Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Ancillary Prognostic and Predictive Testing in Breast Cancer
Ancillary testing in breast cancer has become standard of care to determine what therapies may be most effective for individual patients with breast cancer. Single-marker tests are required on all newly diagnosed and newly metastatic breast cancers. Markers of proliferation are also used, and include both single-marker tests like Ki67 as well as panel-based gene expression tests, which have made more recent contributions to prognostic and predictive testing in breast cancers. This review focuses on pathologist interpretation of these ancillary test results, with a focus on expected versus unexpected results and troubleshoo...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 31, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Kimberly H. Allison Source Type: research

Breast Pathology
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 31, 2018 Category: Pathology Authors: Laura C. Collins Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 31, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 31, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
Laura C. Collins (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 31, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Liver Pathology (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 31, 2018 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contemporary Topics in Breast Pathology
Breast pathology can be one of the more challenging areas for all involved in diagnostic surgical pathology, and there are several areas of breast pathology that are particularly difficult or problematic. In this Breast Pathology issue of Surgical Pathology Clinics, experts in the field have provided comprehensive reviews of commonly encountered problematic lesions in breast pathology, including fibroepithelial lesions, spindle cell lesions, mucinous lesions, and lobular carcinoma in situ, as well as the less frequently encountered, but nonetheless problematic, phenomenon of lymph node inclusions. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Laura C. Collins Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in Breast Cancer
Only a few breast cancer histologic subtypes harbor distinct genetic alterations that are associated with a specific morphology (genotype-phenotype correlation). Secretory carcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas are each characterized by recurrent translocations, and invasive lobular carcinomas frequently have CDH1 mutations. Solid papillary carcinoma with reverse polarity is a rare breast cancer subtype with a distinctive morphology and recently identified IDH2 mutations. We review the clinical and pathologic features and underlying genetic alterations of those breast cancer subtypes with established genotype-phenotype c...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 14, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Jonathan D. Marotti, Stuart J. Schnitt Source Type: research

Processing and Reporting of Breast Specimens in the Neoadjuvant Setting
Standardization of quantification of residual disease in the breast and lymph nodes with routine pathologic macroscopic and microscopic evaluation leads to accurate and reproducible measures of response to neoadjuvant treatment. Multidisciplinary collaboration and correlation of clinical, imaging, gross and microscopic findings is essential. The processing approach to post-neoadjuvant breast cancer surgical specimens and the elements needed in the pathology report are the same regardless of breast cancer subtype or type of neoadjuvant treatment. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 11, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Veerle Bossuyt Source Type: research

Differential Diagnosis of Benign Spindle Cell Lesions
Spindle cell lesions of the breast cover a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from reactive tumor-like lesions to high-grade malignant tumors. The recognition of the benign spindle cell  tumor-like lesions (nodular fasciitis; reactive spindle cell nodule after biopsy, inflammatory pseudotumor/inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; fascicular variant of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia) and tumors (myofibroblastoma, benign fibroblastic spindle cell tumor, leiomyoma, schwannoma, s pindle cell lipoma, solitary fibrous tumor, myxoma) is crucial to avoid confusion with morphologically similar but more aggressive bland-app...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 9, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Gaetano Magro Source Type: research

Precursor Lesions of the Low-Grade Breast Neoplasia Pathway
The nonobligate precursor lesions columnar cell change/hyperplasia and flat epithelial atypia, atypical ductal hyperplasia and atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ share morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features supporting the existence of a low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. The practical implication for pathologists is that the identification of one of these lesions should prompt careful search for others. From a clinical management perspective, however, their designation as “precursor lesions” should not be overemphasized, as the risk of...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Laura C. Collins Source Type: research

