Neurological conditions in the perioperative period
The wide spectrum of neurological disorders and their effects on the function of the central and peripheral nervous system can cause an extensive array of symptoms and significant morbidity and mortality. This morbidity and mortality is often amplified in the perioperative period with an elevated risk of anaesthetic complications and adverse events. However, the number of patients with neurological disease requiring surgery is unlikely to diminish, and therefore this anaesthetic risk needs to be met and managed effectively. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - November 13, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Robert Crooks, Christopher Johnson Tags: Perioperative management -- II Source Type: research

Preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing: physiological basis and investigation
The number of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) centres has doubled in the UK since 2011. Approximately 30,000 tests are performed every year in the UK now. It is a useful tool helping preoperative risk stratification. Patients with poor exercise tolerance are more likely to suffer perioperative complications and death. Interpretation of a large amount of data generated during the test requires a good understanding of basic exercise physiology and its clinical application. Incorporation of CPET data in a global preoperative assessment provides a personalized risk estimate for a patient. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - November 13, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Anurag Vats Tags: Perioperative management -- II Source Type: research

Management of patients with musculoskeletal disease and burns
Musculoskeletal disorders include a wide range of disorders which affect the locomotor system (i.e. muscles, bones, joints and associated connective tissues like tendons and ligaments, which are listed in chapter XIII of the International Classification of Diseases – 10). While the primary pathology affects the locomotor system, a number of these disorders are associated with systemic complications, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. Burns are an acute emergency and require anaesthetic or critical care input for asses sment of injuries, early surgical intervention or organ sup...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - November 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Rakesh Bhandary Tags: Perioperative management -- II Source Type: research

Safe sedation practice for surgeons
This article uses this publication as a framework to discuss the generic principles and practice of sedation and should not be seen as a substitute for more formal training. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - November 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Jon Walton Tags: Perioperative managerment – II Source Type: research

Preoperative optimization and enhanced recovery after surgery
Enhanced recovery pathways have been repeatedly shown to reduce length of stay and complication rates for patients undergoing elective major surgery across multiple surgical specialties. The success of the enhanced recovery approach relies on excellent patient preparation and reliable implementation of evidence based, standardized care components at each stage of the surgical journey. Multidisciplinary team engagement and continuous audit of outcomes are crucial in sustaining a successful enhanced recovery after surgery programme. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - November 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Sarah L. Cooper, Paul Panesar Tags: Perioperative management – II Source Type: research

Day surgery guidelines
Day surgery has made major strides in keeping with advances in surgical and anaesthetic techniques. Patient and financial benefits of early ambulation and enhanced recovery programmes are well recognized. The NHS Modernisation Agency recommends that 75% of all surgical procedures performed in a Trust should be done as day case procedures. National and international interest in day case surgery guidelines and pathways on: patient care, facilitating admission and discharge, and logistical aspects of running a day case unit have helped tremendously in the growth of day case surgery. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - November 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Monalisa J. Marbaniang Tags: Perioperative management – II Source Type: research

Challenging patient groups
This article focuses on those patients that do not necessarily fit a systems-based approach of classification. Many of these patients present challenges to the clinicians involved with perioperative care and so it is important to have a good understanding of how they should be managed. This article will focus on elderly patients, pregnant patients presenting for non-obstetric surgery, obese patients and immunocompromised patients. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - November 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Sneha Prasad, Helen May Tags: Perioperative management – II Source Type: research

The patient with endocrine disease
Uncontrolled endocrine pathology can cause significant adverse complications during a patient ’s perioperative journey. With the ageing population, increasing co morbidity and rising obesity rates, the incidence of endocrine disease in elective and emergency work is likely to increase. A thorough understanding of diagnosis and management perioperatively is essential to prevent any excess m orbidity and mortality. The perioperative period may precipitate endocrine emergencies which require rapid diagnosis and life-saving treatments. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - November 8, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Madeleine Wood, Sarah Welch Tags: Perioperative management -- II Source Type: research

