Radiologic evaluation of the fossa navicularis: incidence, morphometric features, and clinical implications
ConclusionsThe incidence of FN is rare; however, it may be responsible for serious consequences by causing infections from the nasopharynx to the intracranial cavity. As far as we know, the distance between the deepest point of FN and the intracranial cavity was measured for the first time in the literature with this study. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 16, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Retroesophageal right subclavian artery associated with a bicarotid trunk and an ectopic origin of vertebral arteries
AbstractA rare branching pattern of the aortic arch in a female cadaver is reported. An aberrant right subclavian artery originated from the distal part of the aortic arch and following a retroesophageal course was recognized. Next to it, from the left to the right, the left subclavian artery and a short bicarotid trunk originating the left and the right common carotid artery were recognized. An unusual origin of the vertebral arteries was also identified. The left vertebral artery originated directly from the aortic arch, whereas the right vertebral artery originated directly from the right common carotid artery. Retroeso...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 15, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Correction to: Duplication of the external jugular vein: a language barrier of database search in classic anatomical studies
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-021-02743-4 (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 15, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphological characteristics of the posterior neck muscles and anatomical landmarks for botulinum toxin injections
ConclusionsAlthough BoNT injection into the posterior neck muscles is challenging, we think that it can be practically and safely applied using the measurements obtained in this study. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 13, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Asymptomatic left isomerism with preduodenal portal vein: computed tomography appearance
AbstractLeft isomerism (polysplenia), one of the two major variants of heterotaxia with right isomerism (asplenia), may be rarely diagnosed in adulthood. Most cases are nevertheless asymptomatic and incidentally detected during imaging or surgery performed for unrelated conditions. We hereby report a case of left isomerism fortuitously diagnosed in a 55-year-old man with unrelated tachy-cardiomyopathy. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomography revealed a typical preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) associated with a large series of other occult anatomic variations comprising: polysplenia, agenesis of both pancreatic body and tail, c...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 13, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Persistent primitive olfactory artery associated with early bifurcated accessory anterior cerebral artery
AbstractFive types of persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA), a rare variation of the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA), have been reported. Type 1 is most common, generally following an extreme anteroinferior course and taking a hairpin turn before continuing to the distal A2 segment of the ACA. Triple ACAs are a common variation of the A2 segment of the ACA, and a centrally located artery is called an “accessory ACA” or “median artery of the corpus callosum”. This artery usually does not bifurcate or else bifurcates distally and continues to the pericallosal artery. We herein report a ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 6, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Compartments of the antebrachial fascia of the forearm: clinically relevant ultrasound, anatomical and histological findings
ConclusionThese results demonstrate that high-definition ultrasound enables us to locate the antebrachial fascia and particular muscles with a distinct relationship with neurovascular structures. This helps better identify these structures, facilitating diagnosis of any pathology in the area, with potential therapeutic and clinical applications. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of iliac venous variations with multidetector computed tomography
AbstractPurposeThere are many variations of the iliac vein, and it is aimed to evaluate these variations using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).MethodsPelvic MDCT images of 1071 adult patients (576 males; 495 females; age range 18 –94 years; mean age 50.3 years) were retrospectively evaluated. Reconstruction images of the pelvic region in sagittal and coronal planes were evaluated. Except for the usual iliac venous anatomy, all types of iliac vein connections were defined as “iliac venous variation”.ResultsOf the 1071 patients, 84.2% were considered as type 1 (usual). Different variation...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The additional role of virtual to traditional dissection in teaching anatomy: a randomised controlled trial
ConclusionThe combination of virtual to traditional gross dissection resulted in a significant improvement of second-year medical students ’ learning outcomes. It could be of help in maximizing the impact of practical dissection, overcoming the contraction of economic resources, and the shortage of available bodies. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Effectiveness of blended learning in radiological anatomy for first year undergraduate medical students
ConclusionA significant improvement in the knowledge of radiological anatomy was noted after exposure to five blended learning modules of radiological anatomy. The modules were well received by the students. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of attitudes and opinions of medical faculty students against the use of cadaver in anatomy education and investigation of the factors affecting their emotional responses related thereto
ConclusionRepeated encounters with cadavers were found to have reduced the negative emotions felt by the students, but have negatively affected the thoughts of the students in respect of donating their bodies. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Three-dimensional reconstruction of the upper limb from anatomical slices of the Korean visible human: simulation and educational application
ConclusionThis result is the Diva3d® virtual dissection table, a powerful educational tool for anatomists and students. It could also be the basis of future simulation tools for hand surgeons training. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Introducing free response short answer questions in anatomy spot tests: experiment study
