Global incidence of spinal perineural Tarlov ’s cysts and their morphological characteristics: a meta-analysis of 13,266 subjects
AbstractBackgroundSpinal perineural Tarlov ’s cysts (TCs) are considered incidental findings that occasionally might exert pressure upon nerve roots and correspond with patients’ signs and symptoms. Purpose of this meta-analysis is to deliver global incidence and characteristics (location, size, and shape) of TCs.MethodsFollowing PRISMA checklist, all major databases were searched by two authors for radiologic studies reporting incidence and morphologic features (location, size, and shape) of TCs. Anatomical Quality Assessment tool was applied for risk of bias evaluation. Meta-analysis of random-effects model w...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 16, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Ascending pharyngeal artery –posterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis via the jugular foramen: a case report and literature review
AbstractThe posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) rarely arises from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and is called persistent trigeminal artery variant. The PICA also can arise from the cervical segment of the ICA, and it enters the posterior fossa via the hypoglossal canal, where it is called persistent hypoglossal artery variant. Using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), we diagnosed a 79-year-old man with a PICA arising from the ascending pharyngeal artery and passing through the medial side of the jugular foremen pars vascularis. Only six cases of this variation have been reported pre...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 16, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Accuracy and technical limits of percutaneous pedicle screw placement in the thoracolumbar spine
AbstractPurposeThe two-dimensional fluoroscopic method of percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation has been clinically described as reliable method in the caudal thoracic and lumbosacral spine. Its accuracy has not been clearly reported in the cranial thoracic spine. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate percutaneous pedicle screw placement accuracy according to pedicle dimensions and vertebral levels.MethodsSix fresh-frozen human specimens were instrumented with 216 screws from T1 to S1. Pedicle isthmus widths, heights, transversal pedicles and screws were measured on computed tomography. Pedicle cortex viol...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 15, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Absence of the celiac trunk and anomalous very low origin of the common hepatic artery arising independently from the abdominal aorta just above aortic bifurcation in patient undergoing radical pancreaticoduodenectomy
ConclusionThe proper preoperative identification of anomalies within major abdominal vessels and its relationship to the tumor is very important to avoid intraoperative vascular injury and major postoperative complications. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 15, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Fetal development of the thoracolumbar fascia with special reference to the fascial connection with the transversus abdominis, latissimus dorsi, and serratus posterior inferior muscles
ConclusionWe rejected the hypothesis that the mTLF develops as a marginal tissue between the primitive epaxial and hypaxial muscles. This study seemed to be the first report showing a fact that, within prenatal life, a drastic change is likely to occur in interfascial connections and their topographical relation to muscles; the TLF might be the best sample. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomic features of the fetal round and oval windows, and their relations with the tympanic nerve
ConclusionThis study containing morphological data about the shapes, diameters and area of the RW and OW may be useful to predict surgical difficulty, and to select implants of suitable size preoperatively for the windows. Knowing the relationship between the JN and the windows can be helpful to avoid iatrogenic injuries of the nerve. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Is a big lateral loop of internal carotid artery rare and unique or well-known entity?
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A terminological confusion: optic foramen or canal?