Disorders of sex development
(DSD) occur in 1 –2/10,000 live births, with a specific molecular diagnosis only possible in 20% of cases. Presentation is usually at birth, and gender assignment must be avoided before review by an expert multidisciplinary team. Initial investigations allow a working diagnosis to be made within 48 hours. In 46,XY DSD, surgery may be necessary to correct hypospadias, reposition or remove undescended testes, and remove symptomatic Mullerian remnants. In 46,XX DSD, feminizing surgery is performed less frequently than in the past, but genitoplasty may still be indicated. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 28, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Mark Woodward, Kate Burns Tags: paediatric surgery - ii Source Type: research

Test yourself: MCQ and Single Best Answer
For questions 1 –4, select the statements which are true and which are false. The correct answers are given below. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 28, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Test Yourself Source Type: research

Oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula
is a congenital structural abnormality that affects 1:4500 live infants. It is due to failure of the primitive foregut tube to separate correctly into oesophagus and trachea. About 50% have associated abnormalities, of which the VACTERL (Vertebral, Anorectal, Cardiac, Tracheo-oEsophageal, Renal and Limb) association is the most common. Prematurity is common and all have some degree of tracheomalacia. Surgery of the common type can be performed through a fourth interspace thoracotomy or by thoracoscopy. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 22, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Spencer W. Beasley Tags: PAEDIATRIC SURGERY - II Source Type: research

Congenital anterior abdominal wall defects
This article provides an overview of the key aspects of antenatal, perinatal and postnatal management, highlighting areas of controversy where further study is required. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 22, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Arun Kelay, Natalie Durkin, Mark Davenport Tags: Paediatric surgery – II Source Type: research

Antenatal screening and fetal intervention
Congenital malformations are a common cause of reduced life expectancy and disability and can affect all body systems, thus are relevant to all surgeons. One in fifty children will have a major or significant congenital anomaly at birth. Since the advent of antenatal ultrasound there has been the potential to diagnose many congenital anomalies before birth. This can forewarn parents and clinicians, so that treatment can be started promptly following birth rather than waiting for the baby to become symptomatic. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 22, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Brian W. Davies Tags: Paediatric surgery -- II Source Type: research

Transition from fetus to neonate
This article provides an overview of the key physiological changes that take place as the fetus transtitions to neonatal life. It provides and an overview of fetal transition with a focus on respiratory and cardiovascular changes. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 22, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Amit Gupta, Anshuman Paria Tags: Basic science Source Type: research

Hirschsprung's disease
(HSCR) is characterized by a lack of enteric nervous system ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a variable extent of distal bowel. It is the most common congenital bowel motility disorder and affected neonates usually present with distal intestinal obstruction in the first few days of life. Current treatment involves resection of the aganglionic bowel and a ‘pull through’ procedure to bring the normally innervated bowel down to the anal margin. Despite advances in surgery, outcomes can be poor, especially in long-segment HSCR in which a longer segment of bowel or the entire colon is aganglionic. (Source: Surgery...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 22, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Sumita Chhabra, Rachel Harwood, Simon E. Kenny Tags: Paediatric surgery - II Source Type: research

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
(IHPS) is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction in infants and is one of the most common conditions requiring surgery in the newborn. It arises from marked hypertrophy of the pyloric muscle (primarily circular layer), resulting in partial or complete luminal occlusion. Classically these infants have persistent non-bilious vomiting, are dehydrated with weight loss, and have a hypokalaemic, hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis. Treatment requires initial careful fluid management before definitive surgical correction. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 22, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Andrew R Ross, Paul R.V. Johnson Tags: Paediatric surgery - II Source Type: research

Necrotizing enterocolitis
(NEC) is a neonatal surgical emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Preterm infants of very low birth weight are most at risk with several genetic and environmental risk factors identified. The local microbial environment plays a key role in early life to help reduce the risk of NEC. Breast milk has also shown to be protective. The disease is characterized by infection, inflammation and ischaemia of the bowel affecting focal, segmental or the entire length of bowel. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 22, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Hemanshoo S. Thakkar, Kokila Lakhoo Tags: Paediatric surgery – II Source Type: research

