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The Rate of Seasonal Changes in Temperature Alters Acclimation of Performance under Climate Change
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - October 18, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Viktor Nilsson- Örtman Frank Johansson Source Type: research

Catastrophic Shifts in Semiarid Vegetation-Soil Systems May Unfold Rapidly or Slowly
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - October 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Derek Karssenberg Marc F. P. Bierkens Max Rietkerk Source Type: research

Clarification
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Daniela Vergara Jukka Jokela Curtis M. Lively Source Type: research

Will Invertebrates Require Increasingly Carbon-Rich Food in a Warming World?
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Thomas R. Anderson Dag O. Hessen Maarten Boersma Jotaro Urabe Daniel J. Mayor Source Type: research

Local Regulation of Trail Networks of the Arboreal Turtle Ant, Cephalotes goniodontus
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Deborah M. Gordon Source Type: research

Coevolution between Mutualists and Parasites in Symbiotic Communities May Lead to the Evolution of Lower Virulence
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 28, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Paul G. Nelson Georgiana May Source Type: research

Sex-Dependent Phenological Plasticity in an Arctic Hibernator
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 27, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Cory T. Williams C. Loren Buck Michael J. Sheriff Melanie M. Richter Jesse S. Krause Brian M. Barnes Source Type: research

Stochastic Evolutionary Demography under a Fluctuating Optimum Phenotype
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 27, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Luis-Miguel Chevin Olivier Cotto Jaime Ashander Source Type: research

Is Plant Fitness Proportional to Seed Set? An Experiment and a Spatial Model
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 27, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Diane R. Campbell Alison K. Brody Mary V. Price Nickolas M. Waser George Aldridge Source Type: research

