Management of malignant spinal cord compression
Metastatic cord compression is one of the most serious complications of cancer. It is an emergency that requires rapid decision making involving several specialities, given the risk of permanent spinal cord injury. Patients may present with various clinical signs such as pain and neurological dysfunction with interventions aiming to improve both of these. Diagnosis is made through detailed history and examination followed by specific radiological investigations. The standard of care in most cases is rapid initiation of corticosteroids in combination with either surgical decompression in case of an operable candidate, follo...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 28, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Surya Gandham, Simon Clark, Marcus DeMatas Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Test yourself: MCQ and single best answer
For questions 1 –4, select the statements which are true and which are false. The correct answers are given below. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 28, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Test Yourself Source Type: research

Cerebral vascular anatomy and physiology
Knowledge of normal cerebral vascular anatomy and physiology is critical for both recognizing and safely managing a range of neurosurgical conditions through either open or endovascular techniques. In this article we summarize the key features of the arterial supply and venous drainage of the brain along with their main clinical significance. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 24, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Rahul S. Shah, Deva S. Jeyaretna Tags: Basic Science Source Type: research

Management of cerebrospinal fluid disorders
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) disorders generally result in an excess volume of CSF within the neuraxis and an increase in intracranial pressure, defined as hydrocephalus. The treatment of hydrocephalus remains surgical today with the aim of CSF diversion, but the best technique and the best assessment of adequacy of treatment remains undecided in many cases. While shunt insertion remains the mainstay of treatment, neuroendoscopic interventions such as endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) have proven successful for specific pathological conditions. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jonathan R. Ellenbogen, Conor Mallucci Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Neurovascular neurosurgery
Neurovascular disorders including brain aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and intracranial atherosclerotic disease with its associated morbidity and mortality has a significant health and economic toll on our population. They form a major part of the neurosurgical work load. Neurovascular or vascular neurosurgery covers a wide variety of conditions: intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebral aneurysms, atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease, vascular malformations, both cranial and spinal, to name some. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Robert Ionut Iorga, Umang Jash Patel Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The diagnosis and management of discitis and spinal infection
Discitis and spinal infections are both common presentations within the field of spinal surgery, but the diagnosis and management can be challenging. When identified and treated early, the patient outcomes are very good and often do not require surgical intervention. Conversely, delayed presentations with neurological compromise are  a surgical emergency requiring aggressive treatment to prevent irreversible spinal cord and spinal deformity. A multidisciplinary approach involving surgeons and microbiologists prevent the need for surgical intervention. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: David A. Samy, Surya Gandham, Marcus DeMatas Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Tumours of the central nervous system
Surgery plays a key role in the management of brain tumours. The prognosis for a brain tumour diagnosis remains poor, but without the input of the surgical team, the outcomes would be bleaker. Innovations in understanding of the molecular biology of brain tumours may identify new targets for future therapy, but for now we should maximize the opportunities offered by surgery. In this article, we will examine recent updates in understanding of brain tumour biology and the implications for management. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Paul M. Brennan Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The management of radiculopathy, neurogenic claudication and cauda equina syndrome
This article discusses the clinical presentation, anatomy, pathophysiology and treatment of radiculopathy, neurogenic claudication and cauda equina syndrome. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Nick Carleton-Bland, Martin Wilby Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Neurosurgery of epilepsy, movement disorders and pain
Functional neurosurgery involves the surgical management of a wide range of neurological diseases with the aim of treating conditions such as movement disorders, spasticity, epilepsy and intractable pain. Functional neurosurgery began with ablative surgical techniques involving destruction of neural structures responsible for the aberrant neural pathways/networks causing pathology. In more recent years there has been a move away from the creation of permanent destructive lesions towards modulation of the neural networks utilizing neuromodulation. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jonathan R. Ellenbogen, Keyoumars Ashkan Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Neurosurgical applications of radiotherapy
The term ‘radiosurgery’ (RS) indicates a high precision localized technique of irradiation used as an alternative to surgical excision in patients with malignant or benign conditions, both in the brain and in the body. Brain RS has been historically identified with ‘stereotactic radiotherapy’. The te rm refers to the long-established neurosurgical technique of localizing the position of a lesion in the brain by using a system of external 3D co-ordinates coupled with rigid head immobilization device (often fixed to the skull). (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Francesca Sold á, Cornel Tancu, Neil Kitchen, Naomi Fersht Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The management of traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a huge global problem with an increasing socioeconomic impact. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI has led to a systematic approach towards management in the pre-hospital, operating theatre and critical care settings, with early management directed towards protecting the brain from secondary injury. TBI is a spectrum of diseases, and rapid radiological identification of the underlying pathology is paramount to determine appropriate surgical intervention. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Adam J. Wells, Edoardo Viaroli, Peter JA. Hutchinson Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The management of spinal fractures
Spinal injuries are common, ranging from minor ligamentous injury or spinous process fracture to fractures of the vertebral body and posterior elements and ligamentous injury, resulting in injury to the spinal cord. Understanding the epidemiology, anatomy, biomechanics and classification of spinal injuries is important. The aim of this article is to describe the aetiology of fractures, investigations to aid the diagnosis and management options available and different factors that influence the management. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Narendra Rath, Masna B. Inam Tags: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