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Characteristics of the accessory tendon of the extensor hallucis longus muscle: a Taiwanese study
ConclusionsThe accessory tendon of the EHL appears to be a regular feature in Taiwanese people. Most accessory tendons of the EHL (85.7%) attached on the first MTP joint capsule may play a role in the prevention of capsular impingement during great toe extension. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 11, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Medial type persistent trigeminal artery associated with a saccular aneurysm at its trunk
AbstractThere are four types of fetal anastomosis between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries at 5  weeks gestation; from caudal to cranial position, these involve the proatlantal intersegmental, hypoglossal, otic, and trigeminal arteries. Excluding otic artery, these arteries may persist rarely. Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, and the m edial type (intrasellar) PTA is quite rare, accounting for approximately 10% of all PTA cases. An aneurysm is occasionally found at the origin of the PTA. Rarely, an aneurysm arises at the trunk of the PTA. Using magnetic...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 11, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Bridging veins of the cerebellum: a magnetic resonance imaging study
ConclusionsThe BVs of the cerebellum can be classified into six distinct routes. Radiological classification may be useful for understanding the drainage pattern of the cerebellum. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A bilateral third head of the gastrocnemius which is morphologically similar to the plantaris
ConclusionAlthough they had an origin and shape similar to that of the plantaris, we identified the extra muscles in this case as a third head of the gastrocnemius, because of innervation to the plantaris arises directly from the tibial nerve. This case highlighted that the innervation is essential to understanding the myogenesis of extra muscles, especially in cases which are difficult to categorize based on the morphological features of the muscle. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Dual origin of vertebral artery and intimal relationship with spontaneous artery dissection: a case report and systematic review
We describe a case of duplication origin at right vertebral artery (RVA) found incidentally in one elderly patient on investigation for cerebral aneurysm. Angiogram study showed a pseudoaneurysm at V4 segment of the RVA associated with embryological anatomy. The authors performed a systematic review of the similar cases reported worldwide. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Osseous morphology of the medial epicondyle: an anatomoradiological study with potential clinical implications
ConclusionLarge individual variation is found in the shape of ME, both in coronal and axial planes. The knowledge of individual osseous morphology is of great value potentially contributing to the surgical decision-making in patients affected by cubital tunnel syndrome. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The anterolateral ligament of the knee is not a solid structure in human fetuses
ConclusionThe anterolateral ligament of the knee is not a congenital or solid structure. Our results suggest that the ALL may be a deep layer of the ITT or part of the knee joint capsule, or its identification is evaluator dependent. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 8, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Reappraisal of the types of trigeminal porus and importance in surgical applications
ConclusionsIn our study, ellipse and slit-like types of TP are taken into account in order to plan the surgical approaches to remove or prevent the extension of tumors. A combined surgical technique is recommended to reach the TP easily without damaging the nearby surgical structures during surgery. The oval type of TP allows a wide range of movements, so it is more advantageous in skull base surgery. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Hyperintense areas in the intraorbital optic nerve evaluated by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: a glymphatic pathway?
ConclusionHyperintense areas in the intraorbital ON detected on T2-weighted sequences may involve a glymphatic pathway with perivascular spaces of the ON and central retinal artery. These may be collapsed and difficult to identify on surgical and cadaver specimens. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Correlations of the rectus abdominis muscle anatomy with anthropometric measurements
AbstractPurposeThe anterior abdominal muscle wall has a strong aesthetic connotation, primarily because of the classical anatomical description of the rectus abdominis muscle in the collective consciousness. However, the morphological reality of the general population considerably deviates from this description. Therefore, we investigated the anthropometric characteristics correlated with the anatomy of the rectus abdominis muscle.MethodsWe performed a computed tomography scan anatomical study of recti abdominis muscles in 86 patients with no history of abdominal surgery. We noted the transverse and anteroposterior measure...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The parietal foramen anatomy: studies using dry skulls, cadaver and in vivo MRI
ConclusionNo major differences were encountered between sexes regarding the anatomical features of parietal foramen. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Surgical anatomy of basal turn in relation to middle cranial fossa and round window as pertaining to middle fossa cochlear implant technique
ConclusionsThe information may be helpful for designing appropriate electrode array for middle fossa technique especially for deciding the length of electrode array towards round window, as otherwise electrode may extend into vestibule of inner ear. In the cases where bone thickness between superior part of basal turn of cochlea and middle cranial fossa is  
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Postmortem evaluation of neuromuscular damages more extensive than the surgical intervention area after iliac crest bone graft
In this study, the patient was confirmed to have severe neuromuscular complications with major complications including a hernia protruding through the iliac defect. One of the two ilioinguinal nerves was extracted with the hernia sac through the iliac defect, and its distal part was completely damaged. The iliohypogastric nerve, which was far from the defect foramen, also showed remarkable fibrosis and demyelination, affected by the degeneration of the transversus abdominis muscles.The present anatomical findings show that the area of eventual neuromuscular damage should be estimated to larger than the conventionally predi...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Trifurcation of the facial artery at the inferior border of the mandible: a case report
ConclusionUnderstanding these variational branches of the triple facial artery and their relationships is crucial for avoiding complications in reconstructive and reparative maxillofacial, craniofacial and plastic surgery in order to mitigate the risk of damage to the facial artery during flap surgery. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Editorial 2021 greetings
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphological and functional assessment of the flexor carpi radialis brevis using conventional ultrasound and elastography
AbstractPurposeThe flexor carpi radialis brevis (FCRB) is a supernumerary musculotendinous structure of the wrist that has been the focus of some interest in the last decade. While its anatomy is well known, its in vivo function remains unknown as it has never been studied.MethodsEleven cases of FCRB underwent a multimodal ultrasound consisting of B-mode, color Doppler and shear wave elastography.ResultsA pennate shape was observed in all cases and the mean value of the cross-sectional area was 0.8  cm2 (SD 0.3  cm2). Young ’s modulus was significantly (p 
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Prenatal development of the human tympanic ring: a morphometric study with clinical correlations
ConclusionThe prenatal development of the TR is dynamic as evidenced by the size variations noted throughout fetal development. Notwithstanding, this structure is a reliable and sensitive marker of developmental abnormalities of the external and middle ear. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic test for detecting the chiasma plantare formation between the flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus
ConclusionsChiasma plantare formation can be reliably and noninvasively evaluated using US. This may be useful for preoperative rehabilitation or surgical procedure planning. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomy of peripancreatic arteries and pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcades in the human pancreas: a cadaveric study
ConclusionsIn the present study, an attempt was made to systematically describe the individual arterial configurations of the PD complex. The information provided here has important implications for preoperative planning of technically challenging surgeries and interventions around the pancreatic head. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Is the dorsal vascular system sufficient to vascularize the entire teguments of the thumb?
