Integrated anatomical practice combining cadaver dissection and matched cadaver CT data processing and analysis
ConclusionOur integrated anatomical practice only allowed students to actively browse CT images and facilitated imaging processing and analysis of their region of interest. This practice may improve students ’ long-term ability to analyze images and deepen their understanding. A competitive imaging contest may help improve students’ motivation when they begin learning imaging anatomy. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 25, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A study of 285 cases of cranial vault suture closure in Chinese adults
ConclusionThis study observed the closure of the cranial vault suture, summarized its characteristics, and explored the irrationality of the CST manipulation. The anatomical characteristics of the cranial suture dictate that manipulation cannot push the cranial suture at will. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 25, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphology of the ligaments located on the medial side of the ankle and on the plantar surface of the foot
This study aimed to research the morphology of the medial side and plantar ligaments. The study was conducted on a total of 30 feet belonging to 2 women and 13 men cadavers that exist at the Anatomy Department of the Medical Faculty of Uludag University. After the dissections, 61 parameters that belonging to the ligaments and general features of the foot, were evaluated. The statistical analysis of the collected data was evaluated by SPSS 20.0. According to the findings, while the descriptive statistics of the foot and the ligaments related to the foot, the statistically significant difference of any of the parameters wasn...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 25, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Aberrant course of the petrous internal carotid artery associated with ipsilateral type 1 proatlantal artery
ConclusionAlthough both variations were seen ipsilaterally and were located relatively close to each other, the embryological development of these variations is quite different. In addition, no similar case has been reported previously. Thus, these may have formed incidentally. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 24, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Multiple cerebral arterial variations incidentally detected by magnetic resonance angiography: a case report
AbstractWe herein report a case of multiple variations, including (1) anterior communicating artery duplication, (2) accessory anterior cerebral artery (ACA), (3) distal origin right accessory middle cerebral artery (MCA) with bifurcation, (4) proximal origin left accessory MCA with bifurcation, (5) right superior cerebellar artery (SCA) duplication, and (6) left SCA early bifurcation. These variations were found incidentally by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Volume-rendering images of MR angiography were more useful than maximum-intensity-projection images for identifying these variations, especially bilateral acces...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 24, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The muscular branching patterns of the ulnar nerve in fetal forearms
ConclusionWe believe that the information that UN can demonstrate different branching patterns on the forearm can help the surgeons to prevent complications that may develop in potential nerve injury during the selection and transfer of relevant branch. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 23, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Cervicobrachial neuralgia due to vertebral artery loop
Conclusions and discussionVascular precursors disarrangements can lead to a vertebral artery loop in contact with emerging cervical roots and potential clinical impact. This differential diagnosis should be considered for cervico-brachial neuralgia management. Moreover, the present case highlights the key role of a careful preoperative imaging assessment, as well as the need for robust knowledge of anatomy. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 23, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Microsurgical endoscopy-assisted presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approach with mastoid bone drilling: an anatomical laboratory investigation
ConclusionAlthough the presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approach has facilitated with the assistance of endoscope, it has observed that there are still some difficulties, and it has been concluded that the radiological parameters are useful in evaluating the applicability of this surgery. It observed that this surgery can be performed more effectively with combinations. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 22, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A new variety of chondrocoracoideus muscle, or an additional head of pectoralis major muscle
AbstractThe pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles are located in the anterior chest wall. This region is characterized by high morphological variability. During dissection an additional muscle was found, originating from the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle. After fusion it passed into the tendinous part coursing under the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle, then formed a common junction with the short head of the biceps brachii muscle, the distal attachment of which is on the coracoid process. Such an accessory structure could lead to neurovascular compression and cause thoracic outlet syndrome,...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 21, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Aberrant origin of bilateral vertebral arteries associated with bovine aortic arch
ConclusionThis article sheds light on the potential clinical significance of these various types of aortic arch branches. Knowing the exact type of variant is particularly important in patient undergoing management involving carotid and surrounding vessels. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 21, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Bilateral vertebral artery fenestrations in the craniocervical junction region: the clinical role of 3D computed tomography angiography
AbstractFenestration of the vertebral artery (FVA) is a rare occurrence that comprises only 2% of fenestrations formed in the intracranial arteries. Herein, we report a unique case of bilateral FVA in the craniocervical junction (CCJ) region using conventional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA). Compared to MRA, 3D-CTA was more sensitive in delineating the FVAs located in the region. Furthermore, it effectively depicted the relationships between the VAs and surrounding bony structures. The clinical implications of FVAs can be better understood in relation to ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 21, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical and biomechanical study of the inferior extensor retinaculum by shear-wave elastography in healthy adults
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the stiffness of the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) using shear-wave elastography (SWE) in neutral and varus positions in healthy adults, and to assess the reliability and reproducibility of these measurements.MethodsBoth ankles were analyzed by shear-wave elastography (SWE) in 20 healthy patients (10 females/10 males) resting on a hinge support with their ankles in neutral, valgus 20 °, and varus 30° positions. Their stiffness was evaluated by shear-wave speed measured (SWS).ResultsThe median SWS of the IER varies according to the position of the ankle....