An overview of the nervous system
This article presents a broad and general overview of the structure and organization of the nervous system emphasizing several important functional features. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 22, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Peter J. Bazira Tags: Basic science Source Type: research

Test yourself: MCQ and single best answer
For questions 1 –4, select the statements which are true and which are false. The correct answers are given below. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Test Yourself Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Resuscitative thoracotomy
This article provides a detailed review of the relevant pathophysiology, indications and contraindications, necessary equipment and techniques, and factors influencing patient outcomes. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 16, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Laura Jayne Watson, Peter Coyne Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Major incident pre-hospital care
Major incidents are rare, but when they happen, they have the potential for devastating consequences. The pre-hospital management of major incidents follows the JESIP principles and focuses on the key concepts of command and control, safety and communication, followed by assessment and casualty management including the hierarchy of triage, treatment and transportation. An understanding of these processes is important knowledge for hospital staff. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 12, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Natalie Lonsdale, R Jonathan Howes Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Trauma resuscitation and the damage control approach
Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Developments  in trauma care, from point of wounding to rehabilitation, have often been led and driven by military medical experiences in recent conflicts. Trauma mechanisms are manifold, affecting an omnifarious patient population indiscriminately, and potentially resulting in significant multisystem dysfunct ion or damage, sometimes permanently. The horizontal approach to trauma resuscitation, whereby a patient is assessed and treated by multiple specialists to prioritize management of life-threatening issues swiftly and concurrently, was exploited...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 8, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sarah Fadden Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Major incidents: an overview
This brief article aims to give an overview of some of the systemic considerations when managing a major incident which will be explored in greater detail in other articles in this issue. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 8, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Ian Nesbitt Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear major incidents
Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents have the potential to be catastrophic if they occur on a society that is not prepared for them. It is important to know how to make plans to mitigate against such events as well as to manage a scene where CBRN agents are present. CBRN agents are potentially hazardous to responders at both a scene and many miles away in a medical treatment facility. An understanding of the risks and the ways to mitigate these is paramount. Early recognition and treatment with specific antidotes can have a profound effect on both morbidity and mortality of those affected. (Sourc...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 7, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Harriet Morton, Christopher Johnson Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Pandemic planning and its relevance to surgeons
This article will briefly discuss pandemic planning and its relevance to surgeons. It will cover principally the UK response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), although it will also compare and contrast other diseases and reference more general principles of major incident planning. Areas that individual surgeons and departments can, and should, influence are discussed. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 3, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Ian Nesbitt Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Test yourself: MCQ and single best answer
For questions 1 –4, select the statements which are true and which are false. The correct answers are given below. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Test Yourself Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Management of burns
Burns represent a huge global economic and social burden produced by the severity of the injuries and the highly resource intensive treatment and rehabilitation required. The World Health Organization is aiming to reduce this with a programme of education, burns prevention  and first aid measures. Assessment of the size and depth of a burn is paramount to determine the treatment each burn will require but can be challenging even for experts. Many developed countries have set up regional networks to centralize burns services but in the event of a major incident involv ing significant burns it is likely that these servi...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 31, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Donna Kelly, Christopher Johnson Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Neck trauma management
This article reviews mechanisms of injury along with the principles of investigation and management. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 31, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Terry Martin Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Blast injuries: a guide for the civilian surgeon
This article outlines the mechanisms by which blast inflicts injury. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 31, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Alastair Beaven, Paul Parker Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Training for major incidents
Major incidents are serious events with broad-reaching consequences that require extraordinary solutions to be implemented. They call for a team-based approach and efficient communication at all levels in addition to effective command, control and oversight. While consolidation of care into major trauma centres has led to improved outcomes for patients, it also means that clinicians may miss out on real-life experience of major incident or severe trauma casualties. It is therefore important to factor training, exercises and planning into individual and organizational preparedness. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 30, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Alexander Porthouse, Hannah Clancy, Peter Lax Tags: Surgery for major incidents Source Type: research

