Incidence and morphology of the incisive suture in CT scanning of young children and human fetuses
ConclusionsConsidering all these results it appears to us that the incisive suture is partially ossified after birth, it cannot be stimulated by orthodontic appliances. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 16, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Three-dimensional assessment of the sella turcica: comparison between cleft lip and palate patients and skeletal malocclusion classes
AbstractPurposeThe main aim of the present study was to investigate the dimensions and morphological appearance of the sella turcica in cleft lip and palate patients using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, compared to non-cleft individuals.MethodsCBCT images of 40 (20 females and 20 males) cleft lip and palate patients and 60 (27 males and 33 females) non-cleft individuals were assessed, retrospectively. The linear dimensions (depth, diameter and length) of the sella turcica and inter-clinoid distance were measured. Sella turcica shapes were examined in the cleft lip and palate patients and non-cleft individuals...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 16, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Origin variations of the superior thyroid, lingual, and facial arteries: a computed tomography angiography study
ConclusionsSTA origin below the ECA is a common finding. Our population presented the highest percentage of TLT (10.5%) and high CB (9.8%) in literature. Considering these variations are important to prevent complications in neck surgical procedures. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 16, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphometric assessment of important landmarks on skull intended for Vidian nerve surgery
ConclusionVidian canal and Vidian nerve are deeply located structures on skull. Vidian canal and surrounding structures are important landmarks for microsurgery and endoscopic approaches to Vidian nerve. We consider that knowledge of anatomical features of Vidian canal and preoperative imaging by CT (computed tomography) will be supportive when choosing and planning a safe surgical approach. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 16, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Classification of the midpalatal suture maturation in individuals older than 15 years: a cone beam computed tomographic study
ConclusionNo individuals in stage A of suture maturation were found and stage B was identified in only 1% of the sample. The majority of the patients (64.88%) presented at least partial fusion of the MPS (stages D and E). (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 16, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A very rare case of an accessory subscapularis muscle and its potential clinical significance
This report presents a very rare accessory subscapularis muscle originating from two distinct bands on the subscapularis and teres major muscles. The insertion was divided among four tendons. The fourth tendon is bifurcated. One of these was connected to the tendon of the subscapularis muscle and the other three inserted into the base of the coracoid process of the scapula. This anomalous muscle has the potential to entrap the nerves of the posterior cord such as the axillary, lower subscapular, and thoracodorsal nerves. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Determination of intra-oral surface areas by cone-beam computed tomography analysis and their relation with anthrometric measurements of the head
ConclusionsThis study presents a technique for measuring the intra-oral surface areas by CBCT imaging in combination with digital analysis. The results of this study suggest that anthropometric measurements of the head might be used to estimate the surface areas of the palate and tongue. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 11, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical variations in the insertion of the peroneus longus tendon
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that the main function of the PLT is resisting the varus force on the 1MT; however, as the PLT has various attachment sites, it may also be involved in the stabilizing action of the longitudinal and transverse arches. Therefore, these variations and functions appear to be associated with a difficult diagnosis at the first clinical evaluation. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 10, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Three-dimensional topography of scapular nutrient foramina
ConclusionNinety percent of scapulae have more than one nutrient foramen. They are located in specific areas, on both the posterior and costal surface. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 9, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The superficial anatomical landmarks are not reliable for predicting the recurrent branch of the median nerve
ConclusionIt was inferred that palmar creases and other superficial anatomical landmarks listed in the text could not be used to predict the variability of the RB and the choice of mini-invasive approach should not be based on their course. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 9, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Three-dimensional analysis of the velopharyngeal region in patients with cleft palate and healthy individuals
ConclusionDifferences in the shape and geometry of the velopharyngeal area in subjects with a regular velopharyngeal structure and function and patients with cleft palate do exist. The significant differences found here can be categorized into two groups: one reflects distances between the anterior and posterior pharynx, presenting longer distances for patients with CLP. The second significant difference regards values of length in cranio-caudal direction, which is longer in healthy subjects. With regards to these values, one could conclude, that even though total volumes of both groups did not differ in size, group 1 show...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 8, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Fetal posterior cerebral artery duplication, true fetal posterior cerebral artery variation and trifurcation anterior cerebral artery association
AbstractWe would like to present a case with fetal posterior cerebral artery duplication and anterior cerebral artery trifurcation, which we detected using magnetic resonance angiography. We believe this is the first case defined in the literature. Embryological explanation of posterior cerebral artery variations is discussed in light of the literature. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 1, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical location of the abducens nerves (VI) in the ventral approach of clival tumors
AbstractThe aim of this work was to determine reliable anatomical landmarks for locating and preserving the abducens nerves (6th cranial nerves) during trans-facial or trans-nasal endoscopic approaches of skull base tumors involving the clivus and the petrous apex. In order to describe this specific anatomy, we carefully dissected 10 cadaveric heads under optic magnification. Several measurements were taken between the two petro-sph énoidal foramina, from the bottom of the sella and the dorsum sellae. The close relationship between the nerves and the internal carotid artery were taken into account. We defined a trap...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 30, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Is there a non-atherosclerotic artery?
