High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) procedure: the rise of a new non-invasive glaucoma procedure and its possible future applications
Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of blindness, is usually first managed medically with incisional surgery as a second step. Noninvasive glaucoma procedures attempt to fill the gap between medical and surgical treatments and may work synergistically with them. High-intensity focused ultrasound induces a selective and controlled thermic ablation of the distal part of the ciliary body, and this effect is independent from the degree of tissue pigmentation with limited damage to adjacent structures. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 21, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Chiara Posarelli, Giuseppe Covello, Anna Bendinelli, Paolo Fogagnolo, Marco Nardi, Michele Figus Tags: Diagnostic and surgical techniques Source Type: research

Surgical Management of Diabetic Tractional Retinal Detachments
Tractional retinal detachment (TRD) is an end-stage form of diabetic retinopathy that occurs when contractile forces in the vitreous and neovascular tissue lead to the detachment of the neurosensory retina. We review the literature related to the management of this disease. Preoperative planning includes appropriate patient selection, diagnostic and prognostic imaging, and medical optimization with reduction of systemic risk factors. Use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for preoperative treatment has had significant benefits for TRD repair in improving surgical efficiency and outcomes. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - May 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Siva SR. Iyer, Kathleen A. Regan, Jordan M. Burnham, Ching J. Chen Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Choroidal and retinal thickness in systemic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases: a review
In order to identify the risk of relapse and subclinical inflammatory stages of systemic autoimmune diseases, new tools are needed. In the recent years, choroidal and retinal thickness measured with ocular coherence tomography (OCT) have been proposed as an inflammatory marker for different systemic diseases, especially for conditions with a vascular component.Our aim in this article was to review the literature regarding the role of choroidal and retinal thickness as a potential inflammatory marker in systemic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases measured by OCT. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 26, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Martina Steiner, Maria del Mar Esteban Ortega, Santiago Mu ñoz- Fernández Source Type: research

Ocular Hypotony: A Comprehensive Review
Ocular hypotony is an infrequent, yet potentially vision-threatening, entity. The list of differential causes is extensive, involving any condition that may compromise aqueous humor dynamics or the integrity of the globe and sometimes following medical treatments or procedures. Depending on the cause and the clinical impact, treatment options aim to correct the underlying pathology and to re-establish anatomical integrity, as well as visual function. We review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, different causes, and associated therapeutic options of ocular hypotony. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Qianqian Wang, Avrey Thau, Alex V. Levin, Daniel Lee Source Type: research

A lot of nerve
A 71-year-old woman with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with unilateral optic disc edema. Laboratory evaluations for infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic etiologies were negative. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits with and without contrast demonstrated enhancement and thickening of the right optic nerve with mild stranding of the intraconal fat. She underwent three large volume lumbar punctures which were negative for malignancy. An optic nerve biopsy was ultimately performed, demonstrating malignant cells on immunohistochemical staining. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Faith A. Birnbaum, Landon C. Meekins, Archana Srinivasan, Ann P. Murchison Tags: Short Reviews Source Type: research

It is not your eyes
A 55-year-old woman reported blurred vision while walking, numbness and tingling, contact allodynia, and gait imbalance. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes, but there was a loss of 4 lines with horizontal dynamic visual acuity testing. Ocular motility examination demonstrated spontaneous downbeat nystagmus that increased in lateral gaze with a torsional component and impaired smooth pursuits. Head impulse test was positive, and electromyography demonstrated a sensory neuropathy/neuronopathy. Vestibular testing confirmed both central ocular motor pathway and bilateral peripheral vestibular system involvement. (Source: Sur...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 19, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Devon A. Cohen, M. Tariq Bhatti, John J. Chen, Michelle L. Mauermann, Daniel R. Gold Tags: Clinical challenges Source Type: research

It ’s Not Your Eyes
A 55-year-old woman reported blurred vision while walking, numbness and tingling, contact allodynia, and gait imbalance. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes, but there was a loss of 4 lines with horizontal dynamic visual acuity testing. Ocular motility examination demonstrated spontaneous downbeat nystagmus that increased in lateral gaze with a torsional component and impaired smooth pursuits. Head impulse test was positive, and electromyography demonstrated a sensory neuropathy/neuronopathy. Vestibular testing confirmed both central ocular motor pathway and bilateral peripheral vestibular system involvement. (Source: Sur...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 19, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Devon A. Cohen, M. Tariq Bhatti, John J. Chen, Michelle L. Mauermann, Daniel R. Gold Tags: Clinical challenges Source Type: research