Treatment options and pathophysiology of degenerative spine disease
This article is an overview of the pathological processes that lead to degenerative spine disease. It is important to understand the normal anatomical variations between the different regions in the spi ne. Only then can we understand how the same pathological processes can manifest with different symptoms. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 20, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Catherine Gilliland, Samuel Sloan Tags: Orthopaedics – I: Spine and pelvis Source Type: research

Advanced Trauma Life Support for the MRCS
Trauma care in the UK is a rapidly developing subspecialty of multiple disciplines from pre-hospital care through to rehabilitation medicine. In its infancy, the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) approach was designed for a sole provider to critically assess and manage a multiply injured patient with life-threatening injuries through a systematic resuscitation. With the advent of modern trauma systems, major trauma centres and their trauma teams the Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability and Exposure approach (ABCDE) of ATLS often play out simultaneously, during which it is vital that the providers have a common unde...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 13, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Mark Robinson, Clare Rowan Tags: Orthopaedics – I: Spine and pelvis Source Type: research

Clinically applied anatomy of the vertebral column
The vertebral column (spinal column, spine, or backbone) forms the central axis of the body's skeleton. It supports the skull superiorly and participates in the formation of the pelvis inferiorly. The vertebral column comprises the following five regions in cephalocaudal sequence: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal. The vertebral column contains the spinal cord within the vertebral canal, protecting the spinal cord from external trauma. Optimal medical and surgical management of spinal disease is crucially dependent on accurate clinical and radiological diagnosis, which in turn, are reliant on a sound underst...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 12, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Peter J. Bazira Tags: Basic science Source Type: research

Clinically applied anatomy of the pelvis
The bony pelvis is an irregular but complete bony ring made up of the right and left hip bones anterolaterally and the sacrococcygeal part of the vertebral column posteriorly. The two hip bones are firmly united anteriorly at the pubic symphysis, and together constitute the pelvic girdle. The pelvic girdle articulates with the femoral heads and thereby connects the vertebral column (axial skeleton) to the two femora (appendicular skeleton). The main functions of the pelvic girdle are to transmit weight from the upper body to the lower limbs during locomotion and while standing, and to support the weight of the upper body w...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Peter J. Bazira Tags: Basic science Source Type: research

Pelvic fractures
Pelvic injuries have been increasing in incidence over the past 30 years carrying with them a significant risk of morbidity and also mortality. Patient survival from these injuries is increasing due to improved standards of care both pre-hospital and in hospital. They tend to occur in two distinct populations: young patients in high-energy road traffic collisions and older patients in low-energy injuries. Differentiating those that can be treated conservatively from those that would benefit from surgical stabilization, is based upon good clinical examination, appropriate radiological investigations and knowledge of classif...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Gavin Baker, Owen Diamond Tags: Orthopaedics – I: Spine and pelvis Source Type: research

Clinical examination of the spine
A thorough and competent clinical examination of the spine is a fundamental skill for all surgical doctors. This should be built upon the foundations of an in-depth knowledge of the associated anatomy and physiology. Clinical examination of the spine should be performed in the setting of spinal trauma, degenerative disease of the spine and spinal deformity. A methodical approach to the examination is essential and should include clinical history, inspection, palpation, movement and special tests. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Robin I. Gordon, Rakesh Dhokia Tags: Orthopaedics – I: Spine and pelvis Source Type: research

Imaging the spine
The spine can be assessed using different imaging modalities, each offering their own advantages and limitations. The decision to use a certain type of imaging should be based on a number of factors which include the clinical question to be answered, the speed that answer is needed, the availability of an imaging modality and patient compatibility. We aim to discuss how to best use imaging when investigating spinal pathologies, consider the advantages and limitations of each imaging modality and demonstrate annotated examples of pathology on imaging. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Declan Neeson, David Roberts Tags: Orthopaedics – I: Spine and pelvis Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - May 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Carotid artery disease: clinical features and management
The most common cause of ischaemic carotid territory stroke, around 50% of cases, is thromboembolism from stenoses at the origin of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA). Embolism is usually preceded by acute changes in plaque morphology, which predisposes towards overlying thrombus formation and embolization. The management of patients with carotid artery disease involves cardiovascular risk factor modification, antiplatelet and statin therapy in everyone. There is grade A, level I evidence that recently symptomatic patients with 50 –99% stenoses gain significant benefit from carotid endarterectomy (CEA), d...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 21, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Ross Naylor Tags: Vascular surgery – I Source Type: research

