Notochordal Tumors
This review provides an overview of the spectrum of tumors showing notochordal differentiation. This spectrum encompasses benign entities that are mostly discovered incidentally on imaging, reported as benign notochordal cell tumor, usually not requiring surgical intervention; slowly growing and histologically low-grade tumors referred to as conventional chordoma but associated with a significant metastatic potential and mortality; and more aggressive disease represented by histologically higher-grade tumors including dedifferentiated chordoma, a high-grade biphasic tumor characterized by a conventional chordoma juxtaposed...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 27, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Roberto Tirabosco, Paul O'Donnell, Adrienne M. Flanagan Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Gliomas
Gliomas are the most common adult and pediatric primary brain tumors. Molecular studies have identified features that can enhance diagnosis and provide biomarkers. IDH1/2 mutation with ATRX and TP53 mutations defines diffuse astrocytomas, whereas IDH1/2 mutations with 1p19q loss defines oligodendroglioma. Focal amplifications of receptor tyrosine kinase genes, TERT promoter mutation, and loss of chromosomes 10 and 13 with trisomy of chromosome 7 are characteristic features of glioblastoma and can be used for diagnosis. BRAF gene fusions and mutations in low-grade gliomas and histone H3 mutations in high-grade gliomas also ...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 8, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Kristyn Galbraith, Matija Snuderl Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Prostate Cancer
Molecular profiling studies have shed new light on the complex biology of prostate cancer. Genomic studies have highlighted that structural rearrangements are among the most common recurrent alterations. In addition, both germline and somatic mutations in DNA repair genes are enriched in patients with advanced disease. Primary prostate cancer has long been known to be multifocal, but recent studies demonstrate that a large fraction of prostate cancer shows evidence of multiclonality, suggesting that genetically distinct, independently arising tumor clones coexist. Metastatic prostate cancer shows a high level of morphologi...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 8, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Ibrahim Kulac, Martine P. Roudier, Michael C. Haffner Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Gastroesophageal Cancer
Upper gastroesophageal carcinomas consist of cancers arising from the esophagus and stomach. Squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas are seen in the esophagus and despite arising from the same organ have different biology. Gastric adenocarcinomas are categorized into 4 molecular subtypes: high Epstein-Barr virus load, microsatellite unstable cancers, chromosomal unstable (CIN) cancers, and genomically stable cancers. Genomically stable gastric cancers correlate highly with histologically defined diffuse-type cancers. Esophageal carcinomas and CIN gastric cancers often are driven by high-level amplifications of oncogen...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 8, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Matthew D. Stachler, Ramon U. Jin Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Breast Tumors
Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease with various histologic subtypes, molecular profiles, behaviors, and response to therapy. After the histologic assessment and diagnosis of an invasive breast carcinoma, the use of biomarkers, multigene expression assays and mutation profiling may be used. With improved molecular assays, the identification of somatic genetic alterations in key oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are playing an increasingly important role in many areas of breast cancer care. This review summarizes the most clinically significant somatic alterations in breast tumors and how this information is used to ...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 8, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Dara S. Ross, Fresia Pareja Source Type: research

Molecular Alterations in Pediatric Solid Tumors
Pediatric tumors can be divided into hematologic malignancies, central nervous system tumors, and extracranial solid tumors of bone, soft tissue, or other organ systems. Molecular alterations that impact diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and familial cancer risk have been described in many pediatric solid tumors. In addition to providing a concise summary of clinically relevant molecular alterations in extracranial pediatric solid tumors, this review discusses conventional and next-generation sequencing –based molecular techniques, relevant tumor predisposition syndromes, and the increasing integration of molecular da...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 8, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Jonathan C. Slack, Alanna J. Church Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Mature Lymphoid Malignancies
Lymphoid malignancies are a broad and heterogeneous group of neoplasms. In the past decade, the genetic landscape of these tumors has been explored and cataloged in fine detail offering a glimpse into the mechanisms of lymphomagenesis and new opportunities to translate these findings into patient management. A myriad of studies have demonstrated both distinctive and overlapping molecular and chromosomal abnormalities that have influenced the diagnosis and classification of lymphoma, disease prognosis, and treatment selection. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 8, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Alisha D. Ware, Katelynn Davis, Rena R. Xian Source Type: research

