Intra-articular Injection Administration in UK Ex-professional Footballers During Their Playing Careers and the Association with Post-career Knee Osteoarthritis
AbstractBackgroundThe long-term risk from knee intra-articular (KIA) injections in professional athletes such as ex-footballers remains unknown. The use of KIA injections is controversial and remains anecdotally prolific as it is perceived as being safe/beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the number, type and frequency KIA injections administered to retired professional footballers during their playing careers and the associations with post-career knee osteoarthritis (KOA).MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study involving a postal questionnaire (n = 1207) and subsequent knee radiographs in a ran...
Source: Sports Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Tensor Fascia Latae Muscle Structure and Activation in Individuals With Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions and implicationsCommon clinical assumptions of the role of TFL muscle in lower limb musculoskeletal conditions are not well investigated and poorly supported by current research. There are contradictory findings on the muscle size of TFL. Differing methodology in muscle activation studies precludes a clear interpretation for comparison between groups.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42017076160. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - January 2, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: The Effectiveness of Two Methods of Prescribing Load on Maximal Strength Development: A Systematic Review
While typesetting the entries of the Table  1 were incorrectly aligned. The correct Table 1 has been copied below. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - January 2, 2020 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Lifelong Endurance Exercise as a Countermeasure Against Age-Related $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$V ˙O2max Decline: Physiological Overview and Insights from Masters Athletes
AbstractMaximum oxygen consumption (\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}\)) is not only an indicator of endurance performance, but also a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This physiological parameter is known to decrease with aging. In turn, physical exercise might attenuate the rate of aging-related decline in\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}\), which in light of the global population aging is of major clinical relevance, especially at advanced ages. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence available from masters athletes about the role of lifelong endurance exercise on aging-r...
Source: Sports Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Prior Cognitive Exertion on Physical Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
AbstractBackgroundAn emerging body of the literature in the past two decades has generally shown that prior cognitive exertion is associated with a subsequent decline in physical performance. Two parallel, but overlapping, bodies of literature (i.e., ego depletion, mental fatigue) have examined this question. However, research to date has not merged these separate lines of inquiry to assess the overall magnitude of this effect.ObjectiveThe present work reports the  results of a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis examining carryover effects of cognitive exertion on physical performance.MethodsA systemati...
Source: Sports Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Authors ’ Reply to Tenan et al .: “A Method to Stop Analyzing Random Error and Start Analyzing Differential Responders to Exercise”
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - December 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Comment on: “A Method to Stop Analyzing Random Error and Start Analyzing Differential Responders to Exercise”
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - December 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Case for Retiring Flexibility as a Major Component of Physical Fitness
AbstractFlexibility refers to the intrinsic properties of body tissues that determine maximal joint range of motion without causing injury. For many years, flexibility has been classified by the American College of Sports Medicine as a major component of physical fitness. The notion flexibility is important for fitness has also led to the idea static stretching should be prescribed to improve flexibility. The current paper proposes flexibility be retired as a major component of physical fitness, and consequently, stretching be de-emphasized as a standard component of exercise prescriptions for most populations. First, I sh...
Source: Sports Medicine - December 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Predicting Sport-related mTBI Symptom Resolution Trajectory Using Initial Clinical Assessment Findings: A Retrospective Cohort Study
ConclusionsBeing female, reporting a higher Positive Symptom Total at initial assessment, and being less likely to have a physiological predominant symptom cluster at initial assessment predicted  >  14 versus ≤ 14-day SR-mTBI symptom resolution with a high level of accuracy. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - December 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Two Methods of Prescribing Load on Maximal Strength Development: A Systematic Review
AbstractBackgroundOptimal prescription of resistance exercise load (kg) is essential for the development of maximal strength. Two methods are commonly used in practice with no clear consensus on the most effective approach for the improvement of maximal strength.ObjectiveThe primary aim of this review was to compare the effectiveness of percentage 1RM (% 1RM) and repetition maximum targets (RM) as load prescription methods for the development of maximal strength.MethodsElectronic database searches of MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and CINAHL Complete were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies were eligible...