AbstractIn the field of gross anatomy, we should consider new topics of research in subclinical conditions and in human gross anatomy. Hepatic artery unlike the other branches of abdominal aorta is a non-atherosclerotic artery when we search the literature. This hypothesis will be a very good proposal for anatomical and radiological researches. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 26, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The posterior talocalcaneal ligament: an MRI evaluation
ConclusionsOur study has identified different characteristics of the PTCL that allow us to further understand the characteristics of the ligament itself. In conclusion, the need for further studies focused on the biomechanical role of the PTCL in the ankle joint appears mandatory. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 23, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The origin structure of each finger in the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle
ConclusionBecause the second and fifth digits or an independent fifth digit originated from the AOL, their contraction may cause tension in the AOL. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 20, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Successful reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament: assessment of posterior cruciate ligament footprints using an objective coordinate system
ConclusionOur findings confirmed the reproducibility of defining PCL footprints using a coordinate system and may contribute to planning intraoperative graft-placement to ensure optimal conditions in the upcoming techniques for PCL reconstruction. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 17, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Bilateral persistent stapedial arteries associated with unilateral moyamoya disease: a particular anatomic variant
ConclusionThe internal carotid artery origin of the middle meningeal artery is a wonderful anatomic variant that permits to understand the complex embryological development and then involution of the stapedial artery. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 14, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Multi-level sagittally cleft vertebrae: a case report and review of the literature
AbstractThe term “sagittal cleft vertebra” (SCV) denotes a rare embryologically derived longitudinal defect within the vertebral body, which is clinically and radiologically challenging to diagnose in isolation. This defect results in two hemivertebrae, which ossify discordantly, ultimately leading to a sagittal cleft through the vertebral body. Often presenting with low back pain or concomitant with an associated syndromic illness, SCV is often found incidentally and can mimic vertebral compression fractures radiographically. Treatment of SCV has largely been conservative and symptomatic. With only 109 re port...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 14, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: “Cavernous sinus and abducens nerve in human fetuses near term”
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 10, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The right vertebral artery arising from the right common carotid artery: report of a rare case
We present an extremely rare case where the right vertebral artery is arising from the right common carotid artery, with an absent brachiocephalic trunk, and the right common carotid artery as the first branch of the aortic arch followed by right subclavian artery, without any other abnormalities of the supra-aortic vessels. This vessel variation can affect endovascular procedures, surgical interventions and cause some unexpected clinical symptoms. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 9, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The tibial lateral axis is a novel extraarticular landmark for detection of the tibial anteroposterior axis
ConclusionThe proximal TLAs can be an extraarticular bony landmark that indicates the line perpendicular to the SEA. A prospective study is needed to prove the validity and accuracy of the axes clinically. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 8, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A three-dimensional computed tomography angiography study of the anatomy of the accessory middle colic artery and implications for colorectal cancer surgery
Conclusion3D CT angiograms are useful for preoperative evaluation. Accessory middle colic arteries exist and were observed in 14.9% of cases. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 4, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Correlation of clinical features with inferior right hepatic vein incidence: a three-dimensional reconstruction-based study
AbstractPurposeThe correlation between right hepatic vein (RHV) diameter and inferior RHV (IRHV) incidence and that between IRHV incidence and other clinical features remain unclear. We investigated factors correlated with IRHV incidence as well as provide a simple and reliable method for predicting IRHV presence preoperatively.MethodsWe obtained computed tomography (CT) imaging data of 1980 patients from the Department of Radiology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, from July 1, 2016, to July 1, 2017. We excluded patients with heart disease, inferior vena cava (IVC) disease, history of liver surgery or trauma, space-occupying l...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 3, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Rare anatomic variation on a 10,000-year-old South American skeleton: the case of Iuzu, Toca dos Coqueiros, Piau í State, Brazil
ConclusionThis case allowed us to examine the conditions of selection of individuals buried in southern Piau í during the Middle Holocene, during which time this rite does not seem to predominate. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - June 2, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical evaluation of the craniovertebral junction on cone-beam computed tomography images
ConclusionIn this study, the morphometric values were evaluated according to age and gender in individuals who did not have any radiologic anomalies. The normal reference ranges may be useful for researchers who are researching pathology in this region. It is recommended to conduct further studies with different populations to determine the normal reference range. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 31, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Three-dimensional printing in anatomy teaching: current evidence
