Editorial: Upper and lower limbs: clinical and applied anatomy: from acromial arterial rete to arterial anatomy of toe flaps
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 17, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Normal anatomy, variants and factors associated with the cervical vagus nerve topography: a high-resolution ultrasound study
ConclusionAsymmetry in CVN topography is mainly due to the increased incidence of the anterior location of CVN on the left side. Age and anthropometric parameters are different on the left side possibly due to the increased prevalence of left CVN variants. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 15, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The influence of age on the anatomical variability of sciatic nerve divisions in the thigh: an ultrasound study
AbstractPurposeThe Sciatic Nerve Division (SND) into the Common Peroneal Nerve and Tibial Nerve presents a great anatomical variability in its location in the thigh, but the influence of age on it has not been fully addressed.MethodsAnatomical distances from greater trochanter to SND and from SND to popliteal crease were obtained by ultrasound examination in 60 children (age 1 –12 years) and 60 adult patients (age 13–80 years) who were scheduled for programmed surgery. A sciatic nerve/thigh coefficient [Greater Trochanter-SND/(Greater Trochanter-popliteal crease)*100] and its coefficient of variation ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 13, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Intracavernous internal carotid artery-originating ophthalmic artery entering the orbit via the optic canal
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 13, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

“Dissection Educational Videos” (DEVs) and their contribution in anatomy education: a students’ perspective
ConclusionsCOVID-19 pandemic created the temporary need for pure remote education. During lockdown, the use of STTs has significantly increased. A novel teaching modality (DEV series), presented in the study, can be used both as educational material and as a STT. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A rare anatomical variation of the submental artery
AbstractThe submental artery usually runs anteriorly on the inferior surface of the mylohyoid muscle, giving branches to that muscle and to the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, finally supplying the submental skin. Branches of it often perforate the mylohyoid muscle and enter the sublingual space. During a routine anatomy dissection, we encountered a case in which the main trunk of the submental artery perforated the mylohyoid muscle, where the sublingual artery usually runs. No branches coursed anteriorly to supply the submental skin. To our knowledge, this submental artery variation has not been reported in the En...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Unilateral aberrant anatomy of the hypoglossal nerve
ConclusionIdentification, meticulous dissection and preservation of the hypoglossal nerve is essential in lymphadenectomy involving levels I and II. Detailed knowledge of both normal and variant anatomy is fundamental for surgeons, which will allow for identification and protection of important neurovascular structures, thereby minimising surgical morbidity. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the anatomy of the maxillary artery using the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) checklist
ConclusionFrom this study, it was possible to conclude the importance of anatomical knowledge of the maxillary artery, for its application in the clinical study of the head and neck, as well as the need to apply the AQUA checklist in the development of systematic anatomical reviews to ensure accurate reliability and a better assessment of the effect of anatomical publications. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Type 4 persistent primitive olfactory artery associated with contralateral accessory middle cerebral artery arising from the fenestrated segment of the distal anterior cerebral artery
AbstractPersistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) is a rare variation of the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) that generally follows an extreme anteroinferior course and takes a hairpin turn before continuing to the A2 segment of the ACA (type 1). There are four other types of extremely rare variations. The type 4 variation continues to the accessory middle cerebral artery (MCA) instead of the ACA. Only a few cases have been reported. We herein report a case of type 4 PPOA in which the contralateral side of the accessory MCA arose from the fenestrated segment of the distal ACA. No similar cases were found in the ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 4, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Digitalization in education during the COVID-19 pandemic: emergency distance anatomy education
ConclusionTo increase the efficiency and quality of distance anatomy education for students studying in the field of health, it is necessary to take into account the feedback received from the students and to make adjustments in the curriculum and content by considering the feedback. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 2, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical study of the thoracic duct and its clinical implications in thoracic and pediatric surgery, a 70 cases cadaveric study
