Healthcare Stakeholder Perceptions of Vision Loss
Perceptions of the quality-of-life (QOL) associated with vision loss vary widely. Herein, we consider the perceptions of patients with vision loss as the criterion for QOL quantification associated with vision loss. With the QOL instrument, time tradeoff utility analysis, the upper anchor of 1.00 is associated with permanent normal vision, while the lower anchor of 0.00 is associated with death. A time tradeoff utility of 0.26 is associated with no light perception bilaterally. Patients with legal blindness in the U.S. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - November 14, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gary C. Brown, Melissa M. Brown Tags: Public Health and the Eye Source Type: research

Etiology and Management of the Hypertensive Phase in Glaucoma Drainage Device Surgery
Insertion of glaucoma drainage devices has become a mainstay in the surgical management of multiple forms of glaucoma, and the indications for this procedure continue to expand. A unique clinical challenge in the postoperative care of these devices is the hypertensive phase, a period of postoperative intraocular pressure elevation in the first three months after surgery. We discuss the influence of a variety of factors on the development of the hypertensive phase after glaucoma drainage implantation, including type of device, device material, and device surface area. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - November 2, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Robert A. Fargione, Natchada Tansuebchueasai, Rachel Lee, Tak Yee Tania Tai Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Inner, outer, and full thickness retinal folds following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair: A Review
Partial thickness folds of the inner retina and outer retina, as well as full thickness retinal folds, may occur following the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. While these can look similar on clinical examination, imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) facilitates differentiation. With OCT analysis, inner retinal folds exhibit corrugations of the inner retina while outer retinal folds display hyperreflective lesions located just above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that may extend into the outer nuclear layer. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - November 1, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: R. Rishi Gupta, Douglas S.M. Iaboni, Mark E. Seamone, David Sarraf Tags: Major review Source Type: research

A slippery slope
A 74-year-old woman experienced chronic painless progressive binocular horizontal diplopia for two years. Initial examination showed a visual acuity of 20/20 OU. External exam and slit lamp exam was unremarkable. Orthoptic evaluation showed an incomitant esotropia, a small vertical strabismus, and a large degree of excyclotorsion. Investigation revealed a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andrew W. Gross, Aroucha Vickers, Andrew G. Lee, John J. Chen, M. Tariq Bhatti Source Type: research

Caffeine and the eye
Caffeine, a popular psychostimulant that acts as an adenosine receptor antagonist, is the most widely used drug in history, consumed daily by people worldwide. Knowledge of the physiological and pathological effects of caffeine is crucial in improving public health because of its widespread use. We provide a summary of the current evidence on the effect of caffeine on the eye. The majority of the research conducted to date is in relation to cataract and glaucoma, two of the most common eye diseases amongst the elderly. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 23, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jinny J. Yoon, Helen V. Danesh-Meyer Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Helmholtz's critique of Goethe's Theory of Color more than meets the eye
After arriving at the University of K önigsberg in 1849, Hermann von Helmholtz started investigating the trichromatic hypothesis of color perception proposed by Thomas Young. Four years later in 1853, he was invited to lecture to the German Society and used the opportunity to criticize harshly Johann Goethe's Theory of Color published in 1810. Offending a revered member of the German society was an odd method of introducing the study of color to a learned audience, but the content and tone of the lecture suggested Helmholtz was more concerned about dispelling misconceptions of experimental science than in imparting kn...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Curtis E. Margo, Lynn E. Harman Tags: History of ophthalmology Source Type: research

Primary Vitreoretinal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma with Breast Involvement: A Case Report and Review of Literature
A 50-year-old woman developed recurrent vitreous opacities in her left eye. The first diagnostic vitrectomy revealed no significant abnormality. OCT showed multiple high-density reflective nodules. The ratio of Interleukin 6 to 10 was over 1 in her aqueous humor, and Epstein-Barr virus was present. Conventional immunohistochemistry examination of vitrectomy specimens was diffusely positive for CD2, CD3, Ki67. Highly-metabolic nodules were found in her right breast on PET-CT scan. Immunohistochemistry of the breast biopsy was suggestive of NK/T cell lymphoma. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shuang Gao, Yingming Zhou, Xiaolong Jin, Zhongjing Lin, Yisheng Zhong, Xi Shen Tags: Clinical Pathologic Reviews Source Type: research

