The Viking Press
The Viking press exercise is an upper-body strength and power movement with several potential benefits for athletes. The aim of this article is to describe proper exercise technique and introduce variations for the Viking press. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Exercise Technique Source Type: research

Considerations in the Development of a Postgraduate Strength and Conditioning Program: Insights From Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand
Aspiring and established strength and conditioning professionals are increasingly seeking opportunities to further their knowledge to gain a competitive advantage within the highly competitive profession. Postgraduate degree programs in the discipline are therefore becoming a popular option for academic institutions to meet the demands of the workforce and marketplace. The purpose of this article is to bring together experienced practitioners and applied academics to offer considerations for the prospective strength and conditioning postgraduate student. Furthermore, this piece can be considered by academics that are respo...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Optimizing Verbal Communication in the Instruction of Weightlifting to Weightlifting Naïve Athletes
Motor learning theories should be used by coaches to optimally apply their technical knowledge of weightlifting. The OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance Through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning highlights the importance of motivation and attention in the motor learning process, with enhanced expectancies and autonomy underpinning the athlete's motivation and an external focus of attention optimizing the athlete's attention. Better results are obtained by collaborating with athletes in an athlete-centered approach, giving them a sense of control and ownership of their learning process an...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

5-a-Side Game as a Tool for the Coach in Soccer Training
Physical outputs in soccer training can be influenced by the interaction of several variables during the performance of different small side games (SSGs) formats. For this reason, it is relevant to understand how the manipulation of variables such as training method, exercise duration, number of repetitions, or recovery time affect the training loads and the performance. The main aim of this work was to provide coaches with relevant theoretical aspects and examples of practical applications to use from the specific format of 5-a-side SSG. To search for relevant publications and ensure the quality of articles, the search st...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Writing a Needs Analysis: Exploring the Details
The first step in preparing a comprehensive periodized strength and conditioning program is the needs analysis—that is a formal process for determining the general and specific needs of the athlete based on their sport or task. It involves many more pieces than most consider and is not simply about goal setting. Depth and specificity of event requirements and details are important because there will be variability in needs and program design due to the task and level of prior experience and participation. The specifics of the task and the particulars of the individual athlete may lead to the need for significant stud...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Classification and Determination Model of Resistance Training Status
An individual's training status is a key factor used to determine the volume, the intensity, and the selection of exercises for resistance training prescription. Interestingly, there are no objective parameters to assess training status, so there is ambiguity in determining the appropriate volume and other resistance training variables in this regard. Thus, the objective of this study was to propose a strategy for classification and determination of resistance training status. The following five parameters were identified and used: (a) current uninterrupted training time, (b) time of detraining, (c) previous training exper...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Utility of Back-Off Sets: An Overview
Back-off sets or down sets are a training paradigm that use an initial heavy loaded set followed by a subsequent rest period and a planned load reduction. Back-off sets are a way to maintain or increase training volume through a load reduction for subsequent sets. By reducing load, a desired number of repetitions can be achieved as opposed to a reduction in volume that would occur if a consistent load was maintained. Back-off sets have been shown to allow completion of a greater training volume which may be in part due to a potentiation effect. The use of back-off sets help to reduce the necessary length of interset rest p...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Plyo-Accentuated Eccentric Loading Methods to Enhance Lower Limb Muscle Power
Accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) can be combined with lower-body power-based movements to acutely enhance them; however, currently, there are limited recommendations for this training method. AEL can enhance force and power metrics during its utilization with lower-body power-based exercises. When using AEL, exercises should consist of jump squats and countermovement jumps with loading methods consisting of weight releasors or dumbbell hand release. Elastic bands can be used; however, more research is needed in this area. External loads ranging from 10–30% of body mass can be used. Future research needs to investi...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