Neurothekeoma of the eye, conjunctiva, and periorbital adnexa: A report of two cases and brief review
Neurothekeomas (NTKs) are benign soft tissue tumors most commonly occurring in the head, neck, and upper extremities of young adults, with a female preponderance. Herein, we report 2 cases of ocular NTK presenting as an orbital mass or chalazion. Both cases underwent excision of the mass with histopathologic diagnosis of cellular NTK. Tumor cells for both cases were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and cluster of differentiation 10. S100, human melanoma black 45, and melanoma antigen recognized by t-cell (Melan A) were negative. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Thonnie Rose O. See, Gustav St ålhammar, Hans E. Grossniklaus Tags: Clinical pathologic review Source Type: research

Referral to community care from school-based eye care programs in the United States
Approximately 25% of school-aged children in the United States have vision abnormalities, most commonly refractive error that can be corrected with spectacles. Limited follow-up adherence after failed school-based vision screening led to an increase in school-based eye care programs that provide screening, eye examinations, and spectacle prescription at the school. These programs address the access barrier and often provide the first point of contact between children and eye care. Nevertheless, several lower prevalence conditions, such as amblyopia, strabismus, and glaucoma, cannot be adequately treated in the school setti...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ahmed F. Shakarchi, Megan E. Collins Source Type: research

Beware of the Sneeze
We report a patient with SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient sinonasal carcinoma who had permanent vision loss after valsalva-induced acute hemorrhage and resultant orbital compartment syndrome. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Patrick Yang, Chris Toomey, Jonathan Lin, Don O. Kikkawa, Bobby S. Korn, Andrew Harrison Source Type: research

Neurothekeoma of the eye, conjunctiva and periorbital adnexa. Report of two cases and brief review
Neurothekeomas (NTK) are benign soft tissue tumors most commonly occurring in the head, neck and upper extremities of young adults, with a female preponderance. Herein we report 2 cases of ocular NTK presenting as an orbital mass or chalazion. Both cases underwent excision of the mass with histopathologic diagnosis of cellular NTK. Tumor cells for both cases were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and cluster of differentiation 10 (CD10). (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 9, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Thonnie Rose O. See, Gustav St ålhammar, Hans E. Grossniklaus Source Type: research

Seeing is not believing
Alexia without agraphia is an interesting and distinctive visual disconnection syndrome that results from damage to the dominant left occipital lobe and splenium of the corpus callosum. Although the patient can see individual letters (from the intact right occipital cortex), the damage to the corpus callosum results in disconnection of the transmission of information from the intact right occipital lobe to the intact left angular gyrus. This disconnection produces the symptom of alexia without agraphia. In the acute setting, posterior cerebral artery infarct is the most common cause. Prompt recognition of this unique strok...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 3, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Zane Foster, Ashwini Kini, Bayan Al Othman, Andrew G. Lee, Michael Vaphiades Tags: Clinical challenges Source Type: research

Implementation of Lean and Six Sigma Principles in Ophthalmology for Improving Quality of Care and Patient Flow
Lean management is a set of principles aimed at improving processes by identifying and eliminating steps that do not add value to the consumer. Such steps lead to wasted time, resources and expenses, and result in customer and employee dissatisfaction. While initially invented and perfected for factory assembly lines in the automobile industry, it has since disseminated extensively and has repeatedly proven a powerful "engine" for improving quality and quantity in the healthcare setting. Lean implementation benefits include improved safety, reduced waiting times, increased patient satisfaction, and cost reduction...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 2, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Adir C. Sommer, Eytan Z. Blumenthal Tags: Public Health and the Eye Source Type: research

Preferred practice pattern for central retinal artery occlusion management
We have read the article by Chronopoulos and Schutz,3 however, we believe that some discussion is required. The authors reviewed current treatment options in central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and suggested a new therapeutic approach. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - April 1, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Kanclerz Source Type: research