Hemangioblastoma of the Optic Nerve
Optic nerve hemangioblastoma (ONH) is a rare tumor that is usually unilateral and most commonl occurs in the context of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Differential diagnosis is based on clinical history and imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement is the most useful imaging modality as it can reveal flow voids and an absence of dural attachment, differentiating ONH from other more commonly encountered optic nerve tumors. ONH are usually well-circumscribed vascular lesions composed of stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lindsay A. McGrath, Hardeep Singh Mudhar, Sachin M. Salvi Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Helmholtz ’s Critique of Goethe’s Theory of Color More than Meets the Eye
After arriving at the University of K önigsberg in 1849, Hermann von Helmholtz started investigating the trichromatic hypothesis of color perception proposed by Thomas Young. Four years later in 1853 he was invited to lecture to the German Society and used the opportunity to criticize harshly Johann Goethe’s Theory of Color published in 1810. Offending a revered member of German society was an odd method of introducing the study of color to a learned audience. but the content and tone of the lecture suggested Helmholtz was more concerned about dispelling misconceptions of experimental science than in imparting k...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Curtis E. Margo, Lynn E. Harman Tags: History of ophthalmology Source Type: research

Terrien Marginal Degeneration
Terrien marginal degeneration (TMD), a rare disease resulting in peripheral corneal thinning, commonly occurs in middle aged males and usually manifests clinically with decreased visual acuity from increased corneal astigmatism. Although the exact etiology is unknown, hypotheses focus on possible degenerative and inflammatory origin. Histopathologic studies often reveal characteristic findings of innumerable intracellular and extracellular vacuoles in the affected stroma. Distinguishing TMD from other peripheral corneal diseases such as Mooren ulcer and pellucid marginal degeneration is important. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Yanning Ding, Michael S. Murri, Orry C. Birdsong, Yasmyne Ronquillo, Majid Moshirfar Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Intraocular pressure –independent management of normal tension glaucoma
Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a subtype of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in which the intraocular pressure (IOP) is statistically normal (12 to 21 ± 2 mm Hg).4 Similar to other types of glaucoma, it is considered an optic neuropathy,133,148 where IOP is one of the risk factors involved in progressive visual loss. The Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma Study established that aggressive lowering of IOP by 30% below the baseline can be benef icial in patients with NTG.; however, 12% of the subjects continued to progress after 3 and 5 years, despite the reduction in IOP, which strongly suggests that...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 6, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jennifer Adeghate, Kamran Rahmatnejad, Michael Waisbourd, L. Jay Katz Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Intraocular pressure-independent management of normal tension glaucoma
Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a subtype of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in which the intraocular pressure (IOP) is statistically normal (12-21 ± 2 mmHg).4 Similar to other types of glaucoma, it is considered an optic neuropathy,133,148 where IOP is one of the risk factors involved in progressive visual loss. The Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma Study established that aggressive lowering of IOP by 30% below the baseline can be benefic ial in patients with NTG. However, 12% of the subjects continued to progress after 3 and 5 years, despite the reduction in IOP, which strongly suggests that other factors ...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 6, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jennifer Adeghate, Kamran Rahmatnejad, Michael Waisbourd, L. Jay Katz Source Type: research

Managing normal tension glaucoma by lowering the intraocular pressure
Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a diagnosis assigned when characteristic glaucomatous structural and functional optic nerve defects are present in the setting of intraocular pressures (IOP) measurements below 21 mm Hg. Spot IOP measurements are generally obtained in the office during business hours and often determine who is classified as having “normal”,pressures. Reduction of IOP has been the cornerstone of anti-glaucoma treatment in primary open-angle glaucoma and NTG and its therapeutic effect has been well established. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 6, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: M. Reza Razeghinejad, Daniel Lee Tags: Short Reviews Source Type: research

