curve of new COVID-19 cases. The purpose of this article is to review potential ethical issues and to provide guidance to psychologists for ethical conduct in the midst of the current crisis and its aftermath. In addition to contextualizing relevant ethi...
Source: The American Psychologist - May 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Chenneville T, Schwartz-Mette R Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Risk and resilience in family well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic poses an acute threat to the well-being of children and families due to challenges related to social disruption such as financial insecurity, caregiving burden, and confinement-related stress (e.g., crowding, changes to structure, and routine). The consequences of these difficulties are likely to be longstanding, in part because of the ways in which contextual risk permeates the structures and processes of family systems. The current article draws from pertinent literature across topic areas of acute crises and long-term, cumulative risk to illustrate the multitude of ways in which t...
Source: The American Psychologist - May 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Prime H, Wade M, Browne DT Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Rethinking adult development: Introduction to the special issue.
Abstract This is the introduction for the special issue of American Psychologist titled "Rethinking Adult Development: New Ideas for New Times." It highlights the main themes of the special issue and discusses the implications of current trends for future directions. Entry to adult family and work roles now comes later than ever before. More adults than in the past remain single, or coupled but "child-free," and fertility rates have declined, so that caring for children no longer dominates the entirety of adult life. The "knowledge economy" of today takes greater educational preparati...
Source: The American Psychologist - April 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Arnett JJ, Robinson O, Lachman ME Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

Established adulthood: A new conception of ages 30 to 45.
This article provides a new theoretical conceptualization of established adulthood, outlining its distinctiveness from emerging adulthood and midlife in terms of physical health, well-being, cognitive development, and the career-and-care-crunch of competing work and family responsibilities. We also consider variations in the timing and experience of established adulthood, including variations by gender and social class, and provide suggestions for future research. As economic and social arrangements continue to evolve, so too will this developmental period, providing fertile ground for developmental theory and research. (P...
Source: The American Psychologist - April 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mehta CM, Arnett JJ, Palmer CG, Nelson LJ Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research