Source: Sports Medicine - December 11, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

What are the Benefits and Risks Associated with Changing Foot Strike Pattern During Running? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Injury, Running Economy, and Biomechanics
ConclusionThe relationship between strike pattern and injury risk could not be determined, as current evidence is limited to retrospective findings. Considering the lack of evidence to support any improvements in running economy, combined with the associated shift in loading profile (i.e., greater ankle and plantarflexor loading) found in this review, changing strike pattern cannot be recommended for an uninjured RFS runner.PROSPERO RegistrationCRD42015024523. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Exogenous Ketone Supplementation and Keto-Adaptation for Endurance Performance: Disentangling the Effects of Two Distinct Metabolic States
AbstractKetone bodies (KB) provide an alternative energy source and uniquely modulate substrate metabolism during endurance exercise. Nutritional ketosis (blood KBs  >  0.5 mM) can be achieved within minutes via exogenous ketone supplementation or days-to-weeks via conforming to a very low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (KD). In contrast to short-term (  3 weeks) leads to a state of keto-adaptation. However, despite elevating blood KBs to similar concentrations, exogenous ketone supplementation and keto-adaptation are not similar metabolic states as they elicit diverse and distinct effects o...
Source: Sports Medicine - December 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Is Physical Activity Good or Bad for the Female Pelvic Floor? A Narrative Review
AbstractMore women participate in sports than ever before and the proportion of women athletes at the Olympic Games is nearly 50%. The pelvic floor in women may be the only area of the body where the positive effect of physical activity has been questioned. The aim of this narrative review is to present two widely held opposing hypotheses on the effect of general exercise on the pelvic floor and to discuss the evidence for each. Hypothesis 1: by strengthening the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and decreasing the levator hiatus, exercise decreases the risk of urinary incontinence, anal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, bu...
Source: Sports Medicine - December 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Effect of Resistance Training in Women on Dynamic Strength and Muscular Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis
The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to systematically review the literature on female adaptations to RT, characterising the effect in terms of muscular strength and hypertrophy; (2) to distinguish the individual effects of intervention duration, frequency, and intensity on these adaptations via sub-analysis; (3) to draw evidence-based conclusions regarding training expectations in female populations.MethodsThree electronic databases were searched using terms related to RT combined with females or women. Random-effects meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the effect of RT on muscular strength and hypertrop...
Source: Sports Medicine - December 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Overtraining in Resistance Exercise: An Exploratory Systematic Review and Methodological Appraisal of the Literature
ConclusionsFew studies have appropriately established FOR, NFOR or OTS in resistance training. Overtraining may be related to frequent high-intensity and monotonous resistance training. However, no marker other than a sustained decrease in performance has been established as a reliable indicator of overtraining in resistance exercise.RegistrationThis systematic review was registered on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/) (https://doi.org/10.17605/osf.io/5bmsp). (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - December 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Comment On: “The Effect of Nordic Hamstring Exercise Intervention Volume on Eccentric Strength and Muscle Architecture Adaptations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses”
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - December 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Reply to: “Comment on: The Effect of Nordic Hamstring Exercise Intervention Volume on Eccentric Strength and Muscle Architecture Adaptations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses”
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - December 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Is Motorized Treadmill Running Biomechanically Comparable to Overground Running? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Over Studies
ConclusionsSpatiotemporal, kinematic, kinetic, muscle activity, and muscle –tendon outcome measures are largely comparable between motorized treadmill and overground running. Considerations should, however, particularly be given to sagittal plane kinematic differences at footstrike when extrapolating treadmill running biomechanics to overground running. Protocol registra tion CRD42018083906 (PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - December 4, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Minimum Effective Training Dose Required to Increase 1RM Strength in Resistance-Trained Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsThe results of the present systematic review suggest that performing a single set of 6 –12 repetitions with loads ranging from approximately 70–85% 1RM 2–3 times per week with high intensity of effort (reaching volitional or momentary failure) for 8–12 weeks can produce suboptimal, yet significant increases in SQ and BP 1RM strength in resistance-trained men. However, because of the lack of research, it is less clear as to whether these improvements may also be achievable in DL 1RM strength or in trained women and highly trained strength athletes.RegistrationThis systematic review wa...