Authors' response
We appreciate Dr. Grzybowski's interest and comments on our article “Central retinal artery occlusion – a new, provisional treatment approach” which was not a “preferred practice pattern” but a rational, provisional guide for management of a blinding condition in the absence of good evidence-based therapy.3 As we discuss in the article, treatment of comple te CRAO of more than about 15 minutes of duration is most likely without value; the generally accepted 240-minute window of opportunity is based on very flawed experimental evidence. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Argyrios Chronopoulos, James S. Schutz Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Authors ’ Response
We appreciate Dr. Grzybowski ’s interest and comments on our article “Central retinal artery occlusion – a new, provisional treatment approach” which was not a "preferred practice pattern" but a rational, provisional guide for management of a blinding condition in the absence of good evidence based therapy.3 As we discu ss in the article, treatment of complete CRAO of more than about 15 minutes duration is most likely without value; the generally accepted 240 minute window of opportunity is based on very flawed experimental evidence. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 25, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Argyrios Chronopoulos Source Type: research

Authors' response
We would like to thank the authors for bringing this technique to the attention of readers. Corneal indentation can break attacks of acute angle closure glaucoma and is a readily available option for a patient in pain. We also thank the authors for their review of some of corneal indentation's history with which we were unfamiliar. The concerns about the possible corneal epithelial defect and retinal vascular events with corneal indentation have been discussed and seem to be a noninvasive intervention. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: M. Reza Razeghinejad, Jonathan S. Myers Tags: Letter Source Type: research

The potential role of nutrition on lens pathology: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms of lens opacification, and certain nutritional antioxidants are suspected to have a protective effect. To examine the role of these nutritional antioxidants in cataract prevention, we searched major databases and reviewed current evidence regarding the protective effect of nutritive antioxidants. We included observational studies that investigate the association between one or more of the following micronutrients and cataract: Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, lutein, zeaxanthin, α- and β-carotene. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Olympia Sideri, Konstantinos T. Tsaousis, He J. Li, Maria Viskadouraki, Ioannis T. Tsinopoulos Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Authors ’ Response
We would like to thank the authors for bringing this technique to the attention of readers. Corneal indentation can break attacks of acute angle closure glaucoma, and is a readily available option for a patient in pain. We also thank the authors for their review of some of corneal indentation ’s history with which we were unfamiliar. The concerns about the possible corneal epithelial defect and retinal vascular events with corneal indentation has been discussed and seems to be a non-invasive intervention. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Reza Razeghinejad, Jonathan S. Myers Source Type: research

Corneal Indentation works, almost universally, and especially when applied as per the Corneal Indentation protocol
The authors enjoyed the Major Review by Razeghinejad and Myers in the November-December 2018 issue of Survey of Ophthalmology.7 (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 12, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Fiona S. Lau, Brendon W.H. Lee, Ashish Agar, Minas T. Coroneo, Katherine Masselos, Allan Bank, Ian C. Francis Source Type: research

Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Eyelid: a Review
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive tumor of both epithelial and neuroendocrine origin that carries a mortality rate of up to 40%. MCC tumors typically present as painless, expanding nodules on the sun-exposed skin areas of older, white patients. Eyelid and periocular tumors comprise approximately 2.5% of all cases of MCC and may be mistaken for chalazia or basal cell carcinomas. Immunosuppression is a significant risk factor, particularly in solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and patients with HIV. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 11, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Victoria S. North, Larissa Habib, Michael K. Yoon Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Intraocular pressure measurement after corneal transplantation
Measurement of intraocular pressure is an integral part of a comprehensive ocular examination, especially after a surgical intervention that can affect aqueous humor flow dynamics. Most of the intraocular pressure measurement devices are designed for “normal” corneas and may not be accurate in eyes after corneal transplantation where there is altered corneal morphology. Raised intraocular pressure and glaucoma are known postoperative complications after transplantation, and therefore, accurate intraocular pressure measurement is essential. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bernardo de Padua Soares Bezerra, Elsie Chan, Rahul Chakrabarti, Rasik B. Vajpayee Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Multifocal versus monofocal intraocular lenses for age-related cataract patients: a system review and meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials
We compare multifocal intraocular lenses (MFIOLs) to monofocal IOLs for visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, and adverse events using data from 21 randomized controlled trials with 2951 subjects. There was no statistical difference between uncorrected distance VA and corrected distance VA. Compared with monofocal IOLs, MFIOLs showed a better performance on uncorrected intermediate VA measured at 60  cm and uncorrected near VA; the mean differences were -0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.10, -0.03) and -0.13 (95% CI: -0.20, -0.07). (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kai Cao, David S. Friedman, Shanshan Jin, Mayinuer Yusufu, Jingshang Zhang, Jinda Wang, Simeng Hou, Guyu Zhu, Bingsong Wang, Ying Xiong, Jing Li, Xiaoxia Li, Hailong He, Lijing Chai, Xiu Hua Wan Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Multifocal versus monofocal intraocular lenses for age related cataract patients: A system review and meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials
We compare multifocal intraocular lenses (MFIOLs) to monofocal IOLs for visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and adverse events using data from 21 randomized controlled trials with 2951 subjects. There was no statistical difference between uncorrected distance visual acuity (VA) and corrected distance VA. Compared with monofocal IOLs, MFIOLs showed a better performance on uncorrected intermediate VA measured at 60cm and uncorrected near VA, the mean differences (MDs) were -0.06 (95% confidence (CI): -0.10, -0.03) and -0.13 (95%CI: -0.20, -0.07) respectively. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kai Cao, David S. Friedman, Shanshan Jin, Mayinuer Yusufu, Jingshang Zhang, Jinda Wang, Simeng Hou, Guyu Zhu, Bingsong Wang, Ying Xiong, Jing Li, Xiaoxia Li, Hailong He, Lijing Chai, Xiu Hua Wan Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Intraocular Pressure Measurement following Corneal Transplantation
Measurement of intraocular pressure is an integral part of a comprehensive ocular examination, especially after a surgical intervention that can affect aqueous humor flow dynamics. Most of the intraocular pressure measurement devices are designed for ‘normal’ corneas and may not be accurate in eyes following corneal transplantation where there is altered corneal morphology. Raised intraocular pressure and glaucoma are known post-operative complications following transplantation, and therefore accurate intraocular pressure measurement is esse ntial. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bernardo de Padua Soares Bezerra, Elsie Chan, Rahul Chakrabarti, Rasik B. Vajpayee Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Corneal keloid presenting forty years after penetrating injury: case report and literature review
A 64-year-old Caucasian man had been diagnosed with presumed ocular surface squamous neoplasia in the left eye and started on topical interferon alpha 2b drops. When we saw him, he provided a history of penetrating corneal injury more than forty years prior. Slit lamp examination revealed a large, elevated, opaque lesion involving the left cornea. High-definition AS-OCT revealed a hyper-reflective lesion involving the anterior stroma with a relatively normal overlying epithelium. Based on the clinical history, slit lamp, and AS-OCT findings, a giant corneal keloid was suspected, and the interferon drops were discontinued. ...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Joel R. Palko, Safa Arfeen, Asim V. Farooq, Catherine Reppa, George J. Harocopos Tags: Clinical Pathologic Reviews Source Type: research

Ocular manifestations of pulmonary hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), if left untreated, may result in increasing cardiac back pressures and lead to right heart failure and death. An increase in venous pressure in pulmonary hypertension influences other organs. The ocular complications occur as a result of elevated venous pressure in the superior vena cava and in the ophthalmic veins that cause dilation of the ocular veins, resulting in congestion of the choroid and leading to complications such as ciliary detachment,1 central retinal vein occlusion, acute serous retinal detachment, macular edema, retinal neovascularization, choroidal effusions, chemosis, angle-c...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - March 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Natalia Lewczuk, Alexander Zdebik, Joanna Bogus ławska, Anna Turno-Kręcicka, Marta Misiuk-Hojło Tags: Review in medicine Source Type: research

Utility of real-world evidence for evaluating anti –vascular endothelial growth factor treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard in medical research, providing evidence of the efficacy of a treatment in well-defined patient populations. By contrast, real-world studies explore the effectiveness of treatments in routine clinical practices, often with diverse patient populations. While both randomized controlled trials and real-world studies contribute to the understanding of the benefits and risks of therapies, they generate different types of data and serve complementary purposes. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 21, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: James Talks, Vincent Daien, Robert P. Finger, Bora Eldem, Taiji Sakamoto, Jos é Augusto Cardillo, Paul Mitchell, Tien Yin Wong, Jean-François Korobelnik Tags: Public Health and the Eye Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Therapy of Mycotic Keratitis
Mycotic keratitis continues to be an important cause of corneal blindness, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The prognosis is poor compared to many other forms of keratitis because of the lack of effective antifungal drugs. The currently available antifungal drugs suffer from multiple drawbacks like poor ocular penetration, unpredictable bioavailability, and adverse effects associated with systemic medications. Over the last decade, several new drugs and drug delivery systems have been introduced in an attempt to improve the treatment outcomes. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 21, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Pranita Sahay, Deepali Singhal, Ritu Nagpal, Prafulla K. Maharana, Marjan Farid, Rachel Gelman, Rajesh Sinha, Tushar Agarwal, Jeewan S. Titiyal, Namrata Sharma Tags: Therapeutic reviews Source Type: research

