Nystagmus associated with macular dysplasia.
Conclusion: SD-OCT plays roles in the diagnosis and prognosis of macular dysplasia in patients with nystagmus. Absence of normal foveal pit is an OCT imaging characteristic of macular dysplasia associated with nystagmus. PMID: 31566469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - October 2, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Ametropia prevalence of primary school students in Chinese multi-ethnic regions.
Authors: Zhang Y, Qiu K, Zhang Q Abstract Introduction: To explore the prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected ametropia from primary students in multi-ethnic regions of Yunnan (China). Methods: Primary school students of 7 ~ 12 years old from 5 multi-ethnic regions were screened. Cycloplegic refraction and subjective trial lens were both performed for all those distance unaided visual acuity
Source: Strabismus - September 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

A case of linear scleroderma "en coup de sabre" with strabismus fixus in a child.
A case of linear scleroderma "en coup de sabre" with strabismus fixus in a child. Strabismus. 2019 Sep 21;:1-4 Authors: Sen P, Ramawat E, Mohan A, Shah C Abstract Scleroderma, "en coup de sabre" is a rare disorder, characterized by linear depressed scarring at frontoparietal area of the face, seldom associated with ophthalmological findings. Extraocular muscle involvement and paralytic strabismus are rarely associated with linear scleroderma. Here we are reporting a case of unilateral linear scleroderma in an 8-year-old child, with features of strabismus fixus secondary to fibrosed ...
Source: Strabismus - September 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

200 years Franciscus Cornelis Donders.
Authors: Van Opstal AJ PMID: 31534304 [PubMed] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - September 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Total external ophthalmoplegia: First clinical manifestation of Sj ögren's syndrome.
Total external ophthalmoplegia: First clinical manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome. Strabismus. 2019 Sep 06;:1-5 Authors: Singh A, Mahesh M, Agrawal A, Kumar N, Verma R, Mittal SK, Kumar B Abstract Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease causing destruction of the exocrine glands secondary to lymphocytic infiltration. Common clinical symptoms of SS are xerostomia, xerophthalmia, myalgia, arthritis, and vasculitis. Neurological symptoms may precede the diagnosis of SS by up to 2 years in about 80% of patients. A 28-year-old female presented to us with complaints of horizontal and vert...
Source: Strabismus - September 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Treatment of amblyopia: part 5.
Authors: Bangerter A PMID: 31456466 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - August 30, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Ocular ductions after rectus muscle recession and resection in thyroid eye disease.
Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, we found an equal effect on ocular ductions in patients with TED when comparing recess/resect eye muscle surgery to recess only procedures. In TED patients with large horizontal angle deviations and abduction deficit, medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection surgery can be considered. Muscle resections in TED do not seem to have a clinically relevant risk to increase the restriction of ocular ductions but rather improve ductions in the restricted directions of gaze. PMID: 31407938 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - August 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Bagolini filter bars: an analysis of light transmittance and their use in a pediatric population.
Authors: England LC, Davis H Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the Sbisa bar (Sbisa Ophthalmic Instruments) (referred to in this article as the BF(Sbisa) bar) and Bagolini Filter bar (C.O.I. Vision) (referred to in this article as the BF(new) bar) are repeatable and comparable, for measuring density of suppression or strength of abnormal binocular single vision (BSV), in a pediatric population. Methods: Using a spot photometer, percentage light transmittance of filters on two BF(Sbisa) bars and two BF(new) bars was measured. Thirty-three participants aged 5-12 years with unila...
Source: Strabismus - August 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Does successful surgical correction of childhood large angle exotropia in adults make any difference to binocularity and quality of life?
Authors: Yao J, Qu X, Lin J, Liu H Abstract Background/Aim: Strabismus surgery could achieve motor alignment and improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with large angle exotropia, but whether it could improve binocularity and whether the binocularity is associated with HRQOL are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the binocularity and HRQOL following successful surgical correction of childhood large angle exotropia in adults. Methods: Consecutive adults with childhood large angle exotropia (≥90 prism diopters) who underwent strabismus surgery in the Department of Ophthalmology and Vis...
Source: Strabismus - July 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Amblyopia treatment and quality of life: the child's perspective on atropine versus patching.
Conclusion: Amblyopic children reported that patching and atropine treatments did not have a significant impact on their quality of life. Patching and atropine should continue to be offered as first-line treatments for amblyopia, as children appear to tolerate both well and do not favor one over the other. PMID: 31329017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - July 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of the Lang Stereopad in a non-clinic population.
Conclusions: The Lang Stereopad test is easy to administer and it has certain advantages such as no requirement for additional test glasses. It is a useful assessment to add to the clinical armamentarium for binocular assessment of stereopsis. The Lang Stereopad does not agree well with other stereo tests such as the TNO and Frisby but provides a greater stereoacuity test range than the Lang II. The Lang Stereopad now requires testing in a clinical population in which stereoacuity is a pre-requisite part of the assessment. PMID: 31329020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - July 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

