Intraductal Carcinomas of the Salivary Gland
Intraductal carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare tumor characterized by intracystic proliferations of papillary, cribriform, and solid architecture of small uniform epithelial cells, reminiscent of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Recent literature has identified 4 distinctive subtypes: the intercalated duct type, apocrine type, mixed/hybrid type, and oncocytic type, all with corresponding immunohistochemical and molecular findings. Although these tumors are typically in situ, as evidenced by a retained myoepithelial layer, they can demonstrate minimal invasion or, rarely, widespread invasive growth. Their over...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Emilija Todorovic, Ilan Weinreb Source Type: research

Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma
Basal cell adenoma (BCA) and basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) are uncommon biphasic salivary gland tumors having morphologic similarities to other biphasic salivary gland neoplasms having differentiation toward the intercalated ducts of the salivary gland. Both tumors show mixtures of trabecular, tubular, solid, and membranous solid patterns. BCAC is separated from BCA primarily by the presence of invasion in the former. The diagnosis of BCA and BCAC is best carried out with hematoxylin and eosin –stained sections and careful attention to detail of tumors in the differential diagnosis, including adenoid cystic carcin...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Robert A. Robinson Source Type: research

Sialadenoma Papilliferum
Sialadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare, benign salivary gland neoplasm sharing similar histopathologic features and harboring the same genetic alterations, BRAF V600E or HRAS mutations, with syringocystadenoma papilliferum. SP most commonly occurs in the hard palate and in older adults. Clinically, SP is most likely to be diagnosed as a squamous papilloma. Microscopically, SP shows an exophytic papillary epithelial proliferation and a contiguously endophytic ductal proliferation. Two distinct subtypes are identified: classic SP and oncocytic SP. Conservative surgical treatment seems to be adequate with a low recurrence. S...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Min-Shu Hsieh, Justin A. Bishop, Julia Yu Fong Chang Source Type: research

Myoepithelial Carcinoma
Myoepithelial carcinoma (MECA) may overlap histologically with other salivary gland neoplasms, especially pleomorphic adenoma. MECA is characterized by cellular, uniform growth of myoepithelial cells and multinodular expansile invasive pattern with zonal cellular distribution. It may arise de novo or in association with pleomorphic adenoma (myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma). By immunohistochemistry, MECA is positive for cytokeratins and at least one of the myoepithelial markers, including S100. PLAG1 fusion is the most common genetic alteration. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and necrosis correlate with wor...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Bin Xu, Nora Katabi Source Type: research

Salivary Duct Carcinoma
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare, aggressive salivary gland malignancy with significant mortality. Morphologically, most tumors are characterized by apocrine differentiation with a typical immunophenotype of androgen receptor positive/gross cystic disease fluid protein positive/estrogen receptor negative/progesterone receptor negative. Several morphologic variants of SDC exist, representing diagnostic pitfalls. Several differential diagnoses should be considered because prognosis, treatment, and management may be different from SDC. For SDC, current treatment strategies are aggressive and commonly include surgical e...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Mobeen Rahman, Christopher C. Griffith Source Type: research

Polymorphous Adenocarcinoma
Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) is typically originated from the minor salivary glands and is characterized by cytology uniformity and architectural diversity. PAC commonly harbors PRKD1 E710D mutation. PAC has an excellent prognosis. However, greater than or equal to 10% papillary or greater than or equal to 30% cribriform pattern is an independent adverse prognostic factor. Cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland (CASG) is a controversial entity that is considered within the same histologic spectrum of PAC in current classification schemes; however, it is regarded by some pathologists as a separate entity. CASG sho...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Nora Katabi, Bin Xu Source Type: research

Genomic Analysis of Salivary Gland Cancer and Treatment of Salivary Gland Cancers
Salivary gland cancer is a heterogenous group of tumors that presents challenges with both diagnosis and therapy. Recent advances in the classification of salivary gland cancers have led to distinct histologic and genomic criteria that successfully differentiate between cancers with similar clinical behavior and appearance. Genomic abnormalities have led to the emergence of targeted therapies being used in their therapy with drastic improvements in outcomes as well as reductions in treatment-related toxicity. Dramatic results seen with molecular targets, such as HER2, TRK, and others, indicate that this approach has the po...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Doreen Palsgrove, Sameer Allahabadi, Saad A. Khan Source Type: research