Lobular Carcinoma In Situ
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a risk factor and a nonobligate precursor of breast carcinoma. The relative risk of invasive carcinoma after classic LCIS diagnosis is approximately 9 to 10 times that of the general population. Classic LCIS diagnosed on core biopsy with concordant imaging and pathologic findings does not mandate surgical excision, and margin status is not reported. The identification of variant LCIS in a needle core biopsy specimen mandates surgical excision, regardless of radiologic-pathologic concordance. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Hannah Y. Wen, Edi Brogi Source Type: research

Core Needle Biopsy of the Breast
This article highlights contemporary diagn ostic criteria and outcome data that would support an evidence-based approach to the management of these nonmalignant lesions of the breast diagnosed on CNB. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 2, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Benjamin C. Calhoun Source Type: research

An Update of Mucinous Lesions of the Breast
This article emphasizes the differential diagnosis between mucocelelike lesions and mucinous carcinoma, with a brief consideration of potential mimics, such as biphasic and mesenchymal lesions with myxoid stroma ( “stromal mucin”) and foreign material. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 2, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Beth T. Harrison, Deborah A. Dillon Source Type: research

A Diagnostic Approach to Fibroepithelial Breast Lesions
Fibroepithelial breast lesions encompass a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that range from benign to malignant, each exhibiting differing degrees of stromal proliferation in relation to the epithelial compartment. Fibroadenomas are common benign neoplasms that may be treated conservatively. Phyllodes tumors are relatively rare lesions, and classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on histologic evaluation of various parameters. The diagnostic interpretation of “gray-zone” fibroepithelial lesions often imposes formidable demands on a pathologist’s skills. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 29, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Benjamin Yongcheng Tan, Puay Hoon Tan Source Type: research

Axillary Lymph Node Inclusions
This article provides an overview of epithelial and nonepithelial lymph node inclusions, including mammary-type glandular inclusions, Mullerian-type glandular inclusions, squamous inclusions, mixed glandular-squamous inclusions, and nodal nevi. The discussion emphasizes the histologic and immunophenotypic features and differential diagnoses of each entity. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 29, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Ashley Cimino-Mathews Source Type: research

The Many Faces of Medication-Related Injury in the Gastrointestinal Tract
This article emphasizes the histologic features and differential diagnosis of drug-induced injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa. Ultimately, clinical correlation and cessation of a drug with resolution of symptoms are needed to definitively confirm a drug as a causative factor in mucosal injury. Recognizing histologic features in gastrointestinal biopsies, however, can allow surgical pathologists to play a key role in establishing a diagnosis of drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Heewon A. Kwak, John Hart Source Type: research

The Differential Diagnosis of Acute Colitis: Clues to a Specific Diagnosis
This review describes a systematic approach to the interpretation of colonic biopsy specimens of patients with acute colitis. Five main histologic patterns are discussed: acute colitis, focal active colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, hemorrhagic colitis, and ischemic colitis. For each pattern, the most common etiologic associations and their differential diagnoses are presented. Strategies based on histologic analysis and clinical considerations to differentiate acute from chronic colitides are discussed. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Jose Jessurun Source Type: research

Problematic Colorectal Polyps
Two issues commonly arise for pathologists reporting adenomatous polyps of the colorectum. Particularly problematic within large sigmoid colonic adenomas is the distinction between benign misplacement of epithelium into the submucosa and invasive malignancy. This distinction requires careful morphologic evaluation of key discriminatory features, assisted only rarely by the application of selected adjunctive immunohistochemistry. Following a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma within a polypectomy or other local excision specimen, systematic assessment is required of features that may indicate the risk of residual local and/or noda...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Maurice B. Loughrey, Neil A. Shepherd Source Type: research

Persistent Problems in Colorectal Cancer Reporting
Tumor stage, as determined by the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging system, is the single most influential factor determining treatment decisions and outcome among patients with colorectal cancer. Several stage-related elements in pathology reports consistently pose diagnostic challenges: recognition of serosal penetration by tumor (ie, pT3 vs pT4a), evaluation of regional lymph nodes, distinction between tumor deposits and effaced lymph nodes, and assessment of tumor stage in the neoadjuvant setting. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Rhonda K. Yantiss Source Type: research