A randomized clinical trial using atropine, cyclopentolate, and tropicamide to compare refractive outcome in hypermetropic children with a dark iris; skin pigmentation and crying as significant factors for hypermetropic outcome.
Authors: van Minderhout HM, Joosse MV, Grootendorst DC, Schalij-Delfos NE Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the refractive outcome and influencing factors following atropine 0.5% eye-drops applied twice daily during 2 ½ days at home and two drops of cyclopentolate 1% (C+C) and one drop of cyclopentolate 1% and one drop of tropicamide 1% (C+T) applied in an outpatient clinic, in hypermetropic children with a dark iris. Methods: Double-blind randomized study including 67 3-6-year-old children receiving C+C in one eye and C+T in the other eye. Two weeks later followed by atropine 0.5% in both eyes. Primary outcome ...
Source: Strabismus - June 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of graded Anderson's procedure in idiopathic infantile nystagmus.
Authors: Ganesh SC, Rao SG, Narendran K Abstract Aim: To study the efficacy of graded, bilateral, single, horizontal yoked rectus muscle recession for correction of anomalous head posture (AHP) in idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN). We hypothesize that the above procedure would sufficiently correct AHP in IIN. Methods: Case records of patients who presented with IIN and AHP due to eccentric null position were included in a retrospective study following IRB approval. Best-corrected visual acuity (binocular Snellen's acuity for distance, in both null position and primary position), anterior segment evaluation using...
Source: Strabismus - June 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Vertical vergence in nonhuman primates depends on horizontal gaze position.
Authors: Adade S, Das VE Abstract The goal of this study was to compare vertical fusion capability at different orbital eye positions in normal nonhuman primates and attempt to use this information to isolate the extraocular muscles (EOMs) that mediate vertical vergence. Scleral search coils were used to record movements of both eyes as two normal nonhuman primates (M1, M2) performed a vertical vergence task at different horizontal eye positions. In a control experiment, M1 was also tested at different angles of horizontal vergence. To elicit vertical vergence, a 50° x 50° stimulus comprising a central fixa...
Source: Strabismus - June 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Outcomes following surgery for horizontal strabismus in children of lower socioeconomic backgrounds.
We present the first analysis of the impact of SES on strabismus surgery outcomes. Overall surgical success rate in our study population failed to differ significantly from a control population and were comparable to that reported in the literature. We found that compliance with treatment influenced surgical success rates in our study population. The high rate of lost to follow-up in the study population is an important factor influencing our conclusion that no difference exists between our groups. PMID: 31184517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - June 12, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

