Risk factors for heroin use following release from jail or prison in adults in a Central Appalachian state between 2012-2017.
Conclusions: In this sample, post-release heroin use was associated with concerning features, such as polydrug use, lack of social satisfaction, and suicidal ideation. These features can serve as clear targets for clinical intervention. PMID: 33223579 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Smith KE, Archuleta A, Staton M, Winston E Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Implementing hospital-based peer recovery support services for substance use disorder.
CONCLUSIONS: This study describes peer recovery support services for substance use disorder delivered in emergency departments and inpatient settings. Evidence of improved patient outcomes is needed prior to widespread adoption. PMID: 33216634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Liebling EJ, Perez JJS, Litterer MM, Greene C Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroimaging for cocaine use disorder: Review and future directions.
Conclusion: The literature combining TMS with neuroimaging is small and heterogeneous. We propose that combining TMS with neuroimaging will accelerate our understanding of substance use disorder neurobiology and treatment. Once network biomarkers of substance use have been identified, TMS can be used to manipulate the dysfunctional circuits in order to identify a causal relationship between connectivity and psychopathology. PMID: 33216666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 20, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Shen Y, Ward HB Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Adverse childhood experiences are associated with at-risk drinking, cannabis and illicit drug use in females but not males: an Emergency Department study.
CONCLUSION: ACEs are associated with greater odds of substance use among female than male ED patients. The prevalence of ACE exposure in this urban ED sample underscores the importance of ED staff providing trauma-informed care. PMID: 33186088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Cunradi CB, Caetano R, Alter HJ, Ponicki WR Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Ketamine-facilitated behavioral treatment for cannabis use disorder: A proof of concept study.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that combining ketamine with behavioral therapy is feasible,tolerable, and potentially helpful, in treating cannabis-dependent individuals. PMID: 33175580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Azhari N, Hu H, O'Malley KY, Blocker ME, Levin FR, Dakwar E Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Age-varying trends in alcohol and cannabis co-occurring use: Implications for prescription drug misuse.
Conclusion: Co-occurring use was linked with heightened risk for PDM compared to individuals who used only one substance; co-occurring use may be important to target for PDM prevention. Identifying factors underlying study associations, beyond pain, and how these factors evolve with age are important avenues for prevention work. PMID: 33175597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Linden-Carmichael AN, Allen HK, Masters LD, Ansell EB, Lanza ST Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Alcohol messages disseminated to pregnant women by midwives.
CONCLUSION: Concerted efforts are needed to ensure information disseminated aligns with health guidelines and encourages abstinence during pregnancy. PMID: 33175601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Olusanya OA, Olokunlade T, Rossheim ME, Greene K, Barry AE Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

BDNF levels and liver stiffness in subjects with alcohol use disorder: Evaluation after alcohol withdrawal.
Conclusion: In AUD, BDNF levels were associated with measured LS when divided into fibrosis risk categories. Changes in LS and BDNF levels after alcohol withdrawal may be related to changes in homeostatic mechanisms, in addition to those of liver status. PMID: 33176105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Girard M, Carrier P, Loustaud-Ratti V, Nubukpo P Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Social network theory-an underutilized opportunity to align innovative methods with the demands of the opioid epidemic.
Abstract It has been almost 3 years since the opioid epidemic was declared a national public health emergency under federal law. Solutions have focused on supply-reduction strategies. These approaches, however, have failed to significantly curtail opioid overdose and related death. Demand for opioid use arising from social networks and environment is an important contributing factor to the current opioid epidemic. Adoption of existing underused methods is needed to drive further progress. This Perspective proposes the social contagion model as a promising framework through which to operationalize evaluation of the...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Cutter CM, Larson RC, Abir M Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Factors associated with the absence of cocaine craving in treatment-seeking individuals during inpatient cocaine detoxification.
CONCLUSIONS: One in three patients undergoing inpatient detoxification experienced absence of craving, linked to less pretreatment cocaine use, better mood, and decreased administration of antipsychotics. Findings may inform pretreatment strategies and improve treatment cost-effectiveness. PMID: 33164558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - November 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Pérez de Los Cobos J, Alcaraz S, Verdejo-García A, Muñoz L, Siñol N, Fernández-Serrano MJ, Fernández P, Martínez A, Duran-Sindreu S, Batlle F, Trujols J Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines may relate to cocaine use, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptoms in cocaine use disorder.
CONCLUSION: Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines may relate to cocaine use, cognition, and depression, but inconsistent with our hypotheses, higher pro-inflammatory cytokines related to better functioning in several domains. Additionally, cytokines were selected at low frequencies and demonstrated weak relationships with outcomes. These preliminary findings suggest complex relationships between inflammation and cocaine use. PMID: 33119414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 29, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Stamatovich SN, Lopez-Gamundi P, Suchting R, Colpo GD, Walss-Bass C, Lane SD, Schmitz JM, Wardle MC Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Treatment for opioid use disorder in the Florida medicaid population: Using a cascade of care model to evaluate quality.
Conclusions: Initiating medication after OUD diagnosis offers the greatest opportunity for intervention to reduce overdose deaths, though efforts to increase retention are also warranted. Analyzing claims data with CoC identifies system functioning for specific populations, and suggests policies and clinical pathways to target for improvement. PMID: 33054435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Johnson K, Hills H, Ma J, Brown CH, McGovern M Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