Emerging Concepts in Gastric Neoplasia
Hereditary gastric cancer is a relatively rare disease with specific clinical and histopathologic characteristics. Hereditary gastric cancer of the diffuse type is predominantly caused by germline mutations in CDH1. The inherited cause of familial intestinal gastric cancer is unknown. Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by germline mutations in promoter 1B of APC. Other well-defined cancer syndromes, such as Lynch, Li-Fraumeni, and hereditary breast or ovarian cancer syndromes, are associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Rachel S. van der Post, F átima Carneiro Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical Pitfalls
At least 15% of colorectal cancers diagnosed in the United States are deficient in mismatch repair mechanisms. Most of these are sporadic, but approximately 3% of colorectal cancers result from germline alterations in mismatch repair genes and represent Lynch syndrome. It is critical to identify patients with Lynch syndrome to institute appropriate screening and surveillance for patients and their families. Exclusion of Lynch syndrome in sporadic cases is equally important because it reduces anxiety for patients and prevents excessive spending on unnecessary surveillance. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Michael Markow, Wei Chen, Wendy L. Frankel Source Type: research

Lymphoproliferative Diseases of the Gut
The gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site of involvement by lymphoma, with B-cell tumors outnumbering T-cell tumors by a wide margin. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common lymphoid neoplasm involving the gastrointestinal tract; but a variety of other B- and T-cell neoplasms occur in the gastrointestinal organs, often with characteristic associations and/or manifestations. Although the diagnosis of gastrointestinal lymphomas can sometimes seem daunting to general pathologists, a knowledge of the most commonly encountered entities, in combination with a reasoned and pragmatic approach to the di...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Scott R. Owens Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Pathology: Common Questions and Diagnostic Dilemmas
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Rhonda K. Yantiss Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
Rhonda K. Yantiss (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Breast Pathology (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 3, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Molecular Testing of Colorectal Cancer in the Modern Era
A plethora of tests are routinely ordered and interpreted by pathologists to assist the management of colorectal cancer patients. Many of these tests are immunohistochemistry assays using antibodies against prognostically relevant proteins, some of which predict therapeutic response. This review focuses on tissue DNA-based tests. It presents novel methodologies for assessing well-established biomarkers, updates the expanding spectrum of genetic alterations that are associated with resistance to inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, and briefly discusses emerging actionable alterations that may translate...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 6, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Efsevia Vakiani Source Type: research

Chronic Colitis in Biopsy Samples
This article focuses on discussing specific histologic features in biopsies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis, Crohn colitis, and colitis of indeterminate type. It also offers suggestions as to how to separate the IBDs from other chronic colitides, such as lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, diverticular disease –associated colitis, diversion colitis, and chronic colitides that are due to drugs. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - September 27, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Eun-Young Karen Choi, Henry D. Appelman Source Type: research

Patterns of Gastric Injury
Gastric biopsies are routinely obtained from  patients with symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract and, as a result, a variety of histologic changes are observed in patients with or without endoscopic evidence of mucosal injury. Although Helicobacter pylori–related gastritis is still common, several other patterns of mucosal injury are increasingly encountered. These patterns of injury are classified based on the nature and distribution of inflammation, location of epithelial cell injury, presence of crystal or pigment deposition, and/or other unique features. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - September 25, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Won-Tak Choi, Gregory Y. Lauwers Source Type: research

Mucosal Biopsy After Bone Marrow Transplantation
Gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies in the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting are challenging because histologic features of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is treated by increasing immunosuppression, overlap with those of other conditions, such as infection, which can get worse with GVHD treatment. More than one condition can occur at the same time. It is important to understand the histologic features of GVHD, drug toxicity, infection, and clinical factors surrounding patients, including timing of biopsy in relation to transplantation, medication history, and laboratory data. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - September 25, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Maria Westerhoff, Laura W. Lamps Source Type: research

