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Comparative Analyses of Phenotypic Trait Covariation within and among Populations
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 18, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Kathryn S. Peiman Beren W. Robinson Source Type: research

Should I Change or Should I Go? Phenotypic Plasticity and Matching Habitat Choice in the Adaptation to Environmental Heterogeneity
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Pim Edelaar Roger Jovani Ivan Gomez-Mestre Source Type: research

Hollow Internodes Permit a Neotropical Understory Plant to Shelter Multiple Mutualistic Ant Species, Obtaining Protection and Nutrient Provisioning (Myrmecotrophy)
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 16, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Alain Dejean Fr édéric Petitclerc Arthur Compin Fr édéric Azémar Bruno Corbara Jacques H. C. Delabie C éline Leroy Source Type: research

Hybridization Associated with Cycles of Ecological Succession in a Passerine Bird
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 16, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Ren ée A. Duckworth Georgy A. Semenov Source Type: research

Historical Biogeography and Extinction in the Hawaiian Honeycreepers
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Robert E. Ricklefs Source Type: research

Effects of Clonal Reproduction on Evolutionary Lag and Evolutionary Rescue
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Maria E. Orive Michael Barfield Carlos Fernandez Robert D. Holt Source Type: research

Sex Allocation Patterns across Cooperatively Breeding Birds Do Not Support Predictions of the Repayment Hypothesis
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 9, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Nyil Khwaja Ben J. Hatchwell Robert P. Freckleton Jonathan P. Green Source Type: research

Resemblance to the Enemy ’s Eyes Underlies the Intimidating Effect of Eyespots
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 9, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Karin Kjernsmo Sami Merilaita Source Type: research

Rethinking Conventional Wisdom: Are Locally Adapted Parasites Ahead in the Coevolutionary Race?
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 9, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Scott L. Nuismer Source Type: research

Assessing the Influence of Temporal Autocorrelations on the Population Dynamics of a Disturbance Specialist Plant Population in a Random Environment
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 7, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Eric Alan Eager Diana Pilson Helen M. Alexander Brigitte Tenhumberg Source Type: research

Maladaptive Plasticity Masks the Effects of Natural Selection in the Red-Shouldered Soapberry Bug
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 3, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Meredith L. Cenzer Source Type: research

Estimation of Individual Growth Trajectories When Repeated Measures Are Missing
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 2, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Mollie E. Brooks Christopher Clements Josephine Pemberton Arpat Ozgul Source Type: research

What Are the Environmental Determinants of Phenotypic Selection? A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 2, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Christina M. Caruso Ryan A. Martin Nina Sletvold Michael B. Morrissey Michael J. Wade Kate E. Augustine Stephanie M. Carlson Andrew D. C. MacColl Adam M. Siepielski Joel G. Kingsolver Source Type: research

Kleptoparasitism and Scavenging Can Stabilize Ecosystem Dynamics
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Stefano Focardi Massimo Materassi Giacomo Innocenti Duccio Berzi Source Type: research

The Biased Evolution of Generation Time.
Abstract Many life-history traits are important determinants of the generation time. For instance, semelparous species whose adults reproduce only once have shorter generation times than iteroparous species that reproduce on several occasions, assuming equal development duration. A shorter generation time ensures a higher growth rate in stable environments where resources are in excess and is therefore a positively selected feature in this situation. In a stable and limiting environment, all combinations of traits that produce the same number of viable offspring are selectively equivalent. Here we study the neutra...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Verin M, Bourg S, Menu F, Rajon E Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.
Abstract Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I br...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Price TD Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

The Evolution of Energetic Scaling across the Vertebrate Tree of Life.
Abstract Metabolism is the link between ecology and physiology-it dictates the flow of energy through individuals and across trophic levels. Much of the predictive power of metabolic theories of ecology derives from the scaling relationship between organismal size and metabolic rate. There is growing evidence that this scaling relationship is not universal, but we have little knowledge of how it has evolved over macroevolutionary time. Here we develop a novel phylogenetic comparative method to investigate how often and in which clades the macroevolutionary dynamics of the metabolic scaling have changed. We find st...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Uyeda JC, Pennell MW, Miller ET, Maia R, McClain CR Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Phylogeny, Traits, and Biodiversity of a Neotropical Bat Assemblage: Close Relatives Show Similar Responses to Local Deforestation.
We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends. We analyzed a 5-year data set (5,011 captures) from 18 sites in a countryside landscape in southern Costa Rica using statistical models that account and correct for imperfect detection of species across sites, spatial autocorrelation, and consideration of spatial scale. Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity decreased with deforestation...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Frank HK, Frishkoff LO, Mendenhall CD, Daily GC, Hadly EA Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