ConclusionThe 3DP implementation in anatomy education showed promising outcomes. However, the lack of studies which compared the educational effectiveness of 3DP with that of cadavers ’ dissection is highlighted. It seems that 3DP could certainly be used as an adjunct to cadavers’ dissection. Further research could clarify if 3DP could obtain a more prominent role in anatomy pedagogy compared to other anatomy teaching modalities. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 31, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Occipital artery arising from the cervical internal carotid artery at the level of the C2 vertebral body: three cases detected utilizing magnetic resonance angiography
AbstractWe incidentally observed the occipital artery (OA) arising from the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) at the level of the C2 vertebral body on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in three patients. In the rare case in which the OA arises from the ICA, it is generally at its origin. The OA arises from the cervical ICA when all but the distal part of the anastomosis of the primitive proatlantal artery between the ICA and vertebral artery persists. Careful review of MR angiographic images is important to detect rare arterial variations, and both partial maximum-intensity-projection images and source images aid th...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 31, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The morphometry, localization, and shape types of the fovea capitis femoris, and their relationship with the femoral head parameters
ConclusionResults showed that the morphometric properties, localization, and shape types of the FCF were related to some femoral head parameters. It is thought that our findings contributed to orthopedic and radiological applications and anthropological sciences. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 30, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Radiological classification of azygos anterior cerebral artery and evaluation of the accompanying vascular anomalies
ConclusionAzygos ACA is a rare variation, but it could be accompanied by aneurysms or other vascular anomalies. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 29, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Herniation of orbital fat through the inferior orbital fissure and into the infratemporal fossa: a cadaveric case report and review
AbstractOrbital fat herniation is primarily in a subconjunctival location. However, herniation through the inferior orbital fissure (IOF) has been scantly reported. Here, we report a cadaveric case of herniation of orbital fat through the inferior orbital fissure and into the infratemporal fossa. The cadaver ’s orbital anatomy and orbital fat herniation were found during routine dissection. The details of this case are reported. We also discuss anatomical variations of the inferior orbital fissure as well as the related vascular and nervous system structures related to orbital fat herniation. This is a rare case of a...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 29, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Editorial: Skull, bone growth, skull basis anatomy, foramina, canals and crossing structures: so often considered as one of the most difficult part in medical education!
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 27, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The magnetic resonance imaging appearances of the interureteric crest of the urinary bladder
ConclusionsThe IUC is often seen on MRI on T2w images of a non-collapsed bladder. Its characteristic appearance can be used to help the reporting radiologist confidently differentiate identify this normal structure from an area of focal bladder wall thickening that might be misinterpreted as a bladder tumor. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 24, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Correction to: Three ‑dimensional assessment of the sella turcica: comparison between cleft lip and palate patients and skeletal malocclusion classes
In the original publication of the article, the given name and family name of the author were swapped. The correct author name is given in this erratum, (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 23, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Femoral nerve split with variant iliacus muscle: a potential source of femoral nerve entrapment
AbstractThe iliacus muscle is a large, flat, triangle-shaped muscle located in the iliac fossa. This muscle forms part of the iliopsoas muscle complex. Although anatomical variations of iliacus muscles are rare, some variations are clinically important due to the possible coexistence of an unusual course of the femoral nerve. The femoral nerve is the largest branch of the lumbar plexus and supplies the muscles and skin in the anterior aspect of the thigh. We encountered a case of a single aberrant slip of the iliacus muscle piercing the femoral nerve in the left iliac fossa of a male cadaver aged 97  years. The potent...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 22, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Costoclavicular ligament as a novel cause of venous thoracic outlet syndrome: from anatomic study to clinical application
ConclusionOur study demonstrated that CCL could be a novel cause of VTOS by severe compression of SCV. Patients diagnosed with this etiology could get less invasive surgical treatment by simply removing the ligament. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 18, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Variations of the right branch of hepatic portal vein in children based on three-dimensional simulation technology
ConclusionVariations in the right branch of the hepatic portal vein seems to be very frequent. Recognition of such variations is important in the preoperative evaluation of children with surgery planned, because these variations may have implications for anatomy-guided liver resection and for planning the operative approach. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 18, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Microsurgical anatomy of the spinal cord in human fetuses
ConclusionDetailed microsurgical data about the fetal spinal cord and the dorsal and ventral rootlets presented in this study provide significant information which may be essential during surgical interventions in early postnatal period and childhood targeting the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 16, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical variations of the acromial and coracoid process: clinical relevance
AbstractPurposeThe acromial and coracoid process morphology is of clinical relevance due to associations with functional limitations and shoulder pathology. Our objective was to describe the anatomical characteristics of the acromial and coracoid process using computed tomography (CT).MethodsDescriptive, observational, transversal and retrospective study. A total of 155 CT of patients without shoulder pathology, of both genders, and indistinct age were evaluated and grouped by age: Group 1    40 years. The following parameters were evaluated: Acromial type (AcT), vertical coracoid distance (VCD), acromia...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 16, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Ectopic origin of bronchial arteries: still a potential pitfall in embolization