MATLAB Guide for Analyzing Countermovement Jump Strategies and Performance Over Time
Valid and reliable countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) assessments using force platforms can require complex data analysis processes not typically explored during strength and conditioning professionals' training. Although commercially available software programs with focused functionality for force platform-based CMJ analyses have become accessible to help simplify the process, such programs require costly annual subscriptions and can promote reliance on the “black box” for analysis. The purpose of this report was to provide a guide and template aimed to help strength and conditioning professionals create data...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Beyond COVID-19: Preparing Fitness Centers for the Next Pandemic
This article examines strategies to mitigate the transmission of the virus in fitness facilities, including temperature scanning, physical distancing, masks, hand hygiene, and the disinfection of large spaces and common touch surfaces. Fitness facilities and therapy centers face complex challenges in minimizing the risk of viral transmission due to space limitations and the use of common equipment and spaces by clients. Despite these challenges, the developing science resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic has led to insights that should drive policies to help ensure fitness facilities successfully adapt to the risks present...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Monitoring Training Loads in Basketball: A Narrative Review and Practical Guide for Coaches and Practitioners
Monitoring training load provides information about the physical demands of the sport in which athletes are competing. Strength and conditioning coaches need to use this information to periodize and make decisions on training to optimize performance and prevent injuries. The following narrative review presents the current state of knowledge on monitoring external and internal loads in basketball. The reviewed articles were classified according to the sample represented, considering 3 groups: elite, subelite, and young basketball players. In addition, we analyzed the recording procedures and methodology used in technologica...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Strength and Conditioning Plan for Freestyle Snowboarding Athletes
This article draws on current research that details the physical demands of SB and integrates relevant strength and conditioning principles to create an evidence-based training plan. This plan highlights the essential physical attributes for snowboard athletes that are important for successful performance and mitigating injury risk. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - October 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Technique of the Unilateral Dumbbell Wide Row
A strong upper back is important for sports that involve pulling and to maintain muscular balance. Although not commonly performed, the dumbbell wide row is an effective exercise for the upper back and rear deltoids. The purpose of this article is to discuss the technique and common errors when performing this exercise. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Exercise Technique Source Type: research

Home-Based Kettlebell Exercise and Coronavirus Outbreak: Practical Suggestions
The coronavirus pandemic and the adopted social isolation to contain the virus spread led to several negative consequences including the decrease in the population's physical activity levels and increased physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Home-based physical exercise assumes fundamental importance to maintain physical activity and fitness levels. Among the various exercise possibilities of home-based exercise, the kettlebell exercise can be a useful and low-cost tool. The kettlebell is a round-shaped steel or cast-iron weight, commonly described as resembling a cannonball with a handle whose dimensions increase w...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Optimizing Exercise Selection for the Asymmetric Athlete After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Persistent deficits in quadriceps strength occur after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and should be addressed to facilitate safe return to sport. Asymmetric movement patterns that shield the affected knee by shifting demands to the unaffected lower extremity, or other joints within the affected limb, may limit the ability of common strength training exercises to effectively mitigate quadriceps weakness. A multifaceted approach focusing on the early restoration of symmetrical loading during the squat, programming isolated knee extensions, and varying exercise selection to include split-stance positions, suc...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Menopausal Women: Recognition, Exercise Benefits, Considerations, and Programming Needs
Recognition of the physiological and psychological concerns associated with menopausal women is described. A review of the current literature regarding these conditions (vasomotor responses, insomnia, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, obesity, cardiovascular conditions, metabolic concerns, and psychological concerns) and how exercise impacts the conditions are discussed. Considerations of exercise for menopausal women are presented. General exercise programming and exercise adherence preferences are reviewed with recommendations for a variety of exercise types, exercise progressions, and exercise programming to meet the needs of t...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Blood Pressure Characteristics and Responses During Resistance Exercise
Blood pressure changes acutely during resistance exercise. Continuous, beat-by-beat assessment provides detailed temporal resolution of blood pressure profiles, through techniques including intra-arterial catheterization, photoplethysmography, or applanation tonometry. However, noncontinuous measurements may be conducted before and after resistance exercise through auscultatory sphygmomanometry or oscillometry. Blood pressures tend to increase across repetitions within sets, influenced by load magnitude, repetitions and sets performed, muscle mass recruited, and rest periods; the highest pressures result from multi-joint, ...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Assessing Group-Based Changes in High-Performance Sport. Part 2: Effect Sizes and Embracing Uncertainty Through Confidence Intervals
This article has a series of worked examples to aid the reader. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Practical Considerations and Applications of Postactivation Performance Enhancement in Group Training: Delayed Performance Enhancing Triplexes
Athletes may increase power output through eliciting postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE). Muscle force and power may be increased during PAPE by coupling of 2 exercises, termed a “strength-power potentiating complex” (SPPC). Implementing SPPCs in the field is complicated by the need to use rest periods of several minutes in duration, which is impractical when training large numbers of athletes simultaneously within a short time. We propose delayed performance enhancing triplexes as a solution: which involve inserting an accessory exercise in between a heavy resistance exercise and a plyometric movemen...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Betaine Supplementation: A Critical Review of Its Efficacy for Improving Muscle Strength, Power, and Body Composition
This article aims to review the current state of the literature as to the potential ergogenic effects of betaine on muscular strength, power, and body composition and draw evidence-based conclusions as to its use as a sports supplement. Animal models indicate beneficial effects of betaine on improvements in body composition; the literature investigating these effects in humans is promising but limited. There are various mechanisms by which betaine may facilitate increases in muscle strength and power; however, the current literature does not seem to support a beneficial effect on these outcomes. Given that betaine does not...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Effect of Milk on Muscle Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance: A Systematic Review
Milk is a rich nutrient content beverage that may improve postexercise recovery. We systematically reviewed the evidence regarding the effects of milk consumption on athletes' muscle glycogen recovery and subsequent exercise performance, complementing with a practical recommendation on how athletes can use milk as a recovery aid. A literature search was conducted in databases up to April 2020 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Nine studies were included assessing the effect of milk, chocolate milk, or milk with additional carbohydrate on glycogen resynthesis and e...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Weightlifting: An Applied Method of Technical Analysis
This article will also look to discuss variable components that may differentiate between athletes and therefore provide a foundation in what to identify when coaching weightlifting to optimize load lifted while allowing for individual variances. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

