Technical Aspects and Applications of the Low-Bar Back Squat
This article aims to discuss the anatomical and technical differences between the high-bar back squat and LBBS, define LBBS-specific technique, and provide practitioners strategies to select the best version for their lifters. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Exercise Technique Source Type: research

Home-Based Exercise Prescription for Congestive Heart Failure
This article will explain the pathophysiology and benefits of exercise in those with the condition, as well as provide recommendations for home-based training for individuals with CHF. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Special Populations Source Type: research

Health Ramifications of Smart Devices
Smart devices, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and tablets, have rapidly become more popular in the fitness industry and provide a variety of benefits ranging from tracking barbell velocity to displaying online training programs. These devices use cellular data and Wi-Fi to transmit information, which have shown to potentially pose risks to our health. The purpose of this article is to both (a) provide the reader with researched information on how the use of smart devices may pose a risk to our health and (b) provide practical applications for how to reduce the health risks from using these devices. For a video abstract...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

The Threats of Small-Sided Soccer Games: A Discussion About Their Differences With the Match External Load Demands and Their Variability Levels
Small-sided games (SSGs) are regularly used in soccer training. SSGs are used because of their capacity to replicate the demands of a real match or control the overall workload of players. However, some threats may result from the use of SSGs. Thus, it is important to highlight those threats to improve the effectiveness of SSG implementation. Based on that, we examine and discuss comparisons between external load SSGs and real-game scenarios, the intra- and interplayers physical variability during the smaller formats of play, the consequences of SSGs in terms of the proper physical stimulation of players, and injury preven...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Rehabilitation and Return to Sport After Nonsurgical Treatment of Achilles Tendon Rupture
This article presents an overview of the rehabilitation and return to sport following a nonsurgical Achilles tendon (AT) rupture. A brief description of the recognition and diagnosis of the injury, selection of nonoperative treatment, outcome measures, importance of range of motion, purpose of functional rehabilitation, description of the rehabilitation phases, and return to play progressions are included. A well-designed early functional rehabilitation program is more important than the method of treatment in outcomes and functional performance with AT ruptures. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Progression of Combat Sport Activities for Youth Athletes
Combat sport activities can play a role in the development of children and adolescents, and they are often a part of physical education classes and extracurricular activities. In addition to the psychological and social benefits these activities offer, they are also highly beneficial in physiological terms, as they are based on intermittent, metabolically demanding activities that help participants improve their physical fitness. The aim of this work is to propose a logical progression of game-based activities that reproduce different technical-tactical and physiological requirements of combat sports. The 5 phases become p...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Physical and Energetic Demand of Soccer: A Brief Review
Soccer is a complex and exhaustive team-sport requiring a high level of tactical, technical, and physical ability to succeed. During a competitive match, a random combination of explosive and powerful activities, together with technical and tactical gestures, is performed in an intermittent manner over a 90-minute game. This review presents a detailed analysis and up-to-date synthesis of the literature describing activities and energy system contribution during soccer to provide to strength and conditioning coaches a clear understanding of soccer players' physical needs during competition. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

