Evidence of patients ’ challenges and barriers related to usage of Implanon®: scoping review protocol
DiscussionWe anticipate finding relevant studies on the use of Implanon ®. Evidence gathered from included studies will help us identify gaps in research and help guide future research on Implanon® usage. This information can also help guide implementers and users on challenges and barriers related to use of Implanon®.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017072926. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A comprehensive regional neurochemical theory in depression: a protocol for the systematic review and meta-analysis of 1H-MRS studies in major depressive disorder
DiscussionThis data will shed new light on the biochemical basis of depression in different brain regions, thereby highlighting the potential of MRS in identifying biomarkers and generating models of MDD and treatment response.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42018091494 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prophylactic management of postpartum haemorrhage in the third stage of labour: an overview of systematic reviews
ConclusionsNo effective prophylactic management techniques were identified for maternal mortality. Most methods of effective prophylactic management of postpartum haemorrhage were supported by evidence; however, they were limited to low- or moderate-quality evidence, and high-quality studies are therefore needed. Outcome measures of the included systematic reviews varied. It is recommended that outcome measures in preventive postpartum haemorrhage intervention trials align with the World Health Organization guidelines.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO:CRD42016049220. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Nanomedicine for drug delivery in South Africa: a protocol for systematic review
DiscussionThe systematic review will inform the government, policy-makers, investors, health professionals, scientists, and engineers about the applications of nanomedicine in drug delivery. In particular, it will identify the diseases targeted by the application of nanomedicine for drug delivery and the progress being made in South Africa as the disease burden of this country differs from that of developed countries where nanomedicine has been widely used for drug delivery.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017057388 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Experiences of aging in place in the United States: protocol for a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies
DiscussionTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review to integrate and synthesize the findings of qualitative studies of aging in place focusing on older adults in the US. The findings of this review will provide in-depth knowledge on lived experiences of aging in place and address important gaps in existing work.Systematic review registrationInternational Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42018102847 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Just how plain are plain tobacco packs: re-analysis of a systematic review using multilevel meta-analysis suggests lessons about the comparative benefits of synthesis methods
ConclusionsThe meta-analysis found, similar to the narrative synthesis, that respondents typically rated plain packaging as less attractive than alternative (e.g. branded) tobacco packs. However, there were several trade-offs between analysis methods in the types and bodies of evidence each one contained and in the difference between partial precision and breadth of conclusions. Analysis methods were different in respect of the role of judgement and contextual variation and in terms of estimation and unexpected effect modification. In addition, we noted that analysis methods were different in how they accounted for heterog...
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The role of saline irrigation prior to wound closure in the reduction of surgical site infection: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
DiscussionThis review aims at investigating the value of routine wound irrigation using normal saline in preventing surgical site infection.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO:CRD42018082287 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 5, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Survival of patients with chronic heart failure in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
DiscussionThis systematic review will provide up to date evidence on the current survival rates and prognostic indicators for patients with chronic HF. We will put this into historical perspective, comparing outcomes across time to help understand the impact of advances in evidence-based treatment on average survival. This information is important in facilitating informed decision-making for patients and health professionals as well as highlighting areas to focus resources and improve public health planning.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO 2017CRD42017075680 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 3, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The HEART score in predicting major adverse cardiac events in patients presenting to the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
DiscussionThis review will identify, select, and appraise studies evaluating the prognostic performance of the HEART score, producing results of interest to emergency physicians. These results may encourage shared clinical decision-making in the ED by facilitating risk communication with patients and health care providers.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO 2017CRD42017084400. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prognostic value of microRNAs in head and neck cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
DiscussionThere is a lack of highly sensitive and specific biomarkers for estimating the HNC patients ’ prognostic outcomes, particularly in post-treatment conditions. This systematic review will identify and validate specific miRNA as prognostic biomarkers by utilising a collection of previously published data on miRNA expression and survival. Highlighting these prognostic specific miRNAs will ha ve major clinical implications by allowing for better overall treatment strategies and patient survival estimates, by offering clinicians a method of quantitatively analysing prognosis via miRNA expression.Systematic review...