A New Model for Optimizing Firefighter Human Performance
This article proposes the utilization of a similar HPO model by providing a rationale for how it can be used to reduce premature morbidity and mortality, as well as increasing overall readiness and resilience within the firefighting profession. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Mechanisms and Trainability of Peripheral Fatigue in Grappling
This article explores the mechanistic basis of peripheral fatigue and proposes strength and conditioning strategies aimed at attenuating the grappling-induced decline in force-generating capacity and endurance of the forearms and hands. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Dynamic Correspondence of the Hang Power Clean to Skating Starts in Men's Ice Hockey
The transfer of training of the hang power clean to skating starts in men's ice hockey was evaluated applying Verkhoshansky and Siff's proposed criteria of dynamic correspondence to the existing research. A relatively high degree of dynamic correspondence was evidenced throughout the criteria, although with a consideration of the sagittal plane alone. Based on this evaluation, the use of the hang power clean in training increases ice hockey players' capacity to express their skill through an improvement in peak force output and an increase in rate of force development in lower limb extension and is therefore recommended to...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - August 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Variables in Designing a Workout
Strength and conditioning professionals need to remember the fundamental principles that their profession is based on. Workouts are composed of a host of decisions made, which have been called the “acute program variables.” Choices made within each of these variable domains will affect the stimuli that the workout provides to the body's physiological and adaptive needs. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Inside the Box Source Type: research

Bodyweight BOSU Ball Exercises
A growing trend in strength and conditioning is the execution of traditional exercises on instability devices. With the addition of these implements, there is a greater challenge to maintain stability and balance. Implementing a device, such as the BOSU ball, may provide benefits to individuals rehabilitating from an injury, older individuals, and those looking to increase overall health benefits. Thus, this column provides detailed descriptions of the proper technique, advanced progressions, and exercise prescription for 4 bodyweight BOSU ball exercises. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Exercise Technique Source Type: research

Assessing Group-Based Changes in High-Performance Sport. Part 1: Null Hypothesis Significance Testing and the Utility of p Values
The role of a strength and conditioning coach (SCC) has evolved over the last 10 years to accommodate the large influx of data now available. As such, today's SCC must extend their skill set to include data analysis, understanding the validity and utility of p values, effect sizes, confidence intervals, and terms such as the smallest worthwhile change, and minimal difference. The aim of part one of this 2-part review is to define and discuss the utility of null hypothesis significance testing, p values, and error rates. In part 2, we introduce effect sizes, measures of variability, and confidence intervals, culminating in ...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Effects of Isolated and Combined Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate and β-Alanine on Combat Sports Athletes' Performance: A Systematic Review
This systematic review analyzed the isolated and combined effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and beta-alanine (β-alanine) supplementation on combat sports athletes' performance. Using the PRISMA guidelines, studies were identified through 3 databases and only 10 articles were included, 6 investigated the isolated ingestion of NaHCO3, 3 investigated isolated ingestion of β-alanine, whereas only 1 investigated the coingestion of NaHCO3 and β-alanine on combat sports performance. The results showed that both acute isolated ingestion and chronic isolated ingestion of NaHCO3 and chronic β-alanine are eff...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Assessing Interlimb Asymmetries: Are We Heading in the Right Direction?
This article aims to outline the potential options available for practitioners and researchers regarding the quantification, monitoring, and interpretation of interlimb asymmetries. A video abstract is available for this article (http://links.lww.com/SCJ/A296). (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Importance of Ability-Based Training for Law Enforcement Recruits
This article provides a literature review regarding current training practices, and the associated limitations, specific to recruits during academy. Collectively, this information indicates the need for ability-based, individualized training for recruits during academy, which is not always the model adopted for a variety of reasons. Practical applications relative to this analysis, in addition to examples for aerobic/anaerobic conditioning and resistance training programs, are presented. These programs feature exercises that are modifiable depending on the fitness of recruits. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

