The Effect of Telemedicine on Access to Acute Stroke Care in Texas: The Story of Age Inequalities.
Conclusion. Our survey of Texas hospitals found that as the median age of a block group increased, the odds of having access to acute stroke care decreased. PMID: 26543664 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - November 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Copeptin: Limited Usefulness in Early Stroke Differentiation?
Conclusion. In this cohort of patients copeptin-levels within 4.5 hours of symptom onset were higher in patients with IS compared to TIA but the broad range of values in stroke-mimics limits diagnostic accuracy. This trial is registered with UTN: U1111-1119-7602. PMID: 26167332 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - July 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Poststroke Fatigue: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Ponchel A, Bombois S, Bordet R, Hénon H Abstract Background. Poststroke fatigue (PSF) is a frequent, disabling symptom that lacks a consensual definition and a standardized evaluation method. The (multiple) causes of PSF have not been formally characterized. Objective. To identify factors associated with PSF. Method. A systematic review of articles referenced in MEDLINE. Only original studies having measured PSF and potentially associated factors were included. Data was extracted from articles using predefined data fields. Results. Although PSF tends to be more frequent in female patients and older ...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - June 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Medical acute complications of intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults.
Authors: Koivunen RJ, Haapaniemi E, Satopää J, Niemelä M, Tatlisumak T, Putaala J Abstract Background. Frequency and impact of medical complications on short-term mortality in young patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have gone unstudied. Methods. We reviewed data of all first-ever nontraumatic ICH patients between 16 and 49 years of age treated in our hospital between January 2000 and March 2010 to identify medical complications suffered. Logistic regression adjusted for known ICH prognosticators was used to identify medical complications associated with mortality. Results. Among the 325 el...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Protocol variations and six-minute walk test performance in stroke survivors: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
Conclusion. The 6MWT is now widely used in stroke studies. The distances achieved by stroke patients indicate substantially compromised walking ability. Variations to the standard 30 m walkway for the 6MWT are common and caution should be used when comparing the values achieved from studies using different walkway lengths. PMID: 25685596 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - February 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Outcome determinants of stroke in a brazilian primary stroke center.
Conclusions. The stroke mortality and stroke outcome determinants found in the present study do not remarkably differ from studies carried out in developed countries. Stroke prognosis studies are crucial to better understand the high burden of stroke in Brazil. PMID: 25580352 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - January 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Impact of serum nutritional status on physical function in african american and caucasian stroke survivors.
Authors: Serra MC, Hafer-Macko CE, Ivey FM, Macko RF, Ryan AS Abstract Background. The purpose of this study is to compare serum nutritional profiles in chronic stroke survivors to a representative sample of US Adults (NHANESIII) and determine whether these serum markers differed by race and impact physical function in stroke. Methods. Fasting serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids, uric acid, and albumin in 145 African American (AA) and 111 Caucasian (C) stroke survivors (age: 60 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM]). A six-minute walk was performed in a subset of stroke survivors (N = 134). Results. ...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Elevated Cardiac Troponin in Acute Stroke without Acute Coronary Syndrome Predicts Long-Term Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes.
Conclusions. Elevated cardiac troponin in patients with acute stroke and no evidence of ACS is strong predictor of long-term cardiac outcomes. PMID: 25530906 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Racial differences by ischemic stroke subtype: a comprehensive diagnostic approach.
Conclusions. We found similar proportions by race of cardioembolic and lacunar strokes when employing a full diagnostic evaluation including DWI MRI. The relatively high rate of cardioembolism may have been underappreciated in black stroke patients when employing a CT approach to stroke subtype diagnosis. Further research is required to better understand the racial differences in frequency of "stroke of other etiology" and explore disparities in the extent of diagnostic evaluations. PMID: 22645703 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Perinatal risk factors and later social, thought, and attention problems after perinatal stroke.
Conclusions. Several perinatal factors were associated with a high incidence of social, thought, and behavior problems in children with perinatal stroke. These findings may be useful in anticipatory guidance to parents and physicians caring for these children. PMID: 22685688 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Carotid disease and stroke.
Authors: Lovrencic-Huzjan A, Rundek T, Katsnelson MJ PMID: 22693683 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Age- and gender-specific prevalence of risk factors in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in china.
Conclusion. Our study showed that vascular risk factors had a specific age and gender distribution pattern in Chinese IS patients. Secondary prevention strategy should emphasize on the control of different risk factors based on patient's age and gender. PMID: 22762013 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