Test yourself: MCQ and single best answer
For questions 1 –4, select the statements which are true and which are false. The correct answers are given below. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 17, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Test Yourself Source Type: research

Abdominal aortic aneurysm: epidemiology, screening and work-up for repair
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the infra-renal abdominal aorta to greater than 3 cm. Population screening is offered to men in the year of their 65th birthday in the UK. Patients with small, asymptomatic AAAs ( (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 16, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Nina Al-Saadi, Matthew J Bown Tags: Vascular surgery – I Source Type: research

Acute type B aortic dissection
Aortic dissection is infrequent in everyday practice; however, it can result in life-threatening complications and causes more deaths each year in the UK than road traffic collisions. It is one of the family of acute aortic syndromes, which includes penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) and intramural haematoma (IMH). Type A aortic dissections involve the ascending aorta and arch and almost invariably require prompt surgical treatment due to exceptionally high early 48-hour mortality without surgery. Many type B aortic dissections (TBAD) are not complicated at presentation and can be treated conservatively in high dependency and ...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 16, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Raminta Cerneviciute, Colin D. Bicknell Tags: Vascular surgery – I Source Type: research

Vascular anomalies
are vascular lesions that are present from childhood. They are classified into tumours or malformations based on clinical and histological features. Benign infantile haemangiomas are the most common vascular tumour and have a predictable self-limiting course. Rarer vascular tumours exist, and some may cause platelet consumption. Management is usually conservative, with active treatment reserved for functional or cosmetic complications (ulceration, or obstruction and distortion of vital structures). (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 15, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Vimal J. Gokani, Branavan Sivakumar, Loshan Kangesu Tags: Vascular surgery – I Source Type: research

Imaging in vascular surgery
A modern vascular service cannot function without high quality, timely and relevant diagnostic imaging. In this age of evidence-based medicine, radiological findings and their expert interpretation are fundamental in aiding decisions with regard to patient management and surgical intervention. In this chapter we present the basic principles, clinical indications, advantages and limitations of the different imaging modalities used to assess vascular patients including duplex ultrasound (DUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MR) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 15, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Tarryn Carlsson Tags: Vascular surgery – I Source Type: research

Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair
This article aims to provide an overview of the essential aspects of both open surgical repair (OSR) and endovascular AAA repair (EVAR), focussing upon decision making, the procedures, follow-up and long-term outcomes. Consideration is also given to more complex AAA repairs, including fenestrated/branched stent grafts and open juxta-renal aneurysm repairs. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 14, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Claire Dawkins, Michael G. Wyatt Tags: Vascular surgery – I Source Type: research

Medical management of risk factors for vascular disease
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a powerful marker of the risk of cardiovascular events such as stroke and myocardial infarction, even in asymptomatic patients. The development of PAD is underpinned by both modifiable risk factors (including smoking, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity) and non-modifiable risk factors (including male gender and increased age). Optimizing medical management of risk factors –with tight control of diabetes, antiplatelet therapy and exercise–can significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 14, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Michael Greshan Rasiah, Bijan Modarai Tags: Vascular surgery – I Source Type: research

Diseases of blood vessels
Cardiovascular disease is the number one worldwide killer of men and women. Atherosclerosis is characterized by deposition of lipids in arterial walls and is responsible for a wide spectrum of end organ damage. Inflammation of the blood vessel wall (vasculitis) can occur as a secondary process in association with another disease or exposure (including COVID-19), or as a primary idiopathic process. The primary vasculitides have individual patterns of vascular involvement and histopathological characteristics that influence their clinical features, severity, and management. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 13, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Francis A. Carey, Mary N. Sheppard Tags: Basic science Source Type: research

Vascular trauma
arises from a variety of causes: penetrating and blast injury in conflict zones, and recently terrorist attacks on civilians; blunt injury from road traffic accidents and falls from height; and iatrogenic injury from modern invasive medicine. Massive haemorrhage is the pre-eminent cause of preventable death. Trauma teams now understand the necessity to control bleeding rapidly with targeted damage-control surgery, and goal-directed resuscitation, before the lethal triad of shock, hypothermia and coagulopathy make attempted salvage futile. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 11, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Denis W. Harkin, David M. Dunlop Tags: Vascular surgery – I Source Type: research

Test yourself: MCQ and single best answer
For questions 1 –4, select the statements which are true and which are false. The correct answers are given below. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Test Yourself Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - April 1, 2021 Category: Surgery Source Type: research