The Importance of the Foot and Ankle in Athletic Performance
Many strength and conditioning specialists prescribe exercises that use the major extensor muscles in the leg and thigh to help their athletes develop lower-body strength and power. Although this is important, an often neglected focus is specifically using and training the foot and ankle, which has shown to affect athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to: (a) provide the reader with researched information on how the foot and ankle impact athletic performance, and (b) provide practical applications for how to improve the function of the foot and ankle. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effects of Training on Sand or Hard Surfaces on Sprint and Jump Performance of Team-Sport Players: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis
We examined the effectiveness of training on sand and compared the effects of sand and hard surface training programs on the sprint and jump performance of team-sport players. PubMed MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases were used in the literature search. A total of 377 records were initially identified, and 6 studies comprising 136 athletes were included in the meta-analysis. Precomparisons and postcomparisons showed that sand training interventions were effective at improving both jump and sprint capacities. When comparing sand and hard surfaces, no significant differences in favor of any of the interventio...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Source Type: research

A Coaching Session Framework to Facilitate Long-Term Athletic Development
This article overviews a coaching session framework built around the following components: raise, activate, mobilize, prepare, activity, games, evaluate (RAMPAGE). The framework provides practitioners with information on what can be planned and delivered and when within a coaching session, across multiple ages and stages of development within multiple contexts (e.g., physical education and talent development). (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cueing the Youth Athlete During Strength and Conditioning: A Review and Practical Application
Verbal cues are tools used by practitioners in developing a youth athlete's motor skill abilities. External cues may optimize athletic performance and movement competencies in adults with trends for youth athletic populations following suit. However, maturation, training age, and cognitive age may interact with the efficacy of cues used. To better assist practitioners working with youth, this article reviews current empirical evidence on how youth populations respond or may respond to cues and offers practical applications. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Noncontact Knee Soft-Tissue Injury Prevention Considerations and Practical Applications for Netball Players
This article provides insight into noncontact knee injury–related aspects of netball and gives detailed suggestions for injury prevention screening and programming. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Incorporating Unilateral Variations of Weightlifting and Powerlifting Movements Into the Training Program of College-Level Dancers to Improve Stability
Properly structured resistance training can induce sport-specific neuromuscular adaptations, such as muscular strength, power, neuromuscular coordination, and joint range of motion in competitive athletes. Adapting traditional weightlifting and powerlifting-associated resistance exercises to be performed unilaterally can also be used to enhance stability. The purpose of this training program is to introduce weightlifting and powerlifting-associated exercises to members of a college-level dance team, with the goal to incorporate unilateral variations of these exercises to enhance stability in preparation for a dance perform...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - June 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

The Pallof Press
The use of core training is very common in the field of strength and conditioning. The Pallof press is one such exercise, which is considered a transverse plane or trunk rotation exercise. The use of this trunk-based exercise is implemented in strength and conditioning programs to aid in core stability. Exercise technique and the benefits of this exercise have been described in this article. The key coaching points for each position along with a progression and regression continuum for the Pallof press have also been outlined. This continuum along with the suggested programming can be used by practitioners to aid in lumbop...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Exercise Technique Source Type: research

Does Acupuncture Enhance Muscle Strength and Performance?
Acupuncture has gained attention in sports research for enhancing performance and recovery. Although there is substantial recognition for the therapeutic application of acupuncture in a variety of medical conditions, there are limited controlled research trials for acupuncture as a procedure to benefit muscle performance and recovery. Most of the research investigating the mechanism for acupuncture has focused on pain relief. However, there are several physiological effects associated with acupuncture needling, including the therapeutic potential of placebo. Although acupuncture has been shown to have few adverse effects, ...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Nutrition and Ergogenic Aids Source Type: research

