Approaches to Biopsy and Resection Specimens from the Ampulla
The ampulla of Vater gives rise to a versatile group of cancers of mixed/hybrid histologic phenotype. Ampullary carcinomas (ACs) are most frequently intestinal or pancreatobiliary adenocarcinomas but other subtypes, such as medullary, mucinous, or signet ring/poorly cohesive cell carcinoma, may be encountered. Ampullary cancer can also be subclassified based on immunohistochemical features, however these classification systems fail to show robust prognostic reliability. More recently, the molecular landscape of AC has been uncovered, and has been shown to have prognostic and predictive significance. In this article, the si...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 15, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Yue Xue, Michelle D. Reid Source Type: research

Diagnoses and Difficulties in Mesenteric Pathology
Mesenteric diseases are broadly separated into 2 groups: non-neoplastic and neoplastic. Common non-neoplastic mesenteric diseases include those involving the mesenteric vasculature and those of inflammatory processes. Mesenteric inflammatory processes can mimic a neoplastic process. Neoplastic diseases of the mesentery are rare. Generally, the morphology, behavior and diagnostic criteria for mesenteric tumors are similar to their soft tissue or organ-specific counterparts. Their recognition can be challenging because they sometimes are overlooked in differential diagnoses. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 15, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Nooshin K. Dashti, Chanjuan Shi Source Type: research

Upper Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical significance of esophagitis, gastritis, and duodenitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Noam Harpaz, Alexandros D. Polydorides Source Type: research

Updates and Challenges in Gastrointestinal Pathology
Gastrointestinal pathology accounts for a large portion of the specimens encountered in most surgical pathology departments. There are several reasons for this, including the wide availability of colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy and the high incidence of gastrointestinal carcinomas. Many of these cases can be fairly straightforward and present little challenge to most practicing pathologists. However, the larger a case volume, the more likely a pathologist is to encounter a challenging case, meaning that one day ’s stack of gastrointestinal pathology specimens can throw several curveballs. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Raul S. Gonzalez Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Daily Dilemmas in Pediatric Gastrointestinal Pathology
The evaluation of gastrointestinal pathology in children often requires a different approach from that in adults. In this concise review, the authors outline 3 diagnostic challenges that are often encountered in daily practice; these include eosinophilic diseases, duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis with preserved villous architecture, and terminal ileal inflammation in the setting of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Juan Putra, Jeffrey D. Goldsmith Source Type: research

Gastric Epithelial Polyps
This review provides an overview of different types of gastric epithelial polyps. The polyps are classified based on their cell or epithelial compartment of origin. Some of these polyps can be considered reactive or nonneoplastic, whereas others are neoplastic in origin, are sometimes associated with a hereditary polyposis/cancer syndrome, and may have malignant potential. The aim of this review is to provide a pragmatic overview for the practicing pathologist about how to correctly diagnose and deal with gastric epithelial polyps and when (not) to ponder, and when (not) to panic. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Shoko Vos, Rachel S. van der Post, Lodewijk A.A. Brosens Source Type: research

Updates in Appendix Pathology
Mucinous appendiceal tumors include low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Nonmucinous adenocarcinomas are less frequent. Recent consensus guidelines and the latest edition of the World Health Organization classification will allow consistent use of agreed nomenclature. Accurate diagnosis is important not only for patient management but also to allow comparison of results between centers and tumor registries. Serrated polyps are the most common benign polyp in the appendix. They need to be distinguished from low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, wh...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Norman J. Carr Source Type: research

HER2 in Colorectal Carcinoma
HER2 (ERBB2) is a member of the ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases and functions to drive signaling in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Overall, approximately 2-3% of CRCs exhibit ERBB2 amplification. Multiple phase II clinical trials have now shown that ERBB2 amplification can be predictive of response to anti-ERBB2 targeted therapy. Consequently, recently released guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend treatment with anti-ERBB2 targeted therapy for RAS wild-type, ERBB2-amplified metastatic CRC. While circumspection is still needed, ERBB2 amplification has now emerged as t...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jonathan A. Nowak Source Type: research

Advances and Annoyances in Anus Pathology
This article provides a broad overview of anal disorders and highlights specific issues that may hinder diagnosis. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Angela R. Shih, Lawrence Zukerberg Source Type: research

Histology of Colorectal Carcinoma
This article summarizes the evidence supporting the prognostic values of various histologic parameters evaluated by pathologists who assign pathologic stage to colorectal cancers. Criteria to be discussed include histologic subtype, tumor grade, lymphatic and perineural invasion, tumor budding, and host immune responses. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Melanie Johncilla, Rhonda K. Yantiss Source Type: research

