Serum vitamin D and age-related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis
Vitamin D may be implicated in the pathophysiology of several ocular diseases, but its role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains uncertain. We sought to review systematically the existing evidence to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D levels and AMD. A four-database search (Pubmed, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus) was performed from inception to May 2020 using the MeSH terms: ( “Macular Degeneration” OR “Age-related macular degeneration” OR “Retinal degeneration” OR “Macula lutea”) AND (“Vitamin D” OR “Er...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andr é Ferreira, Nisa Silva, Maria João Furtado, Ângela Carneiro, Miguel Lume, José P. Andrade Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Cannabinoids and the eye
Cannabis ranks among the most commonly used psychotropic drugs worldwide. In the context of the global movement towards more widespread legalisation, there is a growing need towards developing a better understanding of the physiological and pathological effects. We provide an overview of the current evidence on the effects of cannabinoids on the eye. Of the identified cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is recognized to be the primary psychotropic compound, and cannabidiol is the predominant non-psychoactive ingredient. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Michael T.M. Wang, Helen V. Danesh-Meyer Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Anterior Segment Surgery
Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) enables real-time visualization of ocular structures during surgery and enhances our understanding of intraoperative dynamics. iOCT aids in decision making during various anterior segment surgeries, and its efficacy and feasibility in anterior lamellar keratoplasty and endothelial keratoplasty is well established. The landmark DISCOVER study observed that iOCT altered the surgeon decision in 38% of cases undergoing lamellar keratoplasty and provided guidance regarding the need for secondary surgical intervention. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - July 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jeewan S. Titiyal, Manpreet Kaur, Sridevi Nair, Namrata Sharma Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Author ’s Response
I agree that adding congenital glaucoma as a case scenario in which Descemet membrane detachment can occur is a useful addition. I thank the authors for this addition. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - July 8, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Namrata Sharma Source Type: research

Retinal injury from hand-held lasers: A review
Retinal phototoxicity induced by hand-held lasers is a burgeoning public health concern due to the wider accessibility of high-powered devices. Retinal damage from thermal energy can cause potentially severe and permanent vision loss in children and young adults who are particularly vulnerable because of co-morbid behavioral, learning, and psychiatric impairments. Understanding the spectrum of specific clinical and imaging features of such laser injuries aids in prompt and accurate diagnosis. Multimodal retinal imaging is important for the identification of the outer retinal abnormalities that characterize this condition. ...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - July 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kavita V. Bhavsar, Zachary Michel, Miles Greenwald, Emmett T. Cunningham, K. Bailey Freund Tags: Major review Source Type: research

A Shotgun Wedding
A 69-year-old woman developed a carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) after firing a shotgun. Initially, the patient had mild visual symptoms, but later on developed prominent features of CCF including chemosis, proptosis, ophthalmoparesis and conjunctival injection . The fistula was embolized via an intravascular coiling procedure. We are unaware of another patient who developed a CCF due to blunt force from shotgun use. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - July 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Leroy Ekeh, Christopher R. Dermarkarian, Rod Foroozan, M. Tariq Bhatti Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Choroidal thickness and ocular growth in childhood
The involvement of the choroid in ocular growth regulation has been postulated in studies showing that refractive errors correlate with alterations in choroidal thickness (ChT). The advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has enabled qualitative and quantitative assessment of the choroid. In children, ChT changes correlate with a number of ocular pathologies, including myopia, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and amblyopia. We synthesize mechanisms and evidence regarding choroidal thickness variation during childhood. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - July 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Efthymia Prousali, Anna Dastiridou, Nikolaos Ziakas, Sofia Androudi, Asimina Mataftsi Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Iris lymphoma – a systematic guide for diagnosis and treatment
Iris lymphomas are rare malignant neoplasms arising either as primary tumors in the iris or as secondary tumors involving the iris. We summarize previously published data and make recommendations for work-up strategies for cases of suspected iris lymphoma. Our objective is to provide a structured overview of the typical clinical symptoms and signs, the pathologic, ophthalmic as well as hematologic work-up for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of iris lymphomas and offer a flowchart on how to diagnose and treat these tumors. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 22, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Vinodh Kakkassery, Sarah E. Coupland, Ludwig M. Heindl Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Comments on: Descemet Membrane Detachment
We read with interest the review article on “Descemet membrane detachment (DMD)” by Singhal et al in the Survey of Ophthalmology2. We congratulate the authors on their clear and detailed narrative. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 22, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Radhika Natarajan, Hiren Matai Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