Bilious vomiting in the newborn
Bilious (dark green) vomiting in the newborn is a surgical emergency as the underlying diagnosis may be volvulus of the entire midgut secondary to malrotation. This diagnosis is time critical as, untreated, volvulus will lead to midgut necrosis, resulting in short gut syndrome or death. While a range of other diagnoses are possible, transfer to a paediatric surgical centre should be undertaken urgently so that malrotation/volvulus can be excluded or treated. This review focuses on the causes, investigation and management of proximal bowel obstruction in the neonate that present primarily with bilious vomiting. (Source: Sur...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 22, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Lucinda G.C. Tullie, Michael P. Stanton Tags: Paediatric surgery - II Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Trauma laparotomy and damage control surgery
This article discusses the different mechanisms of injury, early assessment and investigations. It goes on to highlight the features of a trauma laparotomy, its preparation, management and the systematic approach for damage control surgery. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 12, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: William Maclean, Bruce Levy, Timothy Rockall Tags: Emergency surgery Source Type: research

Laparoscopic management of acute abdominal emergencies
Use of minimally invasive approaches to acute abdominal surgical emergencies has increased in recent decades. Uptake has been slower than for elective surgery, however, with concerns regarding inadvertent injury and operative time being most frequently cited. Laparoscopy for abdominal pain has shown to be safe and is a useful diagnostic procedure in the context of unexplained abdominal pain. Minimally invasive surgery has also been shown to be the approach of choice in appendicitis and cholecystitis. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 12, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Rishabh Singh, Andrea Scala Tags: Emergency surgery Source Type: research

Physiology of shock and volume resuscitation
This article therefore focuses on the pathophysiology of hypovolaemic shock, volume resuscitation, haemostasis and approaches to management. Fluid resuscitation saves lives but considerable debate remains regarding the ideal fluid type and strategy to use. Blood transfusion is also a critical therapy in the shocked, bleeding patient with a lower threshold for transfusion being appropriate in the elderly patient with less physiological reserve. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 9, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Manish Kalla, Peregrine Green, Neil Herring Tags: Basic science Source Type: research

The management of bariatric surgery complications
Bariatric surgery is now commonplace in the UK and has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. Complications that present as an emergency are unusual but will be seen more frequently as the number of patients who have undergone weight loss surgery rises. The optimal management encompasses a low threshold of suspicion and early diagnosis of complications, coupled with expertise to deal with them. It is therefore important for a general surgeon to have an understanding of the common bariatric procedures (gastric banding, gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and duodenal switch), their known complications and when to refer ...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: William Hawkins, Ian Maheswaran Tags: Emergency surgery Source Type: research

Management of massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage
Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency, accounting for approximately 85,000 admissions in the United Kingdom per annum. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. GI haemorrhage is commonly categorized according to source of blood loss; either upper GI (above the ligament of Treitz) or lower GI (below the ligament of Treitz). Rapid assessment, resuscitation and correction of coagulopathy should be undertaken to stabilize the haemodynamically compromised patient and definitive intervention should not be delayed. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Paul D. Mackenzie, Matthew Rogers, Michelle Gallagher, Timothy Rockall Tags: Emergency surgery Source Type: research

The detection and management of complications following the treatment of liver metastases
While once considered as incurable systemic disease, treatment options for liver metastases have increased over the last 30 years and safety has improved dramatically, such that for a selected group of patients the hope of cure can now be offered with radical treatment, and low morbidity interventions can be offered which prolong survival, even in patients with more widely disseminated disease. Advances have been made in selection and surgical technique for liver resection and several adjuncts to resection now exist in the form of portal vein embolization, thermal ablation and targeted drug or radiotherapy delivery options...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 6, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Richard Booth, Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Emergency surgery Source Type: research

Abdominal compartment syndrome
(ACS) is a devastating condition for the critically unwell patient. Initially described as solely affecting surgical patients, ACS is now also recognized in the medical intensive care setting. Without prompt and definitive treatment, mortality rates approach 70% as multiorgan failure develops. Over the past decade our understanding, recognition and management of ACS has evolved. The World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome published updated guidelines in 2012 to draw consensus and improve patient outcomes. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 6, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Alicia Skervin, Mohammad Mobasheri Tags: Emergency surgery Source Type: research