ConclusionThese results favor mass ligation of the thoracic duct at levels T9 –T10 between the right border of the aorta and the azygos vein, eventually including the latter. To prevent iatrogenic postoperative chylothorax in aortic arch anomalies with vascular ring surgery, we recommend remaining strictly lateral to the left subclavian artery at the level of T3 to reach th e aortic arch anomalies with vascular ring at T4. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 31, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Fetal development and growth of the human erector spinae with special reference to attachments on the surface aponeurosis
ConclusionThe classical model of TS and LO development does not recognize the essential role of the aponeurosis identified here. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 31, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The “complete common mesentery” and the agenesis of Toldt’s and Fredet’s fasciae
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 31, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Dual laryngeal reinnervation in bilateral vocal fold paralysis: anatomical pitfalls
ConclusionSeveral anatomical pitfalls, including intra-operative choices and variants of the donor nerves, but also the challenging intra-laryngeal dissection of the inferior laryngeal nerve need to be solved. A successful laryngeal reinnervation still needs further studies for a simplified procedure. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 27, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical consideration of deep calf veins: application to catheter-directed thrombolysis
ConclusionsThe distal posterior tibial vein and peroneal vein are not recommended due to their smaller surface areas and also the anatomical variations therein. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 25, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Abdomen and thorax clinical anatomy: from viscera morphology and vascularization to epidural and caudal anesthetic techniques
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 24, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Mediastinal anatomical landmarks, their variants and tips for video-assisted thoracoscopic navigation during oesophageal extirpation
ConclusionThe proposed algorithm for topographic and anatomical navigation based on the key anatomical landmarks in the posterior mediastinum provides safe performance of the video-assisted thoracoscopic extirpation of the esophagus in the prone position. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 23, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Human orbital muscle in adult cadavers and near-term fetuses: its bony attachments and individual variation identified by immunohistochemistry
ConclusionsThe lesser wing attachment of the OM seemed to establish after birth. A growing common origin of the three recti was likely involved in “stealing” the near-term OM attachment from the ethmoid. The strong immunoreactivity of remnant-like OM in the elderly suggests that OM contraction is still likely to occur against the increased flow through a thin vein. However, the contraction might have no clinical significance. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 21, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Lacunae regarding dearth of dissection-based teaching during COVID-19 pandemic: how to cope with it?
ConclusionIncorporation and implementation of these interventions within the realm of online anatomy education programs during COVID-19 pandemic can possibly contribute towards desirable learning outcomes. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 20, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Nerve transfer in the spastic upper limb: anatomical feasibility study
ConclusionThis study shows that nerve transfers from the BR to the ECRL are anatomically feasible. It may open the way to an additional therapeutic approach for spastic upper limbs. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 18, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Prevalence of the fabella and its general characteristics in Turkish population with magnetic resonance imaging
In this study, the prevalence, gender differences, localization and size of the fabella were determined in a Turkish population to make a comparison with other population studies in the literature.Materials and methodsThousand patients (500 females, 500 males) who underwent knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with fabella in all three planes, including axial, sagittal and coronal evaluated, retrospectively. All MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5  T unit. Patients with a history of trauma or operation, motion artifacts and patients who could not be evaluated due to image quality were excluded. Anteroposterio...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 16, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Can low-fidelity models be effective anatomy teaching tools?