Other Forms of Esophagitis
Esophagitis results from diverse causes, including gastroesophageal reflux, immune-mediated or allergic reactions, therapeutic complications, and infections. The appropriate clinical management differs in each of these situations and is often guided by pathologic interpretation of endoscopic mucosal biopsy specimens. This review summarizes the diagnostic features of unusual forms of esophagitis, including eosinophilic esophagitis, lymphocytic esophagitis, esophagitis dissecans superficialis, drug-induced esophageal injury, and bullous disorders. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - September 23, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Nicole C. Panarelli Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of Barrett-Related Neoplasia in the Modern Era
Whereas in the past, pathologists were hesitant to diagnose high-grade dysplasia in patients with Barrett esophagus, because this diagnosis prompted esophagectomy, current international consensus is that endoscopic treatment is the management for high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal carcinoma. Furthermore, many centers advocate endoscopic ablation for low-grade dysplasia. As such, establishing a diagnosis of dysplasia has become the key step; separation between the grades of dysplasia is less critical. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - September 23, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Elizabeth A. Montgomery, Lysandra Voltaggio Source Type: research

Practical Approach to the Flattened Duodenal Biopsy
Celiac disease features duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis with or without villous atrophy. Lymphocytosis without villous atrophy will be proven to represent celiac disease in 10% to 20% of cases. The differential diagnosis is broad: Helicobacter pylori gastritis, NSAID injury and bacterial overgrowth are considerations. Lymphocytosis with villous atrophy is very likely to be celiac disease, but there are mimics to consider, including collagenous sprue, tropical sprue, drug injury, and common variable immunodeficiency. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - September 23, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Thomas C. Smyrk Source Type: research

---
Gastrointestinal pathology emerged as a subspecialty in the early 1980s, roughly coincident with development of endoscopy and mucosal biopsy for diagnosis and management of patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Since that time, changes in tissue acquisition techniques and ancillary testing have drastically altered the  field, such that current practice bears little resemblance to that of our mentors. The past two decades have seen an explosion in the number and types of biopsy samples pathologists encounter in daily practice. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 25, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Rhonda K. Yantiss Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Vascular Tumors of Bone
The classification of vascular tumors of bone has been under debate over time. Vascular tumors in bone are rare, display highly overlapping morphology, and, therefore, are considered difficult by pathologists. Compared with their soft tissue counterparts, they are more often multifocal and sometimes behave more aggressively. Over the past decade, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, recurrent molecular alterations have been found in some of the entities. The integration of morphology and molecular changes has led to a better characterization of these separate entities. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: David G.P. van IJzendoorn, Judith V.M.G. Bov ée Source Type: research

Integrating Morphology and Genetics in the Diagnosis of Cartilage Tumors
Cartilage-forming tumors of bone are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different molecular mechanisms involved. Enchondromas are benign hyaline cartilage –forming tumors of medullary bone caused by mutations in IDH1 or IDH2. Osteochondromas are benign cartilage-capped bony projections at the surface of bone. IDH mutations are also found in dedifferentiated and periosteal chondrosarcoma. A recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 fusion characterizes mesenchymal chon drosarcoma. Molecular changes are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy in chondrosarcomas. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Carlos E. de Andrea, Mikel San-Julian, Judith V.M.G. Bov ée Source Type: research

Tumor Syndromes That Include Bone Tumors
Tumor syndromes, including bone neoplasias, are genetic predisposing conditions characterized by the development of a pattern of malignancies within a family at an early age of onset. Occurrence of bilateral, multifocal, or metachronous neoplasias and specific histopathologic findings suggest a genetic predisposition syndrome. Additional clinical features not related to the neoplasia can be a hallmark of specific genetic syndromes. Mostly, those diseases have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with variable percentage of penetrance. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Maria Gnoli, Francesca Ponti, Luca Sangiorgi Source Type: research