Nutritional supplementation in the treatment of glaucoma: a systematic review
Current treatment strategies for glaucoma are limited to halting disease progression and do not restore lost visual function. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for glaucoma and IOP-lowering treatment remains the mainstay of glaucoma treatment, but even successful IOP reduction does not stop the progression of glaucoma in all patients. We review the literature to determine whether nutritional interventions intended to prevent or delay the progression of glaucoma can prove to be a valuable addition to the mainstay of glaucoma therapy. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 5, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ekaterina Loskutova, Colm O ’Brien, Igor Loskutov, James Loughman Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Schulz A, Ajayi T, Specchio N, de Los Reyes E, Gissen P, Ballon D, Dyke JP, Cahan H, Slasor P, Jacoby D, Kohlsch ütter A; CLN2 Study Group. Study of Intraventricular Cerliponase Alfa for CLN2 Disease N Engl J Med. 2018 May 17;378(20):1898-1907. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1712649. Epub 2018 Apr 24. PMID: 29688815 (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - October 1, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Current ophthalmology and medicine Source Type: research

Association between serotonin –norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and acute angle closure: what is known?
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are widely used antidepressants with a relatively safe profile. One of the complications associated with this group of drugs is acute angle closure (AAC). The mechanisms linking SNRIs and AAC are complex and may be interlinked with the effects of the drug on the inhibition of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake, as well as pseudo-anticholinergic effects, dopaminergic effects, and idiosyncratic reactions with the drug molecule in the eye. Individual characteristics, such as polymorphisms of the gene encoding the 2D6 subunit of cytochrome P450, may affect the metabolism o...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - September 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: M. Wici ński, B.J. Kałużny, S. Liberski, D. Marczak, M. Seredyka-Burduk, K. Pawlak-Osińska Tags: Review in medicine Source Type: research

The Current State of Artificial Intelligence in Ophthalmology
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that deals with the development of algorithms that seek to simulate human intelligence. We provide an overview of the basic principles in AI that are essential to the understanding of AI and its application to health care. We also present a descriptive analysis of the current state of AI in various fields of medicine, especially ophthalmology. Finally, we review the potential limitations and challenges that come along with the development and implementation of this new technology that will likely play a major role in clinical medicine in the near future. (Source:...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - September 21, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rahul Kappor, Stephen P. Walters, Lama A. Al-Aswad Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Masqueraders of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
Central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSCR) is one of the most common chorioretinal pathology affecting middle aged men worldwide. Although it has a self-limiting course, a significant number of patients suffer from chronic and recurrent episodes. This often leaves the patient with various degrees of visual impairment. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that it is one of the most common conditions to be misdiagnosed. Because of overlapping features with other diseases or the atypical presentation of the disease itself, CSCR is a great mimicker and is one of the commonest causes of referral. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - September 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Niroj Kumar Sahoo, Sumit Randhir Singh, Anand Rajendran, Dhananjay Shukla, Jay Chhablani Tags: Major review Source Type: research

There's something in the air
A 20-year-old woman presented with bilateral constant positive visual phenomenon since she was 9  years old. The symptoms had been worsening and becoming more intrusive in the last 3 years. Recently she has also had a migrainous episode. All ophthalmic and neurological investigations were normal. Her symptoms met the diagnostic criteria for visual snow. The diagnosis was explained, and the pa tient was reassured. Ophthalmologists and neurologists need to be aware of this condition to avoid over investigation and worsening of patient anxiety. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - September 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Clare L. Fraser, Owen B. White Tags: Clinical challenges Source Type: research

There ’s something in the air
A 20 year old woman presented with bilateral constant positive visual phenomenon, since she was 9 years old. The symptoms had been worsening and becoming more intrusive in the last 3 years. Recently she has also had a migrainous episode. All ophthalmic and neurological investigations were normal. Her symptoms met the diagnostic criteria for visual snow. The diagnosis was explained and the patient was reassured. Ophthalmologists and neurologists need to be aware of this condition to avoid over investigation and worsening of patient anxiety. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - September 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Clare L. Fraser, Owen B. White Tags: Short Reviews Source Type: research

Methods for the study of near, intermediate vision, and accommodation: an overview of subjective and objective approaches
To present an overview of contemporary methods and metrics used to measure near vision, intermediate vision, and accommodation. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - September 3, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Veronica Vargas, Wolfgang Radner, Bruce D. Allan, Dan Z. Reinstein, H. Burkhard Dick, Jorge L. Ali ó, Near vision and accommodation committee of the American-European Congress of Ophthalmology (AECOS) Tags: Current ophthalmology and medicine Source Type: research