Hybridization Associated with Cycles of Ecological Succession in a Passerine Bird.
Abstract Identifying the diversity of contexts that can lead to hybridization is important for understanding its prevalence and dynamics in natural populations. Despite the potential of ecological succession to dramatically alter species co-occurrence and abundances, it is unknown whether it directly promotes hybridization and, if so, has long-lasting consequences. Here, we summarize 30 years of survey data across 10 populations to show that in western and mountain bluebirds, heterospecific pairing occurs during repeatable and transient colonization events at the early stages of species turnover. Despite mixed pai...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Duckworth RA, Semenov GA Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Effects of Clonal Reproduction on Evolutionary Lag and Evolutionary Rescue.
Abstract Evolutionary lag-the difference between mean and optimal phenotype in the current environment-is of keen interest in light of rapid environmental change. Many ecologically important organisms have life histories that include stage structure and both sexual and clonal reproduction, yet how stage structure and clonality interplay to govern a population's rate of evolution and evolutionary lag is unknown. Effects of clonal reproduction on mean phenotype partition into two portions: one that is phenotype dependent, and another that is genotype dependent. This partitioning is governed by the association betwee...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Orive ME, Barfield M, Fernandez C, Holt RD Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Historical Biogeography and Extinction in the Hawaiian Honeycreepers.
Abstract Hawaiian honeycreepers, comprising an endemic radiation of passerine birds in the Hawaiian archipelago, have suffered losses of individual island populations and the extinction of many species as a result of colonization of the islands by Polynesians and, more recently, introduced avian pox virus and avian malaria. Here, I test the idea that populations have an intrinsic tendency toward extinction regardless of the cause. The distribution of each species before the arrival of humans in the archipelago was inferred from present distribution, historical records, and fossil remains. On the basis of these rec...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Ricklefs RE Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Maladaptive Plasticity Masks the Effects of Natural Selection in the Red-Shouldered Soapberry Bug.
In this study, I assess the relative contributions of natural selection and plasticity to beak length on these two hosts. I confirm the earlier hypothesis that the host plant seedpod drives divergent natural selection on beak length. I then demonstrate that the proximate cause of the loss of observable differentiation in beak length is maladaptive plasticity, which masks persistent genetic differences between host-associated populations. Maladaptive plasticity is highest in areas where the two plants co-occur; in combination with historical measures of plasticity in hybrids, this indicates that maladaptive plasticity may b...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Cenzer ML Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Predator Perspective Drives Geographic Variation in Frequency-Dependent Polymorphism.
Abstract Color polymorphism in natural populations can manifest as a striking patchwork of phenotypes in space, with neighboring populations characterized by dramatic differences in morph composition. These geographic mosaics can be challenging to explain in the absence of localized selection because they are unlikely to result from simple isolation-by-distance or clinal variation in selective regimes. To identify processes that can lead to the formation of geographic mosaics, we developed a simulation-based model to explore the influence of predator perspective, selection, migration, and genetic linkage of color ...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Holmes IA, Grundler MR, Davis Rabosky AR Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Assessing the Influence of Temporal Autocorrelations on the Population Dynamics of a Disturbance Specialist Plant Population in a Random Environment.
Abstract Biological populations are strongly influenced by random variations in their environment, which are often autocorrelated in time. For disturbance specialist plant populations, the frequency and intensity of environmental stochasticity (via disturbances) can drive the qualitative nature of their population dynamics. In this article, we extended our earlier model to explore the effect of temporally autocorrelated disturbances on population persistence. In our earlier work, we only assumed disturbances were independent and identically distributed in time. We proved that the plant seed bank population converg...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Eager EA, Pilson D, Alexander HM, Tenhumberg B Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Comparative Analyses of Phenotypic Trait Covariation within and among Populations.
Abstract Many morphological, behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits covary across the biological scales of individuals, populations, and species. However, the processes that cause traits to covary also change over these scales, challenging our ability to use patterns of trait covariance to infer process. Trait relationships are also widely assumed to have generic functional relationships with similar evolutionary potentials, and even though many different trait relationships are now identified, there is little appreciation that these may influence trait covariation and evolution in unique ways. We use ...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Peiman KS, Robinson BW Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Differential Allocation Revisited: When Should Mate Quality Affect Parental Investment?
We present a formal framework for DA that highlights the nature of reproductive benefits versus costs for females mated to males of different quality. Contrary to popular belief, analytical and stochastic dynamic models both show that additive benefits of male quality on offspring fitness have no effect on optimal levels of female investment and thus cannot produce DA. Instead, if offspring fitness is affected multiplicatively by male quality, or male quality affects the female cost function, DA is expected because of changes in the marginal benefits or costs of extra investment. Additive male quality effects on the female...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Haaland TR, Wright J, Kuijper B, Ratikainen II Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Resemblance to the Enemy's Eyes Underlies the Intimidating Effect of Eyespots.
Abstract Eyespots of some prey are known to deter predators, but the reason for this response has not yet been established, and thus the taxonomically widespread occurrence of this color pattern has remained an evolutionary conundrum. Two alternative hypotheses propose that (1) the eyelike appearance of the pattern falsely indicates the presence of the predator's own enemy or (2) predators are hardwired to be cautious toward conspicuous prey. Earlier research has pertained mainly to eyespots in butterflies. Here we tested the hypothesis that eyespots resemble eyes by utilizing the lateral position of eyes in fishe...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Kjernsmo K, Merilaita S Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Sanctions, Partner Recognition, and Variation in Mutualism.
Abstract Mutualistic interactions can be stabilized against invasion by noncooperative individuals by putting such "cheaters" at a selective disadvantage. Selection against cheaters should eliminate genetic variation in partner quality-yet such variation is often found in natural populations. One explanation for this paradox is that mutualism outcomes are determined not only by responses to partner performance but also by partner signals. Here, we build a model of coevolution in a symbiotic mutualism, in which hosts' ability to sanction noncooperative symbionts and recognition of symbiont signals are det...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Yoder JB, Tiffin P Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Divorce in an Island Bird Population: Causes, Consequences, and Lack of Inheritance.
Abstract Divorce (mate switching) is widely considered an adaptive strategy that female birds use to improve their reproductive success. However, in few species are the causes and consequences of divorce well understood, and the genetic basis and inheritance of divorce have never been explored. In Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, 47.0% of pairs in which both partners survived to the following breeding season ended in divorce. Secondary females, which received less parental assistance than primary females, tended to divorce when breeding success was low o...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Wheelwright NT, Teplitsky C Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Should I Change or Should I Go? Phenotypic Plasticity and Matching Habitat Choice in the Adaptation to Environmental Heterogeneity.
Abstract It can be challenging for organisms to achieve a good match between their phenotypic characteristics and environmental requirements that vary in space and time. The evolution of adaptive phenotypes can result from genetic differentiation at the population level. Individuals, however, could also change their phenotype (adaptive plasticity) or select an environment because it matches with their phenotype (matching habitat choice). It is poorly known under which conditions these different solutions to environmental heterogeneity evolve and whether they operate together. Using an individual-based simulation m...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Edelaar P, Jovani R, Gomez-Mestre I Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Sex Allocation Patterns across Cooperatively Breeding Birds Do Not Support Predictions of the Repayment Hypothesis.
Abstract The repayment hypothesis predicts that reproductive females in cooperative breeding systems overproduce the helping sex. Thanks to well-documented examples of this predicted sex ratio bias, repayment has been considered an important driver of variation in sex allocation patterns. Here we test this hypothesis using data on population brood sex ratios and facultative sex allocation from 28 cooperatively breeding bird species. We find that biased sex ratios of helpers do not correlate with production biases in brood sex ratios, contrary to predictions. We also test whether females facultatively produce the h...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Khwaja N, Hatchwell BJ, Freckleton RP, Green JP Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Rethinking Conventional Wisdom: Are Locally Adapted Parasites Ahead in the Coevolutionary Race?
Abstract The metaphors of the Red Queen and the arms race have inspired a large amount of research aimed at understanding the process of antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites. One approach that has been heavily used is to estimate the strength of parasite local adaptation using a reciprocal cross infection or transplant study. These studies frequently conclude that the locally adapted species is ahead in the coevolutionary race. Here, I use mathematical models to decompose parasite infectivity into components attributable to local versus global adaptation and to develop a robust index of which speci...
Source: The American Naturalist - September 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Nuismer SL Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Masthead
The American Naturalist,Volume 190, Issue 4, October 2017. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