Optic Disc Pit and Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy: a Review
Optic disc pit (ODP), one of the optic disc cavitary anomalies, is generally congenital and unilateral and occurs equally in males and females. Optic disc pit maculopathy (ODP-M) is characterized by intraretinal and subretinal fluid at the macula, causing visual deterioration. The origin of the macular fluid and the mechanism of transition to the subretinal space in ODP-M pathophysiology are not yet fully understood. With the evolution of imaging modalities, especially OCT, our knowledge of this disorder continues to increase. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 21, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mehmet Murat Uzel, Murat Karacorlu Tags: Major review Source Type: research

The use of real-world evidence for evaluating anti –vascular endothelial growth factor treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard in medical research, providing evidence of the efficacy of a treatment in well-defined patient populations. By contrast, real-world studies explore the effectiveness of treatments in routine clinical practice, often with diverse patient populations. Although both randomized controlled trials and real-world studies contribute to the understanding of the benefits and risks of therapies, they generate different types of data and serve complementary purposes. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 21, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: James Talks, Vincent Daien, Robert P. Finger, Bora Eldem, Taiji Sakamoto, Jos é Augusto Cardillo, Paul Mitchell, Tien Yin Wong, Jean-François Korobelnik Tags: Public health and the eye Source Type: research

Optic disk pits and optic disk pit maculopathy: A review
Optic disk pit, one of the optic disk cavitary anomalies, is generally congenital and unilateral and occurs equally in males and females. Optic disk pit maculopathy is characterized by intraretinal and subretinal fluid at the macula, causing visual deterioration. The origin of the macular fluid and the mechanism of transition to the subretinal space in optic disk pit maculopathy pathophysiology are not yet fully understood. With the evolution of imaging modalities, especially optic coherence tomography, our knowledge of this disorder continues to increase. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 21, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mehmet Murat Uzel, Murat Karacorlu Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Current Treatment and Management of Infantile Hemangiomas
Infantile hemangiomas (IHs), otherwise known as infantile capillary hemangiomas, strawberry hemangiomas, or strawberry nevi, are non-malignant vascular tumors that commonly affect children. The natural disease course typically involves growth for up to a year followed by regression without treatment over a period of years, with no cosmetic or functional sequelae. Less commonly, however, IHs can become a threat to vision or even life depending on location and size of the lesion. Additionally, IHs, particularly those involving the face, may be disfiguring and result in lifelong sequelae. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kellie R. Satterfield, Christopher B. Chambers Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Adverse Reactions to Fluorescein Angiography: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature
We reviewed literature on adverse reactions to intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA) using PubMed and found 78 articles in English from 1961-2017. The reported rates of adverse reactions were overall 0.083-21.69%, separated into mild (1.24-17.65%), moderate (0.2-6%), and severe (0.04-0.59%). There were 1:100,000 to 1:220,000 deaths. Fluorescein concentration, volume injected, speed of injection, temperature, and contaminates were not correlated with the incidence of reactions. Patient characteristics including other comorbid diseases, allergy history, age, race, and gender showed only an increased rate of reaction in ...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ilyse S. Kornblau, Jaafar F. El-Annan Tags: Diagnostic and surgical techniques Source Type: research

Automated detection of age-related macular degeneration in color fundus photography: A systematic review
The rising prevalence of age-related eye diseases, particularly age-related macular degeneration (AMD), places an ever-increasing burden on healthcare providers. As new treatments emerge, it is necessary to develop methods for reliably assessing patients ’ disease status and stratifying risk of progression. The presence of drusen in the retina represents a key early feature where size, number and morphology are thought to correlate significantly with risk of progression to sight-threatening AMD. Manual labelling of drusen on color fundus photograp hs by a human is labor intensive and is where automatic computerised d...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: E. Pead, R. Megaw, J. Cameron, A. Fleming, B. Dhillon, E. Trucco, T. MacGillivray Tags: Diagnostic and surgical techniques Source Type: research