Methods for the study of near intermediate vision and accommodation: An overview of subjective and objective approaches
To present an overview of contemporary methods and metrics used to measure near vision, intermediate vision and accommodation. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - September 3, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Veronica Vargas, Wolfgang Radner, Bruce Allan, Dan Reinstein, Dick Burkhard, Jorge L. Ali ó, Near vision and accommodation committee of the American-European Congress of Ophthalmology (AECOS) Source Type: research

Orbital Lymphoma
Orbital lymphomas constitute 50 –60% of ocular adnexal lymphomas. A total of 2,211 cases of orbital lymphoma with a known subtype have been reported in the last 24 years (1994–2017). The vast majority of orbital lymphomas are of B-cell origin (97%), of which extranodal marginalzone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL) (59%) is the most comm on subtype, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (23%), follicular lymphoma (FL) (9%), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (5%). Orbital lymphoma is primarily a disease of the elderly. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tine Gadegaard Olsen, Steffen Heegaard Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Crystalline Retinopathy: Unifying Pathogenic Pathways of Disease
Crystalline retinopathies may be associated with different etiologies including genetic, toxic, degenerative, idiopathic, and iatrogenic causes. We outline the various types of crystalline retinopathies and summarize their associated etiologies, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, multimodal imaging findings, and management strategies. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jaclyn L. Kovach, Hacer Isildak, David Sarraf Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 10, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Authors' reply
We thank Drs. Grzybowski and Kanclerz for their interest in our review article. Although the study performed by Fukuo and coworkers showed that the hand-held full-field flicker electroretinography device (RetEVAL, LKC Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, MD; Welch Allyn, Inc., Skaneateles Falls, NY) was more convenient than conventional electroretinography for screening and grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the differences in the implicit times and amplitudes between normal subjects and patients without retinopathy were not significant. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hamid Safi, Hamid Ahmadieh, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Authors ’ Reply
We thank Dr Andrzej Grzybowski and Dr Piotr Kanclerz for their interest in our review article. Although the study performed by Fukuo et al showed that the hand-held full field flicker ERG device (RetEVAL, LKC Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, MD; Welch Allyn, Inc., Skaneateles Falls, NY) was more convenient compared to conventional ERG for screening and grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the differences in the implicit times and amplitudes between normal subjects and patients without retinopathy were not significant. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hamid Safi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Early detection of diabetic retinopathy with flicker electroretinography, proteomics, and oximetry
We would like to congratulate Safi and associates for presenting and discussing the very important issue of early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR).6 The authors endeavor to describe all studies focused on subclinical biomarkers of DR, although we believe some supplementary information should be given. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 6, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Kanclerz Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy with Flicker ERG, Proteomics and Oximetry
We would like to congratulate the Safi and associates for presenting and discussing the very important issue of early detection of diabetic retinopathy.6 The authors endeavor to describe all studies focused on subclinical biomarkers of DR, although we believe some supplementary information should be given. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - August 6, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Kanclerz Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Fourth Down and Five
A 52-year-old woman developed binocular diplopia and right hemifacial numbness following resection of a right temporal lobe glioblastoma. Based on the Parks –Bielschowsky three-step test she was diagnosed with a right cranial nerve (CN) IV palsy in addition to right CN V dysfunction. Iatrogenic diplopia may result from temporal lobe surgery due to the intimate relationship of CN IV and CN III to the mesial temporal lobe. In addition, injury to CN V wi thin Meckel cave is believed to be the cause of facial numbness in some patients following temporal lobe surgery. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 27, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jennifer Lira, Sidney M. Gospe, M. Tariq Bhatti, DonRaphael P. Wynn, Judith E.A. Warner Tags: Short Reviews Source Type: research

One-Sided Triangle: A Case of Double Vision
A 51-year-old woman presented with acute diplopia and was found to have ptosis and complete bilateral external and internal ophthalmoplegia. She had normal reflexes and gait. Serological testing showed elevated levels of GQ1b ganglioside autoantibodies, making the diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of the Miller Fisher variant of Guillain Barre syndrome, which should be considered in all patients presenting with bilateral ophthalmoplegia. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 16, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jeffrey W. Wang, Shira L. Robbins, Mark L. Moster Tags: Short Reviews Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

New treatment for corneal endothelial dysfunction rocks the boat
Kinoshita S, Koizumi N, Ueno M, et  al: Injection of Cultured Cells with a ROCK Inhibitor for Bullous Keratopathy. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:995–1003. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Matthew R. Denny, Mark Mandel Tags: Current ophthalmology and medicine Source Type: research

