Changes in drug use behaviors coinciding with the emergence of illicit fentanyl among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada.
Abstract BACKGROUND: With the emergence of illicitly-manufactured fentanyl, drug overdose deaths have risen in unprecedented numbers. In this context, there is an urgent need to characterize potential changes in drug use behaviors among people who use drugs (PWUD). OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in drug use behaviors following the emergence of illicit fentanyl among people who use drugs (PWUD). METHODS: Data for this cross-sectional analysis was derived from three prospective cohorts of PWUD between December 2016 and May 2017 in Vancouver, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine fa...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - July 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Brar R, Grant C, DeBeck K, Milloy MJ, Fairbairn N, Wood E, Kerr T, Hayashi K Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Piloting of the Just Say Know prevention program: a psychoeducational approach to translating the neuroscience of addiction to youth.
CONCLUSION: Results suggest Just Say Know, a scientifically-based prevention program, is effective in increasing adolescents' program based-knowledge, has the potential to affect youths' attitudes toward substance use, and is well-received. These findings provide preliminary evidence that a cost-effective, neuroscience-informed group prevention program might reduce or delay adolescents' future substance use. PMID: 32687415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - July 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Meredith LR, Maralit AM, Thomas SE, Rivers SL, Salazar CA, Anton RF, Tomko RL, Squeglia LM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Early onset of cannabis use and alcohol intoxication predicts prescription drug misuse in American Indian and non-American Indian adolescents living on or near reservations.
This study estimates relationships between PDM and early initiation (prior to 14 yrs) of cannabis use and alcohol intoxication for a national sample of AI and non-AI adolescents attending schools on or near reservations. METHOD: Participants were 2580 students (50.2% female; 58.1% AI), ages 15-18, attending schools located on or near an AI reservation. Four models of PDM were estimated: 1) demographic variables; 2) demographics plus cannabis use initiation status; 3) demographics plus alcohol intoxication initiation status; and 4) all variables. All analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. RESULTS: Resu...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - July 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Stanley LR, Swaim RC, Smith JK, Conner BT Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

College students' perceived knowledge of and perceived helpfulness of treatments for opioid use disorder at two American universities.
CONCLUSIONS: Students had more positive attitudes toward non-MOUD treatments than toward MOUD despite greater efficacy of the latter for OUD. Colleges could provide information about MOUD during orientation, in course work, through student extracurricular organizations, or through college health clinics. PMID: 32543922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Andraka-Christou B, Nguyen T, Harris S, Madeira J, Totaram R, Randall-Kosich O, Atkins D, Ford J Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Pain interference and catastrophizing are not associated with polysubstance use among treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorders and chronic pain.
In this study, we examined whether two pain processes - pain interference and pain catastrophizing - were associated with polysubstance use. OBJECTIVES: We examined the cross-sectional associations among self-reported pain interference and catastrophizing and polysubstance use. We also determined if sex and primary SUD moderated these associations. METHODS: Participants were 236 (36% female) adults receiving inpatient treatment for SUD (58% alcohol use disorder, 42% opioid use disorder) who met criteria for chronic pain. We utilized negative binomial regression to examine associations between pain interference an...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Votaw VR, Witkiewitz K, Vowles KE, Weiss RD, Griffin ML, McHugh RK Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

The use of ketamine to cope with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder: A qualitative analysis of the discourses posted on a popular online forum.
CONCLUSION: Although online research of user-generated content has its limitations in terms of reliability and validity, the present study adds relevant information on the use of ketamine for managing depression and PTSD, whether this use is done legally or not. PMID: 32529853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 12, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Chaves TV, Wilffert B, Sanchez ZM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

A dynamic model of the opioid drug epidemic with implications for policy.
CONCLUSION: No single intervention significantly reduces both PWOUD and overdose deaths, but a combination strategy can do so. Entering the 2020 s, only protective measures like naloxone expansion could significantly reduce overdose deaths. PMID: 32515234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Homer J, Wakeland W Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