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 20, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A comprehensive study and extensive review of morphological variations of liver with new insights
ConclusionThe current study provides a complete understanding and a thorough knowledge of surface morphological variations in liver. We hope that this will be greatly helpful for surgeons and radiologists to avoid possible errors in interpretations, to plan appropriately and assist during liver surgeries and to do radiological interventions. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 19, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Diagnosis of ulnar nerve entrapment anterior to the medial epicondyle by ultrasound elastography and diffusion tensor imaging with fiber tractography: a case report
AbstractUlnar/cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compressive neuropathy of the upper limb. Permanent location of the ulnar nerve anterior to the medial epicondyle is extremely rare, with only five cases reported in the literature. Using ultrasound elastography and diffusion tensor imaging with fiber tractography, we diagnosed a case in which ulnar nerve entrapment was associated with anterior nerve location. Surgical release confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was symptom free 3  months after surgery. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 13, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of views and perceptions of the medical faculty students about distance anatomy education during the COVID-19 pandemic
ConclusionThe COVID-19 pandemic has provided an unexpected experimental environment. The demand for a blended method, which consists of distance (supported by video recordings) theoretical anatomy education and face-to-face practical anatomy education for the post-pandemic period comes to the fore. Distance anatomy education brings some problems with it due to its nature, and it is essential to seek unique solutions to them. Evaluating the perceptions of the parties will play an essential role in solving the problems of distance anatomy education and in the formation of future anatomy education styles. (Source: Surgical an...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 10, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Integration of innovative educational technologies in anatomy teaching: new normal in anatomy education
AbstractCOVID-19 pandemic has created a lot of turmoil in medical teaching, the magnitude of impact is many folds in the subject of anatomy, as it is practical based. A major challenge for anatomy teachers is to replicate the experience of practical exposures. These exposures range from cadaveric dissection to demonstration of bones, museum specimens, and histology slides, where they will have interactive communication with students, and thus help in the enhancement of communication and clinical skills among them. In recent days, anatomy teachers throughout the globe started using various advanced technology to make the te...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 8, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A distal anterior cerebral artery tripod branching to a bihemispheric pericallosal artery
AbstractThe anterior cerebral artery (ACA) branching pattern may be particularly complex and variant including bifurcations, trifurcations or quadrifurcations, thus leading to typical or atypical vessels. The bihemispheric ACA (BhACA) variant crosses the midline to supply the contralateral hemisphere. The current case highlights a left-sided ACA trifurcation into a bihemispheric pericallosal artery, and two ipsilateral atypical arteries: a callosomarginal artery of short course and a left-sided pericallosal artery of an aberrant course into the cingulate sulcus. The depicted trifurcation was characterized as a distal ACA t...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 8, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Identification of novel pulmonary vein nodes as generators of ectopic arrhythmic foci for atrial fibrillation: an immunohistochemical proof
ConclusionPulmonary veins nodes are similar to the specialized cardiac conductive tissue in the histological arrangement of compact and transitional zones, cellular characteristics and the presence of pacemaker channels. They might be the anatomical basis of ectopic arrhythmogenic foci. To our knowledge, these nodes are being described for the first time in human. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 7, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Practice and exploration of the & quot;student-centered & quot; multielement fusion teaching mode in human anatomy
ConclusionThe application of a"student-centered" multielement fusion teaching mode obtained strong approval from the students. This teaching mode not only improved students' interest in learning and increased the interaction between teachers and students as well as between students but also enhanced students' competence and will lay a solid foundation for their future careers. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 7, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Is inadequate anatomical knowledge on the part of physicians hazardous for successful clinical practice?