ConclusionThe dorsal vascular network ensures the substitution of the skin vascularization in more than 90% of cases when ligating the proper digital arteries of the thumb. A clinical impression of good skin vascularization after injury of both proper digital arteries might lead the surgeon not to perform systematic revascularization, but the risk of variable damages of adjacent tissues due to an interruption of one major arterial system requires a palmar arterial anastomosis whenever possible. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 3, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Response to “Some observations over the article “Evaluation of the anastomoses between the ophthalmic artery and the middle meningeal artery by superselective angiography””
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 3, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Bilateral occurrence of bimaxillary bi-rooted primary canines: a rare case report with review of the literature
This report discusses this unique occurrence in the context of the publishe d literature. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 3, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical variation and distribution of the vagus nerve in the esophageal hiatus: a cross-sectional study of post-mortem cases in Uganda
ConclusionThe study confirmed high variability in the distribution of the vagus nerve at the esophageal hiatus, unrelated to gender differences. Surgeons must consider and identify variants of vagal innervation when carrying out surgery at the gastroesophageal junction to avoid accidental vagal injuries. Published surgical techniques for preserving vagal function are valid in Uganda. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A proposal for needle projections in transcutaneous injection laryngoplasty using three-dimensionally reconstructed CT scans
ConclusionThis study demonstrated a significant sex dimorphism that may influence the three TIL approaches except for needle angulation in the cricothyroid approach. The knowledge of laryngeal dimension is important to increase success in TIL procedure. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of the relationship of chronic otitis media with the K örner's septum, auditory tube angle, and tubotympanic angle
This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between chronic otitis media (COM) and the characteristics of Auditory tube (Eustachian) angle (ATa), tubotympanic angle (TTa), and K örner's septum (KS).MethodsA retrospective research was conducted between January 2019 and October 2019. The computed tomography (CT) results and medical files of 210 patients were evaluated. According to CT results and medical files, the patients were evaluated regarding the presence of COM, KS, ATa, and TTa.ResultsThere were 113 (53.81%) males and 97 (46.19%) females in the study group, and the mean age of the patients was 42.05  &...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A systematic classification of the left-sided aortic arch variants based on cadaveric studies' prevalence
ConclusionNo significant gender or ethnic differences exist among the 5 branching types. The proposed classification scheme aims to become a valuable and easy to use tool in the hands of all physicians involved in diagnosis and treatment of aortic arch pathology. It could be also useful in anatomical education,  as well. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Radiological evaluation of the bone and soft tissue thicknesses of the palate for using a miniscrew-supported maxillary skeletal expander
ConclusionsThese findings provide quantitative data on the palatal bone and soft tissue thicknesses for the miniscrew-supported MSE in the posterior palate. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomic variations of the superficial temporal artery
This study retrospectively examined the archived head tomography angiograms of 43 patients to determine the morphology and topography of the STA prior to its terminal bifurcation. In 79% of patients, the STA topography related to the mandibular condyle was bilaterally symmetrical, either retrocondylar (65.1%) or laterocondylar (13.6%). The parietal branch was sometimes absent unilaterally (16.3%) or bilaterally (9.3%). In 2/43 cases, the frontal branch of the STA was unilaterally absent. When both terminal branches were present, the bifurcation was retrocondylar or immediately above the PZR when on the PZR, or the terminal...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A case report of bilateral mirror feet with varus deformity
ConclusionMirror foot is a very rare congenital anomaly, we put forward this case for its rarity and unusual late presentation at the age of 22. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of undergraduate medical students ’ preference to human anatomy practical assessment methodology: a comparison between online and traditional methods
ConclusionsThe inclination of students ’ preference for traditional anatomy examination methods mandates adequate training of both students and teachers for virtual examination. The superiority of conventional anatomy practical examination methods is unbiased but pandemic situations warrant adequate preparedness. In the future the anat omy teaching and evaluation methodology in Indian medical schools have to be drastically reviewed in equivalence with global digitalization. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Bilateral bipartite lunate misdiagnosed as carpal fracture: a case report and brief review of literature