ConclusionThe current study found that the FRSAQs spot test had a significant impact on students ’ performance, and it was considered an ideal, flexible, and stress-free assessment method when compared to the traditional spot test. Implementation of the strategy in teaching and in assessment is recommended. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Unusual long survival in a case of heterotaxy and polysplenia
We present the case of a 59-year-old female patient with invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast (luminal A type) and CT findings of heterotaxy syndrome with polysplenia. The most remarkable anomalies identified were a left inferior vena cava draining into the hemiazygos vein, absent inferior vena cava at the thoracic level, and hepatic veins directly draining into the right atrium. Moreover, an atrial septal defect was identified, explaining the pulmonary hypertension of unknown cause previously detected in the patient. The relevance of this case lies in the unusual anatomical abnormalities found and the large patie...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Nothing unusual: bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves have followed the rule
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The influences of porus acusticus internus on ethnicity and importance in preoperative and intraoperative approaches
AbstractPurposeThe influences of porus acusticus internus (PAI)  on ethnicity and differences between populations have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we performed this study to elucidate further the relationship between the different morphologies of PAI and ethnicity and to discuss their effects on surgery.MethodsOne hundred twenty dry adult human temporal bones (61 male, 59 female) were investigated in the study. Their horizontal diameter (HD), vertical diameter (VD), shape, prevalence of the shapes of PAI, and the distance from the sulcus for the sigmoid sinus (SSS), sulcus for  superior petrosal sinu...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 30, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Gracilis and semitendinosus moment arm decreased by fascial tissue release after hamstring harvesting surgery: a key parameter to understand the peak torque obtained to a shallow angle of the knee
ConclusionMoment arm modifications by paratenons and the loose connective tissue release are essential to understand the peak torque obtained to a shallow angle.Level of evidence: Basic science study, biomechanics. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 23, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The biomechanical role of the lacertus fibrosus of the biceps brachii Muscle
AbstractPurposeThe lacertus fibrosus (LF) is involved in various surgeries. However, the biomechanical contribution of the LF remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the lacertus fibrosus on the elbow and forearm kinematics and on the biceps brachii muscle lever arms.MethodsThis biomechanical study was performed on seven fresh-frozen upper limbs of cadavers. Elbow flexion, forearm supination, and biceps brachii muscle lever arms were analyzed in the intact conditions (I) and after superficial (R) and deep part (R2) of the lacertus fibrosus release, respectively.ResultsElbow flexion shows a signi...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 22, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Crossed anterior cerebral circulation in the anterior communicating artery complex, first case report with angiographic evidence
ConclusionCerebral diagnostic angiography has become more available and frequent because of the rising in endovascular tools to treat stroke patients. Considering this new variation and others is important to discard pathology. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 22, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Prevalence and pubo-umbilical index of pyramidalis muscle in a select Kenyan population
ConclusionPyramidalis is a highly prevalent muscle in the Kenyan population and, hence, could be exploited for its clinical and surgical utilities. The muscle terminates largely within the 2nd quarter (25 –50%) of the infra-umbilical linea alba measured from pubic symphysis. Its pubo-umbilical index would be useful to surgeons making midline infra-umbilical incisions and performing procedures involving the muscle. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 20, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

New insights in anatomical education
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 20, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

MDCT evaluation of pancreatic contour variations in head, neck, body and tail: surgical and radiological significance
ConclusionPancreatic contour variations are not very uncommon in daily practice. Knowledge of these variations is important for surgeons, radiologists and avoids misjudgement of normal pancreatic tissue as tumor or lymph node especially on unenhanced or single phase MDCT. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 18, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Atypical branching of the musculocutaneous and median nerves with associated unusual innervation of muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm: case report and plea for extension of the current classification system
ConclusionThere exist only few cases in the literature describing similar variations, but the present arrangement has not yet been reported to the best of our knowledge. With the proposed extension to the existing classification system, we aim to provide clearer orientation in the variability of the musculocutaneous and median nerves. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

An anatomical investigation of the proximal vertebral arteries (V1, V2) in a select South African population
ConclusionsThe baseline data established in this study regarding the diameter, variant origin, and level of entry into the transverse foramen will assist neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists in interpreting, diagnosing, and planning and executing various vascular procedures and treatment of pathology in the vicinity of the VA. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Relationship between the posterior septal artery and the upper edge of the choana
ConclusionAlthough the distance between the choanal edge and PSA is 8.5  mm on average, due to its variability, a distance of at least 12.45 mm for the opening of the sphenoidal sinus in the ETA approach should be considered as a safety margin. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Utilizing sectioned and segmented images of Visible Human datasets, comment on “ Peeled images and sectioned images from real-color volume models of foot ”