High-Intensity, Non-Sport-Specific Strength and Conditioning for Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes: Theoretical and Practical Considerations
Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling-based combat sport with a growing recreational and professional athlete population. The sport is notoriously hard to master, which requires practitioners to maintain a high BJJ-specific training volume. High-intensity training is a well-established approach to rapid improvements in strength and endurance. Recent studies show that concomitant BJJ and high-intensity strength and conditioning training can improve several physical and physiological attributes. The present article briefly reviews literature pertaining to BJJ and its athletes and provides training recommendations based on...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Hamstring Strain Injuries: Incidence, Mechanisms, Risk Factors, and Training Recommendations
Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is one of the most commonly reported sports injuries. This has led to a substantial amount of research aimed at identifying factors that increase the risk of an athlete suffering a HSI. The identification of risk factors allows practitioners to plan intervention programs with the aim of reducing the rate and severity of HSI. As a multitude of factors contribute to the risk of HSI, interventions should be multifaceted in nature. This review outlines the incidence, mechanisms, and risk factors for HSI and provides evidence-based training recommendations to reduce the rate and severity of HSI. (S...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Developing Powerful Athletes, Part 1: Mechanical Underpinnings
This review will revisit practitioner understanding of the development of power, before outlining some of the key mechanical parameters that contribute to power development. This understanding will help with planning and periodization of strength and power training, which is explored in part 2 of this 2-part review. This review (part 1) discusses the force-time and force-velocity curve and addresses recent criticism in using terms such as power, rate of force development, and explosiveness, over impulse. These terms are distinguished mechanically and conceptually for the benefit of the scientist and coach, and are essentia...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Injuries in Sprint Canoeists and Kayakers: Etiology, Mechanisms of Injury, Treatment Options, and Practical Applications
This study will discuss common injuries sustained by paddlers, the mechanisms of these injuries, treatment and prevention approaches, and practical applications highlighting the need for coaches, clinicians, and strength and conditioning professionals to take a proactive approach in addressing high-risk injury factors. For a video abstract of this article, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SCJ/A275. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Strength and Conditioning for Competitive Rowers
Strength and conditioning (S&C) is an essential component of performance enhancement and injury reduction for competitive rowers. However, information regarding the practical application of appropriate S&C programming for competitive rowers is limited. The aim of this article is to provide an evidence-based needs analysis based on a review of the literature in the area of biomechanics, physiology, and injury epidemiology in the sport of rowing. Practical considerations and guidelines for the implementation of S&C programs for competitive rowers will be provided. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Challenges to Athletes During the Home Confinement Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic
The world is currently facing a serious coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). This novel coronavirus is a new virus for which effective drugs and vaccines have not yet been developed. Amateur and professional athletic events around the world have been stopped, and teams and athletes have had to adopt social withdrawal measures, interrupting their training and preparation routines for competitions. Given this alarming scenario, this article aims to alert athletes to the importance of maintaining a conditioning routine during this confinement period. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Atrial Fibrillation: Should Lifelong Athletes Be Worried?
In this study, we review various types of AF, proposed mechanisms, and treatment strategies for athletes with AF. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Time-Motion Analysis and Physiological Responses to Taekwondo Combat in Juvenile and Adult Athletes: A Systematic Review
Taekwondo is a complex combat sport characterized by high-intensity short activity and low-intensity activity and/or pause. This systematic review focused on which type of physical capacities and the main physiological adjustments that are demanded during official taekwondo matches. The search was performed in electronic databases in which 38 articles were selected. Taekwondo matches' characteristics, time-motion analysis, physical and physiological responses during prematch and postmatch were described. After analysis, practical recommendations were suggested regarding physical training prescriptions oriented to performan...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Rehabilitation, Guidelines, and Exercise Prescription for Lower Limb Amputees
Exercise is important for optimal recovery and quality of life for lower limb amputees. General guidelines for training to improve quality of life, gait retraining, and attenuation of risk factors for lower limb amputees will be outlined. Exercise prescription outlined in this column for lower limb amputees is based on the amputee's progress and stage of rehabilitation. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Special Populations Source Type: research

Practitioner-Driven Recommendations for the Professional Evaluation of the Strength and Conditioning Coach
The purpose of this article is to provide a practical framework for athletic administrators and senior coaches to use in evaluating a strength and conditioning coach (SCC) under their supervision. A formal objective evaluation process may improve training outcomes, prevent common troublesome issues in the field, increase accountability, and optimize organizational dynamics. Recommendations include planned, systematic, and documented observation of work performed, review of performance testing data, and developmental feedback meetings between the SCC and the supervisor. Some modification may be necessary for each sector of ...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Inducing Postactivation Potentiation With Different Modes of Exercise
The use of various modes of exercise to induce postactivation potentiation (PAP) has been studied in the current literature. However, discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of these multiple modes of exercises in inducing PAP within one review study has not been conducted. A brief discussion on the available findings on the effects of different exercises in inducing PAP is presented in this review. Coaches and athletes should take the available information into consideration because the magnitude of PAP effect may vary depending on the mode of exercise performed. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Improving Mechanical Effectiveness During Sprint Acceleration: Practical Recommendations and Guidelines
Sport scientists and strength and conditioning coaches are showing growing interest in the magnitude, orientation, and application of ground reaction force during acceleration actions in sport, as it can identify the key mechanical determinants of performance. Horizontal force-velocity profiling or sprint profiling helps practitioners understand the capacity of the mechanical force production during the acceleration phase of a sprint. This review examines the methods used in the field for determining horizontal force-velocity (sprint) profiles. It also includes recommendations for practical training methods to address indi...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Concurrent Training Intensities: A Practical Approach for Program Design
Sports performance is influenced by the interaction of several physical variables. For this reason, most sports need both strength and endurance capacities to maximize overall performance. Therefore, a combination of resistance and aerobic training, usually called concurrent training (CT), has been used recently as a way of simultaneously improving strength and aerobic performances according to the needs of a specific sport. This combination can be challenging and can influence training adaptations, being a problematic issue for coaches. The main objective is to provide coaches with a practical proposal for CT to improve a...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