Molecular Methods
Pre-analytical factors in molecular oncology diagnostics are reviewed. Issues around sample collection, storage, and transport that might affect the stability of nucleic acids and the ability to perform molecular testing are addressed. In addition, molecular methods used commonly in clinical diagnostic laboratories, including newer technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital droplet polymerase chain reaction, as well as their applications, are reviewed. Finally, we discuss considerations in designing a molecular test menu to deliver accurate and timely results in an efficient and cost-effective manner. (Sou...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Mark D. Ewalt, Susan J. Hsiao Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer
The identification of targetable genomic alterations in lung cancer is required as standard of care to guide optimal therapy selection. With a constantly evolving landscape of ancillary molecular and biomarker testing in lung cancer, pathologists need to be aware of what specimens to test, how the testing should be performed, and which targets to test for to provide the clinically relevant genomic information necessary to treat these patients. Several guideline statements on the topic are currently available to help pathologists and laboratory personnel best use the small specimens obtained from patients with lung cancer f...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri Source Type: research

The Evolving Role of Molecular Diagnostics in Pathology
The clinical implementation of molecular diagnostic technologies continues to expand across a wide variety of tumor types and has been shown to have utility for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Genomic studies continue to expand our understanding of pathobiology with revelations that some differing tumor types are part of the same spectrum of disease; such is the case with esophageal adenocarcinoma and intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas of the proximal stomach (Stachler and Jin). (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - July 1, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Lauren L. Ritterhouse Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Update on Cutaneous Soft Tissue Tumors
This article focuses on various recently described or emerging cutaneous soft tissue neoplasms. These entities encompass a wide range of clinical and histologic characteristics. Emphasis is placed on their distinguishing morphologic and immunophenotypic features compared with entities that enter into their differential diagnosis, as well as novel immunophenotypic and molecular tests that are often necessary for accurate diagnosis of these entities. Entities discussed include EWSR1-SMAD3-rearranged fibroblastic tumor, superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor, epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma, CIC-rearranged sarcomas, an...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Josephine K. Dermawan, Jennifer S. Ko, Steven D. Billings Source Type: research

Connective Tissue Diseases in the Skin
Cutaneous manifestations are common across the spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Connective tissue diseases manifesting in the skin are often difficult to classify and require integration of clinical, histopathologic, and serologic findings. This review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular and immune drivers involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, scleroderma/systemic sclerosis, and mixed connective tissue disease. Recent research advances have led to the emergence of new ancillary tools and useful diagnostic clues of which dermatopathologists should be aware to impro...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Carole Bitar, May P. Chan Source Type: research

Update on Molecular Genetic Alterations of Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms
Cutaneous adnexal tumors recapitulate follicular, sweat gland, and/or sebaceous epithelia, and range from benign tumors to aggressive carcinomas. Adnexal tumors can be hallmarks for inherited tumor syndromes. Oncogenic drivers of adnexal neoplasms modulate intracellular pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, Wnt/ β-catenin, Hedgehog, nuclear factor κB, and Hippo intracellular signaling pathways, representing potential therapeutic targets. Malignant progression can be associated with tumor suppressor loss, especially TP53. Molecular alterations drive expression of specific...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Grace Hile, Paul W. Harms Source Type: research

Molecular Genetics of Sebaceous Neoplasia
Sebaceous neoplasia primarily includes sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, and sebaceous carcinoma (SC). Sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, and a subset of cutaneous SC are frequently associated with defective DNA mismatch repair resulting from mutations in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6. These tumors can be sporadic or associated with Muir-Torre syndrome. SCs without defective DNA mismatch repair have ultraviolet signature mutation or paucimutational patterns. Ocular SCs have low mutation burdens and frequent mutations in ZNF750. Some ocular sebaceous carcinomas have TP53 and RB1 mutations similar to cutaneous SC, whereas others lack such muta...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Jeffrey P. North Source Type: research