To label or not to label: do young drinkers understand the alcohol content of supersized alcopops?
PMID: 32515235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Vasiljevic M Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Trends in cannabis use among justice-involved youth in the United States, 2002-2017.
CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest that cannabis use is increasing among justice-involved youth. PMID: 32515239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Vaughn MG, AbiNader M, Salas-Wright CP, Holzer K, Oh S, Chang Y Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Cannabis use in civilian college students and college student service members/veterans: the moderating effect of anxiety.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that when experiencing elevated levels of anxiety, SSM/V use cannabis more frequently than civilian students, suggesting that anxiety may be a more prominent risk factor for frequency of cannabis use for SSM/V compared to civilian students. Education, prevention, and intervention efforts specifically addressing anxiety in this demographic are needed. PMID: 32469609 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - May 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Teeters JB, Woodward MJ, Meshesha LZ, Tripp JC Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 32460630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - May 27, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Reduced cigarette smoking during injectable extended-release naltrexone treatment for opioid use disorder.
Abstract Background: The prevalence of tobacco cigarette smoking in the US has declined to approximately 15%, yet, it remains over 90% among individuals with opioid use disorder regardless of whether they are currently using opioids illicitly or as opioid substitution therapy. This disparity raises the question of whether opioids facilitate smoking among individuals with opioid use disorder and whether opioid antagonists may reduce it.Objectives: Determine whether injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) treatment of opioid use disorder patients is associated with a spontaneous smoking reduction. We hypothe...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - May 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Wang AL, Shi Z, Elman I, Langleben DD Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Self-correction of unreported marijuana use by participants taking a street-intercept survey.
Conclusion: Asking participants to confirm previous responses can help detect underreporting of drug use on intercept surveys. Results can inform survey methods when participants are believed to be at risk for underreporting. PMID: 32379560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - May 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Palamar JJ, Le A Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Executive function moderates naltrexone effects on methamphetamine-induced craving and subjective responses.
This study examined whether a composite measure of executive function (EF) moderates the effect of naltrexone on craving for methamphetamine and subjective responses following infusion of the drug.Methods: Individuals with methamphetamine use disorder (N = 30; 27% female) completed baseline neurocognitive assessments of premorbid and executive function, and an executive function factor was computed. Participants then underwent a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of titration with naltrexone and placebo. Participants then received a 30-mg intravenous methamphetamine infusion and completed subjective response questi...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - April 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Lim AC, Grodin EN, Green R, Venegas A, Meredith LR, Courtney KE, Moallem NR, Sayegh P, London ED, Ray LA Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Firearms and substance use: bringing synergy to counseling and intervention.
PMID: 32338070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - April 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Culyba AJ, Sigel E Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