A Tearfully Painful Darkness
A 70-year-old woman presented with new onset of left eye and facial pain. Ophthalmic and neurological examinations, MRI brain, ESR and CRP were unrevealing. A few days later she developed vision loss in her left eye. Exam revealed decreased visual acuity with a relative afferent pupillary defect in the left eye, and a diffuse mild swelling of the left optic nerve head. Repeat MRI showed T2 hyperintensity and enhancement of the intraorbital optic nerve and surrounding tissues with no other intracranial abnormalities. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 11, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lakshmi Leishangthem, Shannon Beres, Heather E. Moss, John Chen Tags: Short review Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 10, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Heavy Eye Syndrome: Myopia Induced Strabismus
Heavy eye syndrome is an important type of myopia-induced strabismus. We provide an overview of heavy eye syndrome, from its history to its most salient features. The theory of the orbital and rectus muscle pulley system as it relates to heavy eye syndrome and the prevailing theories on the pathophysiology of heavy eye syndrome in the current literature is discussed. We also highlight the presentation of heavy eye syndrome, its typical features on imaging, and differential diagnosis. Finally, we provide an overview on the management of heavy eye syndrome, including a description of several current surgical techniques. (Sou...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lauren Hennein, Shira L. Robbins Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Eye – a review
Fibromyalgia is a chronic, widespread pain syndrome, with unclear etiology, characterized by fatigue, sleeping problems, cognitive disorders, somatic complaints and severe pain in tender points of the body at the time of physical activity with no laboratory findings to the disease and diagnostic tests. Fibromyalgia can be associated with ocular symptoms (foreign body sensation, irritation) and visual disturbances (blurred vision), coexisting with dry eye syndrome (DES) and reduced corneal sensitivity. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 4, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Natalia Zdebik, Alexander Zdebik, Joanna Bogus ławska, Joanna Przeździecka-Dołyk, Anna Turno-Kręcicka Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Learning from the past: Mitomycin C use in trabeculectomy and its application in bleb-forming minimally invasive glaucoma surgery
Trabeculectomy has been performed since the mid-1960s and remains the gold standard for glaucoma surgery. Newer surgical options have evolved, collectively referred to as minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries. Despite producing large intraocular pressure decreases, full-thickness procedures into the subconjunctival space may be limited by fibrosis. Mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil have been in use with trabeculectomy with good evidence of significantly increased success at the cost, however, of an increased risk of complications. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 22, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Katharina Bell, Bernardo de Padua Soares Bezerra, Mathabo Mofokeng, Giovanni Montesano, Monisha Esther Nongpiur, Maria Vidal Marti, Mitchell Lawlor Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Retinal Vasculitis: A Framework and Proposal for A Classification System
Retinal vasculitis, a poorly understood process involving inflammation or ischemia of the retinal vessel wall, can occur in association with a systemic process, though it can also be isolated to the retina. Because of the limited ability to perform histopathological studies on retinal vessels, there is no gold standard for diagnosis. Thus, there is utility in creating a classification system for retinal vasculitis and improving diagnostic strategies for this disease. We provide a framework for understanding retinal vasculitis based on size, location, and etiology. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 22, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ghazala A. Datoo O ’Keefe, Narsing Rao Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Learning from the past: Mitomycin C use in trabeculectomy and its application to bleb-forming minimally invasive glaucoma surgery
Trabeculectomy has been performed since the mid-1960s and remains the gold standard for glaucoma surgery. Newer surgical options have evolved, collectively referred to as minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS). Despite producing large intraocular pressure decreases, full-thickness procedures into the subconjunctival space may be limited by fibrosis. Application of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C (MMC) have been in use with trabeculectomy with good evidence of significantly increased success, at the cost, however of an increased risk of complications. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 22, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Katharina Bell, Bernardo de Padua Soares Bezerra, Mathabo Mofokeng, Giovanni Montesano, Monisha Esther Nongpiur, Maria Vidal Marti, Mitchell Lawlor Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Survey of Ophthalmology in the Time of COVID-19
First, I want to pay tribute to the two Chinese ophthalmologists, Drs. Li Wenliang and Mei Zhongming , who were among the first medical professionals to lose their lives in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Late last year Dr. Wenliang tried to warn colleagues about the appearance of a SARS-like coronavirus illness in his hospital and was then officially admonished and threatened with prosecution by local authorities. He is thought to have acquired the virus when treating an infected patient with acute angle-closure glaucoma. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 16, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: John W. Gittinger. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Influence of pigment epithelial detachment on visual acuity in neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Pigment epithelial detachment (PED), the anatomical separation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from the Bruch ’s membrane, is common in many chorioretinal diseases, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). PED is present in about 30% to 80% of nAMD patients based on the CATT, EXCITE, and VIEW studies. The influence of PED on visual acuity is controversial as a result of inconsistent results reported by various studies. With advances in imaging technologies, it is possible to evaluate not only the presence or absence of PED, but also detailed quantitative parameters within the PED such as...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 15, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kai Xiong Cheong, Kelvin Yi Chong Teo, Gemmy Chui Ming Cheung Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Ophthalmic involvement of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a systematic review of 123 cases
In order to identify clinical presentations, main causes and prognosis of ophthalmic involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we performed a systematic review of articles describing CLL ophthalmic involvement in January 2019, using the Pubmed database.We found 86 articles describing 123 cases of patients with ophthalmic involvement associated with CLL. Ophthalmic symptoms were CLL ’s first manifestation in 25.6% of patients and revealed Richter transformation in 11.0%. There were three main causes of ophthalmic features: CLL-infiltration (52.0%), lymphoma (26.0%), and infection (15.4%), with specific clinic...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 11, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Florence Delestre, Philippe Blanche, Emna Bouayed, Didier Bouscary, Luc Mouthon, Antoine Brezin, Claire Le Jeunne, Benjamin Chaigne Tags: Major review Source Type: research