Epithelial –Myoepithelial Carcinoma
Epithelial –myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon low-grade salivary gland carcinoma. It is classically characterized by biphasic tubular structures composed of inner eosinophilic ductal cells and outer clear myoepithelial cells. In addition, epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma sometimes shows various hist ologic features, including a cribriform pattern, basaloid appearance, and sebaceous differentiation. Because clear myoepithelial cells are also noted in other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, the histologic variety and similarity with other tumor entities make the diagnosis of epithelial– myo...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Masato Nakaguro, Toshitaka Nagao Source Type: research

Papillary Neoplasms of the Salivary Duct System
This article discusses those papillary proliferations encountered in the salivary glands with a focus on intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and cystadenomas. Intraductal carcinomas and sialadenoma papilliferum are addressed in separate articles in this issue. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Abbas Agaimy Source Type: research

Wilms Tumor
Wilms tumor is the most common renal tumor of childhood. It is a biologically and morphologically diverse entity, with ongoing studies contributing to our understanding of the pathobiology of various subgroups of patients with Wilms tumor. The interplay of histologic examination and molecular interrogation is integral in prognostication and direction of therapy. This review provides an overview of some of the challenging aspects and pitfalls in pathologic assessment of Wilms tumor, along with discussion of current and up-and-coming markers of biological behavior with prognostic significance. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Lauren N. Parsons Source Type: research

Newcomers in Vascular Anomalies
This article reviews the pathologic and molecular genetic characteristics for select recently described vascular anomalies. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Alyaa Al-Ibraheemi Source Type: research

Pediatric and Infantile Fibroblastic/Myofibroblastic Tumors in the Molecular Era
This article is focused on using clinical and pathologic clues in conjunction with the increasingly relevant and available molecular techniques to classify, predict prognosis, and/or guide treatment in these tumors. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jessica L. Davis, Erin R. Rudzinski Source Type: research

Strategies for the Neonatal Lung Biopsy
This article describes pathologic patterns in the neonatal lung and correlation with molecular abnormalities, where appropriate. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jill Lipsett, Megan K. Dishop Source Type: research

Pediatric Liver Tumors
Malignant primary liver tumors are rare in children. Yet a wide histologic spectrum is seen, particularly in hepatoblastoma, the most common malignant liver tumor in children. Furthermore, there can be significant morphologic overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma, the second most common pediatric liver malignancy, and tumors with hybrid features of hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma are also reported (currently placed in the provisional category of malignant hepatocellular neoplasm, not otherwise specified). This review provides detailed morphologic descriptions and updates in the evolving clinical context of thes...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Soo-Jin Cho Source Type: research

Challenges & Updates in Pediatric Pathology
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jessica L. Davis Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
Jessica L. Davis (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Head and Neck Pathology (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Advances and Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Hirschsprung Disease
This article reviews pathologic features of HSCR, considers various specimens the pathologist is required to evaluate, and discusses useful ancillary tests. Potential diagnostic pitfalls are highlighted, and helpful hints are provided to successfully navigate challenging situations. Finally, the article looks forward to new ancillary tests on the horizon and future topics for HSCR research. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Samuel Hwang, Raj P. Kapur Source Type: research

Pediatric Cystic Lung Lesions
Pediatric cystic lung lesions have long been a source of confusion for clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists. They encompass a wide spectrum of entities with variable prognostic implications, including congenital lung malformations, pulmonary neoplasms, and hereditary conditions. As our understanding of the developmental and genetic origins of these conditions has evolved, revised nomenclature and classifications have emerged in an attempt to bring clarity to the origin of these lesions and guide clinical management. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Nahir Cortes-Santiago, Gail H. Deutsch Source Type: research