Surgical Management of Peripheral Corneal Thinning Disorders
The peripheral corneal thinning disorders are associated with degenerative, autoimmune, or infective causes. Corneal thinning can subsequently affect the visual acuity either by inducing severe astigmatism or by progressive involvement of the central cornea. In addition to this, the integrity of the eye is at risk. Medical management is necessary to adddress the underlying inflammatory or infectious causes; however, most of the cases require surgical intervention for tectonic support or for visual rehabilitation in patients with severe astigmatism. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Monica Lohchab, Gaurav Prakash, Tarun Arora, Prafulla Maharana, Vishal Jhanji, Namrata Sharma, Rasik B. Vajpayee Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Update on the Ophthalmic Management of Facial Paralysis
Bell palsy is the most common neurologic condition affecting the cranial nerves. Lagophthalmos, exposure keratopathy, and corneal ulceration are potential complications. In this review, we evaluate various causes of facial paralysis as well as the level 1 evidence supporting the use of a short course of oral steroids for idiopathic Bell palsy to improve functional outcomes. Various surgical and nonsurgical techniques are also discussed for the management of residual facial dysfunction. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Peter W. MacIntosh, Aaron M. Fay Tags: Major review Source Type: research

New treatment for corneal endothelial dysfunction rocks the boat.
Kinoshita S, Koizumi N, Ueno M, et al: Injection of Cultured Cells with a ROCK Inhibitor for Bullous Keratopathy. N Engl J Med. 2018;378:995 –1003. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - June 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Matthew Denny, Mark Mandel Tags: Current ophthalmology and medicine Source Type: research

Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits AKA Pseudodrusen
A distinction between conventional drusen and pseudodrusen was first made in 1990, and more recently knowledge of pseudodrusen, more accurately called subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), has expanded. Pseudodrusen have a bluish-white appearance by biomicroscopy and color fundus photography. Using optical coherence tomography, pseudodrusen were found to be accumulations of material internal to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that could extend internally through the ellipsoid zone. These deposits are more commonly seen in older eyes with thinner choroids. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 30, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Richard F. Spaide, Sotaro Ooto, Christine A. Curcio Source Type: research

The unfaithful neuritis
A 55 year old man with a history of mantle cell lymphoma reported acute blurred vision in the right eye. Although initially diagnosed with acute retrobulbar optic neuritis, three weeks later retinal infiltrates and vitritis developed, but vitrectomy resulted negative for vitreoretinal lymphoma. Further investigation revealed a serology positive for syphilis. This case highlights the role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of syphilis, which is able to mimick multiple eye disorders, optic neuritis and vitreoretinal lymphoma among others. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 30, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Luca De Simone, Francesco Pellegrini, Daniele Cirone, Luca Cimino, Julie Falardeau Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Biomechanics and Structure of the Cornea: Implications and Association with Corneal Disorders
Recent studies have shown that alterations in corneal biomechanical properties are associated with corneal pathologies, particularly corneal ectasia. Moreover, these alterations may have implications with regard to the outcomes of therapeutic modalities and corneal refractive surgeries. We will address corneal anatomy and its relevance to corneal biomechanical characteristics, as well as ocular and systemic conditions associated with changes in corneal biomechanics. Accumulated knowledge in this field is potentially conducive to gain a better understanding of the structural and biomechanical nature of the cornea and unders...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jiaonan Ma, Yan Wang, Pinghui Wei, Vishal Jhanji Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Simple limbal epithelial transplantation: a review on current approach and future directions
Simple limbal epithelial transplantation is a recently developed technique for treating limbal stem cell deficiency caused by ocular burns. A small limbal biopsy from the donor eye, usually from the patient's healthy eye, is excised and dissected into multiple pieces. An amniotic membrane is atttached using fibrin glue on the diseased eye after removing the conjunctivalized pannus from the corneal surface. The limbal biopsy pieces are placed onto the amniotic membrane, fixed with fibrin glue, followed by bandaging of the ocular surface with a contact lens. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Davide Borroni, Bogumil Wowra, Vito Romano, Maria Boyadzhieva, Diego Ponzin, Stefano Ferrari, Sajjad Ahmad, Mohit Parekh Tags: Diagnostic and surgical techniques Source Type: research

Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation (SLET): A review on current approach and future directions
Simple limbal epithelial transplant (SLET) is a recently developed technique for treating limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) caused by ocular burns. A small limbal biopsy from the donor eye, usually from the patient ’s healthy eye, is excised and dissected into multiple pieces. An amniotic membrane is patched using fibrin glue on the diseased eye after removing the conjunctivalized pannus from the corneal surface. The limbal biopsy pieces are placed onto the amniotic membrane, fixed with fibrin glue followed by bandaging of the ocular surface with a contact lens. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Davide Borroni, Bogumil Wowra, Vito Romano, Maria Boyadzhieva, Diego Ponzin, Stefano Ferrari, Sajjad Ahmad, Mohit Parekh Tags: Diagnostic and surgical techniques Source Type: research

Povidone-Iodine Concentration and Dosing in Cataract Surgery
Iodine has been recognized as an effective bactericide since the 1800 ’s, and povidone-iodine (PI) solution has been applied to the ocular surface and periocular skin since the 1980’s to prevent endophthalmitis in cataract surgery. In vitro, PI solution kills bacteria very quickly at dilute concentrations (0.05-1.0%). In many instances, PI kills bacteria more quic kly at these dilute concentrations than more conventional (5%-10%) concentrations. This is due to greater availability of diatomic free iodine in dilute solution, the bactericidal component of PI. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jagger C. Koerner, Mary J. George, Dale R. Meyer, Michael G. Rosco, Matthew M. Habib Tags: Therapeutic reviews Source Type: research

Contemporary Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Angle-Closure Disease
Primary angle closure disease spectrum varies from a narrow angle to advanced glaucoma. A variety of imaging technologies may assist the clinician in determining the pathophysiology and diagnosis of primary angle closure, but gonioscopy remains a mainstay of clinical evaluation. Laser iridotomy effectively eliminates the pupillary block component of angle closure; however, studies show that in many patients the iridocorneal angle remains narrow from underlying anatomic issues, and increasing lens size often leads to further narrowing over time. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: M. Reza Razeghinejad, Jonathan S. Myers Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 1, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ischemic Retinal Vein Occlusion: characterizing the more severe spectrum of retinal vein occlusion
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO), including central (CRVO), branch (BRVO) and hemicentral and hemispheric RVO, is the second most common vascular cause of visual loss, surpassed only by diabetic retinopathy. The presence and extent of retinal ischemia in RVO is associated with a worse prognosis. On this basis, most previously conducted studies considered iRVO and non-iRVO as separate entities based on set thresholds of existing retinal ischemia, as determined by fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 27, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Meiaad Khayat, Michael Williams, Noemi Lois Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic Prenatal Imaging of Fetal Ocular and Orbital Abnormalities
We describe characteristic ultrasound findings of these diseases. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 26, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Courtney L. Ondeck, Dolores Pretorius, Jill McCaulley, Michael Kinori, Theresa Maloney RDMS, Andrew Hull, Shira L. Robbins Tags: Major review Source Type: research

A Sticky Situation
An 81-year-old man with bilateral progressively blurry vision and optic disc swelling was referred for evaluation. Examination and ancillary testing confirmed a diagnosis of bilateral vitreopapillary traction (VPT) accompanied by unilateral tractional retinoschisis in the right eye. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed to release the traction in both eyes. Visual acuity improved in the right eye and stabilized in the left eye. Retinoschisis in the right eye resolved. The visual field improved in both eyes, although the left eye demonstrated a persistent hemifield defect likely attributable to a prior optic neuropathy. (Sour...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 26, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Christina Y. Weng, Karima S. Khimani, Rod Foroozan, Sidney M. Gospe, M. Tariq Bhatti Tags: Short Reviews Source Type: research

Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes....
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hamid Safi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Review of Risk Factors and their Clinical Significance
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease that affects premature infants. Despite improvements in neonatal care and management guidelines, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Current screening guidelines are primarily based on two risk factors: birth weight and gestational age; however, many investigators have suggested other risk factors, including maternal factors, prenatal and perinatal factors, demographics, medical interventions, comorbidities of prematurity, nutrition, and genetic factors. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sang Jin Kim, Alexander D. Port, Ryan Swan, J. Peter Campbell, R.V. Paul Chan, Michael F. Chiang Tags: Major review Source Type: research