ConclusionSound knowledge of Human Anatomy is most essential during medical practice for Physicians. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 7, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

An ectopic ureter inserting into epididymis combined with ipsilateral duplex kidney in a boy diagnosed by MRI: report of a rare case
We present the first case of a right ectopic ureter ending in epididymis combined with an ipsilateral complete duplex kidney, presenting with painless right scrotal mass and demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The boy was initially diagnosed as right testicular teratoma by ultrasound, and then underwent surgical treatment. Because of recurrence of right scrotal swelling 1  year later, MR scan was performed. MR images with body coil displayed the entire ectopic ureter, and MR images with small surface coil clearly showed anatomic details of right ureteral ectopia into epididymis. Delayed-enhanced MRI show...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomy education: suddenly back to the future?
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 5, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

“Hammock” suspending the superior ophthalmic vein: a magnetic resonance imaging study
ConclusionsThe hammock suspending the SOV and the septal band connecting the hammock and optic sheath may be structures that loosely anchor the SOV to the orbital fat to maintain a constant SOV flow, in addition to preventing excessive bends and obstructions. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 3, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A safe area for sternal puncture in children: an MSCT study based on sternal development
AbstractPurposeMultislice spiral CT (MSCT) was used to investigate the anatomical characteristics of sternal development, and to provide anatomical basis for sternal puncture in children.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the thoracic MSCT data of 600 children who received thoracic MSCT from January to June 2020 with their age ranging from 1  month to 19 years. The distribution of sternal ossification centers and adjacent tissues and organs was observed. Subcutaneous soft tissue thickness and the distance between the skin and the posterior margin of the sternum were measured in the central areas of sternal manubr...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 1, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Conjoined right hepatic artery from branches of the common hepatic and gastroduodenal arteries: a rare anatomic variant
ConclusionAnatomical variants of the hepatic arterial supply are important to recognize during planning stage arteriography in preparation for Y90 radioembolization. Knowledge of these variants is also important for pre-operative planning. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - January 1, 2022 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphometric analysis of the lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs in relation to abdominal aorta: CT-based study
AbstractPurposeAlthough lumbar discectomy is the most common procedure in spine surgery, reports about anatomical relations between discs and prevertebral vessels are limited. Aim of this research was to investigate morphometric of the lumbar region and the relations between intervertebral discs (IVDs) and abdominal aorta.Methods557 abdominal computed tomography scans were assessed. For each spinal column level from Th12/L1 down to L4/L5, we investigated: intervertebral disc ’s and vertebra’s height, width, length, and distance from aorta or common iliac artery (CIA). Those arteries were also measured in two di...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - December 7, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

What are the retromolar and bifid/trifid mandibular canals as seen on cone-beam computed tomography? Revisiting classic gross anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and correcting terminology
ConclusionWe found that the bifid mandibular canal is an additional intramandibular canal running parallel to the mandibular canal with/without confluence with the main canal through comparison of classifications of BMC/TMC between the radiology and anatomy fields. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - December 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Architecture of the cancellous bone in human proximal tibia based on P45 sectional plastinated specimens
ConclusionThis study provides further accurate anatomical information on the trabeculae of the proximal tibia. The soft structures of knee joint, including the articular cartilage, menisci, and ligaments, and the slanted cortices of the metaphysis are important landmarks for the location of different arrangements of the cancellous architecture. The present results are beneficial for clinical diagnosis and treatment of pathologies of the knee joint, or the establishment of a finite element analysis model of the knee joint. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 22, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphometric analysis of patella and patellar ligament: a cadaveric study to aid patellar tendon grafts