Conditions Simulating Primary Bone Neoplasms
This article considers a spectrum of reactive and nonreactive processes including stress fracture, subchondral cysts, osteonecrosis, heterotopic ossification, osteomyelitis, sarcoidosis, and amyloidoma that can present in such a way that they are mistaken for a tumor arising primary in bone. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Jodi M. Carter, Benjamin Matthew Howe, Carrie Y. Inwards Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Bone Tumors: What Have We Learned and How Does It Affect Daily Practice?
Bone tumors are often found to be difficult by pathologists, because they are rare, and in total, almost 60 entities are recognized with considerable morphologic overlap. Similar to the classification of soft tissue tumors, the World Health Organization 2013 recognizes different categories: benign (n = 20), intermediate locally aggressive or rarely metastasizing (n = 10), and malignant (n = 28), and as such, the different bone tumor entities differ widely in treatment and outcome. In contrast to soft tissue tumors, immunohistochemistry is often of limited value, although in recent years some novel immunohistochemical marke...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Judith V.M.G. Bov ée Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Bone Tumor Pathology
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Judith V.M.G. Bov ée Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
Judith V.M.G. Bov ée (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Gastrointestinal Pathology: Common Questions and Diagnostic Dilemmas (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Bone-Forming Tumors
Bone-forming tumors are defined by neoplastic cells that differentiate along the lines of osteoblasts that deposit woven bone. The morphology and biological spectrum of bone-forming tumors is broad and their accurate diagnosis requires the careful correlation of their clinical, morphologic, and radiological characteristics. Immunohistochemical and molecular analyses have an important role in select instances. At present, the identification of neoplastic bone largely depends on histologic analysis, which can be subjective. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - June 29, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Yaxia Zhang, Andrew E. Rosenberg Source Type: research

Notochordal Tumors
Recent molecular investigations of chordoma show common expression of various receptor tyrosine kinases and activation of downstream signaling pathways contributing to tumor growth and progression. The transcription factor brachyury (also known as T) is important in notochord differentiation and germline duplication of the gene is often found in familial chordomas. Nuclear expression of brachyury is consistent in chordoma and in benign notochordal cell tumor. Based on the molecular evidence, targeting of several kinds of molecular agents has been attempted for the treatment of uncontrolled chordomas and achieved partial re...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - June 29, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Takehiko Yamaguchi, Hiroki Imada, Shun Iida, Karoly Szuhai Source Type: research

Myoepithelial Tumors of Bone
Myoepithelial tumors (METs) of bone (BMETs) are a rare but distinct tumor entity. METs that are cytologically benign are termed myoepitheliomas; METs with malignant histologic features are called myoepithelial carcinomas. BMETs have a wide age range, may involve any part of the skeleton, and have a variable spindle cell and epithelioid morphology. Bone tumors to be considered in the differential diagnosis are discussed. Additional techniques are indispensable to correctly diagnose BMETs. By IHC, BMETs often express cytokeratins and/or EMA together with S100, GFAP, or calponin. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - June 29, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Wangzhao Song, Uta Flucke, Albert J.H. Suurmeijer Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Tumors Rarely Presenting Primary in Bone; Diagnostic Pitfalls
Primary bone sarcomas represent extremely rare entities. The use of now abolished labels, such as malignant fibrous histiocytoma and hemangiopericytoma, has significantly hampered the chance of identifying specific entities. It is now accepted that a broad variety of mesenchymal malignancies most often arising on the soft tissue may actually present as primary bone lesions. A more accurate morphologic partition is justified based on availability of distinct therapeutic options. An integrated diagnostic approach represents the only way to achieve a correct classification. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - June 29, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Marta Sbaraglia, Alberto Righi, Marco Gambarotti, Daniel Vanel, Piero Picci, Angelo P. Dei Tos Source Type: research