A Physiological Signature of the Cost of Reproduction Associated with Parental Care
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 21, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Melinda A. Fowler Tony D. Williams Source Type: research

Artificial Selection to Increase the Phenotypic Variance in gmax Fails
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jacqueline L. Sztepanacz Mark W. Blows Source Type: research

Fatal Attraction? Intraguild Facilitation and Suppression among Predators
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Kelly J. Sivy Casey B. Pozzanghera James B. Grace Laura R. Prugh Source Type: research

Cannibalism and Intraguild Predation Community Dynamics: Coexistence, Competitive Exclusion, and the Loss of Alternative Stable States
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Benjamin J. Toscano Vincent Hin Volker H. W. Rudolf Source Type: research

Habitat Association Predicts Genetic Diversity and Population Divergence in Amazonian Birds
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Michael G. Harvey Alexandre Aleixo Camila C. Ribas Robb T. Brumfield Source Type: research

Bioinvasion Triggers Rapid Evolution of Life Histories in Freshwater Snails
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 5, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Elodie Chapuis Thomas Lamy Jean-Pierre Pointier Nicolas Juillet Adeline S égard Philippe Jarne Patrice David Source Type: research

The Roles of Sexual and Viability Selection in the Evolution of Incomplete Reproductive Isolation: From Allopatry to Sympatry
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Olivier Cotto Maria R. Servedio Source Type: research

The Evolution of Clutch Size in Hosts of Avian Brood Parasites
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - September 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Iliana Medina Naomi E. Langmore Robert Lanfear Hanna Kokko Source Type: research

Predator Persistence through Variability of Resource Productivity in Tritrophic Systems
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 31, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Floor H. Soudijn Andr é M. de Roos Source Type: research

Predator Perspective Drives Geographic Variation in Frequency-Dependent Polymorphism
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 31, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Iris A. Holmes Maggie R. Grundler Alison R. Davis Rabosky Source Type: research

Divorce in an Island Bird Population: Causes, Consequences, and Lack of Inheritance
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Nathaniel T. Wheelwright C éline Teplitsky Source Type: research

