Where Does the Time Go? Displacement of Device-Measured Sedentary Time in Effective Sedentary Behaviour Interventions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsEffective interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour result in a consistent displacement of sedentary time to LPA and standing time, both at worksites and across the whole day, whereas changes in stepping time or MVPA are dependent on the intervention setting. Strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour should not be limited to worksite settings, and further efforts may be required to promote daily MVPA.Trial RegistrationPROSPERO registration number CRD42020153958. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - May 14, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

How to Tackle Mental Fatigue: A Systematic Review of Potential Countermeasures and Their Underlying Mechanisms
ConclusionThe present systematic review reveals that a wide range of countermeasures have been found to successfully counteract MF on a subjective, (neuro)physiological and/or behavioural level. Of these, caffeine, odours, music and extrinsic motivation are the most evidenced for countering MF. To provide in-detail practical guidelines for the real-life application of MF countermeasures, more research must be performed into the underlying mechanisms and into the optimal dosage and time of application/intake. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - May 11, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Can I Have My Coffee and Drink It? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to Determine Whether Habitual Caffeine Consumption Affects the Ergogenic Effect of Caffeine
ConclusionHabitual caffeine consumption does not appear to influence the acute ergogenic effect of caffeine. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - May 10, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Need for Eccentric Speed: A Narrative Review of the Effects of Accelerated Eccentric Actions During Resistance-Based Training
AbstractEccentric training as a method to enhance athletic performance is a topic of increasing interest to both practitioners and researchers. However, data regarding the effects of performing the eccentric actions of an exercise at increased velocities are limited. This narrative review aimed to provide greater clarity for eccentric methods and classification with regard to temporal phases of exercises. Between March and April 2021, we used key terms to search the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar databases within the years 1950 –2021. Search terms included ‘fast eccentric’, ‘fast velocity eccentric’, ‘...
Source: Sports Medicine - May 10, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Head and Neck Characteristics as Risk Factors For and Protective Factors Against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Military and Sporting Populations: A Systematic Review
ConclusionThere is mixed evidence in the literature for the protective capacity of head and neck characteristics. We suggest field-based mTBI research in the future should include more dynamic anthropometric metrics, such as neck stiffness and response to perturbation. In addition, laboratory-based mTBI studies should aim to standardise design and reporting to help further uncover these complicated relationships. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - May 6, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Decoupling of Internal and External Workload During a Marathon: An Analysis of Durability in 82,303 Recreational Runners
ConclusionDurability characteristics, assessed as internal-to-external workload ratio, show considerable inter-individual variability, and both its magnitude and onset are associated with marathon performance. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - May 5, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

An Examination and Critique of Subjective Methods to Determine Exercise Intensity: The Talk Test, Feeling Scale, and Rating of Perceived Exertion
AbstractPrescribing exercise intensity is crucial in achieving an adequate training stimulus. While numerous objective methods exist and are used in practical settings for exercise intensity prescription, they all require anchor measurements that are derived from a maximal or submaximal graded exercise test or a series of submaximal or supramaximal exercise bouts. Conversely, self-reported subjective methods such as the Talk Test (TT), Feeling Scale (FS) affect rating, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) do not require exercise testing prior to commencement of the exercise training and therefore appear as more practical...
Source: Sports Medicine - May 4, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

An Active Inference Account of Skilled Anticipation in Sport: Using Computational Models to Formalise Theory and Generate New Hypotheses
AbstractOptimal performance in time-constrained and dynamically changing environments depends on making reliable predictions about future outcomes. In sporting tasks, performers have been found to employ multiple information sources to maximise the accuracy of their predictions, but questions remain about how different information sources are weighted and integrated to guide anticipation. In this paper, we outline how predictive processing approaches, and active inference in particular, provide a unifying account of perception and action that explains many of the prominent findings in the sports anticipation literature. Ac...
Source: Sports Medicine - May 3, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Associations Between Esports Participation and Health: A Scoping Review
AbstractEsports are a contemporary phenomenon, with millions of people involved. Still, scientific literature on the topic is scarce. Anecdotal reports, mostly based on what is known from videogames practice, have associated esports with unhealthy lifestyles and health-related problems. The present scoping review aimed to provide an overview of findings from studies regarding the health and well-being in adult esports players, while identifying the most studied topics in the field and those still lacking scientific research.The search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, B-on, and ESCBO databases. Studies rega...
Source: Sports Medicine - April 29, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory Parameters Comparison Between Incremental Protocols Performed in Aquatic and Land Environments by Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsOur study reinforces the specificity of the environment during incremental tests for prescribing exercises based on physiological parameters as VO2 and HR parameters presented lower values in aquatic protocols than land protocols. Conversely, RPE seems an interchangeable measure of exercise intensity, with similar values during the protocols in both environments. Substantial levels of heterogeneity were present for the VO2max and HRmax meta-analyses, and as such, results should be interpreted with attention.Protocol  RegistrationThis study was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic R...
Source: Sports Medicine - April 29, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Menstrual Cycle: The Importance of Both the Phases and the Transitions Between Phases on Training and Performance
AbstractThe authors present opinions based on their applied experiences of working with female athletes in combination with the existing evidence-based literature. Most of the existing menstrual cycle research focuses on a few steady-state time points within the pre-defined menstrual cycle phases, yet this disregards the day-to-day hormonal changes that women have to accommodate to perform optimally and consistently. The traditional research models are inadequate for studying symptoms and symptom management, and ultimately for supporting athletes to perform well throughout the entirety of their cycle. As such, the monitori...
Source: Sports Medicine - April 29, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Effects of Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsIn contrast to previous findings on whole muscle hypertrophy, the present results suggest that concurrent aerobic and strength training may have a small negative effect on fiber hypertrophy compared with strength training alone. Preliminary evidence suggests that this interference effect may be more pronounced when aerobic training is performed by running compared with cycling, at least for type I fibers. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - April 27, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Can Compression Garments Reduce the Deleterious Effects of Physical Exercise on Muscle Strength? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses
ConclusionMeta-analytical evidence suggests that wearing a CG during or after training does not seem to facilitate the recovery of muscle strength following physical exercise. Practitioners, athletes, coaches, and trainers should reconsider the use of CG as a tool to reduce the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength.Trial Registration NumberPROSPERO CRD42021246753. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - April 27, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Follicular and Luteal Phase-Based Menstrual Cycle Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Mass
AbstractThere is an increasing interest in female athletic performance —especially concerning the impact of the female menstrual cycle on training response. Indeed, fluctuations in female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, during the menstrual cycle regulate protein metabolism and recovery processes in skeletal muscle and may thus impact exercise training-rela ted outcomes. Studies demonstrate that anaerobic capacity and muscle strength are greatest during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen levels peak. In addition, studies indicate that resistance training conducted in the follicular phase...
Source: Sports Medicine - April 26, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Does a Hypertrophying Muscle Fibre Reprogramme its Metabolism Similar to a Cancer Cell?
AbstractIn 1924, Otto Warburg asked “How does the metabolism of a growing tissue differ from that of a non-growing tissue?” Currently, we know that proliferating healthy and cancer cells reprogramme their metabolism. This typically includes increased glucose uptake, glycolytic flux and lactate synthesis. A key function of this rep rogramming is to channel glycolytic intermediates and other metabolites into anabolic reactions such as nucleotide-RNA/DNA synthesis, amino acid-protein synthesis and the synthesis of, for example, acetyl and methyl groups for epigenetic modification. In this review, we discuss evidence that ...
Source: Sports Medicine - April 23, 2022 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research