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The clinical anatomy of variations of the pectoralis minor
AbstractShoulder pathology is a very common medical presentation and can be due to anatomical variations. Therefore, knowledge of variants is important for the clinician treating patients with such complaints so that misdiagnosis is minimized and iatrogenic injury prevented. A review of the literature was performed of the variant anatomy of the pectoralis minor muscle. The aim of this review is to better inform clinicians who might treat patients with shoulder pathology so that if identified, variants of the pectoralis minor muscle are better appreciated. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Effect of clival bone growth on the localization of the abducens nerve at the petroclival region: a postmortem anatomical study
This study used 12 pediatric and 17 adult heads obtained from the autopsy. The length and width of the clivus and the length of the  petrosphenoidal ligaments (PSLs) were measured. The ratio of the length and width of the clivus was accepted as the clival index (CI). The localization of the AN at the petroclival region below the PSL, classified as lateral and medial, were recorded.ResultsThe average length of the clivus was 26.92  ± 2.88 mm in the Pediatric Group, and 40.66 ± 4.17 mm in the Adult Group (p 
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The practical examination types (spot test and slide test) of gross anatomy course in faculty of medicine: a simultaneous evaluation of the aspect of student success
This study aimed to compare the students' scores of the spot (spotter/classical/traditional/tag/ring/bell-ringer) test (3D environment) performed in the laboratory with the slide test (gross anatomy images) (2D environment) in the class. The observation of our department regarding both types for practical examination was reported, in terms of exam marks of the students. Both are preferred as the practical examination types for gross anatomy course our in medical faculty.MethodsThe 29 blocks' scores in 5  years (2013/2014–2017/2018) belonging to first- and second-year medical students' spot tests and slide tests ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Two novel hepatic arterial variations in a living liver donor detected by multidetector computed tomography angiography
ConclusionsThe preoperative knowledge of liver blood supply has great importance in planning surgery and transplantation. CTA, reformate and reconstruction techniques allow for the evaluation of difficult and complex anatomic variations. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 8, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Perceptions of porta-celiac vascular models for hepatic surgery and their use in residency training
ConclusionThe plastic-like material presenting the hepatic vascularity enables the visualization of the origin, pattern, shape, and angle of the branches with appropriate spatial perception thus making it well-structured. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 7, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Calvarial diploic venous channels: delineation with maximal intensity projection technique
ConclusionsThe developed CDVC pathways may be characterized by morphological variability and fenestrations. Thin-sliced, contrast-enhanced MRI is useful to depict diploic veins, while MIP images allow for better appreciation of the entire course of the developed CDVC pathways. Traumatic and intraoperative disconnection between the dura mater overlying the dural sinuses and the adjacent inner table of the skull can cause epidural venous bleeding. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 7, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The arcade of Frohse: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe arcade of Frohse is a commonly found structure in adults and thoughtful knowledge of its texture and morphology is especially useful in neurology, neurosurgery, orthopedics, trauma surgery and hand surgery, because it is considered to be the most common source of compression for the deep branch of the radial nerve. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 6, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Visually memorable neuroanatomy for beginners
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 6, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphological speculation of the MHPD and related clinical projections
ConclusionsThe embryonic origin of the mesopancreas and the surgical procedures were reviewed and inspected based on the proposition of MHPD and above results. We hope that this study could stir up our interest in the advancement of imaging diagnoses and minimally invasive surgical treatment of pancreas. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Radiological evaluation of the localization of sympathetic ganglia in the cervical region
ConclusionVariations in the localizations of superior and middle cervical ganglia should be taken into consideration prior to surgical procedures planned for this region. This study sheds light on high-risk zones in the surgical site and could guide surgeons to better understand the location of cervical sympathetic ganglia before surgical planning. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Impact of intertendinous connections between the flexor digitorum brevis and longus on percutaneous tenotomy for the treatment of claw toes: an anatomic and ultrasound study
ConclusionThe presence of this intertendinous connection leads, in the case of isolated tenotomy of the FDL, to equivalent transfer of the latter to the FDB. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A case of reversed intestinal rotation revealed by volvulus in adult: anatomo-radiological correlations
We report a case of reversed rotation (RR) of the midgut, the rarest form of intestinal malrotation (IMR), revealed by a chronic volvulus, in a 42-year-old woman presenting with episodes of abdominal pain occurring after heavy meals. The complete preoperative diagnosis was obtained by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Classical signs of volvulus were associated with typical findings of RR comprising an unusual position of the third duodenum in front of the mesenteric vessels and a very unusual location of the transverse colon behind these vessels. Complete absence of fixation of the right colon allowed secondary ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 3, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Coexistence of two accessory flexor pollicis longus heads or coexistence of two-headed flexor pollicis longus with an unrecognized anatomical structure?