Stiffness in Running: A Narrative Integrative Review
Researching running spatiotemporal parameters has deepened knowledge of the spring-mass model and its capacity to estimate and predict kinetic and kinematic variables. However, although the impact of lower-limb stiffness on athletic performance seems considerable, recognition of lower-limb stiffness among coaches and practitioners remains sparse. This review highlights factors influencing lower-limb stiffness during running and their relationship to injury prevention and performance. Current knowledge of lower-body stiffness during running is integrated and new scientific scope offered. Because the different variables are ...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Enriching Selves in Strength and Conditioning Society: A Multilevel Proposal to Enhance Strength and Conditioning Psychosocial Practice as Part of the Council on Accreditation of Strength and Conditioning Education
This review article advances the longstanding need to address psychosocial issues within strength and conditioning (S&C) that have renewed significance with the National Strength and Conditioning Association's entry into accreditation. First, a brief history is presented on the omission of psychosocial issues within S&C and the education of S&C practitioners. Second, the article provides an overview of learning theory and instructional strategies on how to develop essential psychosocial competencies of S&C practitioners. Third, multilevel recommendations are offered to address established calls to improve t...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Training Considerations and Recommendations for Tactical Professionals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that may develop in individuals after a traumatic event. Tactical professionals (e.g., military, police, and firefighters) are at an elevated risk for exposure to traumatic events and the onset of PTSD. Exercise and mindfulness training techniques have been shown to be beneficial for both the physical and mental health of the individual with PTSD. Knowing that tactical professionals have an increased risk of exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms compared to general population, practitioners should understand how to properly train these individuals. Therefore,...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Motor Skill, Movement Competency, and Physical Fitness Assessments for Reserve Officers' Training Corps Cadets
This article presents assessment options for motor skills, movement competency, and physical fitness that could be used for ROTC cadets. Should these tests be adopted, staff can use the results to drive their training. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Exercise Programming for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendations for Strength and Conditioning Specialists
The purpose of this article is to introduce strength and conditioning specialists to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to identify the many benefits of delivering exercise programs to children with ASD. In addition, the article aims to inform strength and conditioning specialists on how to minimize some of the inherent challenges associated with the delivery of such programs by highlighting critical issues for practitioners to consider when designing and implementing exercise programs for children with ASD. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Invitation Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction Training and Betaine Supplementation as a Novel Combined Modality to Augment Skeletal Muscle Adaptation: A Short Review
Blood flow restriction (BFR) training and betaine supplementation are emerging training tools with growing evidence, potentially providing a synergistic stimulus to augment skeletal muscle adaptation. Betaine may facilitate stretch-mediated anabolism secondary to BFR-induced extracellular-to-intracellular fluid influx, whereby their combination may promote a new, low-barrier avenue for athletes and clinical practitioners to elicit hypertrophy and strength. This review aims to (a) demonstrate existing evidence on BFR- and betaine-mediated skeletal muscle growth, (b) provide rationale for their combination as a superior anab...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Velocity-Based Training: From Theory to Application
Velocity-based training (VBT) is a contemporary method of resistance training that enables accurate and objective prescription of resistance training intensities and volumes. This review provides an applied framework for the theory and application of VBT. Specifically, this review gives detail on how to: use velocity to provide objective feedback, estimate strength, develop load-velocity profiles for accurate load prescription, and how to use statistics to monitor velocity. Furthermore, a discussion on the use of velocity loss thresholds, different methods of VBT prescription, and how VBT can be implemented within traditio...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Training Load Monitoring and Injury Prevention in Military Recruits: Considerations for Preparing Soldiers to Fight Sustainably
Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) during basic military training (BMT), frequently resulting in dropout, are well-recognized as a substantial problem both logistically and financially. Seven key evidence-informed principles of load management to minimize the risk of injury have been proposed in sport. A pertinent question is whether these principles can also be applied to military recruits by reducing the incidence and impact of MSIs and attrition from training. In this review, we address the challenges and possibilities of applying load management principles to BMT and suggest practical applications for military strength an...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Practical Postexercise Recovery Strategies in Male Adult Professional Soccer Players: A Systematic Review
The aim of this article was to systematically review and provide practical recommendations, where possible, for recovery strategies that are currently in use in soccer-specific practices among adult male professional players. A systematic search was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines on Web of Science, SPORTdiscus, Scopus, and PubMed databases. The effects of cold-based recovery techniques on performance recovery and attenuating the muscle soreness were evident. Complementarily, some evidence was found that favors foam rolling and massage and compression garments. The active recovery and electronic recovery instrumen...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Fitness Testing Parameters for Alpine Ski Racing
Alpine ski racing requires high levels of isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle actions through wide ranges of hip, knee, and ankle mobility. The course duration of ∼40 seconds for slalom racing to upward of 2.5 minutes for downhill racing necessitates high levels of anaerobic endurance, aerobic power, and force production to be successful. In addition, due to the highly technical skill aspect of ski racing, neuromuscular coordination is of utmost importance. This review identifies the most effective performance testing methods for alpine ski racing, as well as highlighting their relevance to the physiological pa...
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - April 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research

Preparing to Perform a Resistance Training Workout
Strength and conditioning professionals need to remember the fundamental principles of designing a resistance training workout. Designing a workout involves a host of decisions based on acute program variables. Choices made within each of these variables will impact the stimuli that the workout provides and the resulting adaptations. (Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal)
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - February 1, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Inside the Box Source Type: research