Updates in Pediatric Congenital Enteropathies
Congenital enteropathies comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders typically resulting in severe diarrhea and intestinal failure. Recent advances in and more widespread application of genetic testing have allowed more accurate diagnosis of these entities as well as identification of new disorders, provided a deeper understanding of intestinal pathophysiology through genotype-phenotype correlations, and permitted the exploration of more specific therapies to diseases that have heretofore been resistant to conventional treatments. The therapeutic armamentarium for these disorders now includes intestinal and hematopoietic s...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Pierre Russo Source Type: research

New Prognostic Indicators in Pediatric Adrenal Tumors
Pediatric adrenal tumors are unique entities with specific diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic challenges. The adrenal medulla gives rise to peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs), pathologically defined by their architecture, stromal content, degree of differentiation, and mitotic-karyorrhectic index. Successful risk stratification of pNTs uses patient age, stage, tumor histology, and molecular/genetic aberrations. The adrenal cortex gives rise to adrenocortical tumors (ACTs), which present diagnostic and prognostic challenges. Histologic features that signify poor prognosis in adults can be meaningless in children, wh...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jason A. Jarzembowski Source Type: research

Pediatric Renal Tumors
Molecular characterization has led to advances in the understanding of pediatric renal tumors, including the association of pediatric cystic nephromas with DICER1 tumor syndrome, the metanephric family of tumors with somatic BRAF mutations, the characterization of ETV6-NTRK3 –negative congenital mesoblastic nephromas, the expanded spectrum of gene fusions in translocation renal cell carcinoma, the relationship of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney with other BCOR-altered tumors, and the pathways affected by SMARCB1 alterations in rhabdoid tumors of the kidney. These adv ances have implications for diagnosis, classifica...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Amy L. Treece Source Type: research

Round Cell Sarcomas
Undifferentiated sarcomas of soft tissue and bone have been defined as tumors with no identifiable morphologic, immunohistochemical, or molecular features indicating tumor cell origin. In young patients, these tumors frequently have a round or spindle cell morphology. Recently described recurrent translocations within this category have led to the recognition of new molecular subtypes of round cell sarcomas, and several of them have a more aggressive clinical course and less chemosensitivity. Because these “newcomers” are diagnosed based on their molecular characteristics, molecular investigation is key in the ...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Anita Nagy, Gino R. Somers Source Type: research

Histopathologic and Molecular Features of Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors for Integrated Diagnosis Reporting
Embryonal tumors of the pediatric central nervous system are challenging clinically and diagnostically. These tumors are aggressive, and patients often have poor outcomes even with intense therapy. Proper tumor classification is essential to patient care, and this process has undergone significant changes with the World Health Organization recommending histopathologic and molecular features be integrated in diagnostic reporting. This has especially impacted the workup of embryonal tumors because molecular testing has resulted in the identification of clinically relevant tumor subgroups and new entities. This review summari...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Bonnie L. Cole, Christopher R. Pierson Source Type: research

Updates in Pediatric Glioma Pathology
Gliomas are a diverse group of primary central nervous system tumors with astrocytic, oligodendroglial, and/or ependymal features and are an important cause of morbidity/mortality in pediatric patients. Glioma classification relies on integrating tumor histology with key molecular alterations. This approach can help establish a diagnosis, guide treatment, and determine prognosis. New categories of pediatric glioma have been recognized in recent years, due to increasing application of molecular profiling in brain tumors. The aim of this review is to alert pediatric pathologists to emerging diagnostic concepts in pediatric g...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Melanie H. Hakar, Matthew D. Wood Source Type: research

Challenges in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Spindle Cell/Sclerosing Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma, representing approximately 40% of all pediatric soft tissue sarcomas. The spindle cell/sclerosing subtype of RMS (SSRMS) accounts for roughly 5% to 10% of all cases of adult and pediatric RMS. Historically, SSRMS were described as paratesticular tumors with an excellent outcome. However, more recent studies have identified unique molecular subgroups of SSRMS, including those with MYOD1 mutations or VGLL2/NCOA2 fusions, which have widely disparate outcomes. The goal of this article is to better describe the biological heterogeneity of SSRMS, which may ...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Sonja Chen, Erin R. Rudzinski, Michael A. Arnold Source Type: research