This report presents a morphological variation of the FPL (additional head in proximal attachment and bifurcated tendinous insertion in distal attachment) and an unrecognized structure that has not so far been described in the literature. This structure originates in six heads (attached to the FPL or interosseous membrane) that merge together, and inserts on to the FPL. All the variations noted have clinical significance, ranging from potential nerve compression to prevention of tendon rupture. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - March 3, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Cases of high lying azygos arch and its embryological consideration
ConclusionThis variation in the location of the azygos arch can mimic pathological lesion on plain radiographs, and, therefore, it is important to be aware of high-lying azygos arch. Our findings show that the azygos arch may have possibly migrated downward during embryological development. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 21, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A report of a case: unusual portosystemic shunt in a hernia sac who has portal hypertension due to cirrhosis
ConclusionsA thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy, most frequent variations and congenital or acquired anomalies of the spleno-portal axis has great importance for hepatopancreaticobiliary and emergency surgical procedures. It is, therefore, essential for preoperative evaluation of the anatomical details of the spleno-portal venous axis and should be evaluated with imaging methods in detail. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 21, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Subcochlear canaliculus patterns in the pediatric and adult population: radiological findings and surgical implications
ConclusionsThere is a constant increase in pneumatization of the subcochlear canaliculus from 0 to 19  years and then a progressive decrease. This discovery has relevant surgical implications and has to be borne in mind in particular for cholesteatoma surgery and cochlear implantation surgery in the age groups in which the subcochlear canaliculus is highly pneumatized. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 20, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Basivertebral foramina of true vertebrae: morphometry, topography and clinical considerations
AbstractPurposeBasivertebral foramina (BVF) are openings of the posterior wall of vertebral body (VB) that lead to basivertebral canals (BVC), where homonymous neurovascular bundle courses. BVF  and BVC are implicated with spinal fractures, vertebral augmentation and basivertebral nerve radiofrequency ablation. Despite their essential clinical impact, knowledge of BVF precise anatomy is scarce. The current study describes in detail the BVF typical morphological and topographical anatomy, morphometry and variants.MethodsIn total, 1561 dried true vertebrae of 70 Greek spines of known gender and age were examined. B...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 17, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Thoracic and lumbar spine pedicle morphology in Japanese patients
ConclusionOur measurement analysis showed that pedicle morphological parameters in Japanese patients showed tendency to be smaller to those found in other studies, and particularly in female patients, they were statistically significantly smaller. Adequate transpedicular instrumentation for Japanese patients will require smaller size pedicle-related devices that will match our anatomical findings to achieve safe device placement. In addition, serving ethnically non-homogenous patient population can require further to spinal morphometric for precise device selection. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 16, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Two muscular variations in the elbow associated with the anterior interosseous nerve
AbstractThe coexistence of different muscular-neurovascular variations is of significant clinical importance. A male cadaver, 76  years old at death, was subjected to routine anatomical dissection; the procedure was performed for research and teaching purposes at the Department of Anatomical Dissection and Donation, Medical University of Lodz. The right forearm and hand were dissected using standard techniques according to a strictly specified protocol. The presence accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus may potentially compress the anterior interosseous nerve. The present case report describes a rare variant of...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 15, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Variations in the branching patterns of pulmonary artery during thoracoscopic pulmonary resection
ConclusionThis paper, providing a summary of vascular anomalies identified during major lung resections, could help surgeons avoid intraoperative complications, especially during minimally invasive procedures where the visual field is more restricted than open surgery. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 15, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Comparison of the insertion patterns of the extensor hallucis longus muscle in Korean focusing on the regional difference
ConclusionThe findings of this study indicate that there was a higher incidence of the accessory tendon(s) of the EHL muscle in Koreans and the distributed insertion patterns of the EHL muscle was significantly different between Jeju islanders and peninsular Koreans. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The posterior horn of the medial and lateral meniscus both reduce the effective posterior tibial slope: a radiographic MRI study
ConclusionsThe results of this study demonstrated a significant reduction in posterior tibial bone slope by the posterior horns of both the medial and lateral meniscus, from a mean of ( −) 1° to 2° to a more horizontal anterior slope. The posterior bone slope was larger in the medial compartment by 1°, resulting in a smaller slope reduction in the lateral compartment. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A proposal for a new classification of coracobrachialis muscle morphology
ConclusionAn adapted classification is needed for all clinicians working in this area, as well as for anatomists. The CRM demonstrates morphological variability in both its proximal and distal attachments, as well as the variable course of the MCN relative to the CRM.What is known about this subject"and" What this study adds to existing knowledgeNot much is known about the variability of coracobrachialis muscle. The present paper introduces a completely new classification, both clinical and anatomical. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery associated with lung cancer: analysis of operation strategy based on digital preoperative planning and surgical simulation with three-dimensional visualization
This article provides insights into the operative tolerability and outcomes after lung surgery in patients with UAPA, with an analysis of the operation strategy based on digital preoperative planning and surgical simulation with three-dimensional (3D) visualization, which may enable lung cancer surgery to be performed safely. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - February 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research