Molecular Advances in Central Nervous System Mesenchymal Tumors
Mesenchymal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) comprise an array of neoplasms that may arise from or secondarily affect the CNS and its immediate surroundings. This review focuses on meningiomas and solitary fibrous tumors, the most common primary CNS mesenchymal tumors, and discusses recent advances in unveiling the molecular landscapes of these neoplasms. An effort is made to underscore those molecular findings most relevant to tumor diagnostics and prognostication from a practical perspective. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jeffrey Helgager, Joseph Driver, Samantha Hoffman, Wenya Linda Bi Source Type: research

Update on Circumscribed Gliomas and Glioneuronal Tumors
Well-circumscribed intra-axial CNS tumors encompass a wide variety of gliomas and glioneuronal tumors, usually corresponding to WHO grades I and II. Nonetheless, sometimes high-grade ‘diffuse’ gliomas such as gliosarcoma and giant cell glioblastoma can be relatively circumscribed but are often found to have foci of diffuse infiltration on careful examination, harboring distinct molecular alterations. These tumors are excluded from the discussion in this chapter with the curr ent review emphasizing on lower-grade entities to include a brief description of their histology and associated molecular findings. Like e...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jie Chen, Sonika M. Dahiya Source Type: research

An Update on Pediatric Gliomas
This article provides an update on the histologic and molecular features with prognostic and/or therapeutic implications in pediatric gliomas. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jared Ahrendsen, Sanda Alexandrescu Source Type: research

Sellar Tumors
Sellar region lesions include a broad range of benign and malignant neoplastic as well as non-neoplastic entities, many of which are newly described or have recently revised nomenclature. In contrast to other intracranial sites, imaging features are relatively less specific, and the need for histopathological diagnosis is of paramount importance. This review will describe pituitary adenomas, inflammatory lesions, and tumors unique to the region (craniopharyngioma) as well as tumors which may occur in but are not exclusively localized to the sellar location (schwannoma, metastasis, etc.). (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Katherine E. Schwetye, Sonika M. Dahiya Source Type: research

From Banding to BAM Files
Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) have been historically classified according to their morphologic and immunohistochemical features. In 2016, updates to the classification of tumors of the CNS by the World Health Organization revolutionized this paradigm. For the first time, genomic findings, whether whole-arm chromosomal aberrations or single nucleotide variants, represent a necessary and critical component of diagnosis, contributing or superseding histologic findings. These updates stem from decades of technical innovation and genomic discovery. During this time, there has been a dramatic expansion and evolution...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Adrian M. Dubuc Source Type: research

Current Trends in Neuropathology
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: David M. Meredith Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
David M. Meredith (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Gastrointestinal Pathology (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Embryonal Tumors of the Central Nervous System
Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare, high-grade neoplasms predominantly affecting the pediatric population. Well-defined embryonal tumors include medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered and embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, not otherwise specified, pineoblastoma, pituitary blastoma, CNS neuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroblastoma. Although their prognosis is nearly uniformly poor, the rapidly evolving understanding of their molecular biology contributes to diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and clinical trial participation. K...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 7, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Melissa M. Blessing, Sanda Alexandrescu Source Type: research

Iatrogenic Neuropathology of Systemic Therapies
We describe the clinicopathologic features and putative mechanisms underlying iatrogenic neuropathology of the central nervous system secondary to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and conventional chemotherapy. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 7, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Matthew Torre, Mel B. Feany Source Type: research

Molecular Diagnostics in Lymphoid Neoplasms of the Central Nervous System
Primary lymphoid neoplasms of the central nervous system are rare tumors that span a wide range of histopathologic appearances and can overlap occasionally with non-neoplastic processes. Application of modern molecular techniques has not only begun to unravel their unique underlying biology but has also started to lay a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic framework for these frequently aggressive malignancies. This review summarizes the existing landscape of clinicopathologic and genomic features of lymphoid neoplasms that may arise primarily within the central nervous system. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 7, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: David M. Meredith Source Type: research

Genomic Biomarker Assessment in Gliomas
Recent discoveries elucidating the genetic underpinnings of glial neoplasms have revealed myriad recurrent alterations that have clinical value by improving accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, this wealth of genomic information provides the basis for targeted therapies and the subsequent design of biomarker-based clinical trials. This review summarizes the current landscape of clinically relevant molecular alterations in gliomas and describes the role of routine molecular testing in context of treatment planning for standards of care and clinical trials. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 7, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Mary-Jane Lim-Fat, Lakshmi Nayak, David M. Meredith Source Type: research