Updates on the Pathology and Management of Nail Unit Tumors and Dermatoses
Nail unit pathology is indispensable to reach an accurate diagnosis of nail tumors as well as inflammatory disorders. This review article provides an update from the most recently published studies on the pathology and management of nail unit tumors and inflammatory disorders. Recent findings of nail clipping histopathology are described first, followed by discussing recent data on the diagnosis and surgical management of several types of nail unit tumors, ending with discussing the recent discoveries in selected nail unit inflammatory disorders. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Mohammed Dany, Andrew S. Fischer, Susan Pei, Adam I. Rubin Source Type: research

Dermatopathology
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Michael T. Tetzlaff Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
Michael T. Tetzlaff (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Molecular Pathology (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - May 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Gamma/Delta Phenotype in Primary Cutaneous T-cell Lymphomas and Lymphoid Proliferations
Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas pose a diagnostic challenge for dermatopathologists, hematopathologists, and general surgical pathologists. Recognition of gamma/delta phenotype in cutaneous T proliferations has been enhanced by the availability of antibodies against TCRgamma and delta for immunohistochemistry. Thus, reporting gamma/delta phenotype in a cutaneous T-cell lymphoid proliferation may indicate a significant change in therapy and a challenge for dermatologists and oncologists who treat these patients. Herein, we discuss primary cutaneous gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma, its differential diagnosis, and other skin l...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 29, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Carlos A. Torres-Cabala, Auris Huen, Swaminathan P. Iyer, Roberto N. Miranda Source Type: research

PRAME Immunohistochemistry as an Ancillary Test for the Assessment of Melanocytic Lesions
PRAME (PReferentially expressed Antigen in MElanoma) is a melanoma-associated antigen expressed in cutaneous and ocular melanomas and some other malignant neoplasms, while its expression in normal tissue and benign tumors is limited. Detection of PRAME protein expression by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 400 melanocytic tumors showed diffuse nuclear immunoreactivity for PRAME in most metastatic and primary melanomas. In contrast, most nevi were negative for PRAME or showed nondiffuse immunoreactivity. The difference in the extent of immunoreactivity for PRAME in unambiguous melanocytic tumors prompted the study of PRA...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 28, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Cecilia Lezcano, Achim A. Jungbluth, Klaus J. Busam Source Type: research

Cutaneous Toxicities in the Setting of Immune Checkpoint Blockade:
Advancements in cancer therapy with monoclonal immune checkpoint antibody blockade have affected the practice of all medical specialties. Cutaneous immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are a frequent, unintended, off-target consequence of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy that have ushered in the era of oncodermatopathology. Knowledge of the diverse morphologic types of cutaneous irAEs from ICI therapy allows further classification of cutaneous irAEs according to major histopathologic reaction patterns. Early studies suggest that immune mechanisms of lichenoid dermatitis irAE, psoriasiform dermatitis irAE, and bul...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 28, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Jonathan L. Curry, Susan Y. Chon, Mario L. Marques-Piubelli, Emily Y. Chu Source Type: research

Mucosal Melanomas of the Anogenital Tract
Primary anogenital mucosal melanomas (AGMs) are rare aggressive malignancies that are typically diagnosed at an advanced stage. Ulceration is a common feature in AGMs and may not correlate with outcome. Therefore, staging of AGMs similar to primary cutaneous melanomas, based on tumor thickness and ulceration, may not robustly predict outcome. Derivation of site-specific staging systems is essential for prognostication and optimal management of these patients. To this end, recent retrospective studies have revealed tumor thickness (TT) and mitotic rate (MR) as features of most prognostic significance as follows: in anorecta...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 28, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Priyadharsini Nagarajan Source Type: research

Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytoma
Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) was originally described based on keen morphologic analysis identifying a group of melanocytic tumors sharing heavily pigmented epithelioid melanocytes. It is defined as heavily pigmented epithelioid, spindled, and dendritic melanocytes with characteristic vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and melanophages. PEM often involves regional lymph nodes. Recent advances in molecular analysis have allowed for subclassification of PEM into more specific subsets of melanocytic tumors. The most common subsets include PRKCA fusions, which result in pure PEMs with sheets of monomorphic epith...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 28, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Sarah Benton, Jeffrey Zhao, Sepideh Asadbeigi, Daniel Kim, Bin Zhang, Pedram Gerami Source Type: research

Mucosal Melanoma
Mucosal melanomas are rare, often aggressive tumors that can arise at any mucosal site but most frequently occur in the head and neck, vulvovaginal, and anorectal regions. They have distinct biological, clinical, and histopathologic features, which have important management implications. Recent whole-genome sequencing studies have led to a greater understanding of the molecular landscape of mucosal melanomas and uncovered oncogenic drivers that could potentially be susceptible to therapeutic manipulation. The authors provide a brief overview of epidemiologic, clinical, and histopathologic features of mucosal melanoma, with...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 28, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Robert V. Rawson, James S. Wilmott, Richard A. Scolyer Source Type: research

Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis and Microvascular Occlusion
Although clinicians often put vasculitis and microvascular occlusion in the same differential diagnosis, biopsy findings often are either vasculitis or occlusion. However, both vasculitis and occlusion are present in some cases of levamisole-associated vasculopathy and certain infections. Depth of dermal involvement and vessel size should be reported, because superficial and deep small vessel leukocytoclastic vasculitis and/or involvement of medium-sized vessels may be associated with systemic disease. Microvascular occlusion of vessels in the fat should prompt consideration of calciphylaxis. Clues to ultimate clinical dia...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 28, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Christine J. Ko, Jeff R. Gehlhausen, Jennifer M. McNiff Source Type: research

Dysplastic Nevi
Dysplastic nevi are distinctive melanocytic lesions in the larger group of atypical nevi. They often are multiple and sporadic with genetic features intermediate between common acquired nevi and melanoma. Dysplastic nevi may be multiple, familial, and seen in patients with familial melanoma syndrome. Although their behavior is benign, they rarely represent a precursor to melanoma. If clinically suspicious, dysplastic nevi should be removed for adequate histopathologic examination and to exclude possibility of melanoma. Partial sampling should be avoided because reliable separation from melanoma requires visualization of th...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 28, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Katharina Wiedemeyer, Wolfgang Hartschuh, Thomas Brenn Source Type: research

Dermatopathology in the Molecular Age
The field of dermatopathology remains one of the most dynamic subspecialties in all of pathology. Accurate diagnoses typically require a systematic integration of histopathologic features together with clinical, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings. As the arsenal of molecular studies applied to skin lesions expands, the complexity of this integration increases. In this issue, we assembled leaders across the spectrum of dermatopathology to provide comprehensive reviews and updates on various topics in the field. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - April 28, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Michael T. Tetzlaff Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Sclerosing Polycystic Adenoma
Sclerosing polycystic adenoma (SPA) is the more appropriate name for sclerosing polycystic adenosis. SPA is an uncommon salivary gland lesion with a constellation of unusual histologic findings that were originally interpreted as analogous to breast fibrocystic changes. The histologic findings in SPA include fibrosis, cystic alterations, apocrine metaplasia, and proliferations of ducts, acini, and myoepithelial cells in variable proportions. Because of its unusual mixed histology, SPA may be confused with a variety of lesions, ranging from reactive conditions to benign or even malignant neoplasms. The features of SPA are r...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 30, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Justin A. Bishop, Lester D.R. Thompson Source Type: research

Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Salivary Glands
This article summarizes the findings of 438 cases in a review of the literature. Concurrent lymphoepithelial lesions may suggest a primary tumor. The tumor shows a nonkeratinizing carcinoma intimately associated with a rich lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, destroying adjacent salivary gland tissue. Irrespective of race or ethnicity, the tumors usually express Epstein-Barr virus, with Epstein-Barr virus encoded small RNA (EBER) and/or latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1), although a subset does not. There is an overall good prognosis of about 80% at 5 years. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 30, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Lester D.R. Thompson, Rumeal D. Whaley Source Type: research

Emerging Entities in Salivary Pathology
In recent years, increased molecular testing and improved immunohistochemical panels have facilitated more specific classification of salivary gland carcinomas, leading to recognition of several novel tumor types and unique histologic variants. Sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma, microsecretory adenocarcinoma, and secretory myoepithelial carcinoma are three such recently described entities that demonstrate low-grade cytology, production of prominent secretory material, and variable amounts of sclerotic stroma. This review provides a practical overview of these important and overlapping emerging entities in salivary glan...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 30, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Lisa M. Rooper Source Type: research

Updates on “Under the Radar” Salivary Gland Tumors
There have been a number of exciting advances in salivary gland tumor pathology in the past 10 years. In particular, molecular findings, which have a drastic impact on diagnosis, classification, and even therapy, are advancing at a rapid pace. While considerable attention has been given, appropriately, to relatively common tumors like pleomorphic adenoma, secretory carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, this issue of Surgical Pathology Clinics focuses on the recent discoveries involving salivary gland tumors that are rarer, and therefore, may be less well known. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 30, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Justin A. Bishop Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 30, 2021 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contributors
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 30, 2021 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Contents
Justin A. Bishop (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 30, 2021 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Dermatopathology (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 30, 2021 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Intraductal Carcinomas of the Salivary Gland
Intraductal carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare tumor characterized by intracystic proliferations of papillary, cribriform, and solid architecture of small uniform epithelial cells, reminiscent of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Recent literature has identified 4 distinctive subtypes: the intercalated duct type, apocrine type, mixed/hybrid type, and oncocytic type, all with corresponding immunohistochemical and molecular findings. Although these tumors are typically in situ, as evidenced by a retained myoepithelial layer, they can demonstrate minimal invasion or, rarely, widespread invasive growth. Their over...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Emilija Todorovic, Ilan Weinreb Source Type: research

Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma
Basal cell adenoma (BCA) and basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) are uncommon biphasic salivary gland tumors having morphologic similarities to other biphasic salivary gland neoplasms having differentiation toward the intercalated ducts of the salivary gland. Both tumors show mixtures of trabecular, tubular, solid, and membranous solid patterns. BCAC is separated from BCA primarily by the presence of invasion in the former. The diagnosis of BCA and BCAC is best carried out with hematoxylin and eosin –stained sections and careful attention to detail of tumors in the differential diagnosis, including adenoid cystic carcin...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Robert A. Robinson Source Type: research

Sialadenoma Papilliferum
Sialadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare, benign salivary gland neoplasm sharing similar histopathologic features and harboring the same genetic alterations, BRAF V600E or HRAS mutations, with syringocystadenoma papilliferum. SP most commonly occurs in the hard palate and in older adults. Clinically, SP is most likely to be diagnosed as a squamous papilloma. Microscopically, SP shows an exophytic papillary epithelial proliferation and a contiguously endophytic ductal proliferation. Two distinct subtypes are identified: classic SP and oncocytic SP. Conservative surgical treatment seems to be adequate with a low recurrence. S...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Min-Shu Hsieh, Justin A. Bishop, Julia Yu Fong Chang Source Type: research

Myoepithelial Carcinoma
Myoepithelial carcinoma (MECA) may overlap histologically with other salivary gland neoplasms, especially pleomorphic adenoma. MECA is characterized by cellular, uniform growth of myoepithelial cells and multinodular expansile invasive pattern with zonal cellular distribution. It may arise de novo or in association with pleomorphic adenoma (myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma). By immunohistochemistry, MECA is positive for cytokeratins and at least one of the myoepithelial markers, including S100. PLAG1 fusion is the most common genetic alteration. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and necrosis correlate with wor...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Bin Xu, Nora Katabi Source Type: research