AbstractBilateral bipartite lunate is a very rare congenital anomaly of the lunate. A 36-year-old military European male was referred to our service diagnosed with a lunate fracture. Symptoms began 3  months before our encounter, after falling on his outstretched left hand. The patient was misdiagnosed with a lunate fracture, therefore treated with a cast and then transitioned to a removable splint over 2 months in total; When the patient presented to our facility, on physical examination, he referred pain over the dorso-ulnar side of the wrist, especially the ulnar snuff. Tenderness to palpation over the fovea a...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Right vertebral artery entering the third transverse foramen diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography: a report of two cases
AbstractThe vertebral artery (VA) usually enters the sixth transverse foramen (TF). The VA sometimes enters the fifth, and rarely enters the fourth or seventh TF. Reports describing a VA entering the third TF, identified by anatomical dissection or computed tomography angiography, are extremely rare. We herein report two cases in which magnetic resonance (MR) angiography showed the right VA entering the third TF. Coronal reformatted MR angiography source images were useful for identifying the level at which the VA entered the TF. Because the anomalous VA takes an anterior course, it poses a risk during anterior neck surger...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

3D-printed anatomical models of the cystic duct and its variants, a low-cost solution for an in-house built simulator for laparoscopic surgery training
Conclusions3D-printed molds created through this method can be applied to create affordable high-quality educational anatomical models of the biliary tree for training laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Trochlear cistern of the cavernous sinus: an anatomical study using magnetic resonance imaging
ConclusionsTC shows morphological variability. The coronal CISS sequence is useful for exploring TC and TN in clinical practices. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical feasibility of peripheral nerve transfer to reestablish external anal sphincter control – cadaveric study
ConclusionsTransfer of a motor fascicle of the sciatic nerve to the PN is anatomically feasible without nerve grafts. Donor nerve length was sufficient and donor nerve functionally compatible (motor). Anatomical variations in the PN could also be accommodated. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Some observations over the article “Evaluation of the anastomoses between the ophthalmic artery and the middle meningeal artery by superselective angiography”
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - November 26, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The twisted structure of the fetal calcaneal tendon is already visible in the second trimester
ConclusionsThe twisted structure of the subtendons of the fetal calcaneal tendon is already visible in the second trimester and is similar to that seen in adults. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - November 25, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical variations of the pyramidalis muscle: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThe pyramidalis muscle is a rather constant anatomical structure being present in approximately 90% of individuals. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - November 24, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Surgical and embryological perspective of a big loop of internal carotid artery extending laterally beyond internal jugular vein
We report a case of a large loop of the internal carotid artery in a male cadaver aged about 75  years. The common carotid artery terminated by dividing it into the external carotid artery and internal carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. From the level of origin, the internal carotid artery coursed upwards, backwards and laterally, and formed a large lo op behind the internal jugular vein. The variation was found on the left side of the neck and was unilateral. The uncommon looping of the internal carotid artery might result in altered blood flow to the brain and may lead to mis...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - November 24, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Flawless, accurate models only can help in deeper learning of anatomy
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - November 23, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphometric evaluation of the temporomandibular joint on cone-beam computed tomography
ConclusionIn this study, the condylar process, articular tubercle, mandibular fossa, ramus of mandible, and joint spaces, which are usually examined separately in the literature, were examined, and the normal reference range was determined for all these parameters. We think that these normal reference ranges will be useful for researchers interested in TMJ pathologies. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - November 22, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The behavior of three types of large sinus node arteries with regard to the blood supply of the atrial myocardium
ConclusionThe above findings are essential for every day surgical and interventional procedures. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - November 22, 2020 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research