Source: Sports Medicine - December 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Does Acute Fatigue Negatively Affect Intrinsic Risk Factors of the Lower Extremity Injury Risk Profile? A Systematic and Critical Review
ConclusionAcute fatigue affects prospective intrinsic modifiable risk factors for lower extremity injury, indicating an altered injury risk profile for lateral ankle sprain, patellofemoral pain syndrome and hamstring injuries. Future research should allow for individual fatiguability as a relevant outcome, and merge insights from athlete-centred injury risk profiling and fatigue. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 29, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Optimising the ‘Mid-Stage’ Training and Testing Process After ACL Reconstruction
AbstractOutcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction need improving, with poor return-to-sport rates and high risk of secondary re-injury. There is a need to improve rehabilitation strategies after ACL reconstruction, if we can support enhanced patient outcomes. This paper discusses how to optimise the mid-stage rehabilitation process after ACL reconstruction. Mid-stage is a difficult and vitally important stage of the functional recovery process and provides the foundation on which to commence late-stage rehabilitation training. Often many aspects of mid-stage rehabilitation (e.g. knee extensors isol...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 28, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Comment on “Frequency and Magnitude of Game-Related Head Impacts in Male Contact Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Reply to Fanton et al.: Comment on “Frequency and Magnitude of Game-Related Head Impacts in Male Contact Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 25, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Physical Activity Interventions for Primary Prevention in Adults: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trial-Based Economic Evaluations
ConclusionWe found evidence from RCTs indicating cost-effectiveness of some physical activity interventions for primary prevention in adults. However, the majority of interventions assessed would not be cost-effective according to the benchmark applied. Furthermore, our study showed that trial-based evidence on cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions is scarce. Therefore, we recommend that future studies investigating the efficacy or effectiveness of such interventions consider costs as an additional outcome and assess cost-effectiveness. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 21, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Implementing Exercise in Healthcare Settings: The Potential of Implementation Science
AbstractExercise is an efficacious therapy for many chronic diseases. Integrating efficacious evidence-based interventions (EBIs), such as exercise, into daily healthcare practice is a slow and complex pursuit. Implementation science seeks to understand and address this phenomenon by conducting studies about the methods used to promote the routine uptake of EBIs. The purpose of this article is to explore implementation science and a common conceptual framework in the discipline, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), as it applies to exercise EBI. We conclude by offering recommendations for future r...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 20, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Rating of Perceived Effort: Methodological Concerns and Future Directions
AbstractRating of perceived effort (RPE) scales are the most frequently used single-item scales in exercise science. They offer an easy and useful way to monitor and prescribe exercise intensity. However, RPE scales suffer from methodological limitations stemming from multiple perceived effort definitions and measurement strategies. In the present review, we attend these issues by covering (1) two popular perceived effort definitions, (2) the terms included within these definitions and the reasons they can impede validity, (3) the problems associated with using different effort scales and instructions, and (4) measuring pe...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 19, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Is It Time We Better Understood the Tests We are Using for Return to Sport Decision Making Following ACL Reconstruction? A Critical Review of the Hop Tests
AbstractThere has been a move towards a criterion-based return to play in recent years, with 4 single-leg hop tests commonly used to assess functional performance. Despite their widespread integration, research indicates that relationships between ‘passing’ ‘hop test criteria and successful outcomes following rehabilitation are equivocal, and, therefore, require further investigation. This critical review includes key information to examine the evolution of these tests, their reliability, relationships with other constructs, and sensiti vity to change over time. Recommendations for how measurement and adm...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 19, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: Association Between Temporal Spatial Parameters and Overuse Injury History in Runners: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
The following sentence, which previously read: (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 19, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Sports Injury Prevention is Complex: We Need to Invest in Better Processes, Not Singular Solutions
AbstractIn recent years, an understanding has developed that sports injuries are the emergent outcomes of complex, dynamic systems. Thus, the influence of local contextual factors on injury outcomes is increasingly being acknowledged. These realisations place injury prevention research at a crossroads. Currently, injury prevention researchers develop universally applicable injury prevention solutions, but the adoption of these solutions in practice is low. This occurs because implementation contexts are both unique and dynamic in nature, and as a result singular, static solutions are often incompatible. In contrast, practi...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Infrared Thermography in Exercise Physiology: The Dawning of Exercise Radiomics
AbstractInfrared thermography (IRT) is a non-invasive tool to measure the body surface radiation temperature (Tsr). IRT is an upcoming technology as a result of recent advancements in camera lenses, detector technique and data processing capabilities. The purpose of this review is to determine the potential and applicability of IRT in the context of dynamic measurements in exercise physiology. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify appropriate articles, and conducted six case experiments with a high-resolution IRT camera (640  × 480 pixels) for complementary illustration. Ten articles for enduran...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of School-Based Interventions for Improving Muscular Fitness Outcomes in Adolescent Boys: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
AbstractBackgroundIt has been reported that boys ’ and girls’ physical activity (PA) levels decline throughout adolescence. Boys are at risk of physical inactivity during adolescence; however, in intervention research, they are an under-represented group relative to girls. It is suggested that the school environment may be central to developin g interventions that support adolescents in meeting the current PA guidelines. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of school-based physical activity interventions for improving muscular fitness (MF) in adolescent males.Metho...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of Pre-exercise Hypohydration on Aerobic Exercise Performance, Peak Oxygen Consumption and Oxygen Consumption at Lactate Threshold: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis
ConclusionPre-exercise hypohydration likely impairs AEP and likely reduces\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} {\text{LT}}\) (i.e., the aerobic contribution to exercise was lower) during running and cycling exercises ≤ 1 h across different environmental conditions (i.e., from 19 to 40 °C). Moreover, pre-exercise hypohydration possibly impedes\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}}\) during such exercises. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 14, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Quantification of Neuromuscular Fatigue: What Do We Do Wrong and Why?