E-cigarette use perceptions that differentiate e-cigarette susceptibility and use among high school students.
Abstract BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use among adolescents is increasingly popular and a growing public health concern. OBJECTIVES: To examine how individual e-cigarette use perceptions differ between adolescents based on e-cigarette use status and susceptibility to future use of e-cigarettes. METHODS: Data were collected using surveys administered across eight Connecticut high schools (grades 9-12), Spring 2015. N = 2592 students (Mage = 16.01, SD = 1.28, Female = 51.7%) reported e-cigarette use and susceptibility and were categorized into non-susceptible never-users (57.8...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Burnley A, Bold KW, Kong G, Wu R, Krishnan-Sarin S Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 33048601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Variability in antemortem and postmortem blood alcohol concentration levels among fatally injured adults.
Abstract Background: Excessive alcohol use is a risk factor for injury-related deaths. Postmortem blood samples are commonly used to approximate antemortem blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels. Objectives: To assess differences between antemortem and postmortem BACs among fatally injured adults admitted to one shock trauma center (STC). Method: Fifty-two adult decedents (45 male, 7 female) admitted to a STC in Baltimore, Maryland during 2006-2016 were included. STC records were matched with records from Maryland's Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). The antemortem and postmortem BAC distributions were...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Greene N, Esser MB, Vesselinov R, Auman KM, Kerns TJ, Lauerman MH Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Impact of cannabis on non-medical opioid use and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder: a nationwide longitudinal VA study.
This study sought to investigate the relationship between cannabis use, non-medical opioid use, and PTSD symptoms among U.S. veterans. METHODS: From 1992-2011, veterans admitted to specialized intensive PTSD treatment participated in a national evaluation with assessments at intake and four months after discharge. Participants with non-medical opioid use ≥ 7 days during the 30 days preceding admission were divided into two groups: those with cannabis use ≥ 7 days, and those without cannabis use. These two groups were compared on measures of substance use and PTSD symptoms at baseline and 4-months ...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 9, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: De Aquino JP, Sofuoglu M, Stefanovics EA, Rosenheck RA Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