A Neutral Model for the Evolution of Diet Breadth.
Abstract Variation in diet breadth among organisms is a pervasive feature of the natural world that has resisted general explanation. In particular, trade-offs in the ability to use one resource at the expense of another have been expected but rarely detected. We explore a spatial model for the evolution of specialization, motivated by studies of plant-feeding insects. The model is neutral with respect to the causes and consequences of diet breadth: the number of hosts utilized is not constrained by trade-offs, and specialization or generalization does not confer a direct advantage with respect to the persistence ...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Forister ML, Jenkins SH Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Plant Size and Competitive Dynamics along Nutrient Gradients.
Abstract Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Goldberg DE, Martina JP, Elgersma KJ, Currie WS Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Bees without Flowers: Before Peak Bloom, Diverse Native Bees Find Insect-Produced Honeydew Sugars.
Abstract Bee foragers respond to complex visual, olfactory, and extrasensory cues to optimize searches for floral rewards. Their abilities to detect and distinguish floral colors, shapes, volatiles, and ultraviolet signals and even gauge nectar availability from changes in floral humidity or electric fields are well studied. Bee foraging behaviors in the absence of floral cues, however, are rarely considered. We observed 42 species of wild bees visiting inconspicuous, nonflowering shrubs during early spring in a protected Mediterranean habitat. We determined experimentally that these bees were accessing sugary hon...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Meiners JM, Griswold TL, Harris DJ, Ernest SKM Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Quantitative Genetic Variation in, and Environmental Effects on, Pathogen Resistance and Temperature-Dependent Disease Severity in a Wild Trout.
i A Abstract Health after pathogen contact varies among individuals because of differences in pathogen load (which is limited by resistance) and disease severity in response to pathogen load (which is limited by tolerance). To understand pathogen-induced host evolution, it is critical to know not only the relative contributions of nongenetic and genetic variation to resistance and tolerance but also how they change environmentally. We quantified nongenetic and genetic variation in parasite load and the associated temperature-dependent disease among trout siblings from two rivers. We detected a genetic variance for...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Debes PV, Gross R, Vasemägi A Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Most Colorful Example of Genetic Assimilation? Exploring the Evolutionary Destiny of Recurrent Phenotypic Accommodation.
Abstract Evolution of adaptation requires both generation of novel phenotypic variation and retention of a locally beneficial subset of this variation. Such retention can be facilitated by genetic assimilation, the accumulation of genetic and molecular mechanisms that stabilize induced phenotypes and assume progressively greater control over their reliable production. A particularly strong inference into genetic assimilation as an evolutionary process requires a system where it is possible to directly evaluate the extent to which an induced phenotype is progressively incorporated into preexisting developmental pat...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Badyaev AV, Potticary AL, Morrison ES Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Multispecies Coexistence without Diffuse Competition; or, Why Phylogenetic Signal and Trait Clustering Weaken Coexistence.
This study provides both instructions for measuring these effects in the field and a framework for analyzing how phylogenetic signal, trait-based niche axes, and other forms of nondiffuse competition affect coexistence. PMID: 28731799 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Stump SM Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Natural History Constrains the Macroevolution of Foot Morphology in European Plethodontid Salamanders.
Abstract The natural history of organisms can have major effects on the tempo and mode of evolution, but few examples show how unique natural histories affect rates of evolution at macroevolutionary scales. European plethodontid salamanders (Plethodontidae: Hydromantes) display a particular natural history relative to other members of the family. Hydromantes commonly occupy caves and small crevices, where they cling to the walls and ceilings. On the basis of this unique and strongly selected behavior, we test the prediction that rates of phenotypic evolution will be lower in traits associated with climbing. We fin...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Adams DC, Korneisel D, Young M, Nistri A Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Diversification of Trait Combinations in Coevolving Plant and Insect Lineages.
Abstract Closely related species often have similar traits and sometimes interact with the same species. A crucial problem in evolutionary ecology is therefore to understand how coevolving species diverge when they interact with a set of closely related species from another lineage rather than with a single species. We evaluated geographic differences in the floral morphology of all woodland star plant species (Lithophragma, Saxifragaceae) that are pollinated by Greya (Prodoxidae) moths. Flowers of each woodland star species differed depending on whether plants interact locally with one, two, or no pollinating mot...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Thompson JN, Schwind C, Friberg M Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Evolutionary Scenarios and Primate Natural History.
Abstract Scenarios summarize evolutionary patterns and processes by interpreting organismal traits and their natural history correlates in a phylogenetic context. They are constructed by (1) describing phenotypes (including physiology and behavior), ideally with attention to formative roles of development, experience, and culture; (2) inferring homologies, homoplasies, ancestral character states, and their transformations with phylogenetic analyses; and (3) integrating those components with ecological and other ancillary data. At their best, evolutionary scenarios are factually dense narratives that entail no know...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Greene HW Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Convergent Phenotypic Evolution despite Contrasting Demographic Histories in the Fauna of White Sands.