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 14, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of iliocapsularis muscle: an important landmark in orthopedic surgery
ConclusionThe anatomy of IC is becoming more relevant with the increasing use of anterior approaches to hip surgery. With attachments to the AIIS, the lesser trochanter as well as the length of the capsule, this muscle is an important landmark in total hip arthroplasty.Level of evidenceLevel V (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 12, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

True terminal pentafurcation of the external carotid artery and terminal trifurcation of the contralateral one, occipitoauricular trunk, retropharyngeal internal carotid artery
AbstractThe external carotid artery (ECA) commonly ascends in the retromandibular fossa and bifurcates posteromedial to the neck of the mandible into the maxillary (MA) and superficial temporal (STA) arteries. In its course in the neck, the ECA gives off the superior thyroid, lingual (LA), facial (FA), ascending pharyngeal (APA), occipital (OA) and posterior auricular (PAA) arteries. When the computed tomography angiograms of a 65-year-old male were evaluated, extremely rare anatomical variations of both ECAs were found. The right ECA trifurcated terminally at the neck of the mandible into the MA, STA and middle meningeal ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 11, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical locations of the motor endplates of sartorius muscle for botulinum toxin injections in treatment of muscle spasticity
ConclusionsThese locations, corresponding to the locations of maximum arborization, are suggested as the most suggestive points for botulinum neurotoxin injection. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 11, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Number of fiber bundles in the fetal anterior talofibular ligament
ConclusionThe present results suggest that the three fiber bundles of the structure of the ATFL may be an innate structure. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 11, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Radiology perspective on anatomy teaching in Australia and New Zealand
AbstractIntroductionAnatomy pedagogy and radiologists involvement in teaching undergraduate anatomy varies widely. We surveyed radiologists practising in Australia and New Zealand to establish their opinions on their own experience of undergraduate anatomy and their view on the role of radiology in anatomy teaching. We also sought their views on the role of radiologists in anatomy teaching.MethodsA short survey was designed on the Survey Monkey platform using the website surveymonkey.com. The survey was distributed to members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANCZR) as a link attached to a m...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomy education during COVID-19; final year medical student ’s perspective
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 7, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical variations of the mandibular canal and their clinical implications in dental practice: a literature review
ConclusionsThe anatomical variations of the mandibular canal have a high incidence, so knowing them is of vital importance both for clinicians and anatomy professors who provide morphological training. We believe that research should focus on describing and diagnosing the causes of these anatomical variations. That said, there is also a continuous challenge for all health professionals to learn about the different anatomical variations that the human body presents and how these can affect clinical practice. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Arachnoid granulations bulging into the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, straight sinus, and confluens sinuum: a magnetic resonance imaging study
ConclusionsBulging AGs may more frequently found in the TS. Thin-sliced, contrast MRI is useful for delineating AGs. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Accessory middle meningeal artery or anastomosis between the ophthalmic and the middle meningeal arteries? On the correct way to make a proper identification
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 1, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Variation in spatial distance between the lumbar interlaminar window and intervertebral disc space during flexion –extension
ConclusionThese findings demonstrated level-specific changes in ILH and DpLID during flexion –extension. The data may provide a better understanding of the spatial relationship between lumbar interlaminar space and IDS, and aid the development of segment-specific treatment for PED-IL. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 30, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical implication of less occurrence of inferior oblique muscle entrapment in orbital floor trapdoor fracture
AbstractPurposeTo examine the anatomy of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle and its surrounding structures to clarify why IO muscle entrapment develops less in orbital floor trapdoor fractures.MethodsComputed tomographic (CT) images on the unaffected sides were obtained from 64 patients with unilateral orbital fractures. On coronal planes, presence or absence of an infraorbital groove below the IO muscle was confirmed. At the level of the medial margin of the infraorbital groove/canal, the distance from the orbital floor to the IO muscle (IO-floor distance), the thickness of the orbital floor, and the shortest distance from ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 27, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The influence of dissection on clinical anatomical knowledge for surgical needs
ConclusionDissections support and improve the required knowledge for surgical modules. For the visceral surgical module, students dissecting the region prior to the module greatly benefited. Therefore, entire human body dissection assumes to be preferable. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 26, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A comprehensive study of right and left inferior phrenic artery variations in 1000 patients with multidetector computed tomography angiography: an important study for HCC
ConclusionFifty-two different types of variations in the combined origin of the inferior phrenic arteries were described in this study for the first time in the literature. Awareness of the anatomic variations in the IPAs, which is critical for hepatocellular carcinoma origins, may benefit various clinical procedures, such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, organ transplantations, laparoscopic surgical procedures, and radiological procedures. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 23, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Google trends in “anatomy”: pre-pandemic versus during COVID-19 pandemic