Bilateral Epibulbar Pseudorheumatoid Nodulosis with a Review of Ocular Adnexal Palisading Granulomas
We describe the clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of episcleral/conjunctival pseudorheumatoid nodulosis, a new granulomatous entity that belongs among a group of related lesions. Specifically, pseudorheumatoid nodulosis should be differentiated from solitary rheumatoid nodules, rheumatoid nodulosis, accelerated rheumatoid nodules and nodulosis, and solitary pseudorheumatoid nodules. A 53-year-old man presented with bilateral painless, large, faintly yellow-grey, partially immobile, solid, circumscribed and occasionally confluent episcleral nodules of several months ’ duration. (Source:...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Marisa Tieger, Frederick A. Jakobiec, Natalie Wolkow, Lina Ma, H.Peggy Chang Tags: Clinical Pathologic Reviews Source Type: research

The dark side of the (half) Moon
A 71-year-old man was referred to Neuro-Ophthalmology for evaluation of reading problems associated to pituitary adenoma. Perimetry showed a right temporal crescent syndrome ( “half moon” syndrome) suggesting left occipital disease. Brain MRI, electroencephalogram and CSF examination (14-3-3 protein) were consistent with a diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. His neurologic condition rapidly deteriorated with memory problems, myoclonus and apathy followed by death, four months later. This case shows how visual problems may be the first manifestation of this rare prion disease (Heidehain variant of Creutzfeld...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Francesco Pellegrini, Altin Stafa, Daniela Bonsanto, Clare L. Fraser Tags: Clinical challenges Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - February 7, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Asteroid Hyalosis - A comprehensive review
We describe imaging modalities utilized for diagnostic evaluations in cases of severe AH and propose hypotheses regarding its lack of significant effects on vision. We discuss cataract surgery in patients with AH and the selection of intraocular lenses for implantation. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 29, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Matin Khoshnevis, Sasha Rosen, J. Sebag Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Central retinal artery occlusion – a new, provisional treatment approach
The retinal ganglion cells infarcted in central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) are the somata of the optic nerve axons, part of the central nervous system. Consequently, CRAO with inner retinal infarction is a small vessel stroke, usually with the devastating consequence of severe visual loss in the affected eye. At present, there is no generally accepted, evidence-based therapy of non-arteritic CRAO in contrast to ischemic cerebral stroke that has well accepted treatment protocols. Widely divergent and controversial therapeutic options for CRAO reflect the desperation of treating physicians and disparate conflicting stud...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 29, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Argyrios Chronopoulos, James S. Schutz Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation with Bone Destruction and Extension into the Paranasal Sinuses
Idiopathic orbital inflammation developed in the right orbit of a woman in her mid-thirties, causing tearing, photophobia, diplopia, altered depth perception, proptosis, and pain on eye movements. Computed tomography disclosed a mass involving the intraconal and extraconal nasal right orbit, extending to the orbital apex with anterior displacement of the globe, effacement of the medial rectus muscle, portions of the fat plane, and the superior oblique muscle, and bone destruction with extension of the mass through the orbital floor into the superior maxillary sinus and through the lamina papyracea into the ethmoid sinus. (...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 29, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Alan D. Proia, Chad M. McCall, Jane S. Kim, Ilya M. Leyngold Tags: Clinical Pathologic Reviews Source Type: research

Asteroid hyalosis —a comprehensive review
We describe imaging modalities used for diagnostic evaluations in cases of severe asteroid hyalosis and propose hypotheses regarding its lack of significant effects on vision. We discuss cataract surgery in patients with asteroid hyalosis and the selection of intraocular lenses for implantation. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 29, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Matin Khoshnevis, Sasha Rosen, J. Sebag Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Central retinal artery occlusion —A new, provisional treatment approach
The retinal ganglion cells infarcted in central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) are the somata of the optic nerve axons, part of the central nervous system. Consequently, CRAO with inner retinal infarction is a small vessel stroke, usually with the devastating consequence of severe visual loss in the affected eye. At present, there is no generally accepted, evidence-based therapy of nonarteritic CRAO in contrast to ischemic cerebral stroke that has well-accepted treatment protocols. Widely divergent and controversial therapeutic options for CRAO reflect the desperation of treating physicians and disparate conflicting studi...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 29, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Argyrios Chronopoulos, James S. Schutz Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Statins in Ophthalmology
3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-gutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or ‘statins’ are a class of lipid lowering drugs with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and vascular effects. Statins are increasingly being used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. We examine the actions of statins on the eye and its associated ophthalmic disorders. Statins can be synthetic or non-synthetic, and their differentiating derivations may contribute to their varying cholesterol-lowering and pleiotropic effects. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kenneth G-J. Ooi, Pauline Khoo, Veronika Vaclavik, Stephanie L. Watson Tags: Review in medicine Source Type: research