What we can learn from COVID-19 outbreak in Iran about the importance of alcohol use education.
PMID: 32310677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - April 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Shalbafan M, Khademoreza N Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Screening for alcohol use disorders in college student drinkers with the AUDIT and the USAUDIT: a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
Conclusions: Whereas prior work supports the USAUDIT-C in detecting at-risk drinking, the current study supports the AUDIT and USAUDIT in detecting potential AUD. Based on prior work, and in an effort to be consistent with standard US drinking guidelines, we recommend using the USAUDIT in screening and brief interventions across college campuses. PMID: 32175778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - March 16, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Villarosa-Hurlocker MC, Schutts JW, Madson MB, Jordan HR, Whitley RB, Mohn RC Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Assessment of the validity of the AUDIT factor structure in parents involved with child protective services.
Conclusions: The two-factor AUDIT is appropriate for screening CPS-involved parents. Screening with the AUDIT should improve early identification and referral to treatment for CPS-involved parents with hazardous alcohol use. PMID: 32134690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - March 5, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Seay KD, Feely M Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Childhood maltreatment and problematic alcohol use in young adulthood: the roles of cognitive vulnerability to depression and depressive symptoms.
Abstract Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been repeatedly linked to future problem drinking. Depression has been identified as a potential factor contributing to problematic alcohol use in maltreated individuals. However, depression has been operationalized as the presence or number of depression symptoms in the majority of previous studies. The role of other relevant measures of depression, such as depressive implicit associations, is not well understood.Objectives: The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the mediating role of both depression symptoms and depressive implicit...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - February 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Shin SH, Ksinan Jiskrova G, Yoon SH, Kobulsky JM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Supporting individuals using medications for opioid use disorder in recovery residences: challenges and opportunities for addressing the opioid epidemic.
Abstract Full and partial opioid agonists and opioid antagonist medications play an important role in containing the opioid epidemic. However, these medications have not been used to their full extent. Recovery support services, such as recovery residences (RRs), also play a key role. RRs may increase an individual's recovery capital, facilitate social support for abstinence, and foster a sense of community among residents. These processes may be critical for individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). In combination these two recovery pathways have the potential to enhance one another and improve outcomes among r...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - February 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Miles J, Howell J, Sheridan D, Braucht G, Mericle A Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Dialectical behaviour therapy skills training for the treatment of addictive behaviours among individuals with alcohol use disorder: the effect of emotion regulation and experiential avoidance.
Conclusion: The DBT-ST was a feasible treatment for several addictive behaviors frequently reported by individuals with AUD. The improvements in emotion regulation and experiential avoidance were relevant therapeutic mechanisms involved in the treatment of these conditions. Future controlled trials and follow-up studies are recommended to support the efficacy of DBT-ST as a stand-alone intervention for the treatment of different classes of addictive behaviors. PMID: 31990583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Cavicchioli M, Ramella P, Vassena G, Simone G, Prudenziati F, Sirtori F, Movalli M, Maffei C Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Comparison of drinking prevalence among Thai youth before and after implementation of the Alcoholic Beverage Control Act.
Conclusion: Drinking rates decreased among males, but increased in females. These changes may be somewhat due to the Act, or to changes in the social environment in Thailand over this 8-year period. PMID: 31990584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Assanangkornchai S, Saingam D, Jitpiboon W, Geater AF Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Effect of witnessing an overdose on the use of drug checking services among people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that witnessing an overdose may motivate PWUD to use drug checking services. Given that only a small proportion of PWUD in the study reported using drug checking services, our findings highlight the need to continue to scale-up a range of overdose prevention interventions. PMID: 31983241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Beaulieu T, Hayashi K, Nosova E, Milloy MJ, DeBeck K, Wood E, Kerr T, Ti L Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Derivation and assessment of the opioid use disorder severity scale: prediction of health, psychological and social adjustment problems.
Conclusions: OUDSS enables dimensional measurement of opioid use severity on an interval scale. The OUDSS and DUSI-R together can identify problem areas requiring prevention or treatment. PMID: 31967913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 22, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Kirisci L, Tarter RE, Reynolds M, Hayes KN, Cochran G, Vanyukov M Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Tackling deceptive responding during eligibility via content-knowledge questionnaires.
PMID: 31961760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Pautassi RM, Pilatti A Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Gender differences in diversion among non-medical users of prescription opioids and sedatives.
Conclusion: Drug diversion highlights an important point of intervention. Current prevention efforts that target prescribers should be expanded to include users and diversion activities; these interventions should be gender-specific. PMID: 31935131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Milani SA, Lloyd SL, Serdarevic M, Cottler LB, Striley CW Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Outcomes of two quality improvement implementation interventions for depression services in adults with substance use problems.
Conclusions: Given feasibility and possible benefits, CEP should be considered a promising approach to implementing depression CC with potential benefits to adults with comorbid substance use problems. PMID: 31935133 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Morton I, Hurley B, Castillo EG, Tang L, Gilmore J, Jones F, Watkins K, Chung B, Wells K Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Gun access, ownership, gun-related experiences, and substance use in young adults: a latent class analysis.
This study identifies groups of young adults based on their gun access/ownership and gun-related experiences (i.e., gun carrying, threatened someone with a gun, been threatened with a gun) and assesses whether these groups differ on their use of alcohol, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, marijuana, hard drugs, and nonmedical use of prescription medication.Methods: This study uses cross-sectional data from Wave 8 of the study Dating it Safe. Participants were 663 young adults (Mean age = 22 years; 62% female). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed.Results: LCA identified three classes: (1) Minimal Gun Access/Experience (65.0%),...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Lu Y, Temple JR Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Doxazosin treatment in cocaine use disorder: pharmacogenetic response based on an alpha-1 adrenoreceptor subtype D genetic variant.
Abstract Background: The α1 antagonist doxazosin reduces cocaine use in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) through a functional polymorphism of the α1 adrenoreceptor. The regulatory role of the α1 adrenoreceptor subtype D (ADRA1D) gene polymorphism in CUD is uncharacterized.Objectives: To study how the genetic variant of ADRA1D gene (T1848A, rs2236554) may affect the treatment efficacy of doxazosin in reducing cocaine use.Methods: This 12-week pilot trial included 76 participants with CUD with ADRA1D (T1848A, rs2236554) AA (N = 40) or AT/TT genotype (N = 36). Particip...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - January 8, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Shorter DI, Zhang X, Domingo CB, Nielsen EM, Kosten TR, Nielsen DA Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