ConclusionThe search trend for pre-pandemic and pandemic period was similar with overall lower RSV during 2020, where it noticeably decreased during the initial phase of lockdown, i.e. in the month of March. As the whole world is still in the COVID-19 pandemic era, the future studies may report the google trends once the pandemic is over and may compare the post-pandemic trend for the same. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 22, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Correction to: Characterization of the mechanical properties of human parietal bones preserved in modified larssen solution, formalin and as fresh frozen
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 22, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Well-known and less well-known anatomical structures of the head, neck, and trunk: imaging and surgical applications
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 21, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Marios Loukas, R. Shane Tubbs Peter Abrahams, Stephen Carmichael, Thomas Gest: Gray ’s Anatomy review 3rd edition
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 20, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The level of bifurcation of peroneal artery and its implications for posterolateral approach to the ankle: a CT angiography study
ConclusionThe bifurcation of the peroneal artery takes place at lower level compared to previously published studies and consequently extreme caution should be exercised when performing the posterolateral approach to the ankle. This study adds to the understanding of the relevant vascular anatomy of the region and assists in performing the posterolateral approach to the ankle with safety. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 17, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Inverted deltoid posterior cruciate ligament femoral insertion accompanied with medial synovial fold: a case of a complex posterior cruciate ligament anatomical variation recalcitrant to conservative treatment
ConclusionThe current study presented a rare and complex anatomical variation of the PCL that was symptomatic and recalcitrant to conservative treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the variant morphology of the PCL, and arthroscopy provides the definite treatment. This case report may be useful for orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists to consider anatomical PCL variations during differential diagnosis in patients with non-specific clinical presentation and findings. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 14, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Classification by degree of twisted structure of the fetal Achilles tendon
ConclusionsThe twisted structure of the Achilles tendon can be classified as early as the second trimester and is similar to that seen in adults. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 14, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A comprehensive morphometric analysis of crista galli for sex determination with a novel morphological classification on computed tomography images
ConclusionThe height, length, and width measurements of CG on PNCT images and the new morphological types recommended in this study can be used in the determination of gender with high accuracy rates. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Three-dimensional morphologic classifications and analysis of canal isthmuses in permanent molars
ConclusionThe three-dimensional classification of isthmuses according to the boundary characteristics provides a comprehensive picture of the isthmus in molars. Their corresponding distributions in different molars, location in roots, and canal configurations will be helpful in predicting the type of isthmus based on the tooth position and canal configurations. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 10, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The evaluation of superior semicircular canal bone thickness and radiological patterns in relation to age and gender
ConclusionThere was no significant relationship between SSC bone thickness with age and gender. The radiological patterns of SSC were not associated with age and gender. Radiologists evaluating the head and neck region for various reasons should be aware of these structures and report not only the SSC dehiscence but also the papyraceous pattern. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 9, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical basis of a pedicled cuboid bone graft based on the lateral tarsal artery for talar avascular necrosis
ConclusionA vascularized pedicled cuboid bone graft based on the lateral tarsal artery has clinical utility for early-stage talar avascular necrosis. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 7, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

An anatomical and histological study of mental nerve branches to the inferior labial glands
ConclusionThe inferior labial glands were innervated by small branches of the mental nerve to the lower lip. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 7, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Lower limb: from the Pacionian corpuscles to the acetabular version
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 7, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The ulnar interosseous tuberosity exists: a radiological and descriptive cadaveric study
We report the existence of an interosseous tuberosity on the interosseous border of the ulnar shaft that we have named the “tuberositas interossea ulnarii” (TIU).MethodsFirst, we analyzed all side view X-rays of the forearm in neutral rotation, as well as forearm CT scans carried out during a 1-year period in our hospital. On these radiographic examinations, we evaluated the presence or absence of the TIU, its length, the thickness of the interosseous cortex at its level, above and below compared with anterior, posterior, and lateral bone cortices. In the second part of the study, we dissected cadaveric forearm...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 6, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Using 320-detector row computed tomography angiography to investigate the arterial anatomy of the toe flaps on living humans
ConclusionThe 320-CTA provided proper preoperative images in two and three dimensions, and helped surgeons to establish a preoperative surgical plan, thus increasing the success rate of toe transfer surgery. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - July 5, 2021 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research