Interaction effect of tegmen tympani and superior semicircular canal statuses on the thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa: a cross-sectional descriptive study
ConclusionsThere is an interaction effect of the statuses of both TT and SSC on the thickness of the RGF, instead of an independent effect of the TT status. When RGF dehiscence is found, TT and SSC statuses should be assessed, to discard associated dehiscences. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 22, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Arterial vascularization of the right colon with implications for surgery
ConclusionsThree arteries emerging from the superior mesenteric artery exist: the ICA, the RCA and the MCA. The ICA and the MCA are the most constant. Knowledge of this vascular anatomy is essential for performing right-sided colectomies. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 21, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Fluid distribution in ankle tendon sheaths in healthy volunteers: MRI findings
ConclusionFluid is common in the retro- and inframalleolar parts of the medial tendons. Fluid is virtually absent in the peroneal tendons and anterior tendon sheaths in normal volunteers. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Quantitative localization of the entry point of the lateral ascending branch of the anterior circumflex humeral artery: a high definition CT-scan radiological study
ConclusionUnnecessary procedures to the proximal biceps, aiming to prevent chronic pain, should be avoided in fracture fixation as they would affect a significant source of blood supply to the humeral head. These findings could help surgeons protect the only vascular supply they can during the fixation of proximal humeral fractures, when using the anterior or antero-lateral approaches. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Unilateral segmental agenesis of the vertebral artery at the C2 level
ConclusionWe present an observation of segmental VA agenesis. This variant is consistent with the developmental history of the VA. It appears exceptional but is more likely underappreciated. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 16, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Defining the shape of the scapulothoracic gliding surface
ConclusionThe STGS of the upper thoracic wall (2 –5) is more spherical shaped than the STGS of the lower thoracic wall (rib 5–8). (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 15, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Os odontoideum: diagnosis and role of imaging
ConclusionRadiographically, os odontoideum is defined as an independent ossicle of variable size with smooth circumferential cortical margins separated from the axis. Imaging can be used to assess atlanto-axial instability, associated normal or abnormal anatomical structures and guide surgical therapy. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 15, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Incidence of symptomatic os trigonum among nonathletic patients with ankle sprain
ConclusionOs trigonum syndrome should be suspected in nonathletic patients with an ankle sprain unresponsive to standard treatment. About 1.1% of acute ankle sprain patients develop an os trigonum syndrome. This finding can help identify the source of a patient ’s symptoms, leading to an accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment and reducing the potential chronic symptoms. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 14, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Model pedagogy of human anatomy in medical education
ConclusionsThe evolved pedagogical model of anatomy in the present study aims at sufficient delivery and acquisition of anatomical knowledge if applied, not only to curb failure cases and, consequently, litigations but also to boost the confidence of trainees, patients and society on health care system. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 14, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Canalis sinuosus: anatomical variation or structure?
ConclusionAs CS was frequently found in our sample, it can be considered an anatomical structure, and as such, it is fundamental that the dentist requests a CBCT examination before performing any invasive procedure in the maxillary region to preserve this important structure. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Carotid-anterior cerebral artery (ACA) anastomosis associated with azygos ACA and ophthalmic artery arising from the middle meningeal artery: a case report
We report a case diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography in which right carotid-ACA anastomosis was associated with an azygos ACA and the right ophthalmic artery originated from the middle meningeal artery. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 10, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Myositis ossificans traumatica of the piriformis muscle: a rare mature case in an adult African male
AbstractMyositis ossificans traumatica (MOT) is a common form of heterotopic ossification associated to trauma. Rare mature manifestations and topographically atypical presentations of MOT are often misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. This case study discusses a rare, mature case of MOT of the piriformis muscle, potentially clinically associated with piriformis syndrome. The ossification was observed on a dry sacral bone of an adult skeleton belonging to a South African male during routine inventory of the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons, the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. The MOT was located on the...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - October 4, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The ophthalmic artery: a new variant involving two branches from the supracavernous internal carotid artery
ConclusionsA heretofore undocumented instance of ophthalmic artery duplication is presented. Knowledge of such variations is important for the planning of endovascular treatments and the comprehension of unusual angiographic images. Such fine arterial variants may very well be frequent, but difficult to demonstrate on simple 2D angiographies. Multiplanar reconstructions of 3D angiography data make it possible to diagnose rare, but embryologically predictable arterial variants. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 30, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Os calcaneus secundarius, a relevant differential diagnosis to fracture or pseudarthrosis of processus anterior of the calcaneus: a CT morphologic description