A Practical Guide to Analyzing the Force-Time Curve of Isometric Tasks in Excel
This article aims to provide information on how to understand and analyse the force-time curve of isometric tasks in microsoft excel, thus providing practitioners an inexpensive and accessible alternative to readily available software on the market. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Coaching the Power Clean: A Constraints-Led Approach
Traditionally, strength and conditioning coaches have used explicit instructions when changing movement behavior. Recent work has questioned the efficacy of this approach. Whether explicit instruction is best for facilitating movement change is discussed along with an alternative approach. A brief review of traditional coaching methods is undertaken, highlighting differences between the traditional “coach-centered approach” and an “athlete-centered, constraints-led approach.” The constraints-led approach is applied to coaching the power clean. This provides an example of how strength and conditionin...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Vertical Force Production in Soccer: Mechanical Aspects and Applied Training Strategies
This article analyzes the mechanical aspects associated with the actual role played by VFP in elite soccer, and also examines and highlights the training considerations related to its appropriate and effective development during modern soccer seasons. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Using the Nordic Hamstring Exercise to Reduce Hamstring Injuries in Gaelic Football
Various modes of football, such as soccer, rugby, Gaelic football (GF), and Australian rules football (ARF), have been carefully examined regarding injuries, risk factors, and training to prevent injury. To date, few studies have examined hamstring injury (HI) in GF. Other modes of football have received a considerable amount of research. The research indicates many HIs are common during movements such as high-speed running, deceleration, and kicking. The purpose of this article is to introduce the Nordic hamstring exercise as an exercise used to increase eccentric hamstring muscle strength and reduce HI. (Source: Strength...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - March 29, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Agility Training for American Football: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Conditioning for the No-Huddle Offense: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Concurrent Resistance Training Enhances Performance in Competitive Distance Runners: A Review and Programming Implementation
Concurrent training, defined as resistance training sessions programmed alongside endurance training sessions during the same cycle, is a tool that highly trained runners can use to augment performance. A review of the current literature explains how resistance training focused on increasing maximal force development and power output can improve running economy, a key performance indicator for endurance running. This review explains the current concepts in concurrent training for competitive distance runners, discusses misconceptions related to concurrent training, and offers practical implementation examples for coaches, ...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Running in the Heat: Performance Consequences and Strategies to Prepare for Hot-Weather Racing
Competitive runners seek to control as many performance variables as possible when preparing for peak competition. However, race day weather is out of an athlete's control and can have a profound impact on performance. This review defines hot weather in terms of running performance, details the physiology underlying heat-related performance decrements, and discusses strategies that may mitigate the negative impact of heat on cardiovascular strain and attenuate reductions in heat-related running performance. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Running in Cold Weather: Exercise Performance and Cold Injury Risk
This article provides an overview of cold-weather effects on running performance. It also presents the cold-weather injuries likely to occur in runners as well as provides risk management guidance to mitigate susceptibility to cold-weather injuries. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Recommendations to Optimize Health in Youth Runners
Youth running is defined as participation below age 18. Jumping/multidirectional loading sports (soccer, basketball) may optimize bone health. Psychological development requires monitoring to reduce risk of injuries and burnout. Adequate energy availability is essential for health; screening for disordered eating and optimizing nutrition is important. Injuries during growth spurts are best addressed by identifying the physical maturity of the runner and conventional treatment. Appropriate start of competition and competition distance should be individualized rather than using age-based recommendations and requires careful ...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Keeping Pace: A Practitioner-Focused Review of Pacing Strategies in Running