ConclusionAlthough BAE under the presence of ectopic BA is feasible and safe, detection of BAs with ectopic origin, even of small diameter, is needed to avoid risk of non-target coursing of embolic materials. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 15, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Normative measurements of parotid lymph nodes on CT imaging
ConclusionOur findings suggest 5  mm as an upper limit of normal for the short axis diameter of superficial intraparotid lymph nodes. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 14, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Influence of coracoid anatomy on the location of glenoid rim defects in anterior shoulder instability: 3D CT-scan evaluation of 51 patients
ConclusionThis study shows that coracoid anatomy affects the location of bony Bankart defects in anterior shoulder instability. Lower and laterally prominent coracoids are associated with anterior –inferior lesions. This variation in anatomy should be considered during pre-op planning for surgeries involving bone graft.Level of evidenceLevel 4 basic science. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 13, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Axial pulmonary trunk diameter variations during the cardiac cycle
AbstractPurposePrevious studies have shown a correlation between axial pulmonary trunk diameter (PTD) on chest computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary artery pressure. However, it is not known whether the PTD slices measured on chest CT have been recorded during the systolic or diastolic phase. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the variations in PTD during the cardiac cycle by measuring coronary CT angiography (CCTA) images.MethodsA retrospective analysis was made of 101 patients who underwent CCTA for coronary artery disease assessment. CCTA images were reconstructed during a full cardiac cycle and measurements were...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 13, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Gender difference in bowing of the sagittal femoral morphology measurement using magnetic resonance imaging
AbstractThe importance of femoral sagittal bowing on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has not been actively discussed. Femoral sagittal bowing can lead to cortex damage, fractures, or femoral malalignment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate femoral sagittal bowing at different segments of the femur in the Korean population, and to discuss the implications on total knee arthroplasty. Differences in the morphology of femoral sagittal bowing for 978 patients —829 women and 148 men—were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. The angle between the femoral mechanical axis and the anterior cortex l...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 13, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Bifid mandibular canals: CBCT assessment and macroscopic observation
ConclusionMore than a quarter of the population has the bifid mandibular canal, which is a potential factor of the onset of surgery accidents. CBCT is an effective method to identify the branches of mandibular canals. Preoperative CBCT examination can help reduce various postoperative complications. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of stylohyoid complex in subjects with different types of malocclusions using cone-beam computed tomography: a retrospective study in a Turkish subpopulation
AbstractPurposeAccording to the functional matrix theory, the development of maxillomandibular complex may be affected by the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the length and angulation of the styloid process in different types of malocclusions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsAngulations and length of the styloid process were evaluated in CBCT images of 97 individuals retrospectively. The patients were classified as class I, II, and III groups according to sagittal skeletal classes. The mean length, anterior angulation, and medial angulation of the styloid process were analyzed. S...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 11, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Sphenoid sinuses: pneumatisation and anatomical variants —what the radiologist needs to know and report to avoid intraoperative complications
ConclusionThe information provided by this study may help in the identification and description of the anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinuses and their relationship to neurovascular structures. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 11, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The position of the upper limb during shoulder arthroscopy does not affect the distance between axillary nerve and glenoid
ConclusionOur study showed that the position of the shoulder during arthroscopic procedures cannot take away the AxN from the inferior glenoid rim.Level of evidenceLevel IV —basic science study (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 8, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A three-headed plantaris muscle: evidence that the plantaris is not a vestigial muscle?
AbstractThe plantaris is a small muscle that typically originates at the lateral supracondylar line of the femur and the knee joint capsule, from where it continues distally, forming a long and slender tendon. However, considerable controversy surrounds the status of this seemingly inconspicuous muscle: is it a residual muscle, or one that it is just developing? In addition, both the proximal and distal attachments are highly morphologically variable. These variations can lead to many diseases. Interestingly, the course of the PM tendon is also variable. The present case study presents a new description of a complex origin...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 8, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of olfactory bulbus volume and olfactory sulcus depth by 3  T MR
AbstractObjectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate olfactory bulbus volume (OBV) and olfactory sulcus depth (OSD) according to age and sex with 3  T MRI in a healthy Turkish population.Materials and methodsIn the current study, 200 patients who had cranial MRI were retrospectively evaluated. They were divided into the following groups to examine the effects of age: group 1: 18 –30 years old; group 2: 31–40 years old; group 3: 41–50 years old; group 4: 51–60 years old; and group 5:>60 years old. OBV and OSD measurements were performed on coronal T2-weighted brain MR images. The mean right...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - May 7, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research