ConclusionsThe study confirms that AOS or pathologies at the PAC often are not exactly described in CT report. In the context of foot trauma, attention should be paid to this region. Based on the presented differentiation criteria, a precise distinction can be made with the help of a CT. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 28, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The myodural bridge complex defined as a new functional structure
ConclusionsOur findings prove that the MDB exists as a complex structure which we termed the ‘myodural bridge complex’ (MDBC). In the process of head movement, tensile forces could be transferred possibly and effectively by means of the MDBC. The concept of MDBC will be beneficial in the overall exploration of the function of the MDB. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 28, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomic variability of oval window as pertaining to stapes surgery
ConclusionsThe refined morphometric information of the oval window will help in preoperative assessment and surgical planning of various oval window-related surgical procedures. The knowledge may also help in designing and selecting proper cartilage shoe for the best outcome. Narrow oval window may cause procedural complications and surgeon discomfort in various stapes surgeries. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 23, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphometric analysis of occipital condyles using alternative imaging technique
ConclusionsThe morphometric evaluation of OCs may be effectively examined using CBCT. Linear and angular measurements data of OCs in the present study may be used as a reference database for future morphometric and surgical investigations. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 23, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Translational anatomy of the left atrium and esophagus as relevant to the pulmonary vein antral isolation for atrial fibrillation
ConclusionsFor antral isolation the ablation lines are about 3  cm superior, 3.5 cm inferior and about 1 cm apart. The esophagus is ~ 12 mm away at the superior and ~ 7 mm away at the inferior ablation line. On the left ablation line this distance would diminish from 15 to 7 mm. The pulmonary ostial circumference is ~ 5 cm with muscle thickne ss varying from 0.7 to 4 mm. The left ostia need more ablative power as they have a 60% (1 mm) thicker muscle coat. Care should be taken while ablating round the left superior ostium as the esophagu...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 21, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Communications between the tendons of flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus: a cadaveric study
ConclusionIn the present study done in Indian population, we found that type I variety is present more commonly followed by type IV. FHL and FDL tendon grafts can be lengthened based on the communications between them. In type I variety, the communication can be severed at the FDL end to lengthen the tendon graft for harvest. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 20, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Clinical anatomy of the accessory mandibular foramen: application to mandibular ramus osteotomy
ConclusionGiven the practical meaning of the specific AMF located in the operative field of the ramus osteotomy, we suggest these be named “foramina for ramus osteotomy.” (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 20, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Tethered cord syndrome and transitional vertebrae
ConclusionSixty-two point nine percent TCS patients had TV. Although these findings indicate that TV is common in patients with TCS, no significant difference is observed in most of the studied anomalies. However, there were some differences among the TV groups and TV types in relation to congenital malformations. It can be concluded that TV anomaly could be a distinct malformation apart from all the other anomalies that were studied. Transitional vertebrae may cause pain due to biomechanical changes in addition to progressive neurological symptoms which are usually seen with TCS. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of the human petrotympanic fissure using anatomized cadaveric specimens and multi-detector CT imaging
ConclusionsMDCT is suitable for investigating the variable morphology of human PTF and its association with middle ear ’s and TMJ pathologies. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A new treatment for lingual nerve injury: an anatomical feasibility study for using a buccal nerve pedicle graft
ConclusionSuch a technique might be used for the patients with LN injury and who have lost sensation of the tongue. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Releasing incisions of the buccal periosteum adjacent to the lower molar teeth can injure the facial artery: an anatomical study
ConclusionThis anatomical finding should encourage dentists to make the PRI incision without invading the tissue underneath the periosteum. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Abstracts of the oral communications and posters presented during the congress Anatomia Clinica
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 18, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

A case of right internal carotid agenesis with associated transcavernous anastomosis revealed by transient ischemic attack
We report here the case of a 55-year-old man with right carotid agenesis and associated transcavernous anastomosis revealed by transient ischemic attack. Embryogenesis, imaging findings, possibilities of collateral circulation and potential complications have also been discussed. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 18, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Branches of ulnar artery in human fetuses: anatomical and morphometric study