The purposeful distribution of speed, power, or energy is termed as the pacing or pacing strategy and is recognized as a key determinant in optimal run performance. There is no agreement on the best pacing strategy for all runners and race types. Thus, the challenge posed to runners and practitioners is pacing strategy selection and in-race adherence. This review briefly discusses pacing strategy types and selection considerations. More importantly, we overview factors influencing pacing and translate key findings from research into useable evidence-based recommendations for pacing strategy preparation and adherence during...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Exploring the Role of the Lateral Gluteal Muscles in Running: Implications for Training
This article will explore the role of the lateral gluteal muscles in running kinematics, performance, and injury, with implications for strength and conditioning professionals, sports medicine specialists, and physical therapists. Recommendations for strengthening the gluteus medius and minimus in runners will follow. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Eating Disorders in Male Runners
This article aims to evaluate current literature related to the prevalence and consequences of eating disorders (EDs) among male runners. Historically, research was disproportionately aimed at female runners, hindering the assessment and clinical management of EDs in male runners. This literature review provides coaches with a deeper understanding of EDs in male runners. In addition, the physiological and psychological consequences attributed to a diagnosis of an ED in male runners are discussed. Suggestions for early identification and coaching strategies are provided. Future research is encouraged to provide a deeper und...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Considerations for the Postpartum Runner
This article can serve as a reference for understanding the unique challenges female runners face postpartum and give clinicians the knowledge to manage the athlete's expectations and training progression. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Considerations for Standardizing Fluid Station Practices Among Road Races
Road race event planners have the paramount task of providing runners with appropriate access to fluid along race courses. Important variables for consideration include weather conditions, participant numbers, and racing distances. In an effort to standardize practices among road races, this review describes novel improvements to the traditional approach for estimating total fluid needs and fluid station numbers. Recommendations for fluid station numbers and positioning are given to serve as a starting point for standardizing fluid station practices among road races. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Lower Limb Biomechanical Factors Related to Running Injuries: A Review and Practical Recommendations
The objective of this review is to analyze some of the biomechanical factors involved in the most common running injuries: anterior knee pain, iliotibial band syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, and medial tibial stress syndrome/tibial stress fracture. Eighteen studies met all inclusion criteria. Results showed that there is little consistent evidence in the literature to connect any biomechanical anomaly to any given running injury, except for female runners with patellofemoral pain who have an increased peak hip adduction angle at stance phase. This review suggests that assessing and treating hip mechanics could help to pre...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Influence of Gait Retraining on Running Economy: A Review and Potential Applications
Running gait retraining has been reported to reduce lower-extremity loads and the risk for some running-related injuries. This has provided evidence that distance running gait can safely be modified in runners. Optimal running gait at a given speed is the product of anthropometric, neuromuscular, fatigue, and external factors. Because running biomechanics are integrally linked with economy, a major determinant of endurance running performance, it is conceivable that gait retraining could improve performance. The evidence investigating the influence of gait retraining on running economy will be evaluated and potential appli...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Strength and Conditioning for Adolescent Endurance Runners
This article describes how these modalities of training can be integrated into the routine of adolescent endurance runners. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Distance Running Special Topic Issue
No abstract available (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: An Urgent Matter for Female Athletes
No abstract available (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