Preface
Pediatric pathology is a distinct and challenging field, encountering a diversity of pathologic conditions, including developmental anomalies, metabolic diseases, malformations, and a set of neoplasms uniquely germane to infants and children. Recent genetic/molecular discoveries have accelerated our knowledge of developmental biology and pediatric pathology. New advancements encompass, but are not limited to, the clinicopathologic and genetic bases of pediatric enteropathies (Updates in Pediatric Enteropathies: Differential Diagnosis, Testing, and Genetics by Pierre Russo), recently described vascular anomalies with recurr...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jessica L. Davis Source Type: research

Grossing of Gastrointestinal Specimens
The proper handling of the gross specimen is imperative, as it is the most important first step in providing excellent patient care. Our diagnoses depend on the correct description and submission of tissue sections for histologic analysis. A logical and problem-solving approach to handling the gross specimen is presented. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Emma Elizabeth Furth Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
The latest WHO classification cleanly divides gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms into neuroendocrine tumor (NET; well-differentiated, any grade) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC; poorly differentiated, high-grade by definition), along with mixed neuroendocrine –non-neuroendocrine neoplasms. NECs are always aggressive, with multiple mutations; they are treated with chemotherapy. NETs have widely different presentations, behavior, and management depending on site of origin. Esophageal examples are vanishingly rare. Most gastric and appendiceal tumors are indolent, as are many colonic and rectal tumors. The duod...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Raul S. Gonzalez Source Type: research

Impact of Subspecialty Sign-Out on Interobserver Variability and Accuracy in Gastrointestinal Pathology
Subspecialty sign-out is increasingly common in academic medical centers as well as some community practices. Reducing interobserver variability in anatomic pathology is desirable so that clinicians can select the appropriate therapy. Many departments that elect subspecialty sign-out do so with the assumption that it will improve diagnostic accuracy and interobserver variability —but does it? The literature is mixed. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Christa L. Whitney-Miller Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Pathology
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Raul S. Gonzalez Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
Raul S. Gonzalez (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Challenges and Updates in Pediatric Pathology (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Approaches to Biopsy and Resection Specimens from the Ampulla
The ampulla of Vater gives rise to a versatile group of cancers of mixed/hybrid histologic phenotype. Ampullary carcinomas (ACs) are most frequently intestinal or pancreatobiliary adenocarcinomas but other subtypes, such as medullary, mucinous, or signet ring/poorly cohesive cell carcinoma, may be encountered. Ampullary cancer can also be subclassified based on immunohistochemical features, however these classification systems fail to show robust prognostic reliability. More recently, the molecular landscape of AC has been uncovered, and has been shown to have prognostic and predictive significance. In this article, the si...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Yue Xue, Michelle D. Reid Source Type: research

Diagnoses and Difficulties in Mesenteric Pathology
Mesenteric diseases are broadly separated into 2 groups: non-neoplastic and neoplastic. Common non-neoplastic mesenteric diseases include those involving the mesenteric vasculature and those of inflammatory processes. Mesenteric inflammatory processes can mimic a neoplastic process. Neoplastic diseases of the mesentery are rare. Generally, the morphology, behavior and diagnostic criteria for mesenteric tumors are similar to their soft tissue or organ-specific counterparts. Their recognition can be challenging because they sometimes are overlooked in differential diagnoses. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Nooshin K. Dashti, Chanjuan Shi Source Type: research

Upper Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
This article reviews the pathologic features and clinical significance of esophagitis, gastritis, and duodenitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Noam Harpaz, Alexandros D. Polydorides Source Type: research

Updates and Challenges in Gastrointestinal Pathology
Gastrointestinal pathology accounts for a large portion of the specimens encountered in most surgical pathology departments. There are several reasons for this, including the wide availability of colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy and the high incidence of gastrointestinal carcinomas. Many of these cases can be fairly straightforward and present little challenge to most practicing pathologists. However, the larger a case volume, the more likely a pathologist is to encounter a challenging case, meaning that one day ’s stack of gastrointestinal pathology specimens can throw several curveballs. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Raul S. Gonzalez Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Daily Dilemmas in Pediatric Gastrointestinal Pathology
The evaluation of gastrointestinal pathology in children often requires a different approach from that in adults. In this concise review, the authors outline 3 diagnostic challenges that are often encountered in daily practice; these include eosinophilic diseases, duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytosis with preserved villous architecture, and terminal ileal inflammation in the setting of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Juan Putra, Jeffrey D. Goldsmith Source Type: research