Visceral volvulae and management
Volvulus refers to torsion of a segment of the gastrointestinal tract, which often leads to bowel obstruction. Obstruction of the intestinal lumen and impairment of vascular perfusion occur when the degree of torsion exceeds 180 and 360 degrees, respectively. Visceral volvulus causing obstruction is a common presentation to the emergency department. Ascertaining the gastrointestinal level and grading the severity of the obstruction is paramount as each can be managed entirely differently. A spectrum from nasogastric or rectal tube decompression, to endoscopic decompression with or without fixation, and finally, surgical in...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 6, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Daniel White, Bruce Levy Tags: Emergency surgery Source Type: research

MCQ and single best answer
For questions 1 –4, select the statements which are true and which are false. The correct answers are given below. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 6, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Test yourself Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - September 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Pathology of tumours of the kidney and urinary tract
The urinary tract encompasses the kidney and the urinary collecting system, ureter, bladder and urethra. Benign lesions of the kidney include angiomyolipoma and renal oncocytoma. The main subtypes of renal cell carcinoma include clear cell, papillary and chromophobe variants. Prognostic factors reported by pathologists are reviewed, including the current grading and staging systems. Urothelial tumours include urothelial carcinoma in situ, papillary urothelial carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 30, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Jonathan M. Salmond Source Type: research

The management of testis cancer
Testis cancer is the most common solid malignancy in young men and represents a clinically and pathologically diverse disease. Between 90% and 95% of tumours are germ cell tumours (GCTs) that are categorized into seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NGSCTs). Testis cancer typically presents as a painless testicular mass and must be investigated with ultrasound imaging and tumour marker assay before being treated urgently with radical inguinal orchidectomy if suspicion persists. Disease localized to the scrotum is curable with surgery alone in most cases, but high-risk features in clinical stage I disease predic...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 28, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Noel W. Clarke, Áine M. Haran Tags: Renal and urological surgery – II Source Type: research

Renal cancer
Renal carcinoma is a reasonably common cancer in the UK. Fortunately, its diagnosis is nowadays much earlier due to the increased utilization of radiological imaging. While surveillance is an option, particularly in older/comorbid patients, nephron-sparing surgery remains the gold standard treatment for small renal masses. Laparoscopic, robotic or open partial nephrectomy have excellent cure rates. For larger tumours, radical nephrectomy may be required. This again can be performed laparoscopically, robotically or in an open manner. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 20, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Gideon Blecher, Kara McDermott, Benjamin Challacombe Tags: Renal and urological surgery – II Source Type: research

Upper tract urothelial cancer
Upper tract transitional cell carcinoma is a lethal disease with half the patients dead within 5 years of diagnosis. Unlike urothelial tumours arising in the bladder, the disease is more likely to be invasive at the time of diagnosis and in part reflects the poorer prognosis. It is a biologically aggressive disease with a high chance of recurrence even after local control. Diagnosis is made by a combination of upper tract imaging, urine cytology and ureteroscopic biopsy. Organ-confined disease is amenable to radical surgery, whereas superficial low-grade disease may be managed endoscopically. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 17, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Tim Lane Tags: Renal and urological surgery II Source Type: research

Bladder cancer
Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is the most common malignancy affecting the urinary tract. This review examines the current standards in the diagnosis and management of this disease. Cystoscopy and urine cytology remain important tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer. Alternatives include photodynamic diagnosis, narrow band imaging and professional image enhancement which may improve detection of tumours. En-bloc resection using either laser or electrocautery shows promise in improving the quality of transurethral resection. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 17, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Jameel Mushtaq, Ramesh Thurairaja, Rajesh Nair Tags: Renal and urological surgery – II Source Type: research

Tumours of the male genital tract
This article discusses pathological features of tumours of the male genital tract. Carcinoma of the prostate is common and represents an increasing burden to the NHS in terms of management and treatment. We focus on recent changes to grading and discuss issues around pathological diagnosis. Tumours of the testes represent the greatest success story of cancer treatment over the past several decades. We review the pathological features of the commonest tumours focusing on prognostic features. Carcinoma of the penis is rare but appears to be increasing in incidence. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 17, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Marie O'Donnell Tags: Basic science Source Type: research