ConclusionsUlnar artery shows predictable patterns during second and third trimester of fetal period and can be suitable access effective alternative for diagnostic and therapeutic coronary interventions. Persistent median artery is important variation and knowledge of its incidence is important for diagnostic difficulties and also during awareness of its injury during surgical approaches. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Intrathoracic bifurcation of the left common carotid artery associated with rib fusion and Klippel –Feil syndrome
AbstractCommon carotid artery usually bifurcates at the superior border of thyroid cartilage, corresponding to the C3 –4 junction, however bifurcation level may vary. Common carotid bifurcation may have rare variations like separate origins of left internal and external carotid arteries from aortic arch, or bifurcation of common carotid artery within thoracic cavity. Intrathoracic carotid bifurcation is a rare va riation with limited number of cases reported. The occurrence of a low carotid bifurcation seems to be embryologically related to the persistence of the ductus caroticus. Additionally, intrathoracic carotid ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Editorial: History in anatomy education
(Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Intestinal duplication in the tongue: embryological and radiological point of view
We report an intestinal duplication in the tongue causing eating difficulties and discuss the accuracy of embryologic and histopathology knowledge as radiology. A transoral complete resection of the lesion was performed, without postoperative complications. There was no recurrence with a follow-up of 15 years. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 17, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of the age and gender related changes in the Blumensaat line
ConclusionIn our study, it was concluded that BS measurement differs according to gender but did not have any difference between different age groups. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 16, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Patellar calcar: morphometric analysis by knee magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction software-assisted
This study aimed to describe patellar calcar morphometry by knee MRI and develop a 3D reconstruction software-assisted.Materials and methodsConsecutive adult patients, submitted to knee MRI, between 2014 and 2017, were entered in IMPAX software. Exclusion criteria are history of patellar surgical intervention, trauma, chondromalacia, bone edema or bipartite patella. All MRI images were retrospectively reviewed by three readers. MRI patellar calcar measurements are height, width, thickness and posterior distance. 3D model protocol reconstruction: 3D Slicer software was used to design a preliminary model for each patient, an...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 16, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Variation of three-dimensional femoral bowing and its relation to physical status and bone mineral density: a study with CT
ConclusionsWe introduced a highly reproducible method for measuring femoral sagittal and coronal bowing by constructing a femoral 3D coordinate system. Anterior femoral bowing was the dominant direction of bowing in our Japanese cohort, whereas the degree of lateral bowing correlated with age, height, femoral length, and BMD. Our results suggest that lateral femoral bowing could increase with aging and decreasing BMD. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 13, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Reappraisal of the classical abdominal anatomical landmarks using in vivo computerized tomography imaging
ConclusionsData derived from imaging investigations of living subjects and variations from the conventional descriptions observed in the current study might be helpful for clinicians. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

An anatomical study of the superior transverse scapular ligament of Jining population
ConclusionKnowing the morphological features and variations of the STSL is important for better understanding the anatomical conditions, which could be taken into consideration during open suprascapular operations or arthroscopic decompressions. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 10, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Level and modalities of origin of the small saphenous vein: toward codification of the proximal approach level
ConclusionThese two measurements constitute the orthogonal coordinates for the situation of the small saphenous vein origin. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 9, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Evaluation of the relationship between impacted canines and three-dimensional sella morphology
ConclusionsOther than the right sella length, there were no among-group differences in the mean pituitary fossa measurements of subjects with impacted unilateral and bilateral canines and normally erupted canines. The right sella length was lower in subjects with impacted unilateral canines than in those with bilateral impacted canines and normal controls. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 9, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical landmarks for acetabular abduction in adult hips: the teardrop vs. the inferior acetabular rim
ConclusionsAAD measurements considering the inferior acetabular rim can be more accurate than those considering the acetabular teardrop because the inferior rim represents the nearly hemispheric acetabulum better than does the teardrop. It is recommended to differentiate between the teardrop and the inferior acetabular rim when measuring AAD to avoid confusion regarding acetabular abduction. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 7, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

On the importance of the innervation of the human cervical longitudinal ligaments at vertebral level
ConclusionTo our knowledge, these findings for the first time report spatial differences in sensory and nociceptive nerve fibers in the human cervical spine at VB level. The interconnection between nerves and vessels supports the importance of the perivascular plexus. These findings might be of special interest for clinical practice as many patients suffer from pain after cervical spine surgery. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphological evaluation of the coccyx with multidetector computed tomography