The Eyes of the Angel of Death: Ophthalmic experiments of Josef Mengele
The infamous SS doctor Josef Mengele was known as the Angel of Death for choosing and condemning Jews, gypsies, and other prisoners to the gas chambers at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. Less known was his active participation in ophthalmic research with equal disregard for life and ethical principles. Mengele was not an ophthalmologist, but he worked in close collaboration and complicity with two genetic researchers at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, Karin Magnussen and Otmar Von Verschuer. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bruno Halioua, Michael F. Marmor Tags: History of ophthalmology Source Type: research

RP1L1 and Inherited Photoreceptor Disease: A Review
Retinitis Pigmentosa 1-Like 1 (RP1L1) is a component of the photoreceptor cilium. Pathogenic variants in RP1L1 lead to photoreceptor disease, suggesting an important role for RP1L1 in photoreceptor biology, though its exact function is unknown. To date, RP1L1 variants have been associated with occult macular dystrophy (OMD, a cone degeneration) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP, a rod disease). Here, we summarize reported RP1L1-associated photoreceptor conditions and disease-causing RP1L1 variants. We also discuss novel associations between RP1L1 and additional photoreceptor conditions – beside OMD and RP – and fit ...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 30, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Nicole C.L. Noel, Ian M. MacDonald Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Functional assessment of glaucoma: Uncovering progression
We describe the approaches and perimetric tests used to evaluate glaucomatous visual field progression and factors that are important for identifying progression. These include stimulus size, which area of the visual field to assess (central versus peripheral), and the testing frequency, evaluating which is important to detect change early while minimizing patient testing burden. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 26, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rongrong Hu, Lyne Racette, Kelly S. Chen, Chris A. Johnson Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Functional assessment of glaucoma progression: uncovering progression
We describe the approaches and perimetric tests used to evaluate glaucomatous visual field progression and factors that are important for identifying progression. These include stimulus size, which area of the visual field to assess (central versus peripheral), and the testing frequency, which is important to detect change early while minimizing patient testing burden. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 26, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rongrong Hu, Lyne Racette, Kelly S. Chen, Chris A. Johnson Source Type: research