The effect of pre-existing alcohol use disorder on the risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal national representative sample.
Conclusion: In individuals with alcohol dependence the experience of trauma increases the risk of developing PTSD. These findings suggest that prevention methods from PTSD after trauma exposure for individuals with alcohol dependence are needed. PMID: 31860361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 20, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Balachandran T, Cohen G, Le Foll B, Rehm J, Hassan AN Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Increased alcohol preference and intake in nicotine-preferring rats.
Conclusion: We have shown for the first time that nP rats also have high alcohol intake. Our results support the hypothesis that shared genetic factors may underlie concurrent addiction to nicotine and alcohol and have translational value in understanding their misuse. Considering the increased vulnerability for alcohol use disorder in smokers and sex differences observed, early preventive measures in families with a history of tobacco addiction, specifically targeting female members, could have public health benefits. PMID: 31860364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 20, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Ozturk B, Pogun S, Kanit L Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

A week-long outpatient induction onto XR-naltrexone in patients with opioid use disorder.
Conclusion: The results support the feasibility of a week-long outpatient induction onto XR-naltrexone with ascending doses of naltrexone and standing doses of adjunctive medications. By circumventing the need for a protracted period of abstinence and mitigating the severity of withdrawal symptoms experienced during naltrexone titration, this strategy has the potential to increase patient acceptability and access to relapse prevention treatment with XR-naltrexone. PMID: 31860366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 20, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Sibai M, Mishlen K, Nunes EV, Levin FR, Mariani JJ, Bisaga A Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

A comparison of blood toxicology in fatalities involving alcohol and other drugs in patients with an opioid use disorder treated with methadone, buprenorphine, and implant naltrexone.
Conclusion: Comparisons of postmortem concentrations of specific drugs indicated that patients treated with methadone, buprenorphine, and implant naltrexone had comparable susceptibilities to lethal co-intoxication and that similar drug mixtures contributed to death. PMID: 31860367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 20, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Kelty E, Hulse G, Joyce D Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Patterns of buprenorphine/naloxone prescribing: an analysis of claims data from Massachusetts.
Conclusion: A substantial increase in the number of patients with a prescription for buprenorphine/naloxone was observed. While buprenorphine/naloxone is most frequently prescribed for opioid use disorder, clinicians also appear to prescribe it for pain, particularly for patients who may be at elevated risk for opioid use disorder. PMID: 31825718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 11, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Paulsen R, Modestino AS, Hasan MM, Noor-E-Alam M, Young LD, Young GJ Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Utilizing content-knowledge questionnaires to assess study eligibility and detect deceptive responding.
Conclusion: These findings highlight the efficiency and efficacy of including content-knowledge questionnaires for collateral assessment of study eligibility, especially when biomarkers are not possible. Future studies will be useful for extending this initial demonstration to alternative settings and substances. PMID: 31810399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 6, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Strickland JC, Stoops WW Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

A systematic review of rural-specific barriers to medication treatment for opioid use disorder in the United States.
Conclusions: Our findings consistently identified a lack of medication providers and rural-specific implementation challenges. This review highlights a lack of rural-focused studies involving consumer participants, treatment outcomes, or barriers impacting underserved populations. There is a need for innovative treatment delivery for opioid use disorder in rural communities and interventions targeting provider attitudes. PMID: 31809217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 6, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Lister JJ, Weaver A, Ellis JD, Himle JA, Ledgerwood DM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

How Medicaid work requirements could exacerbate the opioid epidemic.
Abstract In 2018, the Trump Administration took the unprecedented step of allowing states to impose work requirements as a condition of Medicaid eligibility. States can apply for a demonstration waiver to require Medicaid beneficiaries aged 19-64 who do not meet exemption criteria (e.g., disability, caring for a sick relative) to participate in "community engagement" activities, which include employment, volunteering, and enrollment in a qualifying education or job training program. Debate thus far has focused primarily around the important issue of whether such requirements are legal. Less attention has...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 4, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Andrews CM, Humphreys K, Grogan CM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