Abstract When are evolutionary outcomes predictable? Cases of convergent evolution can shed light on when, why, and how different species exhibit shared evolutionary trajectories. In particular, studying diverse species in a common environment can illuminate how different factors facilitate or constrain adaptive evolution. Here we integrate studies of pattern and process in the fauna at White Sands (New Mexico) to understand the determinants of convergent evolution. Numerous animal species at White Sands exhibit phenotypic convergence in response to a novel-and shared-selective environment: geologically young gyps...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Rosenblum EB, Parent CE, Diepeveen ET, Noss C, Bi K Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Convergently Evolved Toxic Secondary Metabolites in Plants Drive the Parallel Molecular Evolution of Insect Resistance.
Abstract Natural selection imposed by natural toxins has led to striking levels of convergent evolution at the molecular level. Cardiac glycosides represent a group of plant toxins that block the Na,K-ATPase, a vital membrane protein in animals. Several herbivorous insects have convergently evolved resistant Na,K-ATPases, and in some species, convergent gene duplications have also arisen, likely to cope with pleiotropic costs of resistance. To understand the genetic basis and predictability of these adaptations, we studied five independent lineages of leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae). These flies have colo...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Petschenka G, Wagschal V, von Tschirnhaus M, Donath A, Dobler S Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Convergence, Consilience, and the Evolution of Temperate Deciduous Forests.
Abstract The deciduous habit of northern temperate trees and shrubs provides one of the most obvious examples of convergent evolution, but how did it evolve? Hypotheses based on the fossil record posit that deciduousness evolved first in response to drought or darkness and preadapted certain lineages as cold climates spread. An alternative is that evergreens first established in freezing environments and later evolved the deciduous habit. We monitored phenological patterns of 20 species of Viburnum spanning tropical, lucidophyllous (subtropical montane and warm temperate), and cool temperate Asian forests. In luci...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Edwards EJ, Chatelet DS, Chen BC, Ong JY, Tagane S, Kanemitsu H, Tagawa K, Teramoto K, Park B, Chung KF, Hu JM, Yahara T, Donoghue MJ Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Geographical Variation in Community Divergence: Insights from Tropical Forest Monodominance by Ectomycorrhizal Trees.
Abstract Convergence occurs in both species traits and community structure, but how convergence at the two scales influences each other remains unclear. To address this question, we focus on tropical forest monodominance, in which a single, often ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species occasionally dominates forest stands within a landscape otherwise characterized by diverse communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees. Such monodominance is a striking potential example of community divergence resulting in alternative stable states. However, it is observed only in some tropical regions. A diverse suite of AM and EM ...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Fukami T, Nakajima M, Fortunel C, Fine PVA, Baraloto C, Russo SE, Peay KG Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Pattern and Process in the Comparative Study of Convergent Evolution.
Abstract Understanding processes that have shaped broad-scale biodiversity patterns is a fundamental goal in evolutionary biology. The development of phylogenetic comparative methods has yielded a tool kit for analyzing contemporary patterns by explicitly modeling processes of change in the past, providing neontologists tools for asking questions previously accessible only for select taxa via the fossil record or laboratory experimentation. The comparative approach, however, differs operationally from alternative approaches to studying convergence in that, for studies of only extant species, convergence must be in...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Mahler DL, Weber MG, Wagner CE, Ingram T Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Convergence and Divergence in a Long-Term Experiment with Bacteria.
Abstract Suitably designed experiments offer the possibility of quantifying evolutionary convergence because the fraction of replicate populations that converge is known. Here I review an experiment with Escherichia coli, in which 12 populations were founded from the same ancestral strain and have evolved for almost 30 years and more than 65,000 generations under the same conditions. The tension between divergence and convergence has been a major focus of this experiment. I summarize analyses of competitive fitness, correlated responses to different environments, cell morphology, the capacity to use a previously u...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Lenski RE Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Toward a Predictive Framework for Convergent Evolution: Integrating Natural History, Genetic Mechanisms, and Consequences for the Diversity of Life.
Abstract A charm of biology as a scientific discipline is the diversity of life. Although this diversity can make laws of biology challenging to discover, several repeated patterns and general principles govern evolutionary diversification. Convergent evolution, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes, has been at the heart of one approach to understand generality in the evolutionary process. Yet understanding when and why organismal traits and strategies repeatedly evolve has been a central challenge. These issues were the focus of the American Society of Naturalists Vice Presidential Symposium in 2016 an...
Source: The American Naturalist - July 23, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Agrawal AA Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Masthead
The American Naturalist,Volume 190, Issue 2, August 2017. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - July 21, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Cannibalism and Infectious Disease: Friends or Foes?
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - July 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Benjamin G. Van Allen Forrest P. Dillemuth Andrew J. Flick Matthew J. Faldyn David R. Clark Volker H. W. Rudolf Bret D. Elderd Source Type: research