Commonly Used Intracameral Antibiotics for Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis: A Literature Review
Endophthalmitis is a serious complication of cataract surgery that occurs in thousands of patients each year. To decrease the incidence of post-operative endophthalmitis, many surgeons inject intracameral antibiotics (cefuroxime, moxifloxacin, and vancomycin) routinely at the conclusion of surgery. A large number of recently published retrospective studies and large database analyses have reported decreased endophthalmitis rates with routine antibiotic use, and the only prospective, multi-center, randomized trial performed by the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery demonstrated that intracameral cefuroxime ...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 25, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Brona, Luis Zeman, Michael W. Stewart Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Clear Lens Extraction in Eyes with Primary Angle Closure and Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma
The crystalline lens plays an important role in the pathophysiology of primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). The aging process is associated with a progressive enlargement of the lens, resulting in greater iridolenticular and iridotrabecular contact, which exacerbates both pupillary block and appositional angle closure, irrespective of the cataract status of the lens. Cataract surgery has been shown to widen the angle and reduce intraocular pressure in eyes with PAC or PACG. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 24, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Vital P. Costa, Christopher Leung, Michael S. Kook, Shan Lin, Global Glaucoma Academy Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Lamellar Keratoplasty in Children
Lamellar keratoplasty (LK) procedures have gained momentum in the field of corneal transplantation due to their inherent advantages over full-thickness penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). While PKP is an open sky procedure fraught with sight threatening intraoperative and postoperative complications, LK procedures are relatively closed-system procedures that involve selective removal and replacement of diseased corneal layers and are free from these complications. Anterior lamellar procedures involve partial or lamellar replacement of anterior stroma and reduce the risk of graft rejection, retain structural integrity, and requ...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 16, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Namrata Sharma, Rinky Agarwal, Vishal Jhanji, D. Srujana, Priyadarshin, Ken K. Nischal Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Carcinomas of the lacrimal drainage system
Malignant tumors of epithelial origin are the most frequent neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system (LDS). A total of 539 cases are reported in the literature from 1960-2019. LDS carcinoma is a disease of the middle-aged and elderly population, with a median age at diagnosis at 57 years. Overall, there is a slight male predominance. Reported risk factors are chronic inflammation, LDS papilloma, and infection with oncogenic viruses. Symptoms of an LDS carcinoma resemble those of benign, inflammatory disease, with epiphora due to obstruction of the LDS as the most frequently encountered symptom. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 15, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ingvild Ramberg, Peter Bjerre Toft, Steffen Heegaard Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 9, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Macular Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma
With the advent of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), imaging of the posterior segment of the eye can be carried out rapidly at multiple anatomical locations, including the optic nerve head (ONH), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cp-RNFL), and macula. There is now ample evidence to support the role of SD-OCT imaging of the macula for detection of early glaucoma. Macular SD-OCT measurements demonstrate high reproducibility, and evidence on its utility for detection of glaucoma progression is accumulating. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 19, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Vahid Mohammadzadeh, Nima Fatehi, Adeleh Yarmohammadi, Ji Woong Lee, Farideh Sharifipour, Ramin Daneshvar, Joseph Caprioli, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Advances in the Evaluation and Management of Cortical/Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children
Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is the most frequent cause of pediatric visual impairment in developed countries and is increasing in prevalence in developing nations. The most common underlying etiology is hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), particularly in premature children; other causes include seizures, hydrocephalus, trauma, and infections. Because of neurologic comorbidities, children with CVI often present challenges in diagnosis and characterization of visual deficits. Caregiver questionnaires may aid in assessment of visual functioning, while newer types of neuroimaging, including functional neuroima...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 18, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Melinda Y. Chang, Mark S. Borchert Source Type: research

Modern vitreolysis —YAG laser treatment now a real solution for the treatment of symptomatic floaters
I review the background of laser floater treatment and address the differences between the old technology and the new technology of YAG lasers. I also review some recent publications and discuss the importance of careful patient selection, some of the adverse events, and patient outcomes. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Inder Paul Singh Tags: Viewpoints Source Type: research

Modern Vitreolysis - YAG Laser Treatment Now a Real Solution for the Treatment of Symptomatic Floaters
I review the background of laser floater treatment and address the differences between the old technology, and the new technology of YAG lasers I also review some recent publications and discuss the importance of careful patient selection, some of the adverse events, and patient outcomes. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Inder Paul Singh Tags: Viewpoints Source Type: research

Laser Vitreolysis for Symptomatic Floaters is Not Yet Ready for Widespread Adoption
We present currently available data regarding efficacy and safety, as well as additional considerations. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 3, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Daniel Su, Chirag P. Shah, Jason Hsu Tags: Viewpoints Source Type: research

Cystoid macular edema related to cataract surgery and topical prostaglandin analogs: Mechanism, diagnosis, and management
Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a form of macular retina thickening that is characterized by the appearance of cystic fluid-filled intraretinal spaces. It has classically been diagnosed upon investigation after a decrease in visual acuity; however, improvements in imaging technology make it possible to noninvasively detect CME even before a clinically significant decrease in central vision. Risk factors for the development of CME include diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, uveitis, and cataract surgery. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: G ábor Holló, Tin Aung, Louis B. Cantor, Makoto Aihara Tags: Current ophthalmology and medicine Source Type: research