ConclusionWe determined patients with an intercoccygeal angle of zero degree, which is not mentioned in the literature before, and we propose to use the term “type 0” for these patients in the classification of coccyx. The coccygeal measurements and classification will be instructive for the radiologists and have a guiding role for the future studies. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical study of the perforator flap based on the acromial branch of the thoraco-acromial artery (abTAA flap): a cadaveric study
ConclusionsOur results suggest that this type of flap could be useful in clinical practice for reconstruction and covering of the acromial area with a thin cutaneous flap with low sequelae on the donor site. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The history of anatomy teaching in Lyon University: in the footsteps of Rabelais, Petit, Lisfranc, Testut and Latarjet, and many others
AbstractAnatomy and Lyon have a very long history together since the first hospital in France was set up on the banks of the Sa ône River in the fourteenth century. The Lyon school of Anatomy was originally in the Hôtel-Dieu, which later housed the “secondary” (1821) then “preparatory” (1841) schools. Only in 1877 was the Medicine and Pharmacy Faculty set up. The development of anatomy teaching followed the rise of printing in the fifteenth century. The rise of surgery was founded on knowledge of anatomy and the ability to teach it. Before the days of anesthesia, surgery required perfect...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Could mastication modify the shape of the orbit? A scannographic study in humans
ConclusionsAnatomical knowledge about TM and investigation of masticatory strains lead us to think that mastication have minimal effect on the morphology of the LOW, only on the frontal process of zygomatic. This may explain, in part, why the LOW is the strongest wall of the orbit. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 5, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Dural arteries of the dorsoclival area
ConclusionDural arterial supply of the dorsoclival area is very opulent. Its knowledge is important for surgical approaches and endovascular procedures. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 5, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

The relationship between density variations of transverse ligament tubercles on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and age, gender, or laterality in a large cohort
ConclusionsThe density of the transverse ligament tubercles, as measured through MDCT, shows a stereotyped dynamic pattern, i.e., it apparently increases with age, but neither gender nor laterality significantly contribute to these changes. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 5, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Double origin of the extensor hallucis longus muscle: a case report
AbstractMost of the anatomic variations of the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscle are related to the tendon of insertion. We show a double origin of the EHL from the medial aspect of the fibula and the lateral aspect of the tibia. A 27-year-old male with a double closed fracture of tibia and fibula showed an involuntary extension of the big toe during foot plantar flexion after surgery. A tendon fibrosis by the fixation plates could be the cause of the foot functional alteration. Interestingly, the anatomic variation described could be related to the postsurgical foot dysfunction, since when the fibrotic tissue was remo...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - September 3, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Anatomical variation of the pneumatized superior turbinate and its impact on endoscopic sinus surgery in chronic rhinosinusitis
ConclusionConsideration should be given to the pneumatization of the ST and its basal lamella and optic-canal-type anterior sphenoidal wall, because these reduce the volume of the posterior-most ethmoid cell and may increase the risk of damaging the skull base and optic nerve. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 31, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Ulnar trochlear notch articular surface has three morphological patterns: a neglected major anatomical feature
AbstractPurposeThe typical anatomical illustration of the trochlear notch articular surface includes a transverse rough non-articular ridge which separates the olecranon and coronoid part of the joint. This transverse ridge, the “bare area”, is not covered by cartilage and represents the optimal entry point for olecranon osteotomies. Aim of the present study was to encounter the anatomical variations in the morphology of the trochlear notch articular surface.MethodsTwo-hundred seventy-three dried ulnae were inspected and a qualitative classification of the variations of the trochlear notch articular surface was...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 31, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Morphometric evaluation of the pterygoid hamulus and upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of OSAS and PH morphology and other anatomical variations of the upper airway.MethodsThe data of the patients who underwent polysomnography and diagnosed with OSAS were retrospectively reviewed, and those who underwent paranasal sinus computed tomography were determined. The patients were divided into three groups according to the apnea –hypopnea index (AHI) scores obtained from the polysomnography (mild, moderate, and severe). The relationship between PH thickness, length and interpterygoid distance, and the severity of AHI was investigated.Result...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 30, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Iliocapsularis muscle in human fetuses
ConclusionData obtained with the present study about iliocapsularis muscle in fetal period revealed that it is an individual and constant muscle. Its dimension, location, and course over the hip joint capsule support the idea that it tightens the hip capsule and stabilizes the femoral head. (Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy)
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - August 30, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research