A Q-Methodology Study of Patients' Subjective Experiences of TIA.
Conclusions. Five of the eight factors confirmed existing research on the impact of TIA, but three new issues emerged: deep-seated anxiety, denial and constructive optimism. The emerging perspectives highlight areas to target in the management of TIA and could inform health education messages, patient information, individualised caremanagement, and enhancement of coping strategies. With development, the findings could be used as a basis for psychometric risk assessment of TIA patients. PMID: 22848864 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Motor rehabilitation after stroke.
Authors: Wu CY, Lin KC, Wolf SL, Roby-Brami A PMID: 22848865 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Intravenous thrombolytic treatment in the oldest old.
Authors: García-Caldentey J, Alonso de Leciñana M, Simal P, Fuentes B, Reig G, Díaz-Otero F, Guillán M, García A, Martínez P, García-Pastor A, Egido JA, Díez-Tejedor E, Gil-Núñez A, Vivancos J, Masjuan J Abstract Background and Purpose. Intravenous thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator is safe and probably effective in patients>80 years old. Nevertheless, its safety has not been specifically addressed for the oldest old patients (≥85 years old, OO). We assessed the safety and effectiveness of thrombolysis in this group of age. Met...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Rehabilitation of the Upper Extremity after Stroke: A Case Series Evaluating REO Therapy and an Auditory Sensor Feedback for Trunk Control.
Discussion. The degree of changes evident varied per protocol and may be due to the appropriateness of the technique chosen, as well as based on patients impaired arm motor control. PMID: 22919544 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Glibenclamide Administration Attenuates Infarct Volume, Hemispheric Swelling, and Functional Impairments following Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.
Authors: Wali B, Ishrat T, Atif F, Hua F, Stein DG, Sayeed I Abstract Studies from a single laboratory have shown that in rodent models of permanent stroke, administration of the sulfonylurea glibenclamide (Glib) is highly effective in reducing edema, mortality, and lesion volume. The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommends that new acute treatments for ischemic stroke to be replicated across different laboratories. Accordingly, we examined the effect of low-dose Glib in a permanent suture occlusion model of stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Stroke in the young 2012.
Authors: Naess H, Tatlisumak T, Kõrv J PMID: 22991686 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Noninvasive brain stimulation for motor recovery after stroke: mechanisms and future views.
Authors: Takeuchi N, Izumi S Abstract Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques that can alter excitability of the human cortex. Considering the interhemispheric competition occurring after stroke, improvement in motor deficits can be achieved by increasing the excitability of the affected hemisphere or decreasing the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere. Many reports have shown that NIBS application improves motor function in stroke patients by using their physiological peculiarity. For continuous motor improvem...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

SenseWear Armband and Stroke: Validity of Energy Expenditure and Step Count Measurement during Walking.
Authors: Manns PJ, Haennel RG Abstract The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA) for the measurement of energy expenditure (EE) and step count against a criterion in persons with stroke. Twelve participants with chronic stroke (mean age 64.2 ± 10.4 years; mean gait speed 0.67 ± 0.25 m/sec) completed two trials of a six-minute walk test, while wearing a SenseWear Armband (SWA) on each arm and being continuously monitored using a portable metabolic cart. Agreement between estimates of energy expenditure from the SWA and the metabolic cart was fair for t...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Determining the Feasibility of Ambulance-Based Randomised Controlled Trials in Patients with Ultra-Acute Stroke: Study Protocol for the "Rapid Intervention with GTN in Hypertensive Stroke Trial" (RIGHT, ISRCTN66434824).
Determining the Feasibility of Ambulance-Based Randomised Controlled Trials in Patients with Ultra-Acute Stroke: Study Protocol for the "Rapid Intervention with GTN in Hypertensive Stroke Trial" (RIGHT, ISRCTN66434824). Stroke Res Treat. 2012;2012:385753 Authors: Ankolekar S, Sare G, Geeganage C, Fuller M, Stokes L, Sprigg N, Parry R, Siriwardena AN, Bath PM Abstract Background. Time from acute stroke to enrolment in clinical trials needs to be reduced to improve the chances of finding effective treatments. No completed randomised controlled trials of ambulance-based treatment for acute strok...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

The influence of resistance exercise training on the levels of anxiety in ischemic stroke.
Authors: Aidar FJ, de Oliveira RJ, Silva AJ, de Matos DG, Mazini Filho ML, Hickner RC, Machado Reis V Abstract The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the effect of a strength training program on indicators of trait and state anxiety in patients with ischemic stroke. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group (EG) consisting of 11 subjects aged 51.7 ± 8.0 years and a control group (CG) with 13 subjects aged 52.5 ± 7.7 years. EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training, with a frequency of three times a week. For data collection, a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used. Sig...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Stroke prevention: managing modifiable risk factors.
Authors: Di Legge S, Koch G, Diomedi M, Stanzione P, Sallustio F Abstract Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are ...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