Cystoid macula edema related to cataract surgery and topical prostaglandin analogs: mechanism, diagnosis, and management
Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a form of macular retina thickening that is characterized by the appearance of cystic fluid-filled intraretinal spaces. It has classically been diagnosed upon investigation after a decrease in visual acuity; however, improvements in imaging technology make it possible to non-invasively detect CME even prior to a clinically significant decrease in central vision. Risk factors for the development of CME include diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, uveitis, and cataract surgery. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: G ábor Holló, Tin Aung, Louis B. Cantor, Makoto Aihara Tags: Current ophthalmology and medicine Source Type: research

Diabetic Keratopathy: Insights and Challenges
Ocular complications from diabetes mellitus are common. Diabetic keratopathy, the most frequent clinical condition affecting the human cornea, is a potentially sight threatening condition caused mostly by epithelial disturbances that are of clinical and research attention due to its severity. Diabetic keratopathy exhibits several clinical manifestations, including persistent corneal epithelial erosion, superficial punctate keratopathy, delayed epithelial regeneration, and decreased corneal sensitivity that may lead to compromised visual acuity or permanent vision loss. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: S. Priyadarsini, A. Whelchel, S. Nicholas, R. Sharif, K. Riaz, D. Karamichos Tags: Reviews in medicine Source Type: research

Psychosocial Impacts of Mendelian Eye Conditions: A Systematic Literature Review
The diagnosis of a heritable (Mendelian) eye condition can have a significant impact on patients and their families. Although a diverse group of conditions, many Mendelian eye conditions are early-onset, untreatable, progressive, and result in significant visual disability. To increase understanding of the challenges facing this population, we review studies describing the psychosocial impacts of Mendelian eye conditions. Reduced mental health and quality of life, and increased strain on relationships are common themes. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Celeste S. D ’Amanda, Rosalie Nolen, Laryssa A. Huryn, Amy Turriff Tags: Genetics in Ophthalmology Source Type: research

Steroid-induced glaucoma: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management
Glucocorticoids are a class of anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used to treat various ocular and systemic conditions. Although the role of glucocorticoids in the treatment of numerous serious inflammatory diseases is pivotal, their prolonged use may increase intraocular pressure resulting in steroid-induced glaucoma. We provide a detailed update on steroid-induced glaucoma as a preventable cause of blindness in the adult and pediatric population and describe its epidemiology, social impact, and risk factors. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 11, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gloria Roberti, Francesco Oddone, Luca Agnifili, Andreas Katsanos, Manuele Michelessi, Leonardo Mastropasqua, Luciano Quaranta, Ivano Riva, Lucia Tanga, Gianluca Manni Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Steroid Induced Glaucoma: epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical management
Glucocorticoids are a class of anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used to treat various ocular and systemic conditions. Although the pivotal role of glucocorticoids in the treatment of numerous serious inflammatory diseases, their prolonged use may increase intraocular pressure resulting in steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG).We provide a detailed update on SIG as a preventable cause of blindness in the adult and pediatric population and describe its epidemiology, social impact, and risk factors. Furthermore, we explore the propensity of different steroids to increase the intraocular pressure, the role of different routes of ster...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 11, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gloria Roberti, Francesco Oddone, Luca Agnifili, Andreas Katsanos, Manuele Michelessi, Leonardo Mastropasqua, Luciano Quaranta, Ivano Riva, Lucia Tanga, Gianluca Manni Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Eye Involvement in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) may manifest initially in the eye (termed vitreoretinal lymphoma or VRL) or in non-ocular CNS compartments, or in both. The nature of the onset of PCNSL implies two clinical specialists – ophthalmologists and neuro-oncologists – independently may assess the primary presentation of this rare malignancy. Clinically relevant perspectives on expectations of PCNSL manifestation in both ocular and non-ocular CNS compartments would help inform management practices in each specialty, w hich should impact clinical outcomes. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 11, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Alexandra L. Farrall, Justine R. Smith Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Pathophysiology and management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension related to trauma
Ocular trauma is a significant cause of blindness worldwide, particularly if is associated with glaucoma. Direct damage from blunt or penetrating trauma, bleeding, inflammation, lens-related problems, orbital and brain vascular pathologies related to trauma, and chemical injuries may increase intraocular pressure and lead to traumatic glaucoma. Treatment may be as simple as eliminating the underlying cause in some conditions, or management can be challenging, depending on the mechanism of damage. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 11, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Reza Razeghinejad, Michael Lin, Daniel Lee, L. Jay Katz, Jonathan S. Myers Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 6, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Unique optical coherence tomographic features in age-related macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide characterized by presence of drusen, leading to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and outer retinal changes in advanced stages. Approximately 10% of eyes with AMD develop neovascular complications and present with subretinal or sub-RPE exudation, hemorrhage, or both. Recent advances in imaging techniques, especially optical coherence tomography (OCT), help in early identification of disease and guide various treatment decisions; however, not all signs are suggestive of ongoing exudation or neovascular activity. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sumit Randhir Singh, Marco Lupidi, Sai Bhakti Mishra, Manuel Paez-Escamilla, Giuseppe Querques, Jay Chhablani Tags: Major review Source Type: research