Current Trends in Neuropathology
The field of neuropathology has rapidly evolved over the past decade, largely due to the wealth of information generated by modern molecular technologies. The discovery of characteristic genomic alterations for a wide spectrum of neoplasms arising within the central nervous system has revolutionized the diagnostic approach to tumor classification, leading to the incorporation of widespread molecular definitions in the recent 2016 World Health Organization update. As our knowledge of tumor biology continues to grow, so will our need to carefully integrate new findings with traditional histopathologic evaluation. (Source: Su...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 7, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: David M. Meredith Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Molecular and Histologic Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Infections
Infections of the central nervous system cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. A wide variety of microorganisms can cause infections, including bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Although less invasive testing is preferred, surgical biopsy may be necessary to collect diagnostic tissue. Histologic findings, including special stains and immunohistochemistry, can provide a morphologic diagnosis in many cases, which can be further classified by molecular testing. Correlation of molecular, culture, and other laboratory results with histologic findings...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - March 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Isaac H. Solomon Source Type: research

Unsupervised Machine Learning in Pathology
Applications of artificial intelligence and particularly deep learning to aid pathologists in carrying out laborious and qualitative tasks in histopathologic image analysis have now become ubiquitous. We introduce and illustrate how unsupervised machine learning workflows can be deployed in existing pathology workflows to begin learning autonomously through exploration and without the need for extensive direction. Although still in its infancy, this type of machine learning, which more closely mirrors human intelligence, stands to add another exciting layer of innovation to computational pathology and accelerate the transi...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - March 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Adil Roohi, Kevin Faust, Ugljesa Djuric, Phedias Diamandis Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Lung Carcinoma on Small Biopsy
Given the growing desire in clinical practice to detect lung carcinoma early, small biopsies are becoming more common and vital to the diagnostic process. Accurately diagnosing lung carcinoma on small biopsies is challenging but can significantly affect patient management. The challenge is due in part to the overlapping features between benign, reactive, and malignant processes and the lack of discriminating biomarkers. Specimen preservation for ancillary tests is also increasingly important to provide targeted precision medicine. We focuses on the morphologic features and diagnostic pitfalls of the most common lung carcin...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jian Jing, Kristine E. Konopka Source Type: research

Targeted Therapy and Checkpoint Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer
This article discusses the molecular characteristics of the main lung cancer subtypes and discusses the current guidelines and novel targeted therapies, including checkpoint immunotherapy. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Roberto Ruiz-Cordero, Walter Patrick Devine Source Type: research

Lung Transplant Pathology
Alloimmune reactions are, besides various infections, the major cause for impaired lung allograft function following transplant. Acute cellular rejection is not only a major trigger of acute allograft failure but also contributes to development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Analogous to other solid organ transplants, acute antibody-mediated rejection has become a recognized entity in lung transplant pathology. Adequate sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of alloimmune reactions in the lung can only be achieved by synoptic analysis of histopathologic, clinical, and radiological findings together with serol...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Christopher Werlein, Allison Seidel, Gregor Warnecke, Jens Gottlieb, Florian Laenger, Danny Jonigk Source Type: research

Transbronchial Cryobiopsy in the Diagnosis of Diffuse Lung Disease
Transbronchial cryobiopsy, a new diagnostic procedure in patients with diffuse lung disease, provides larger and better-preserved lung specimens compared to forceps biopsy. The diagnostic yield of cryobiopsy is much better than that of forceps biopsy and slightly lower than that of surgical lung biopsy, but with a lower complication rate compared to the latter. Literature suggests that in the multidisciplinary approach to patients with diffuse lung disease cryobiopsy provides diagnostic and prognostic information similar to surgical lung biopsy. Cryobiopsy can also be performed in some patients unsuitable for surgical biop...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Alberto Cavazza, Thomas V. Colby, Alessandra Dubini, Sara Tomassetti, Claudia Ravaglia, Venerino Poletti, Maria Cecilia Mengoli, Elena Tagliavini, Giulio Rossi Source Type: research

Connective Tissue Disease Related Interstitial Lung Disease
Patients with connective tissue diseases may have pulmonary involvement, including interstitial lung disease. Various patterns of interstitial lung disease have been classically described in certain connective tissue diseases. It is now recognized that there is significant overlap between patterns of interstitial lung disease observed in the various connective tissue diseases. Differentiating idiopathic from connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease is challenging but of clinical importance. New concepts in the diagnosis of connective tissue disease related interstitial lung disease may prove useful in ma...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jefree J. Schulte, Aliya N. Husain Source Type: research

Pulmonary Cystic Disease and Its Mimics
This article provides a review of cystic lung disease and its gross and histologic mimics. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Kirk D. Jones Source Type: research