Gastric Epithelial Polyps
This review provides an overview of different types of gastric epithelial polyps. The polyps are classified based on their cell or epithelial compartment of origin. Some of these polyps can be considered reactive or nonneoplastic, whereas others are neoplastic in origin, are sometimes associated with a hereditary polyposis/cancer syndrome, and may have malignant potential. The aim of this review is to provide a pragmatic overview for the practicing pathologist about how to correctly diagnose and deal with gastric epithelial polyps and when (not) to ponder, and when (not) to panic. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Shoko Vos, Rachel S. van der Post, Lodewijk A.A. Brosens Source Type: research

Updates in Appendix Pathology
Mucinous appendiceal tumors include low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Nonmucinous adenocarcinomas are less frequent. Recent consensus guidelines and the latest edition of the World Health Organization classification will allow consistent use of agreed nomenclature. Accurate diagnosis is important not only for patient management but also to allow comparison of results between centers and tumor registries. Serrated polyps are the most common benign polyp in the appendix. They need to be distinguished from low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, wh...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Norman J. Carr Source Type: research

HER2 in Colorectal Carcinoma
HER2 (ERBB2) is a member of the ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases and functions to drive signaling in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Overall, approximately 2-3% of CRCs exhibit ERBB2 amplification. Multiple phase II clinical trials have now shown that ERBB2 amplification can be predictive of response to anti-ERBB2 targeted therapy. Consequently, recently released guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend treatment with anti-ERBB2 targeted therapy for RAS wild-type, ERBB2-amplified metastatic CRC. While circumspection is still needed, ERBB2 amplification has now emerged as t...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jonathan A. Nowak Source Type: research

Advances and Annoyances in Anus Pathology
This article provides a broad overview of anal disorders and highlights specific issues that may hinder diagnosis. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Angela R. Shih, Lawrence Zukerberg Source Type: research

Histology of Colorectal Carcinoma
This article summarizes the evidence supporting the prognostic values of various histologic parameters evaluated by pathologists who assign pathologic stage to colorectal cancers. Criteria to be discussed include histologic subtype, tumor grade, lymphatic and perineural invasion, tumor budding, and host immune responses. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Melanie Johncilla, Rhonda K. Yantiss Source Type: research

Molecular Advances in Central Nervous System Mesenchymal Tumors
Mesenchymal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) comprise an array of neoplasms that may arise from or secondarily affect the CNS and its immediate surroundings. This review focuses on meningiomas and solitary fibrous tumors, the most common primary CNS mesenchymal tumors, and discusses recent advances in unveiling the molecular landscapes of these neoplasms. An effort is made to underscore those molecular findings most relevant to tumor diagnostics and prognostication from a practical perspective. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jeffrey Helgager, Joseph Driver, Samantha Hoffman, Wenya Linda Bi Source Type: research

Update on Circumscribed Gliomas and Glioneuronal Tumors
Well-circumscribed intra-axial CNS tumors encompass a wide variety of gliomas and glioneuronal tumors, usually corresponding to WHO grades I and II. Nonetheless, sometimes high-grade ‘diffuse’ gliomas such as gliosarcoma and giant cell glioblastoma can be relatively circumscribed but are often found to have foci of diffuse infiltration on careful examination, harboring distinct molecular alterations. These tumors are excluded from the discussion in this chapter with the curr ent review emphasizing on lower-grade entities to include a brief description of their histology and associated molecular findings. Like e...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jie Chen, Sonika M. Dahiya Source Type: research

An Update on Pediatric Gliomas
This article provides an update on the histologic and molecular features with prognostic and/or therapeutic implications in pediatric gliomas. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jared Ahrendsen, Sanda Alexandrescu Source Type: research