The history of the Ostschweizerische Pleoptik und Orthoptik Schule in St. Gallen.
Authors: Simonsz HJ Abstract In judging the achievements of Alfred Bangerter in treatment and research of amblyopia it is easy to conclude that his pleoptic exercises have been forgotten because occlusion therapy is more effective and cheaper. However, Bangerter introduced the visuscope to determine the point of fixation directly on the retina, he started the first "school" (exercise treatment facility) for pleoptics and orthoptics in St. Gallen only 18 years after Mary Maddox did so in London and he started a training program for orthoptists. In 1957 the Genossenschaft Ostschweizerische Pleoptik-und...
Source: Strabismus - June 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Treatment of amblyopia: part 4.
Authors: Bangerter A PMID: 31134846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - May 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Comparison of the CAT-QoL and PedsQLTM instruments in measuring quality of life in amblyopia treatment: preliminary results.
Authors: Carlton J Abstract Background/Aims: The Child Amblyopia Treatment Questionnaire (CAT-QoL) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), designed to assess the impact of amblyopia treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of two PROMs; the CAT-QoL instrument and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM), a generic pediatric PROM. This work was part of a wider project to develop a condition-specific PROM for children with amblyopia. Methods: Three hundred and forty-two participants were recruited in a UK multi-center study. Quality of life data was collected using the C...
Source: Strabismus - May 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Global and regional prevalence of strabismus: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.
In this study, a systematic search was done to estimate the regional and global prevalence of strabismus in different age and sex groups and factors affecting prevalence heterogeneity. METHODS: A comprehensive and systematic search was done in different international databases, including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Embase, etc. to find published articles on the total prevalence of strabismus and the prevalence of exotropia and esotropia. A binomial distribution was used to calculate the prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI). The Cochran's Q-test and I2 were applied to evaluate heterogeneity and a random-effec...
Source: Strabismus - April 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Refinement of the Child Amblyopia Treatment Questionnaire (CAT-QoL) using Rasch analysis.
CONCLUSION: The refined CAT-QoL instrument includes the following items: sad, feeling on face, hurt, doing work at school, how other children treat you, doing things, worried and playing with friends. The CAT-QoL can be Rasch scored, with a range of 0-16 where a greater value indicates a worse quality of life (or greater impact of treatment on the individual). The CAT-QoL may be useful in determining how amblyopia treatment affects children, and offers an alternative to generic patient reported outcome measures. PMID: 31012391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - April 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of strabismus surgery in Mobius sequence.
This study retrospectively reviews the long-term outcome of strabismus surgery for such patients. METHODS: The long-term follow-up results in five children with Mobius sequence, who were observed after strabismus surgery for congenital esotropia, were analyzed. RESULTS: All patients had a limitation of abduction in both eyes. Preoperative esotropia ranged from 20 to 30 prism diopters (PD) (mean 27 PD). Patient age at surgery ranged from 4.5 to 14 months. Bilateral medial rectus muscle recession was performed in all cases, ranging from 4.0 to 6.5 mm. Inferior transposition of the medial rectus muscles was performed ...
Source: Strabismus - April 9, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Congress proceedings.
Authors: PMID: 30892992 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - March 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Reduction of oculocardiac reflex with Tetracaine eye drop in strabismus surgery.
CONCLUSION: Tetracaine eye drop only reduces the incidence and severity of OCR during the incision stage of strabismus surgery. PMID: 30831045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - March 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Measurement of fusional vergence: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: The source of heterogeneity between studies for vergence break points measured with the step vergence method seems to be linked with age. Normal vergences reported in children had considerable heterogeneity compared with adults. In clinical practice, the population-based vergence ranges measured with the step vergence method in children should not be used as one single criterion. For the smooth vergence technique, normative population data can be used. PMID: 30821611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - March 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

The enigmatic strabismus of Albrecht D ürer.
The enigmatic strabismus of Albrecht Dürer. Strabismus. 2019 Feb 13;:1-4 Authors: Goes FJ Abstract The author discusses several of Albrecht Dürer's selfportraits. In some portraits his eyes are straight and in some others a divergent squint is present. Did Dürer do this on purpose or whas the squint indeed intermittently present? Analysis of the portrait of his mother gave the explanation. PMID: 30757950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Bupivacaine injection combined with recession of antagonist rectus muscle to treat sensory strabismus.
This study aims to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine injection at 1.5% combined with recession of the antagonist rectus muscle to treat sensory strabismus in adult patients. METHODS: Nine patients with a horizontal deviation, visual acuity of
Source: Strabismus - February 9, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Annual meeting of the Julius Hirschberg society in Antwerp, 17th century birthplace of studies on binocular vision.
Authors: Kluxen G, Krogmann F PMID: 30648899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - January 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Lights and darks of a picture. The life of Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, "il Guercino" - the squinter.
CONCLUSIONS: Barbieri did not make a secret of the dysfunction of his eyes. In contrast, he showed his squinting eye distinctly in his famous self-portrait from ca. 1635. It can be assumed that "Il Guercino" was so detailed in studying light and shadow with his one eye that he could compensate for his amblyopic eye. By this, Barbieri could create pictures with an amazing degree of variations of light and shadow. PMID: 30626256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - January 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Superior oblique tuck: evaluation of surgical outcomes.
Authors: Dwivedi R, Marsh IB Abstract PURPOSE: To report the surgical outcomes of the superior oblique tuck procedure in the management of superior oblique palsies performed at a single centre over a 25-year period. METHODS: A retrospective study of superior oblique tuck performed as a primary and secondary procedure by a single surgeon over a 25-year period between 1992 and 2016. We evaluated patient demographics, the angle of deviation pre- and post-surgery in prism dioptres (PD), amount of muscle tuck surgery performed (mm), complications (iatrogenic Brown's Syndrome) and improvement of diplopia post-operati...
Source: Strabismus - January 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Adherence syndrome following inferior oblique anteropositioning - a case report.
CONCLUSIONS: Adherence syndrome is a rare and severe complication of IO weakening procedures. The initial postoperative improvement achieved in elevation and hypotropia in primary position was not maintained over subsequent follow-ups. PMID: 30570375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - December 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