The citrus flavanone naringenin prevents the development of morphine analgesic tolerance and conditioned place preference in male rats.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Opioids are effective analgesics in the management of chronic pain. However, their clinical use is hindered by adverse side effects such as addiction and analgesic tolerance. Naringenin is a common polyphenolic constituent of the citrus fruits and is one of the most commonly consumed flavonoids within our regular diet. However, its influences on opioid tolerance and addiction have not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of different doses of naringenin on analgesic tolerance, conditioned place preference and neuroinflammation in morphine-exposed rats. METHODS: Analg...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Alifarsangi A, Esmaeili-Mahani S, Sheibani V, Abbasnejad M Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence interventions focused on opioid use disorders: A review of the gray literature.
CONCLUSION: This is the first gray literature synthesis to characterize the current 'landscape' of OUD-specific AI interventions. Future research should continue to assess the usability, utility, acceptability and efficacy of these interventions, in addition to the overall legal, ethical, and social implications of OUD-specific AI interventions. PMID: 33006905 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - October 1, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Beaulieu T, Knight R, Nolan S, Quick O, Ti L Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Long-term cocaine use is associated with increased coronary plaque burden - a pilot study.
Conclusion: Prolonged cocaine use accelerates the development of sub-clinical atherosclerosis. PMID: 32990047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Chen DH, Kolossváry M, Chen S, Lai H, Yeh HC, Lai S Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Drug overdose mortality is associated with employment status and occupation in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study.
CONCLUSIONS: In a large national cohort followed prospectively for up to 6 years, several employment statuses and occupations are associated with overdose deaths, independent of a range of other factors. Efforts to prevent overdose deaths may benefit from focusing on these high-risk groups. PMID: 32990475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Aram J, Johnson NJ, Lee MT, Slopen N Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Current drinking patterns in US veterans with a lifetime history of alcohol use disorder: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.
Conclusion: More than three-quarters of US veterans with lifetime AUD are currently abstinent or subthreshold drinkers. Factors associated with abstinence included older age, health problems, religiosity and social engagement. Results suggest a "J-shaped" relationship between current drinking patterns and health and psychosocial factors in veterans, with subthreshold drinkers generally having better health than abstinent and hazardous drinkers. PMID: 32975444 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Stefanovics EA, Gavriel-Fried B, Potenza MN, Pietrzak RH Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Beliefs about medications for opioid use disorder among Florida criminal problem-solving court & dependency court staff.
CONCLUSIONS: Court staff need education about MOUD efficacy. Policymakers should prohibit courts from banning MOUD and from preventing child reunification for parents utilizing MOUD. PMID: 32969757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 23, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Andraka-Christou B, Atkins D Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Cognitive-behavioral therapy and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Conclusion: The evidence cautiously suggests that for OUD, there may be some benefit to adding non-individual CBT to buprenorphine therapy. PMID: 32960649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 21, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Gregory VL, Ellis RJB Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Some law enforcement officers' negative attitudes toward overdose victims are exacerbated following overdose education training.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite a comprehensive OEND training that addressed addiction and harm reduction and directly targeted hypothesized drivers of negative attitudes (e.g., risk compensation beliefs), some officers' attitudes worsened after the training. Randomized experiments of different training approaches would elucidate the mediators and moderators underlying these unexpected responses. PMID: 32931324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Winograd RP, Stringfellow EJ, Phillips SK, Wood CA Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Parent-adolescent relationship characteristics and adolescent cannabis use: A growth curve analysis.
Conclusion: Results support the importance of considering how specific aspects of the parentadolescent relationship, in this case elevated parental frustration, are associated with adolescent cannabis misuse during treatment and after its completion. Findings suggest parental relationship frustration is a key factor to assess and address within individually tailored interventions for co-occurring cannabis misuse and psychiatric disorders. PMID: 32931332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Thomas SA, Brick LA, Micalizzi L, Wolff JC, Frazier EA, Graves H, Esposito-Smythers C, Spirito A Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Pain severity and anxiety sensitivity interact to predict drinking severity among hazardous drinking college students.
Abstract Background: Hazardous alcohol use among college students is a growing problem. Alcohol is commonly used in the context of pain due to acute analgesic effects, although the role of pain among hazardous drinkers has not been examined. Little is known regarding factors that may moderate pain-alcohol relations. One factor is anxiety sensitivity, which reflects the fear of physiological sensations. Pain severity and anxiety sensitivity may interact such that those with high anxiety sensitivity may have stronger pain-alcohol relations.Objectives: The current study examined interactive associations of pain sever...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Paulus DJ, Rogers AH, Asmundson GJG, Zvolensky MJ Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Effects of fetal alcohol and maternal intubation stress on the expression of proteins controlling postnatal development of male rat hippocampus.
This study aimed to shed light on the molecular correlates of compensatory mechanisms by examining temporal profiles in the expression of proteins controlling postnatal development in the rat hippocampus prenatally exposed to intubation stress/ethanol. METHODS: Male pups were randomly assigned to age subgroups (n = 21/age) which were sacrificed on postnatal day (PD)1, PD10, PD30, and PD60. Ethanol (6 g/kg/day) were intragastrically intubated to the dams throughout 7-21 gestation days. The expression of neurogenesis and angiogenesis markers, extracellular matrix proteins, and growth-promoting ligands wer...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 10, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Elibol B, Beker M, Jakubowska-Dogru E, Kilic U Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) to examine racial and ethnic disparities in cannabis incidents.
CONCLUSION: NIBRS utility would increase with greater or required jurisdiction participation, guidance for collection of racial and ethnic data, and required ethnicity reporting. Despite limitations, cannabis disparity analyses using NIBRS can provide key insights for increasing equity in states considering and enacting cannabis legalization. PMID: 32897106 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Doonan SM, Hamilton JR, Johnson JK Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