This study aims to obtain detailed morphometric data on the patellar ligament and its localization based on gross anatomical dissections in the adult cadavers.MethodsThe present study consisted of 50 lower limbs from formalin-fixed male adult cadavers aged about 70  years (45–85) belonging to the South Indian population. Total length of the quadriceps tendon, patellar height, patellar ligament height, proximal width, distal width and thickness of the patellar ligament were measured meticulously. Mean, standard deviation, median scores of each parameter were computed for groups using SPSS 16.0. Level of significa...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 22, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Unusual bilateral variation of the flexor digitorum accessorius longus muscle and its relation on tarsal tunnel syndrome
ConclusionThis anatomical documentation provides opportunities for clinicians to consider mechanical influences of the FDAL on plantar foot function and further consider the accessory ankle muscles that have the potential to cause compressive neuropathies such as tarsal tunnel syndrome. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 22, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A rare case report: bilateral occipital artery arising from the vertebral artery
ConclusionTo the best of our knowledge, a case of bilateral OA originating from the VA has not been reported to date. We believe that recognition of this rare variation may contribute to the relevant literature and it is of importance to consider this variation in radiological imaging and surgical procedures involving this region. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 13, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Interclavicularis anticus digastricus muscle in a female body donor: a case report
ConclusionsThe interclavicularis anticus digastricus muscle is a muscular variation of the ventral thoracic wall of unknown prevalence. This variation might be of clinical interest in orthopaedics and thoracic surgery. It is also a vulnerable structure during infraclavicular insertion of a subclavian vein catheter or fractures of the clavicle. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

First dorsal metacarpal artery perforator-based propeller flap: functional anatomy and clinical application in soft-tissue defects of the dorsal hand and digits
ConclusionsThe FDMA perforator-based propeller flap is minimally invasive and technically simple. It is expected to be a new option for hand reconstruction. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 6, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Arnold Kirkpatrick Henry (1886 –1962) and his eponym (Master Knot of Henry): a narrative review
ConclusionOur definitions may assist in determining the precise anatomical boundaries of MKH, and thus facilitate the use of MKH as a surgical landmark. In addition, our modified classification systems covering all variations in the current literature may be helpful for surgeons and anatomists to understand formations of the triangle of Henry, and the long flexor tendons of the lesser toes. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Vascular supply of the column of fornix
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Evaluation of the pulley function of the hamulus of the hamate for the flexor tendons
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anthropometry of the proximal femur and femoral head in children/adolescents using three-dimensional computed tomography-based measurements
AbstractPurposeDefining normal anthropometric ranges of proximal femur and femoral head for each age group in children/adolescents is a necessity when differentiating normal anatomical variants from pathological deformities. Aim of this study is to define a set of normal anthropometric parameters based on 3D-CT measurements in normal asymptomatic children/adolescents and analyse the variations arising depending on age, side, and/or gender.MethodsMorphology of the proximal femur was retrospectively assessed in 170 hips (85 children,  
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Duplication of the external jugular vein: a language barrier of database search in classic anatomical studies
ConclusionsWe have reviewed the literature regarding cases documenting duplication/fenestration of the EJV. As it is often difficult to find recent studies that report on classic anatomical variations, therefore, revisiting older articles and textbooks is necessary for achieving a “comprehensive” review, especially across different languages. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 22, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Aberrant course of the precavernous –cavernous junction of the internal carotid artery
We present an extremely rare case of an aberrant course of the precavernous –cavernous junction of the internal carotid artery (ICA), which was observed by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The patient was a 67-year-old woman with no symptoms related to the anomalous ICA. The anomalous segment of the ICA was stenotic and formed a loop postero-supero-laterally. We found no similar cases in the relevant English-language literature. Segmental agenesis of the ICA with collateral formation, probably via the proximal segment of the primitive trigeminal artery, may be associated with the development of this variation. (S...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 21, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical study between the correlation of the arcuate eminence and the superior semicircular canal
ConclusionThe correlation between the arcuate eminence and the superior semicircular canal is direct only when it is flat (1  mm), being related to peri-labyrinthine cells and/or cancellous bone when the arcuate eminence is prominent or very prominent. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 20, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphometric properties of the fallopian canal: comparison of two nations with different ethnic origins