Salivary Duct Carcinoma
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare, aggressive salivary gland malignancy with significant mortality. Morphologically, most tumors are characterized by apocrine differentiation with a typical immunophenotype of androgen receptor positive/gross cystic disease fluid protein positive/estrogen receptor negative/progesterone receptor negative. Several morphologic variants of SDC exist, representing diagnostic pitfalls. Several differential diagnoses should be considered because prognosis, treatment, and management may be different from SDC. For SDC, current treatment strategies are aggressive and commonly include surgical e...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Mobeen Rahman, Christopher C. Griffith Source Type: research

Polymorphous Adenocarcinoma
Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) is typically originated from the minor salivary glands and is characterized by cytology uniformity and architectural diversity. PAC commonly harbors PRKD1 E710D mutation. PAC has an excellent prognosis. However, greater than or equal to 10% papillary or greater than or equal to 30% cribriform pattern is an independent adverse prognostic factor. Cribriform adenocarcinoma of salivary gland (CASG) is a controversial entity that is considered within the same histologic spectrum of PAC in current classification schemes; however, it is regarded by some pathologists as a separate entity. CASG sho...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Nora Katabi, Bin Xu Source Type: research

Genomic Analysis of Salivary Gland Cancer and Treatment of Salivary Gland Cancers
Salivary gland cancer is a heterogenous group of tumors that presents challenges with both diagnosis and therapy. Recent advances in the classification of salivary gland cancers have led to distinct histologic and genomic criteria that successfully differentiate between cancers with similar clinical behavior and appearance. Genomic abnormalities have led to the emergence of targeted therapies being used in their therapy with drastic improvements in outcomes as well as reductions in treatment-related toxicity. Dramatic results seen with molecular targets, such as HER2, TRK, and others, indicate that this approach has the po...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Doreen Palsgrove, Sameer Allahabadi, Saad A. Khan Source Type: research

Epithelial –Myoepithelial Carcinoma
Epithelial –myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon low-grade salivary gland carcinoma. It is classically characterized by biphasic tubular structures composed of inner eosinophilic ductal cells and outer clear myoepithelial cells. In addition, epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma sometimes shows various hist ologic features, including a cribriform pattern, basaloid appearance, and sebaceous differentiation. Because clear myoepithelial cells are also noted in other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, the histologic variety and similarity with other tumor entities make the diagnosis of epithelial– myo...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - January 5, 2021 Category: Pathology Authors: Masato Nakaguro, Toshitaka Nagao Source Type: research

Papillary Neoplasms of the Salivary Duct System
This article discusses those papillary proliferations encountered in the salivary glands with a focus on intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and cystadenomas. Intraductal carcinomas and sialadenoma papilliferum are addressed in separate articles in this issue. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - December 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Abbas Agaimy Source Type: research

Wilms Tumor
Wilms tumor is the most common renal tumor of childhood. It is a biologically and morphologically diverse entity, with ongoing studies contributing to our understanding of the pathobiology of various subgroups of patients with Wilms tumor. The interplay of histologic examination and molecular interrogation is integral in prognostication and direction of therapy. This review provides an overview of some of the challenging aspects and pitfalls in pathologic assessment of Wilms tumor, along with discussion of current and up-and-coming markers of biological behavior with prognostic significance. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Lauren N. Parsons Source Type: research

Newcomers in Vascular Anomalies
This article reviews the pathologic and molecular genetic characteristics for select recently described vascular anomalies. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Alyaa Al-Ibraheemi Source Type: research

Pediatric and Infantile Fibroblastic/Myofibroblastic Tumors in the Molecular Era
This article is focused on using clinical and pathologic clues in conjunction with the increasingly relevant and available molecular techniques to classify, predict prognosis, and/or guide treatment in these tumors. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - November 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jessica L. Davis, Erin R. Rudzinski Source Type: research