A theoretical framework and nomenclature to characterize the iatrogenic contribution of therapeutic opioid exposure to opioid induced hyperalgesia, physical dependence, and opioid use disorder.
Abstract Opioid use, misuse, and risky use contribute to a critically important and complex crisis in current healthcare. Consequences of long-term opioid use, including opioid induced hyperalgesia, physical dependence, and opioid use disorder, can be considered iatrogenic, or partially iatrogenic, in cases where therapeutic opioid exposures were contributory. Research investigation and presumptive clinical action are needed to attenuate the iatrogenic component of the opioid crisis; treatment of individuals already suffering from opioid use disorder will not prevent incident cases. This work will be challenged by...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - September 7, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Beauchamp GA, Nelson LS, Perrone J, Lyons MS Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

An empirical study on the construct of "God" in the Twelve Step process.
CONCLUSIONS: Respondents' understanding of God in NA varied considerably and was predictive of their depressive symptoms and craving intensity. These findings can serve as a basis for research into mechanisms underlying NA/AA recovery experiences and can also aid clinicians in how to employ these programs. PMID: 32870030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - August 31, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Galanter M, White WL, Ziegler PP, Hunter B Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Parental protective and risk factors regarding cannabis use in adolescence: A national sample from the Chilean school population.
Conclusions In line with research from the United States, the Netherlands and Spain, parental monitoring of adolescents' whereabouts and a strong parental opposition to cannabis use appear to be protective factors, irrespective of past parental use. However, the effectiveness of monitoring adolescents' school activities seems to decrease when parents are perceived as having used drugs in the past. PMID: 32865053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - August 30, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Lobato Concha ME, Sanderman R, Pizarro E, Hagedoorn M Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Variants of opioid genes and response to treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine-naloxone versus extended-release naltrexone in Caucasians.
CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of treatment of OUD with medications is likely a complex function of multiple factors, including environmental, psychosocial, and possibly genetic, such that major effects of genetic variants may be unlikely. PMID: 32851876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - August 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Randesi M, Rotrosen J, Nunes EV, Lee JD, Novo P, Levran O, Ott J, Pavlicova M, Scodes J, Kreek MJ Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