RE: Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in Female Athletes
No abstract available (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Battle Rope Conditioning
This column provides an analysis of the proper technique for battle rope conditioning. Specific musculature involvement, benefits of battle rope training, exercise technique, as well as advanced and beginning progressions are discussed. This dynamic movement is designed to improve cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, endurance, and power. Specific variations for battle rope conditioning can provide various benefits to athletes such as enhancing sport-specific movements, increasing grip strength, and addressing unilateral deficits. Thus, the implementation of battle rope conditioning for an exercise regimen shoul...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Columns: Exercise Technique Source Type: research

Making Weight: Maintaining Body Mass for Weight Class Barbell Athletes
Weightlifting and powerlifting are strength and power sports requiring athletes to participate in precompetition weigh-ins. Many athletes attempt to gain a competitive edge over smaller competitors by reducing body mass. Although these methods may seem advantageous, there are many negative outcomes that outweigh potential positive performance effects. Manipulating body mass can be performed effectively with minimal side effects; however, weightlifters and powerlifters participating in 2-hour weigh-ins should not cut weight at the expense of optimizing strength and power adaptations. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Columns: Nutrition and Ergogenic Aids Source Type: research

The Use of Text Messages for Exercise Behavior Change Techniques
Behavior change techniques (BCT) may be applied in several different ways with different methods of delivery, such as face-to-face, through print, or with the use of technology. Predominant determinants of exercise behavior include self-regulatory skills and self-efficacy. The use of text (SMS) messages is a candidate for the medium of BCT delivery because of its ease and frequency of use. If personal trainers and coaches are to effectively use SMS messages to deliver behavior change techniques for exercise, they should understand how to frame these messages based on the client's or athlete's individual characteristics. (S...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Columns: Evidence-Based Personal Training Source Type: research

Stem Cell Injections for Musculoskeletal Pathology: An Overview for the Sports Medicine Professional
Stem cell injections are a promising nonsurgical biological intervention that seek to augment the body's self-healing capacity. Owing to a growing range of clinical indications and excellent safety profile, sports medicine professionals are likely to encounter individuals who received or are considering stem cell injections. This column provides an overview of stem cell injection procedures, biological mechanisms, and evidence underpinning the potential utility of these interventions for musculoskeletal disorders. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Columns: Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Using Imagery to Enhance Performance in Powerlifting: A Review of Theory, Research, and Practice
Imagery is a frequently used mental performance skill that has been advocated as an invaluable tool by athletes, coaches, and sport psychology professionals. As such, athletes competing in powerlifting can benefit from the use of imagery toward the improvement of individualized mental and physical skills. To provide coaches and athletes with a theoretical and practical understanding of the imagery–performance relationship; this article (a) provides an overview of the PETTLEP model, (b) reviews the benefits of imagery on both the physical and psychosocial outcomes for powerlifting athletes, and (c) provides recommenda...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Total Score of Athleticism: Holistic Athlete Profiling to Enhance Decision-Making
Oftentimes, the various coaching staff, sport science, and medical practitioners of a sports club require a single, holistic indication of an athlete's athleticism. Currently, there is no consensus on how this is best defined, and thus, a total score of athleticism (TSA) may provide one such method. The TSA is derived from the average of Z-scores (or T-scores in the case of small samples) from a sport-specific testing battery, ensuring athletes are judged across all the relevant fitness capacities that best define the physical demands of competition. To aid readers in using the TSA, this article also details how it is comp...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Physiological and Performance Monitoring in Competitive Sporting Environments: A Review for Elite Individual Sports
There is a great appreciation for the application of physiological monitoring within competition for individual sports. Physiological monitoring allows feedback on exercise dose-response, exercise intensity, and exercise performance. Both subjective and objective parameters are commonly measured in the field sports, but research investigating the accuracy and applicability of monitoring tools in a competitive environment for individual athletes is limited. This narrative review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of individual devices to measure a variety of parameters, including physiological performance, and biochemi...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Measurement Properties and Feasibility of Repeated Sprint Ability Test: A Systematic Review
The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the research methodological quality, measurement properties, and feasibility of repeated sprint ability tests. Results showed that testretest absolute and relative reliability was very large to nearly perfect for total work and best sprint performance. However, the fatigue index presented a weak absolute and relative reliability. Total sprint time was able to discriminate performance between player positions, competitive levels, and season phases, whereas the best sprint performance distinguished the competitive levels and playing positions. Total sprint and best sprint t...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

The Benefits and Limitations of Predicting One Repetition Maximum Using the Load-Velocity Relationship
This review aims to provide an overview of the current load-velocity (L-V) approaches and their ability to estimate one-repetition maximum (1RM). The bench press exercise appears to be the most valid and reliable when applying this approach. The ability for L-V relationship to predict 1RM for lower-body lifts remains questionable. Individualized regression equations should be used alongside mean velocity when utilizing this method during the bench press. The 2-point method (2 distinguishable loads, as opposed to multiple loads) and normative velocity data (minimal velocity thresholds at 1RM) may provide a novel and practic...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - December 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research