A Long-Term Follow-Up Programme for Maintenance of Motor Function after Stroke: Protocol of the life after Stroke-The LAST Study.
Authors: Askim T, Langhammer B, Ihle-Hansen H, Magnussen J, Engstad T, Indredavik B Abstract Background. There are no evidence-based strategies that have been shown to be superior in maintaining motor function for months to years after the stroke. The LAST study therefore intends to assess the effect of a long-term follow-up program for stroke patients compared to standard care on function, disability and health. Design. This is a prospective, multi-site randomised controlled trial, with blinded assessment 18 months after inclusion. A total of 390 patients will be recruited and randomised to a control group, receiv...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Calcium and potassium channels in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage and transient global ischemia.
Authors: Kamp MA, Dibué M, Schneider T, Steiger HJ, Hänggi D Abstract Healthy cerebrovascular myocytes express members of several different ion channel families which regulate resting membrane potential, vascular diameter, and vascular tone and are involved in cerebral autoregulation. In animal models, in response to subarachnoid blood, a dynamic transition of ion channel expression and function is initiated, with acute and long-term effects differing from each other. Initial hypoperfusion after exposure of cerebral vessels to oxyhemoglobin correlates with a suppression of voltage-gated potassium channe...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Social Determinants of Stroke as Related to Stress at Work among Working Women: A Literature Review.
Authors: Toivanen S Abstract In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Yet, our knowledge of the role of work-related factors for the risk of stroke is fairly limited. In contemporary occupational health research, the Demand-Control Model (DCM) is frequently used to measure work stress. Previous literature reviews of the association of work stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not include stroke as a specific outcome. Results regarding work stress and the risk of CVD are less evident in working women. With the focus on working women, the purpose of the present pap...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

A systematic review of bilateral upper limb training devices for poststroke rehabilitation.
Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus) value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required. PMID: 23251833 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Fibrinolytic activity and platelet function in subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea and a patent foramen ovale: is there an option for prevention of ischaemic stroke?
Authors: Reggiani M, Karttunen V, Wartiovaara-Kautto U, Riutta A, Uchiyama S, Hillbom M Abstract Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) carries an increased risk of ischaemic stroke, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. As right-to-left shunting can occur through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) during periods of apnoea, we investigated nocturnal changes in fibrinolytic activity and platelet function in subjects who had OSA with or without PFO and in controls. We determined plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity and antigen and platelet activation parameters. The severity of OSA was verified by polygraphy and...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Seven capital devices for the future of stroke rehabilitation.
Authors: Iosa M, Morone G, Fusco A, Bragoni M, Coiro P, Multari M, Venturiero V, De Angelis D, Pratesi L, Paolucci S Abstract Stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability for adults in industrialized societies. Rehabilitation's efforts are tended to avoid long-term impairments, but, actually, the rehabilitative outcomes are still poor. Novel tools based on new technologies have been developed to improve the motor recovery. In this paper, we have taken into account seven promising technologies that can improve rehabilitation of patients with stroke in the early future: (1) robotic devices for lower and upper ...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