An ecological momentary assessment of mood, coping and alcohol use among emerging adults in psychiatric treatment.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood is a critical period for the onset of both mental health disorders and problematic alcohol use. Coping strategies can play an important role in mitigating the onset and progression of these conditions in emerging adulthood. The current study examined daily mood, coping strategy use, and alcohol use during an individualized, ecological momentary intervention (EMI).Objectives: To examine the within-person relationship between mood, coping strategy use, and alcohol use.Methods: Emerging adults (N = 20, 55% female) in a partial hospital program for anxiety or mood disorders...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - August 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Stevenson BL, Blevins CE, Marsh E, Feltus S, Stein M, Abrantes AM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment during adolescence heightens ethanol intake in female, but not male, adolescent rats that are selectively bred for high and low ethanol intake during adolescence.
Pautassi RM Abstract BACKGROUND: Discriminating between adolescents who will eventually have ethanol use problems from those who do not is important. Environmental enrichment is a promising approach to reduce drug-related problems, but its impact on ethanol's effects and intake is being scrutinized. Objective: We tested the effects of environmental enrichment on ethanol intake, preference, and anxiety-like response as well as shelter seeking and risk-taking behaviors. METHODS: Experiment 1 examined ethanol intake, preference, and anxiety-like responses in 46 male and 54 female Wistar rats that were derived fr...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - August 17, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Suárez A, Fabio MC, Bellia F, Fernández MS, Pautassi RM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Researcher perspectives on including people who use drugs in clinical research.
This study conducted a mixed-method assessment of researchers' attitudes on including persons reporting substance use in clinical research. METHODS: Respondents (N = 168; 58% female; 58% psychologists) recruited via scientific society listservs and Twitter completed a survey containing two hypothetical research vignettes. Quantitative items evaluated respondents' endorsement of research participation by healthy adults, people who use drugs, and vulnerable populations. Qualitative items included open-ended questions asking reasons why people who use drugs should and should not participate in research. RE...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - August 17, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Strickland JC, Marks KR, Stoops WW Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Electronic monitoring devices during substance use treatment are associated with increased arrests among women in specialty courts.
CONCLUSION: EM provision did not enhance the retention of women in residential treatment and the presence of an EM was associated with a more than tripling in the odds of re-arrest. Results also suggest that EM use for women in Specialty Courts may have some limited utility in reducing substance use; however, the mechanism driving this effect remains unclear. PMID: 32795245 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - August 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Reingle Gonzalez J, Johansson-Love J, Edmonds L, Jetelina K Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Association of E-cigarettes with adolescent alcohol use and binge drinking-drunkenness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: ECIG users had a higher risk of alcohol use and binge drinking/drunkenness compared to NON-ECIG users. Our findings indicate that interventions to reduce ECIG use should be coupled with measures to reduce alcohol use in adolescents.Abbreviations: ECIG: e-cigarettes; NON-ECIG: non e-cigarettes. PMID: 32795246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - August 13, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Rothrock AN, Andris H, Swetland SB, Chavez V, Isaak S, Pagane M, Romney J, Rothrock SG Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Changes in drug use behaviors coinciding with the emergence of illicit fentanyl among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada.
Abstract BACKGROUND: With the emergence of illicitly-manufactured fentanyl, drug overdose deaths have risen in unprecedented numbers. In this context, there is an urgent need to characterize potential changes in drug use behaviors among people who use drugs (PWUD). OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in drug use behaviors following the emergence of illicit fentanyl among people who use drugs (PWUD). METHODS: Data for this cross-sectional analysis was derived from three prospective cohorts of PWUD between December 2016 and May 2017 in Vancouver, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine fa...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - July 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Brar R, Grant C, DeBeck K, Milloy MJ, Fairbairn N, Wood E, Kerr T, Hayashi K Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Piloting of the Just Say Know prevention program: a psychoeducational approach to translating the neuroscience of addiction to youth.
CONCLUSION: Results suggest Just Say Know, a scientifically-based prevention program, is effective in increasing adolescents' program based-knowledge, has the potential to affect youths' attitudes toward substance use, and is well-received. These findings provide preliminary evidence that a cost-effective, neuroscience-informed group prevention program might reduce or delay adolescents' future substance use. PMID: 32687415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - July 19, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Meredith LR, Maralit AM, Thomas SE, Rivers SL, Salazar CA, Anton RF, Tomko RL, Squeglia LM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Early onset of cannabis use and alcohol intoxication predicts prescription drug misuse in American Indian and non-American Indian adolescents living on or near reservations.
This study estimates relationships between PDM and early initiation (prior to 14 yrs) of cannabis use and alcohol intoxication for a national sample of AI and non-AI adolescents attending schools on or near reservations. METHOD: Participants were 2580 students (50.2% female; 58.1% AI), ages 15-18, attending schools located on or near an AI reservation. Four models of PDM were estimated: 1) demographic variables; 2) demographics plus cannabis use initiation status; 3) demographics plus alcohol intoxication initiation status; and 4) all variables. All analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. RESULTS: Resu...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - July 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Stanley LR, Swaim RC, Smith JK, Conner BT Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