The efficacy of superior rectus recession with simultaneous inferior oblique disinsertion on superior oblique palsy with superior rectus contracture.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that SR recession in combination with IO disinsertion is an effective procedure to control large vertical deviations in SOP with SR contracture in the majority of cases. However, the risk of overcorrection should be considered despite adjustable SR weakening and BTXA injection seems efficient to rescue overcorrections in long term. PMID: 30522394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - December 15, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

A pilot study using electronic reminders for amblyopia treatment.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that use of a smartphone app is feasible in this patient population. Targeting the app to specific patient demographics or when difficulty with compliance is encountered needs to be further investigated. PMID: 30325237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - October 18, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Prevalence of amblyopia in Bulgaria.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of amblyopia among these patients (2.5%) is correlating well with the expected, based on data from other authors, between 1.5% and 3.5%. The fact that nearly half of the children (45%) have not been examined by an ophthalmologist is, however, alarming. The lack of a national screening program in Bulgaria could be the main reason. Other factors include: insufficient number of pediatric ophthalmologists in the country and the lack of awareness among the parents. PMID: 30325246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - October 18, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Visual functioning in adults with Idiopathic Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (IINS).
CONCLUSIONS: IINS can have a greater than expected impact on an individual's quality of life, without necessarily causing markedly reduced visual acuity. Our study showed lowest scores in the domains of mental health and wellbeing. Patients also reported reduced visual functioning in driving, which can impact adversely on employability and independence. Visual functioning questionnaires such as the VFQ-25 may provide more functional information on the impact of nystagmus on an individual's quality of life than objective measures such as high contrast Snellen and/or LogMAR visual acuity. PMID: 30325248 [PubMed - as supp...
Source: Strabismus - October 18, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Letter to editor: "is microtropia a reliable indicator for the presence of amblyopia in anisometropic patients?" by Lysons and Tapley.
Letter to editor: "is microtropia a reliable indicator for the presence of amblyopia in anisometropic patients?" by Lysons and Tapley. Strabismus. 2018 Oct 04;:1 Authors: Rutstein RP PMID: 30285526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - October 6, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Processed amniotic membrane for conjunctival reconstruction in complex strabismus surgery.
DISCUSSION: The result of our study indicates that commercially prepared amniotic membrane is a good alternative graft to replace conjunctiva. It helps to prevent or cure restrictive strabismus, scarring of the conjunctiva with discomfort, and lack of conjunctiva. It is possible that commercially storable products may increase the risk of symblepharon, the reason is unknown. PMID: 30130446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - August 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Michael Constantine Psellus (1020-1105 AD) and his definition of strabismus.
This study aims to compose Psellus biography, present ancient Greek and Byzantine ophthalmology's opinion concerning strabismus and note Psellus' definition. The TLG and MedLine/PubMed databases were searched and the terms "strabismus" and "Psellus" were used as key words. PMID: 30125225 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - August 21, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Median 8 year follow-up after vertical extraocular muscle surgery to correct abnormal vertical head posture.
CONCLUSION: Combined vertical recti and oblique muscle surgery can successfully improve and even resolve vertical head posture, and prevents cyclorotary disorders postoperatively. PMID: 30060686 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - August 2, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Is microtropia a reliable indicator of the presence of amblyopia in anisometropic patients?
CONCLUSION: In this study of 532 four-five year olds, amblyopia did not exist in "straight-eyed" anisometropic children who did not have microtropia with identity. This study suggests that the presence of microtropia with identity is a reliable indicator of the presence of amblyopia, and possible need for occlusion therapy, following optical treatment in "straight-eyed" anisometropic children. PMID: 30060696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - August 2, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Surgical outcome of a new modification to muscle belly union surgery in heavy eye syndrome.
CONCLUSION: Our new approach in muscle belly union surgery resulted in favorable outcomes compared with previous studies. It seems that the two-suture technique presented in this study yields more convenient approximation of muscle bellies and acts as a safety suture upon spontaneous loosening of the first applied suture. PMID: 30059643 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - July 31, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Global and regional estimates of prevalence of amblyopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
In this study, international databases, including Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and other relevant databases, were searched systematically to find articles on the prevalence of amblyopia in different age groups published in English. The prevalence and 95% CI were calculated using binomial distribution. The Cochran's Q-test and I2 statistic were applied to assess heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence, and a meta-regression method was utilized to investigate the factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Of 1252 studies, 73 studies were included in the a...
Source: Strabismus - July 31, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