Prostate cancer
This article aims to summarize the current knowledge of prostate cancer and treatment options available. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 17, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Adam W. Nelson, Nimish Shah Tags: Renal and urological surgery – II Source Type: research

Haematuria
This article provides a clear framework to help decide which patients have significant haematuria and which patients are suitable for urological referral; a decision algorithm is also included. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 14, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Narin M. Suleyman, Nikhil Vasdev Tags: Renal and urological surgery - II Source Type: research

Test yourself: MCQs
For questions 1 –4, select the statements which are true and which are false. The correct answers are given below. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - August 14, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Adrian Ben Cresswell Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 24, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 24, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - July 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Consent: assessing and communicating risk
The consent process is a cornerstone of the patient –doctor relationship. It can be a complex process presenting challenges to both doctor and patients due to the interaction of multiple different factors, including ethical and legal considerations. Ensuring the patient has informed consent requires a through understanding of the risks of an interv ention for a particular patient; therefore risk assessment is of fundamental importance. Accurate risk assessment can be done through assessment of individual patient factors and the proposed procedure combined with population data. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 27, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Rachel Horner, Catherine Rimmer Tags: Perioperative management – I Source Type: research

Surgical management for chronic pain
Chronic pain in the UK affects up to 43% of the population. The consequences include physical and psychological distress, loss of function, employment, family and social strain and increased utilisation of healthcare services. Modern pain management services operate across primary, secondary and tertiary care and incorporate general practitioners, psychologists, physiotherapists, pharmacists, specialist nurses, pain physicians and surgeons. This allows for a coordinated approach to chronic pain, engaging the patient in a structured pathway from conservative measures, through to surgery if necessary. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 27, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Robert Lyons, Kiran K. Koneti Tags: Perioperative management – II Source Type: research

Anaemia and blood transfusion: incorporating patient blood management
Both red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and anaemia or low haematocrit increase morbidity and mortality associated with surgery. Chronic anaemia in the elective patient carries a small risk in non-haemorrhagic surgery. Where bleeding is anticipated anaemia should be treated medically to avoid (RBC) transfusion which will increase the risk to the patient. Major bleeding (MB) has the biggest impact on adverse outcomes. Acute anaemia is caused by surgical bleeding and requires RBC transfusion to keep the haematocrit (Hct) above 21% and haemoglobin (Hb) above 7  g/dl in patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) and bet...
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 12, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Sean R. Bennett, Mahasen Al Harbi Tags: Perioperative management – I Source Type: research

Premedication and management of concomitant therapy
The management of a patient's co-existing illnesses, including decisions about their normal medication is an important part of their perioperative care. Adequate pre-assessment, preparation and liaison with other healthcare professionals is essential to decrease patient morbidity and mortality and prevent unnecessary surgical delay or suboptimal management. A full medication history including prescribed, over the counter and complementary medications is required, along with decisions regarding which medications should be omitted or have dose alterations. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 12, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Ashley Scott, Gemma Timms Tags: Perioperative management – I Source Type: research

Patient monitoring techniques
This article reviews the basic components of any monitoring device, and its importance in relation to improving patient safety. Issues related to increasing complexity of monitoring devices are also discussed. Basic monitoring modalities are described including pulse oximetry, non-invasive blood pressure, electrocardiography, temperature  and capnography. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Ahmed Chishti, Iain A. Walker Tags: Perioperative Management -- I Source Type: research

The principles and conduct of anaesthesia
Anaesthesia is one of the younger specialties of medicine and has made immense advancement since its inception. The development of modern anaesthesia techniques, drugs, and monitoring methods has facilitated the development and advancement of surgical practice, which benefits patients. In this article, we provide an overview of the pharmacology and the conduct of a general anaesthetic. Regional anaesthesia has always been an integral part of the practice of anaesthesia and surgery. We discuss the essential components of the practice of neuraxial anaesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks. (Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing))
Source: Surgery (Medicine Publishing) - June 7, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Anurag Vats, Monalisa J. Marbaniang Tags: Perioperative management – I Source Type: research