Interventions to improve functioning, participation and quality of life in children with visual impairment: a systematic review
Visual impairment in childhood often has lifelong implications. In order to aim for the highest levels of functioning, participation and quality of life and to ensure children ’s wellbeing, children should be entitled to the most effective rehabilitation programs. We review evidence for the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for children with visual impairment to improve skills and behavior, thereby improving participation and quality of life as an ultimate g oal. Of the 441 potentially relevant articles identified, 66 studies met our inclusion criteria (i.e. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ellen BM. Elsman, Mo Al Baaj, Gerardus HMB. van Rens, Wencke Sijbrandi, Ellen GC. van den Broek, Hilde PA. van der Aa, Wouter Schakel, Martijn W. Heymans, Ralph de Vries, Mathijs PJ. Vervloed, Bert Steenbergen, Ruth MA. van Nispen Tags: Public Health and the Eye Source Type: research

Microperimetry for Geographic Atrophy Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Geographic atrophy (GA) is a progressive, advanced form of age-related macular degeneration leading to visual function impairment and irreversible vision loss. Standard clinical tests to evaluate visual function in patients with GA provide poor anatomic-functional correlation, while fundus imaging does not assess the visual function deficit. Microperimetry is a psychophysical visual function test that spatially maps retinal sensitivity and allows for correlation of anatomic features with visual function. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Karl G. Csaky, Praveen J. Patel, Yasir J. Sepah, David G. Birch, Diana V. Do, Michael S. Ip, Robyn H. Guymer, Chi D. Luu, Shamika Gune, Hugh Lin, Daniela Ferrara Tags: Diagnostic and surgical techniques Source Type: research

Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: A Review
Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a surgical complication characterized by a non-infectious anterior chamber inflammatory reaction having multiple etiologies. The clinical signs (prominent limbus to limbus corneal edema, anterior chamber inflammation) and symptoms (decreased visual acuity, discomfort) generally occur within the first 12-48 hours after intraocular surgery. Most patients achieve good clinical and visual outcomes when there is a prompt clinical diagnosis and adequate treatment. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Erick Hernandez-Bogantes, Alejandro Navas, Andrea Naranjo, Guillermo Amescua, Enrique O. Graue-Hernandez, Harry W. Flynn, Ike Ahmed Tags: Major review Source Type: research

A review and update on the Ophthalmic implications for Susac Syndrome
Susac syndrome is a rare condition presumed to be immune-mediated occlusion of small arterial vasculature principally of the brain, inner ear, and retina. Clinically the syndrome manifests as a pathognomonic triad of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and branch retinal artery occlusion. Early recognition and diagnosis is important as delayed treatment may be profound and result in deafness, blindness, dementia and other neurological deficits. The plethora of imaging technology, including magnetic resonance imaging, retinal fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-angiography allows deeper and more di...
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: L.Z. Heng, C. Bailey, R. Lee, A.D. Dick, A. Ross Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Video recording in ophthalmic surgery
has immense potential to drive quality improvement in patient care, ophthalmology training, and research. Not only do surgical videos permit introspective and critical analyses of surgical technique, they also allow for objective assessment, more informative audits, and are an invaluable medium for surgical education. Unfortunately, medical-grade video recording equipment is often costly. Various novel methods of video recording that utilise commercially available products offer adequate alternatives. (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Brandon C. Thia, Nathan J. Wong, Shivanand J. Sheth Tags: Major review Source Type: research

Ischemic retinal vein occlusion: characterizing the more severe spectrum of retinal vein occlusion
We would like to address several issues with the study of Khayat et al.6 (Source: Survey of Ophthalmology)
Source: Survey of Ophthalmology - January 28, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Dan C ălugăru, Mihai Călugăru Tags: Letter Source Type: research