A modified vertical muscle transposition for the treatment of large-angle esotropia due to sixth nerve palsy.
CONCLUSION: This procedure is comparable to traditional procedures with the advantages of no need to tenotomy or splitting and can be a good alternative to conventional Hummelsheim's procedure. PMID: 29985743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - July 11, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Treatment of amblyopia: Part 3 Apparatus, exercise equipment and games (continued).
Authors: Bangerter A PMID: 29952715 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - June 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Convergence Spasm.
CONCLUSION: The response of patients with convergence spasm to botulinum toxin was variable with a recurrence of the deviation once the effect wore off. In our experience, botulinum toxin has a limited role in the management of convergence spasm. PMID: 29894224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - June 14, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

The Effect of Prism Adaptation on the Angle of Deviation in Convergence Excess Esotropia and Possible Consequences for Surgical Planning.
This study compares the angle of deviation at 1/3 m and 6 m before and after prism adaptation in subjects with convergence excess esotropia to determine if a masked distance angle of deviation can be demonstrated similar to the masked near angle of deviation in some intermittent exotropes. Surgical results are reported. RESULTS: Fifty-eight children with convergence excess esotropia were prescribed prism adaptation prior to strabismus surgery and 49 met the inclusion criteria. A median increase in the angle of deviation of 20 prism dioptres (PD) was seen at both 1/3 m and 6 m following PAT. These changes were stat...
Source: Strabismus - June 13, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Near Point of Convergence in Iranian Schoolchildren: Normative Values and Associated Factors.
Authors: Hashemi H, Nabovati P, Khabazkhoob M, Yekta A, Emamian MH, Fotouhi A Abstract PURPOSE: To determine the distribution of near point of convergence (NPC) and its related factors in 6 to 12-year-old children. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study in 2015, the urban and rural children of Shahroud, north of Iran, were sampled. All rural schoolchildren were invited to the study, and in the urban area, we conducted random cluster sampling. Examinations included measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, manifest, subjective, and cycloplegic refraction. NPC and near point of accommodation (NPA) were...
Source: Strabismus - May 19, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Ocular Neuromyotonia: Case Reports and Literature Review.
We present eight patients with this rare condition together with an overview of the literature on all published ONM cases. One of the presented cases is possibly secondary to hypovitaminosis D. This association has not been reported previously in the literature. A possible underlying mechanism is given. PMID: 29693497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - April 27, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Recovery of a Disinserted Medial Rectus Muscle after Pterygium Surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Accidental rectus muscle disinsertion after pterygium excision surgery is a serious but rare postoperative complication of pterygium surgery. Great care should be taken intraoperatively to avoid this complication. Reattachment of the disinserted medial rectus will produce a satisfactory resolution of the problem. PMID: 29672190 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - April 21, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Differences in the Stimulus Accommodative Convergence/Accommodation Ratio using Various Techniques and Accommodative Stimuli.
Authors: Satou T, Ito M, Shinomiya Y, Takahashi Y, Hara N, Niida T Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate differences in the stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio using various techniques and accommodative stimuli, and to describe a method for determining the stimulus AC/A ratio. METHODS: A total of 81 subjects with a mean age of 21 years (range, 20-23 years) were enrolled. The relationship between ocular deviation and accommodation was assessed using two methods. Ocular deviation was measured by varying the accommodative requirement using spherical plus/minus lenses to create an acc...
Source: Strabismus - April 5, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research

Risk of Anterior Segment Ischemia Following Simultaneous Three Rectus Muscle Surgery: Results from a Single Tertiary Care Centre.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of anterior segment ischemia after uncomplicated simultaneous three rectus muscle surgery was found to be 2.3% (95% CI = 0.3 to 8.1). It may occur in otherwise healthy young patients and even after fornix approach surgery. PMID: 29547011 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Strabismus)
Source: Strabismus - March 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Strabismus Source Type: research