The Effects of Diabetes Mellitus on the Corneal Endothelium: A Review
The corneal endothelium plays a critical role in maintaining corneal clarity. There is an expected decline in cell density with age and disease, and maintaining the health of this cell layer is important as corneal endothelial cells generally are amitotic in vivo. Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent disease that damages the corneal endothelium. Diabetes causes structural and functional impairments of the corneal endothelium that decrease cellular reserve in response to stress. These effects have implications to consider for diabetic patients undergoing anterior segment surgery, and for corneal surgeons that use diabeti...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 8, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andrew S. Goldstein, Ben J. Janson, Jessica M. Skeie, Jennifer J. Ling, Mark A. Greiner Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Choroidal thickness in patients with cardiovascular disease: A review
The choroid is a vascular network that supplies the bulk of the retina's oxygen and nutrient supply. Prior studies have associated changes in the thickness of the choroid with the presence of various cardiovascular diseases. This is the first review that summarizes current knowledge on the relationship between choroidal thickness and cardiovascular diseases while highlighting important findings. Acute hypertension increases choroidal thickness. Chronic hypertension and heart failure may decrease choroidal thickness, but controversy exists. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 7, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shanna C. Yeung, Yuyi You, Kathryn L. Howe, Peng Yan Tags: Reviews in medicine Source Type: research

Prophylaxis measures for postinjection endophthalmitis
Intravitreal injections have become the most commonly performed ophthalmic procedure, transforming modern retina practice. Postinjection endophthalmitis, while rare, remains the most feared potential complication. Prophylaxis measures including topical antisepsis, hand hygiene, gloves, masks, and drapes have all been proposed to help prevent postinjection endophthalmitis; however, there remains significant variation in protocol, given the lack of agreement among retina specialists on which steps are crucial to prevent endophthalmitis. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 7, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shriji N. Patel, Sapna Gangaputra, Paul Sternberg, Stephen J. Kim Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Prophylaxis Measures for Post-Injection Endophthalmitis
Intravitreal injections have become the most commonly performed ophthalmic procedure, transforming modern retina practice. Post-injection endophthalmitis (PIE), while rare, remains the most feared potential complication. Prophylactic measures including topical antisepsis, hand hygiene, gloves, masks, and drapes have all been proposed to help prevent PIE; however, there remains significant variation in protocol, given the lack of agreement among retina specialists on which steps are crucial to preventing endophthalmitis. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 7, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shriji N. Patel, Sapna Gangaputra, Paul Sternberg, Stephen J. Kim Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Descemet Membrane Detachment
Descemet membrane detachment (DMD) is a potential vision-threatening complication that occurs most commonly after cataract surgery. DMD has also been reported to occur in various other surgeries like keratoplasty, iridectomy, vitrectomy, trabeculectomy, holmium laser sclerostomy, alkali burn, and viscocanalostomy. Major risk factors include advanced age, preexisting endothelial diseases like Fuchs dystrophy or abnormality in the Descemet membrane and stromal interface, hard cataract, prolonged surgical time, ragged clear corneal incisions, and inadvertent trauma with blunt instruments or phacoemulsification probe. (Source:...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 7, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Deepali Singhal, Pranita Sahay, Siddhi Goel, Mohamed Ibrahime Asif, Prafulla K. Maharana, Namrata Sharma Tags: Major review Source Type: research

¬choroidal thickness in patients with cardiovascular disease: a review
The choroid is a vascular network that supplies the bulk of the retina ’s oxygen and nutrient supply. Prior studies have associated changes in the thickness of the choroid with the presence of various cardiovascular diseases. This is the first review that summarizes current knowledge on the relationship between choroidal thickness and cardiovascular diseases while hi ghlighting important findings. Acute hypertension increases choroidal thickness. Chronic hypertension and heart failure may decrease choroidal thickness, but controversy exists. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 7, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shanna C. Yeung, Yuyi You, Kathryn L. Howe, Peng Yan Tags: Reviews in medicine Source Type: research