A comparison of frequency of alcohol and marijuana use using short message service surveying and survey questionnaires among homeless youth.
Conclusion: Findings indicate SMS and surveys are both reliable methods of gathering data from homeless youth on substance use. PMID: 31794285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - December 3, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Tyler KA, Olson K Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Necessity of addressing motivations for cannabis use to guide research.
PMID: 31755836 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Cooper ZD, Adinoff B Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Cannabis legalization: progress in harm reduction approaches for substance use and misuse.
PMID: 31755837 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 23, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Adinoff B, Cooper ZD Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

The association between regular cannabis use, with and without tobacco co-use, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes: cannabis may have a greater impact in non-tobacco smokers.
Conclusions: Cannabis use is associated with significantly greater risk of adverse cardiovascular diagnoses and overall death, particularly in non-tobacco users. PMID: 31743053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 19, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Winhusen T, Theobald J, Kaelber DC, Lewis D Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Effects of attentional bias modification therapy on the cue reactivity and cognitive control networks in participants with cocaine use disorders.
Conclusion: Current results suggest a relationship between cue reactivity network activation and cocaine use, but question the efficacy of ABMT in changing brain function during cue reactivity or cognitive control tasks. PMID: 31730369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 15, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Mayer AR, Dodd AB, Wilcox CE, Klimaj SD, Claus ED, Bryan AD Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

The interaction between parental behavior and motivations to drink alcohol in high school students.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that parental strictness regarding teen alcohol use extends beyond the family unit to influence adolescent drinking in the broader social network. Parents may have a limited capacity to deter drinking through setting rules and expectations for adolescents who are motived to drink to conform but such limit setting maybe particularly helpful for youth with fewer motives to abstain. PMID: 31724884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 14, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Voce A, Anderson KG Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Considering abuse liability and neurocognitive effects of cannabis and cannabis-derived products when assessing analgesic efficacy: a comprehensive review of randomized-controlled studies.
Conclusion: Few studies investigating cannabis and CDP analgesia assess abuse liability and cognitive endpoints, adverse effects that impact the long-term clinical utility of these drugs. Future studies should include these measures to optimize research and clinical care related to cannabis-based therapeutics. PMID: 31687845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 5, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Cooper ZD, Abrams D Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

A proposal for an alcohol purchase license.
Conclusions: Health benefits will include increased public safety and awareness about drinking consequences and reduced alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID: 31689140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 5, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Merrell E, Johnson B Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Changes in the composition of the human intestinal microbiome in alcohol use disorder: a systematic review.
Conclusion: Intestinal microbiome alterations associated with dysbiosis in individuals with AUD are generally consistent across studies, making it a promising target in potential AUD complications treatment. PMID: 31689142 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 5, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Litwinowicz K, Choroszy M, Waszczuk E Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Implementing social justice in the transition from illicit to legal cannabis.
Conclusions: Focused regulatory efforts and financial resources (from both cannabis revenue and savings from the abolition of cannabis prohibition) as well as more attentive data collection and analysis should be utilized to assure that all individuals experience the benefits, and avoid the consequences, of cannabis legalization. PMID: 31634005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 21, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Adinoff B, Reiman A Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

The Desire to Dissociate Scale: factor analysis, cross-cultural findings, and links to substance-induced dissociation.
Conclusion: Clinical implications address avoidant coping patterns and differences in specific factor findings between U.S. and Filipino samples. PMID: 31622121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 17, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Klanecky Earl AK, Tuliao AP, Landoy BVN, McChargue DE Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Augmentation of morphine-conditioned place preference by food restriction is associated with alterations in the oxytocin/oxytocin receptor in rat models.
Conclusion: We propose the inclusion of OXT and OXTR alterations in the enhancement of morphine-induced CPP and addiction vulnerability following FR. Moreover, we conclude that altered BDNF levels and HPA axis activity may be the mechanisms involved in the effects of FR on morphine-induced behavior. PMID: 31609135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 14, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Mousavi A, Askari N, Vaez-Mahdavi MR Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

The clinical consequences of variable selection in multiple regression models: a case study of the Norwegian Opioid Maintenance Treatment program.
Conclusions: The choice of variable selection method may strongly affect the resulting regression model, along with accompanying effect sizes and confidence intervals. This may affect clinical conclusions. The process should consequently be given sufficient consideration in model building. We recommend combining expert knowledge with a data-driven variable selection method to explore the models' robustness. PMID: 31603346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 11, 2019 Category: Addiction Authors: Stavseth MR, Clausen T, Røislien J Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research