Pulmonary Pathology
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Kirk D. Jones Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
Kirk D. Jones (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Current Trends in Neuropathology (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 29, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias
This article discusses fundamental anatomy and approach to interstitial pneumonia. In addition, most histologic types of IIPs are covered, but the focus is on diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia because of its clinical importance. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Yoshiaki Zaizen, Junya Fukuoka Source Type: research

Pulmonary Pathology: Providing Practical Answers for Busy Pathologists
There have been several developments in the decade since the last pulmonary-centered issue of Surgical Pathology Clinics: new molecular testing methods, a new cancer staging system, new diagnostic entities, and new diagnostic modalities. Many pathologists find the lung interesting, but often lack the volume of cases to feel comfortable when confronted with pulmonary pathology. In assembling this issue of Surgical Pathology Clinics, I have tried to consider which questions I have been asked in my daily consultation practice. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 24, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kirk D. Jones Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Lung Cancer Staging
Lung cancer staging is a foundation of patient care, informing management decisions and prognosis. This comprehensive overview of the current 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Staging Manual addresses common difficulties in staging, such as measuring the invasive component of adenocarcinomas and staging multiple lung nodules. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Leila Kutob, Frank Schneider Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Mesothelioma
This article highlights what the pathologist needs to know regarding the clinical and radiographic presentation of mesothelioma, histologic features including subtypes and variants, and recent advances in immunohistochemical markers and molecular testing. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 3, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Daffolyn Rachael Fels Elliott, Kirk D. Jones Source Type: research

Small Airway Disease
Three major histologic patterns of bronchiolitis: obliterative bronchiolitis, follicular bronchiolitis, and diffuse panbronchiolitis, are reviewed in detail. These distinct patterns of primary bronchiolar injury provide a useful starting point for formulating a differential diagnosis and considering possible causes. In support of the aim toward a cause-based classification system of small airway disease, a simple diagnostic algorithm is provided for further subclassification of the above 3 bronchiolitis patterns according to the major associated etiologic subgroups. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 30, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Anatoly Urisman, Kirk D. Jones Source Type: research

Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors
Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors represent a morphologic spectrum of tumors from the well-differentiated typical carcinoid tumor, to the intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid tumor, to the high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas composed of small-cell carcinoma and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The addition of immunohistochemistry in diagnostics is helpful and often essential, especially in the classification of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The importance of the intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid group is underscored by the impact of this diagnosis on therapy. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Alain C. Borczuk Source Type: research

Pitfalls in Thyroid Cytopathology
This article discusses several of the potential pitfalls in the cytologic evaluation of thyr oid lesions. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Esther Diana Rossi, Adebowale J. Adeniran, William C. Faquin Source Type: research

Treatment of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer
Although thyroid cancer generally has a good prognosis, there is a subset of patients for whom standard care (ie, treatment limited to surgery or surgery plus radioactive iodine) is either not appropriate because of the aggressive nature of their disease or not sufficient because of disease progression through standard treatment. Most of these tumors are in 3 groups: radioactive iodine –refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma including poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and progressive medullary thyroid carcinoma. Major classes of treatments in clinical development for these agg...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Julian Huang, Ethan James Harris, Jochen H. Lorch Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Pancreas
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and pancreas are a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms characterized by common cellular features as well as unique site-specific traits. GI and pancreatic NENs are much rarer than the more common adenocarcinomas arising at these sites. However, the incidences of GI and pancreatic NENs have increased significantly, particularly in the stomach and common site, followed by rectum, appendix, colon, and stomach. Pancreatic NENs are also uncommon, with fewer than 1 per 100,000, accounting for 1% to 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Natalie Patel, Andrea Barbieri, Joanna Gibson Source Type: research

Thyroid Tumors You Don ’t Want to Miss
This article examines more uncommon thyroid entities, including anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, rare papillary thyroid carcinoma variants, medullary thyroid carcinoma, non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), and multiple adenomatous nodules in the setting of Cowden syndrome. These entities were chosen based on their clinical significance and because they can be diagnostically challenging due to their morphologic diversity and overlap with other thyroid tumors. This article addresses the diagnostic features of each entity, focusing on how ...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kristine S. Wong, Justine A. Barletta Source Type: research

Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a group of biologically and clinically heterogeneous neoplasms arising from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Although NETs may develop in almost any organ, they commonly arise in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas and are referred to as gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs when they arise from these sites. In recent years, advances in understanding of the biology of NETs have resulted in an expansion in treatment options and improved survival for patients. This review focuses on treatment of GEP-NETS and highlights factors that govern the therapeutic approach. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kimberly Perez, Jennifer Chan Source Type: research

Endocrine Pathology
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Justine A. Barletta Source Type: research