College students' perceived knowledge of and perceived helpfulness of treatments for opioid use disorder at two American universities.
CONCLUSIONS: Students had more positive attitudes toward non-MOUD treatments than toward MOUD despite greater efficacy of the latter for OUD. Colleges could provide information about MOUD during orientation, in course work, through student extracurricular organizations, or through college health clinics. PMID: 32543922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 15, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Andraka-Christou B, Nguyen T, Harris S, Madeira J, Totaram R, Randall-Kosich O, Atkins D, Ford J Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Pain interference and catastrophizing are not associated with polysubstance use among treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorders and chronic pain.
In this study, we examined whether two pain processes - pain interference and pain catastrophizing - were associated with polysubstance use. OBJECTIVES: We examined the cross-sectional associations among self-reported pain interference and catastrophizing and polysubstance use. We also determined if sex and primary SUD moderated these associations. METHODS: Participants were 236 (36% female) adults receiving inpatient treatment for SUD (58% alcohol use disorder, 42% opioid use disorder) who met criteria for chronic pain. We utilized negative binomial regression to examine associations between pain interference an...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Votaw VR, Witkiewitz K, Vowles KE, Weiss RD, Griffin ML, McHugh RK Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

The use of ketamine to cope with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder: A qualitative analysis of the discourses posted on a popular online forum.
CONCLUSION: Although online research of user-generated content has its limitations in terms of reliability and validity, the present study adds relevant information on the use of ketamine for managing depression and PTSD, whether this use is done legally or not. PMID: 32529853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 11, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Chaves TV, Wilffert B, Sanchez ZM Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

A dynamic model of the opioid drug epidemic with implications for policy.
CONCLUSION: No single intervention significantly reduces both PWOUD and overdose deaths, but a combination strategy can do so. Entering the 2020 s, only protective measures like naloxone expansion could significantly reduce overdose deaths. PMID: 32515234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 8, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Homer J, Wakeland W Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

To label or not to label: do young drinkers understand the alcohol content of supersized alcopops?
PMID: 32515235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 8, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Vasiljevic M Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Trends in cannabis use among justice-involved youth in the United States, 2002-2017.
CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest that cannabis use is increasing among justice-involved youth. PMID: 32515239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - June 8, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Vaughn MG, AbiNader M, Salas-Wright CP, Holzer K, Oh S, Chang Y Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Cannabis use in civilian college students and college student service members/veterans: the moderating effect of anxiety.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that when experiencing elevated levels of anxiety, SSM/V use cannabis more frequently than civilian students, suggesting that anxiety may be a more prominent risk factor for frequency of cannabis use for SSM/V compared to civilian students. Education, prevention, and intervention efforts specifically addressing anxiety in this demographic are needed. PMID: 32469609 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - May 28, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Teeters JB, Woodward MJ, Meshesha LZ, Tripp JC Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 32460630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - May 26, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Reduced cigarette smoking during injectable extended-release naltrexone treatment for opioid use disorder.
Abstract Background: The prevalence of tobacco cigarette smoking in the US has declined to approximately 15%, yet, it remains over 90% among individuals with opioid use disorder regardless of whether they are currently using opioids illicitly or as opioid substitution therapy. This disparity raises the question of whether opioids facilitate smoking among individuals with opioid use disorder and whether opioid antagonists may reduce it.Objectives: Determine whether injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) treatment of opioid use disorder patients is associated with a spontaneous smoking reduction. We hypothe...
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - May 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Wang AL, Shi Z, Elman I, Langleben DD Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research

Self-correction of unreported marijuana use by participants taking a street-intercept survey.
Conclusion: Asking participants to confirm previous responses can help detect underreporting of drug use on intercept surveys. Results can inform survey methods when participants are believed to be at risk for underreporting. PMID: 32379560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - May 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Palamar JJ, Le A Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research