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prediction of clinical outcomes in individuals with chronic low back pain: a protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis
DiscussionWe consider that it is urgent to highlight the available evidence about CLBP prognosis. This systematic review will help identify multivariable models and individual predictors that may enhance pain management success. One potential limitation will be the difficulty of aggregating quantitative measures from several prognostic models and predictors, with different clinical outcomes.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017079233 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The HEART score in predicting major adverse cardiac events in patients presenting to the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
DiscussionThis review will identify, select, and appraise studies evaluating the prognostic performance of the HEART score, producing results of interest to emergency physicians. These results may encourage shared clinical decision-making in the ED by facilitating risk communication with patients and health care providers.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO 2017CRD42017084400. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prognostic value of microRNAs in head and neck cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
DiscussionThere is a lack of highly sensitive and specific biomarkers for estimating the HNC patients ’ prognostic outcomes, particularly in post-treatment conditions. This systematic review will identify and validate specific miRNA as prognostic biomarkers by utilising a collection of previously published data on miRNA expression and survival. Highlighting these prognostic specific miRNAs will ha ve major clinical implications by allowing for better overall treatment strategies and patient survival estimates, by offering clinicians a method of quantitatively analysing prognosis via miRNA expression.Systematic review...
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prediction of clinical outcomes in individuals with chronic low back pain: a protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis
DiscussionWe consider that it is urgent to highlight the available evidence about CLBP prognosis. This systematic review will help identify multivariable models and individual predictors that may enhance pain management success. One potential limitation will be the difficulty of aggregating quantitative measures from several prognostic models and predictors, with different clinical outcomes.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017079233 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - October 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Global, regional, and national prevalence of hepatitis B infection in the general and key populations living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
DiscussionTo our knowledge, this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis protocol to report the prevalence of HBV in people living with HIV. We believe its outcomes will be of utility in providing insights on the characteristics of HBV epidemic in people living with HIV, and draw more attention of public health services to this association.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017073124 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A review of recent publication trends from top publishing countries
ConclusionThe USA leads in all publication citations and specific publication types, except for meta-analysis where China publishes more. Collaborative publishing among international collaborators is also increasing. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Global, regional, and national prevalence of hepatitis B infection in the general and key populations living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
DiscussionTo our knowledge, this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis protocol to report the prevalence of HBV in people living with HIV. We believe its outcomes will be of utility in providing insights on the characteristics of HBV epidemic in people living with HIV, and draw more attention of public health services to this association.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017073124 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A review of recent publication trends from top publishing countries
ConclusionThe USA leads in all publication citations and specific publication types, except for meta-analysis where China publishes more. Collaborative publishing among international collaborators is also increasing. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Evaluating the current state of Mendelian randomization studies: a protocol for a systematic review on methodological and clinical aspects using neurodegenerative disorders as outcome
DiscussionThis systematic review protocol utilizes a unique comprehensive data abstraction tool based on recent methodological advancements in the field of MR. The planned systematic review will further integrate information on methodological details with clinical findings in latest available large-scale genome-wide association study datasets. Our findings aim to help raising awareness and promoting transparent reporting of MR studies.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42018091434. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A systematic review and network meta-analysis comparing azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome
ConclusionsAzacitidine and decitabine are both associated with improved outcomes compared to BSC. The available indirect evidence comparing the two agents warrants very low certainty and cannot reliably confirm the superiority of either agent. Head-to-head trials are needed. In the meantime, the choice of agent should be driven by patient preferences, adverse effects, drug availability, and cost. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Protocol for a systematic review to identify the barriers and facilitators to deliver bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in disadvantaged communities
DiscussionThis review will focus on all studies that seek to examine the barriers and facilitators to the delivery of bystander CPR in deprived communities and identify examples of previous interventions or activities that could inform the design of a future theory-based intervention to improve the rate of bystander CPR in deprived communities.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017081944 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sustaining knowledge translation interventions for chronic disease management in older adults: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis
DiscussionOur results will inform knowledge users (e.g. patients, clinicians, policy-makers) regarding the sustainability of KT interventions for CDM. Dissemination plan of our results will be tailored to end-users and include passive (e.g. publications, website posting) and interactive (e.g. knowledge exchange events with stakeholders) strategies.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42018084810 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review
DiscussionPooling all available evidence on the accuracy, approach, and interpretation of results of trial-of-antibiotics in the context of PTB diagnosis will meet an urgent need, considering the widespread utilisation and potential for antimicrobial resistance. We therefore believe that our findings will have impact on policy and that they will inform the design of future detailed investigations into this important diagnostic approach.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017083915 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Survival estimates stratified by the Nottingham Prognostic Index for early breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
ConclusionsThe substantial differences between studies in the relationship between NPI categories and survival at 5 and 10  years poses challenges for use of this prognostic score in both clinical settings and in decision-analytic model-based economic evaluations. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sustaining knowledge translation interventions for chronic disease management in older adults: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis
DiscussionOur results will inform knowledge users (e.g. patients, clinicians, policy-makers) regarding the sustainability of KT interventions for CDM. Dissemination plan of our results will be tailored to end-users and include passive (e.g. publications, website posting) and interactive (e.g. knowledge exchange events with stakeholders) strategies.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42018084810 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review
DiscussionPooling all available evidence on the accuracy, approach, and interpretation of results of trial-of-antibiotics in the context of PTB diagnosis will meet an urgent need, considering the widespread utilisation and potential for antimicrobial resistance. We therefore believe that our findings will have impact on policy and that they will inform the design of future detailed investigations into this important diagnostic approach.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017083915 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Survival estimates stratified by the Nottingham Prognostic Index for early breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
ConclusionsThe substantial differences between studies in the relationship between NPI categories and survival at 5 and 10  years poses challenges for use of this prognostic score in both clinical settings and in decision-analytic model-based economic evaluations. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Modifiable and emerging risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
This study will examine the modifiable and emerging risk factors associated with T2DM in Africa.MethodologyThe study will include a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished empirical studies, reporting quantitative data only. We will conduct a search on scientific databases (e.g. Global Health), general online search engines (e.g. Google Scholar) and key websites for grey literature using a combination of key countries/geographic terms, risk factors (e.g. overweight/obesity) and T2DM (including a manual search of the included reference lists). We will use the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software (CM...
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Understanding variations in catastrophic health expenditure, its underlying determinants and impoverishment in Sub-Saharan African countries: a scoping review
ConclusionThis review demonstrated that CHE/impoverishment is pervasive in SSA, and the magnitude varies across and within countries and over time. Socio-economic factors are seen to drive CHE with the poor being the most affected, and they vary across countries. This calls for intensifying health policies and financing structures in SSA, to provide equitable access to all populations especially the most poor and vulnerable. There is a need to innovate and draw lessons from the ‘informal’ social networks/schemes as they are reported to be more effective in cushioning the financial burden. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Antibiotic therapy for skin and soft tissue infections: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis
This study has several strengths compared to previous reviews: inclusion of a wider range of infection types, antibiotics, and outcomes; a comprehensive search strategy; a priori subgroup analyses; application of GRADE; and improved interpretability of findings through visual presentation of results. We hope our findings will inform future research, health care professionals, and policy makers resulting in improved evidence-based clinical management of SSTIs.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42018085607 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The sustainability of Lean in pediatric healthcare: a realist review
ConclusionsThis study is the first to examine Lean sustainability in pediatric healthcare using realist methods. Future research should examine whether the predictors of implementation are the same or different to sustainability and evaluate the underlying mechanisms that influence the sustainability of Lean. There is also a need for research to develop and test conceptual models and frameworks on sustainability.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO-CRD42015032252. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Understanding variations in catastrophic health expenditure, its underlying determinants and impoverishment in Sub-Saharan African countries: a scoping review