Using Traits to Assess Nontransitivity of Interactions among Coral Species
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - July 10, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Kristin Precoda Andrew P. Allen Liesl Grant Joshua S. Madin Source Type: research

The Role of the Environment in the Evolution of Tolerance and Resistance to a Pathogen
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Modeling Adaptive and Nonadaptive Responses of Populations to Environmental Change
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Phylogeny, Traits, and Biodiversity of a Neotropical Bat Assemblage: Close Relatives Show Similar Responses to Local Deforestation
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Evolutionary Scenarios and Primate Natural History
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

An Ecological Perspective on Sleep Disruption
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Ants at Plant Wounds: A Little-Known Trophic Interaction with Evolutionary Implications for Ant-Plant Interactions
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 23, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Quantitative Genetic Variation in, and Environmental Effects on, Pathogen Resistance and Temperature-Dependent Disease Severity in a Wild Trout
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 23, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

A Breath of Fresh Air in Foraging Theory: The Importance of Wind for Food Size Selection in a Central-Place Forager
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 21, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Resource Allocation and Seed Size Selection in Perennial Plants under Pollen Limitation
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 19, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Multispecies Coexistence without Diffuse Competition; or, Why Phylogenetic Signal and Trait Clustering Weaken Coexistence
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - June 19, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Sixty-Five Million Years of Change in Temperature and Topography Explain Evolutionary History in Eastern North American Plethodontid Salamanders.
Abstract For many taxa and systems, species richness peaks at midelevations. One potential explanation for this pattern is that large-scale changes in climate and geography have, over evolutionary time, selected for traits that are favored under conditions found in contemporary midelevation regions. To test this hypothesis, we use records of historical temperature and topographic changes over the past 65 Myr to construct a general simulation model of plethodontid salamander evolution in eastern North America. We then explore possible mechanisms constraining species to midelevation bands by using the model to predi...
Source: The American Naturalist - June 16, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Barnes R, Clark AT Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Evolutionary Determinants of Morphological Polymorphism in Colonial Animals.
Abstract Colonial animals commonly exhibit morphologically polymorphic modular units that are phenotypically distinct and specialize in specific functional tasks. But how and why these polymorphic modules have evolved is poorly understood. Across colonial invertebrates, there is wide variation in the degree of polymorphism, from none in colonial ascidians to extreme polymorphism in siphonophores, such as the Portuguese man-of-war. Bryozoa are a phylum of exclusively colonial invertebrates that uniquely exhibit almost the entire range of polymorphism, from monomorphic species to others that rival siphonophores in t...
Source: The American Naturalist - June 16, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Simpson C, Jackson JBC, Herrera-Cubilla A Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

When Predators Help Prey Adapt and Persist in a Changing Environment.
Abstract To persist in a changing world, populations must adapt. The ability to adapt is influenced by interactions with other species, such as predators. Recent experiments and theory suggest that selective pressures arising from predation may help prey adapt phenotypically to changing environments, but how this influences persistence remains unclear. In particular, it has not yet been shown whether predator-induced adaptation can outweigh predator-imposed reductions in population size, allowing prey to persist when they would otherwise go extinct. Here we examine if (and if so, how) predation can enhance the abi...
Source: The American Naturalist - June 16, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Osmond MM, Otto SP, Klausmeier CA Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research