Toward a Periodic Table of Niches, or Exploring the Lizard Niche Hypervolume
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Eric R. Pianka Laurie J. Vitt Nicol ás Pelegrin Daniel B. Fitzgerald Kirk O. Winemiller Source Type: research

Climate Effects on Growth, Body Condition, and Survival Depend on the Genetic Characteristics of the Population
The American Naturalist, Ahead of Print. (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Cristina Romero-Diaz Merel C. Breedveld Patrick S. Fitze Source Type: research

A Breath of Fresh Air in Foraging Theory: The Importance of Wind for Food Size Selection in a Central-Place Forager.
Abstract Empirical data about food size carried by central-place foragers do not often fit with the optimum predicted by classical foraging theory. Traditionally, biotic constraints such as predation risk and competition have been proposed to explain this inconsistency, leaving aside the possible role of abiotic factors. Here we documented how wind affects the load size of a central-place forager (leaf-cutting ants) through a mathematical model including the whole foraging process. The model showed that as wind speed at ground level increased from 0 to 2 km/h, load size decreased from 91 to 30 mm(2), a prediction ...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Alma AM, Farji-Brener AG, Elizalde L Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Estimation of Individual Growth Trajectories When Repeated Measures Are Missing.
Abstract Individuals in a population vary in their growth due to hidden and observed factors such as age, genetics, environment, disease, and carryover effects from past environments. Because size affects fitness, growth trajectories scale up to affect population dynamics. However, it can be difficult to estimate growth in data from wild populations with missing observations and observation error. Previous work has shown that linear mixed models (LMMs) underestimate hidden individual heterogeneity when more than 25% of repeated measures are missing. Here we demonstrate a flexible and robust way to model growth tra...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Brooks ME, Clements C, Pemberton J, Ozgul A Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Resource Allocation and Seed Size Selection in Perennial Plants under Pollen Limitation.
Abstract Pollen limitation may affect resource allocation patterns in plants, but its role in the selection of seed size is not known. Using an evolutionarily stable strategy model of resource allocation in perennial iteroparous plants, we show that under density-independent population growth, pollen limitation (i.e., a reduction in ovule fertilization rate) should increase the optimal seed size. At any level of pollen limitation (including none), the optimal seed size maximizes the ratio of juvenile survival rate to the resource investment needed to produce one seed (including both ovule production and seed provi...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Huang Q, Burd M, Fan Z Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Kleptoparasitism and Scavenging Can Stabilize Ecosystem Dynamics.
Abstract Scavenging is ubiquitous in nature, but its implications have rarely been investigated. We used camera traps on wolf kills to investigate the role of scavenging on predator and multiprey dynamics in a northern Apennine system in Italy. In contrast to North American systems, the omnivorous wild boar successfully competes with wolves for the meat of their kills. We developed a deterministic, multitrophic web model (wolf, vegetation, deer, and wild boar), tunable through a parameter that governs the impact of prey sharing between wolves and wild boar. When prey sharing is scarce, populations oscillate, but a...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Focardi S, Materassi M, Innocenti G, Berzi D Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Ants at Plant Wounds: A Little-Known Trophic Interaction with Evolutionary Implications for Ant-Plant Interactions.
n N Abstract Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) allow plants to engage in mutualisms with ants, preventing herbivory in exchange for food. EFNs occur scattered throughout the plant phylogeny and likely evolved independent from herbivore-created wounds subsequently visited by ants collecting leaked sap. Records of wound-feeding ants are, however, anecdotal. By surveying 38,000 trees from 40 species, we conducted the first quantitative ecological study of this overlooked behavior. Ant-wound interactions were widespread (0.5% of tree individuals) and occurred on 23 tree species. Interaction networks were opportunistic, clo...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Staab M, Fornoff F, Klein AM, Blüthgen N Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Herbivore-Mediated Interaction Promotes the Maintenance of Trichome Dimorphism through Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.
Abstract Natural plant populations exhibit genetic variation in defense traits against herbivores. Despite a growing body of evidence for herbivore-mediated selection on plant defenses, we still know little about how genetic variation persists in antiherbivore defense traits. Here we present field and experimental evidence for herbivore-mediated frequency-dependent selection that promotes the maintenance of trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) plants of Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera. First, in a natural population where the specialist leaf beetle Phaedon brassicae was prevalent, hairy plan...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Sato Y, Kudoh H Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Cannibalism and Infectious Disease: Friends or Foes?
Abstract Cannibalism occurs in a majority of both carnivorous and noncarnivorous animal taxa from invertebrates to mammals. Similarly, infectious parasites are ubiquitous in nature. Thus, interactions between cannibalism and disease occur regularly. While some adaptive benefits of cannibalism are clear, the prevailing view is that the risk of parasite transmission due to cannibalism would increase disease spread and, thus, limit the evolutionary extent of cannibalism throughout the animal kingdom. In contrast, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the other half of the interaction between cannibalism and ...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Van Allen BG, Dillemuth FP, Flick AJ, Faldyn MJ, Clark DR, Rudolf VHW, Elderd BD Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Frontispiece (1946).
Authors: PMID: 28829640 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Naturalist)
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