ConclusionThis review demonstrated that CHE/impoverishment is pervasive in SSA, and the magnitude varies across and within countries and over time. Socio-economic factors are seen to drive CHE with the poor being the most affected, and they vary across countries. This calls for intensifying health policies and financing structures in SSA, to provide equitable access to all populations especially the most poor and vulnerable. There is a need to innovate and draw lessons from the ‘informal’ social networks/schemes as they are reported to be more effective in cushioning the financial burden. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Antibiotic therapy for skin and soft tissue infections: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis
This study has several strengths compared to previous reviews: inclusion of a wider range of infection types, antibiotics, and outcomes; a comprehensive search strategy; a priori subgroup analyses; application of GRADE; and improved interpretability of findings through visual presentation of results. We hope our findings will inform future research, health care professionals, and policy makers resulting in improved evidence-based clinical management of SSTIs.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42018085607 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The sustainability of Lean in pediatric healthcare: a realist review
ConclusionsThis study is the first to examine Lean sustainability in pediatric healthcare using realist methods. Future research should examine whether the predictors of implementation are the same or different to sustainability and evaluate the underlying mechanisms that influence the sustainability of Lean. There is also a need for research to develop and test conceptual models and frameworks on sustainability.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO-CRD42015032252. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Adverse effects of psychotherapy: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
DiscussionPreselecting studies with regard to randomised controlled trials might induce bias due to dropout before the beginning of treatment or end of treatment. However, we will thoroughly assess the negative effects of randomisation, e.g. reasons for non-randomisation, if reported. Even if delayed adverse effects might be overlooked in randomised controlled trials, these are the only sources of causal evidence.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews 2017:CRD42017055507 (17 January 2017) (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - September 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A protocol for an updated and expanded systematic mixed studies review of fear of cancer recurrence in families and caregivers of adults diagnosed with cancer
DiscussionThis review will provide further clarity on the prevalence and severity of FCR in families and caregivers and differences by caregiver and care recipient demographic and medical characteristics. Any intervention studies located may indicate therapies or treatments that could reduce FCR in families and caregivers. Findings are expected to provide guidance for individuals and organisations working to manage FCR in families and caregivers of those with cancer.Systematic review registrationThis protocol will be registered with PROSPERO after peer-review. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - August 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effect of maternal mental health improvement programs on obesity in pediatric populations: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
DiscussionThis review will help determine the effect of maternal health improvement programs on childhood obesity. These findings, in turn, will guide the research community on the development of related programs in the future.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO:CRD42017072737. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - August 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Personal goal-setting among women living with breast cancer: protocol for a scoping review
DiscussionThe results from this review will chart the literature, contributing to optimizing the incorporation of personal goal-setting approaches into effective interventions for the care and support of women with breast cancer. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - August 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Blood pressure reduction and clinical outcomes with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: protocol for a systematic review and meta-regression analysis
AbstractBackgroundAngiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) efficaciously reduce systolic blood pressure (BP), a well-established risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). Both inhibit the renin-angiotensin system, albeit through different mechanisms, and produce similar reductions in BP. However, in parallel meta-analyses of ACEi and ARB trials, ACEis reduce risk of MI whereas ARBs do not —a phenomenon described as the ‘ARB-MI paradox’. In addition, ACEis reduce all-cause mortality, whereas ARBs do not, which appears to be independent of BP lowering. T...
Source: Systematic Reviews - August 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Unsafe abortion and associated factors among reproductive aged women in Sub-Saharan Africa: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
DiscussionUnsafe abortion is not yet reduced significantly in Sub-Saharan Africa, and maternal death rate due to unsafe abortion remains high. Currently, there is a gap in availability of abridged evidence on unsafe abortion and this negatively influenced the current service delivery. This finding will help stakeholders to design appropriate strategy. The finding of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be helpful to inform policy-makers, programmers, planners, clinician ’s decision making, researchers, and women clients at large.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO 2017:CRD42017081437. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - August 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The prevalence of and factors associated with inclusion of non-English language studies in Campbell systematic reviews: a survey and meta-epidemiological study
ConclusionOur findings may indicate a connection between the limited inclusion of non-English studies and a lack of resources, which forces review teams to rely on their limited language skills rather than the support of professional translators. If unaddressed, review teams risk ignoring key data and introduce bias in otherwise high-quality reviews. However, the validity and interpretation of our findings should be further assessed if we are to tackle the challenges of dealing with non-English studies. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - August 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research