A pilot evaluation of on-road detection performance by drivers with hemianopia using oblique peripheral prisms.
Conclusions. These pilot data suggest that oblique peripheral prisms may improve responses of people with HH to blindside hazards when driving and provide the basis for a future, larger-sample clinical trial. Testing responses to unexpected hazards in areas of heavy vehicle and pedestrian traffic appears promising as a real-world outcome measure for future evaluations of HH rehabilitation interventions aimed at improving detection when driving. PMID: 23316415 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Walking training with foot drop stimulator controlled by a tilt sensor to improve walking outcomes: a randomized controlled pilot study in patients with stroke in subacute phase.
In this study, twenty patients with stroke in subacute phase were enrolled and randomly divided in two groups: one group performing the NMES (i.e. Walkaide Group, WG) and the Control Group (CG) performing conventional neuromotor rehabilitation. Both groups underwent the same amount of treatment time. Significant improvements of walking speed were recorded for WG (168 ± 39%) than for CG (129 ± 29%, P = 0.032) as well as in terms of locomotion (Functional Ambulation Classification score: P = 0.023). In terms of mobility and force, ameliorations were recorded, even if not significant (Rivermead Mobility Index: P...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Hand robotics rehabilitation: feasibility and preliminary results of a robotic treatment in patients with hemiparesis.
Authors: Sale P, Lombardi V, Franceschini M Abstract Background. No strongly clinical evidence about the use of hand robot-assisted therapy in stroke patients was demonstrated. This preliminary observer study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy in hand function recovery, in the early phase after a stroke onset. Methods. Seven acute ischemic stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled. Treatment was performed using Amadeo robotic system (Tyromotion GmbH Graz, Austria). Each participant received, in addition to inpatients standard rehabilitative treatment, 20 sessions...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Successfully Climbing the "STAIRs": Surmounting Failed Translation of Experimental Ischemic Stroke Treatments.
Successfully Climbing the "STAIRs": Surmounting Failed Translation of Experimental Ischemic Stroke Treatments. Stroke Res Treat. 2012;2012:374098 Authors: Kahle MP, Bix GJ Abstract The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) provided initial (in 1999) and updated (in 2009) recommendations with the goal of improving preclinical stroke therapy assessment and to increase the translational potential of experimental stroke treatments. It is important for preclinical stroke researchers to frequently consider and revisit these concepts, especially since promising experimental stroke trea...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Diabetes and stroke prevention: a review.
Authors: Hewitt J, Castilla Guerra L, Fernández-Moreno Mdel C, Sierra C Abstract Stroke and diabetes mellitus are two separate conditions which share multiple common threads. Both are increasing in prevalence, both are diseases which affect blood vessels, and both are associated with other vascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. Abnormal glucose regulation, of which diabetes is one manifestation, is seen in up to two-thirds of people suffering from an acute stroke. Surprisingly, aggressive management of glucose after an acute stroke has not been shown to improve outcome or reduce the in...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Emerging molecular targets for brain repair after stroke.
Authors: Krupinski J, Slevin M Abstract The field of neuroprotection generated consistent preclinical findings of mechanisms of cell death but these failed to be translated into clinics. The approaches that combine the modulation of the inhibitory environment together with the promotion of intrinsic axonal outgrowth needs further work before combined therapeutic strategies will be transferable to clinic trials. It is likely that only when some answers have been found to these issues will our therapeutic efforts meet our expectations. Stroke is a clinically heterogeneous disease and combinatorial treatments require ...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

The ABC of tDCS: Effects of Anodal, Bilateral and Cathodal Montages of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Patients with Stroke-A Pilot Study.
The objective of this study was to determine whether different electrodes' setups (anodal, cathodal, and simultaneous bilateral tDCS) provide different motor performance and which montage was more effective. As secondary outcome, we have asked to the patients about their satisfaction, and to determine if the bilateral tDCS was more uncomfortable than unilateral tDCS. Nine patients with stroke in subacute phase were enrolled in this study and randomly divided in three groups. Our results showed that tDCS was an effective treatment if compared to Sham stimulation (P = 0.022). In particular, anodal stimulation provided the hi...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Targeting oxidative stress injury after ischemic stroke in conscious rats: limited benefits with apocynin highlight the need to incorporate long term recovery.
This study evaluated the effects of apocynin, a known antioxidant and inhibitor of Nox2 NADPH, on neuronal injury and cell-specific responses to stroke induced in the conscious rat. Apocynin treatment (50 mg/kg i.p.) commencing 1 hour prior to stroke and 24 and 48 hours after stroke significantly reduced infarct volume in the cortex by ~ 60%, but had no effect on striatal damage or neurological deficits. In situ detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using dihydroethidium fluorescence revealed that increased ROS detected in OX-42 positive cells following ischemia was reduced in apocynin-treated rats by ~&...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

New technologies for stroke rehabilitation.
Authors: Iosa M, Hesse S, Oliviero A, Paolucci S PMID: 23401849 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Cardiovascular responses associated with daily walking in subacute stroke.
Authors: Prajapati SK, Mansfield A, Gage WH, Brooks D, McIlroy WE Abstract Despite the importance of regaining independent ambulation after stroke, the amount of daily walking completed during in-patient rehabilitation is low. The purpose of this study is to determine if (1) walking-related heart rate responses reached the minimum intensity necessary for therapeutic aerobic exercise (40%-60% heart rate reserve) or (2) heart rate responses during bouts of walking revealed excessive workload that may limit walking (>80% heart rate reserve). Eight individuals with subacute stroke attending in-patient rehabilitation...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