AbstractPurposeTo determine the widths of fallopian canal segments (labyrinthine segment, geniculate ganglion, tympanic segment mastoid segment and stylomastoid foramen), in two nations with different ethnic origins, and to analyze the differences in between.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed temporal computerized tomographies of 102 individuals including 38 Turks and 64 Syrians. The widths of right and left labyrinthine (LS), tympanic (TS), mastoid (MS), geniculate ganglion (GG) and stylomastoid foramen (SF) segments of the fallopian canal were measured.ResultsThe narrowest segment was LS (right: 1.04  ±&thi...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 18, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Editorial: Upper and lower limbs: clinical and applied anatomy: from acromial arterial rete to arterial anatomy of toe flaps
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 17, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Normal anatomy, variants and factors associated with the cervical vagus nerve topography: a high-resolution ultrasound study
ConclusionAsymmetry in CVN topography is mainly due to the increased incidence of the anterior location of CVN on the left side. Age and anthropometric parameters are different on the left side possibly due to the increased prevalence of left CVN variants. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 15, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The influence of age on the anatomical variability of sciatic nerve divisions in the thigh: an ultrasound study
AbstractPurposeThe Sciatic Nerve Division (SND) into the Common Peroneal Nerve and Tibial Nerve presents a great anatomical variability in its location in the thigh, but the influence of age on it has not been fully addressed.MethodsAnatomical distances from greater trochanter to SND and from SND to popliteal crease were obtained by ultrasound examination in 60 children (age 1 –12 years) and 60 adult patients (age 13–80 years) who were scheduled for programmed surgery. A sciatic nerve/thigh coefficient [Greater Trochanter-SND/(Greater Trochanter-popliteal crease)*100] and its coefficient of variation ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 13, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Intracavernous internal carotid artery-originating ophthalmic artery entering the orbit via the optic canal
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 13, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

“Dissection Educational Videos” (DEVs) and their contribution in anatomy education: a students’ perspective
ConclusionsCOVID-19 pandemic created the temporary need for pure remote education. During lockdown, the use of STTs has significantly increased. A novel teaching modality (DEV series), presented in the study, can be used both as educational material and as a STT. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A rare anatomical variation of the submental artery
AbstractThe submental artery usually runs anteriorly on the inferior surface of the mylohyoid muscle, giving branches to that muscle and to the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, finally supplying the submental skin. Branches of it often perforate the mylohyoid muscle and enter the sublingual space. During a routine anatomy dissection, we encountered a case in which the main trunk of the submental artery perforated the mylohyoid muscle, where the sublingual artery usually runs. No branches coursed anteriorly to supply the submental skin. To our knowledge, this submental artery variation has not been reported in the En...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Unilateral aberrant anatomy of the hypoglossal nerve
ConclusionIdentification, meticulous dissection and preservation of the hypoglossal nerve is essential in lymphadenectomy involving levels I and II. Detailed knowledge of both normal and variant anatomy is fundamental for surgeons, which will allow for identification and protection of important neurovascular structures, thereby minimising surgical morbidity. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the anatomy of the maxillary artery using the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) checklist
ConclusionFrom this study, it was possible to conclude the importance of anatomical knowledge of the maxillary artery, for its application in the clinical study of the head and neck, as well as the need to apply the AQUA checklist in the development of systematic anatomical reviews to ensure accurate reliability and a better assessment of the effect of anatomical publications. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Type 4 persistent primitive olfactory artery associated with contralateral accessory middle cerebral artery arising from the fenestrated segment of the distal anterior cerebral artery
AbstractPersistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) is a rare variation of the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) that generally follows an extreme anteroinferior course and takes a hairpin turn before continuing to the A2 segment of the ACA (type 1). There are four other types of extremely rare variations. The type 4 variation continues to the accessory middle cerebral artery (MCA) instead of the ACA. Only a few cases have been reported. We herein report a case of type 4 PPOA in which the contralateral side of the accessory MCA arose from the fenestrated segment of the distal ACA. No similar cases were found in the ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research