The Role of the Environment in the Evolution of Tolerance and Resistance to a Pathogen.
Abstract Defense against parasites can be divided into resistance, which limits parasite burden, and tolerance, which reduces pathogenesis at a given parasite burden. Distinguishing between the two and understanding which defense is favored by evolution in different ecological settings are important, as they lead to fundamentally different evolutionary trajectories of host-parasite interactions. We let the mosquito Aedes aegypti evolve under different food levels and with either no parasite, a constant parasite, or a coevolving parasite (the microsporidian Vavraia culicis). We then tested tolerance and resistance ...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Zeller M, Koella JC Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Predation Risk Reverses the Potential Effects of Warming on Plant-Herbivore Interactions by Altering the Relative Strengths of Trait- and Density-Mediated Interactions.
Abstract Climate warming will initiate numerous changes in ecological community structure and function, and such high-level impacts derive from temperature-driven changes in individual physiology. Specifically, top-down control of plant biomass is sensitive to rising temperatures, but the direction of change depends on a complex interaction between temperature, predation risk, and predator thermal preference. Here, I developed an individual-based optimal foraging model of three trophic levels (primary producers, herbivores, and predators) to examine how warming affects top-down control of primary producers via bot...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Lemoine NP Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

Using Traits to Assess Nontransitivity of Interactions among Coral Species.
This article aimed to test hypotheses about the effects of species-level traits on competitive outcomes, specifically, that more upright growth, larger corallites, smaller ranges, and difference in commonness co-occur with competitive superiority. Further aims were to test whether closely related species show less predictable competitive outcomes and greater nontransitivity and to examine the level of nontransitivity among a large number of species. These goals were addressed by fitting a mixed-effects model to outcomes of 2,322 interspecific interactions. Among species-level traits, corallite width had the greatest impact...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Precoda K, Allen AP, Grant L, Madin JS Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

An Ecological Perspective on Sleep Disruption.
Abstract Despite its evolutionary importance and apparent ubiquity among animals, the ecological significance of sleep is largely unresolved. The ecology of sleep has been particularly neglected in invertebrates. In insects, recent neurobehavioral research convincingly demonstrates that resting behavior shares several common characteristics with sleep in vertebrates. Laboratory studies have produced compelling evidence that sleep disruption can cause changes in insect daily activity patterns (via "sleep rebound") and have consequences for behavioral performance during active periods. However, factors tha...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Tougeron K, Abram PK Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research

The Breakdown of Static and Evolutionary Allometries during Climatic Upheaval.
Abstract The influence of within-species variation and covariation on evolutionary patterns is well established for generational and macroevolutionary processes, most prominently through genetic lines of least resistance. However, it is not known whether intraspecific phenotypic variation also directs microevolutionary trajectories into the long term when a species is subject to varying environmental conditions. Here we present a continuous, high-resolution bivariate record of size and shape changes among 12,633 individual planktonic foraminifera of a surviving and an extinct-going species over 500,000 years. Our ...
Source: The American Naturalist - August 24, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Brombacher A, Wilson PA, Bailey I, Ezard THG Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research