CSF and Serum Biomarkers Focusing on Cerebral Vasospasm and Ischemia after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
Authors: Jung CS, Lange B, Zimmermann M, Seifert V Abstract Delayed cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) remain severe complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although focal changes in cerebral metabolism indicating ischemia are detectable by microdialysis, routinely used biomarkers are missing. We therefore sought to evaluate a panel of possible global markers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients after SAH. CSF and serum of SAH patients were analyzed retrospectively. In CSF, levels of inhibitory, excitatory, and structural amino acids were detected by high-performan...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Playing piano can improve upper extremity function after stroke: case studies.
The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-frie...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation in stroke rehabilitation: a review of recent advancements.
Authors: Gomez Palacio Schjetnan A, Faraji J, Metz GA, Tatsuno M, Luczak A Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technique to treat a wide range of neurological conditions including stroke. The pathological processes following stroke may provide an exemplary system to investigate how tDCS promotes neuronal plasticity and functional recovery. Changes in synaptic function after stroke, such as reduced excitability, formation of aberrant connections, and deregulated plastic modifications, have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. However, if tDCS could counteract these negat...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Clinical trials in cardiac arrest and subarachnoid hemorrhage: lessons from the past and ideas for the future.
Conclusions. Clinical trials in SAH assessing acute brain injury are warranted and successful interventions identified by the cardiac arrest literature may be reasonable targets of the study. PMID: 23533956 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in Cerebral Ischemia.
Authors: Wang Y, Wang Y, Yang GY Abstract The risk of ischemic stroke increases substantially with age, making it the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the world. Numerous studies demonstrated that genes, RNAs, and proteins are involved in the occurrence and development of stroke. Current studies found that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are also closely related to the pathological process of stroke. miRNAs are a group of short, noncoding RNA molecules playing important role in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and they have emerged as regulators of ischemic p...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Early brain injury: a common mechanism in subarachnoid hemorrhage and global cerebral ischemia.
Authors: Sabri M, Lass E, Macdonald RL Abstract Early brain injury (EBI) has become an area of extreme interest in the recent years and seems to be a common denominator in the pathophysiology of global transient ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this paper, we highlight the importance of cerebral hypoperfusion and other mechanisms that occur in tandem in both pathologies and underline their possible roles in triggering brain injury after hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes. PMID: 23533958 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Gait impairment in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.
Authors: Parkkinen S, Ortega FJ, Kuptsova K, Huttunen J, Tarkka I, Jolkkonen J Abstract The availability of proper tests for gait evaluation following cerebral ischemia in rats has been limited. The automated, quantitative CatWalk system, which was initially designed to measure gait in models of spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain, and peripheral nerve injury, is said to be a useful tool for the study of motor impairment in stroke animals. Here we report our experiences of using CatWalk XT with rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), during their six-week followup. Large corticostriata...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Frontal lobe atrophy in depression after stroke.
Conclusions. The results suggest that FLA may play a role in the pathogenesis of DAS, which supports the hypothesis that cumulative vascular burden may be important in predicting DAS. Further investigations are needed to clarify the impact of FLA on the clinical presentation, treatment response, and outcome of DAS in stroke survivors. PMID: 23533960 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Long-term use of a static hand-wrist orthosis in chronic stroke patients: a pilot study.
Conclusions. These pilot data suggest that a number of stroke patients cannot tolerate a static orthosis over a long-term period because of discomfort. Without appropriate treatment opportunities, these patients will remain at risk of developing a clenched fist and will experience problems with daily activities and hygiene maintenance. PMID: 23533961 [PubMed] (Source: Stroke Research and Treatment)
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy: animal experiments for neuroprotective therapies.
Authors: Sameshima H, Ikenoue T Abstract Hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy and ensuing brain damage is still an important problem in modern perinatal medicine. In this paper, we would like to share some of the results of our recent studies on neuroprotective therapies in animal experiments, as well as some literature reviews. From the basic animal studies, we have now obtained some possible candidates for therapeutic measures against hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy. For example, they are hypothermia, rehabilitation, free radical scavenger, neurotrophic factors and growth factors, steroid, calcium ch...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research

Stroke care in young patients.
Authors: Tancredi L, Martinelli Boneschi F, Braga M, Santilli I, Scaccabarozzi C, Lattuada P, Sessa M, Fumagalli L, Iurlaro S, Neromante I, De Lodovici ML, Roccatagliata DV, Giacalone G, Arnaboldi M, Crespi V, Agostoni E, Comi GC, Ferrarese C, Sterzi R Abstract The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the clinical features of a consecutive series of young patients with ischemic stroke and (ii) to assess the changes in the clinical management of these patients over the study period. All consecutive cases of young adults aged 16 to 44 years, with ischemic stroke, that were admitted between 2000 and 2005 in 10 Ital...
Source: Stroke Research and Treatment - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Stroke Res Treat Source Type: research