AbstractNeuromuscular fatigue (NMF) is usually assessed non-invasively in healthy, athletic or clinical populations with the combination of voluntary and evoked contractions. Although it might appear relatively straightforward to magnetically or electrically stimulate at different levels (cortical/spinal/muscle) and to measure mechanical and electromyographic responses to quantify neuromuscular adjustments due to sustained/repeated muscle contractions, there are drawbacks that researchers and clinicians need to bear in mind. The aim of this opinion paper is to highlight the pitfalls inevitably faced when NMF is quantified....
Source: Sports Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Referees
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 7, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Corrections to: The Effect of Nordic Hamstring Exercise Intervention Volume on Eccentric Strength and Muscle Architecture Adaptations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses
between the studies assessed for (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 7, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Nutrition and Athlete Bone Health
AbstractAthletes should pay more attention to their bone health, whether this relates to their longer-term bone health (e.g. risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis) or their shorter-term risk of bony injuries. Perhaps the easiest way to do this would be to modify their training loads, although this advice rarely seems popular with coaches and athletes for obvious reasons. As such, other possibilities to support the athletes ’ bone health need to be explored. Given that bone is a nutritionally modified tissue and diet has a significant influence on bone health across the lifespan, diet and nutritional composition seem li...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Nutrition and Altitude: Strategies to Enhance Adaptation, Improve Performance and Maintain Health: A Narrative Review
AbstractTraining at low to moderate altitudes (~  1600–2400 m) is a common approach used by endurance athletes to provide a distinctive environmental stressor to augment training stimulus in the anticipation of increasing subsequent altitude- and sea-level-based performance. Despite some scientific progress being made on the impact of various nutrition-related changes in physiology and associated interventions at mountaineering altitudes (>  3000 m), the impact of nutrition and/or supplements on further optimization of these hypoxic adaptations at low–moderate altitudes is only an eme...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Reply to Borszcz & amp; de Lucas: Comment on: “Effects of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Cycling Time Trial Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Role of Energy Availability in Reproductive Function in the Female Athlete Triad and Extension of its Effects to Men: An Initial Working Model of a Similar Syndrome in Male Athletes
AbstractThe Female Athlete Triad represents three interrelated conditions of (i) low energy availability (energy deficiency), presenting with or without disordered eating, (ii) menstrual dysfunction, and (iii) poor bone health, each of which can exist along a continuum of severity ranging from mild and moderate subclinical health concerns to severe clinical outcomes, including eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This review provides a brief overview of the Female Athlete Triad, including updating the current thinking regarding energy availability and how it relates to reproductive function, and sets the stage f...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Nutrition and Athlete Immune Health: New Perspectives on an Old Paradigm
AbstractRespiratory and gastrointestinal infections limit an athlete ’s availability to train and compete. To better understand how sick an athlete will become when they have an infection, a paradigm recently adopted from ecological immunology is presented that includes the concepts of immune resistance (the ability to destroy microbes) and immune tolerance (the ab ility to dampen defence yet control infection at a non-damaging level). This affords a new theoretical perspective on how nutrition may influence athlete immune health; paving the way for focused research efforts on tolerogenic nutritional supplements to r...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Blood Biomarker Profiling and Monitoring for High-Performance Physiology and Nutrition: Current Perspectives, Limitations and Recommendations
AbstractBlood test data were traditionally confined to the clinic for diagnostic purposes, but are now becoming more routinely used in many professional and elite high-performance settings as a physiological profiling and monitoring tool. A wealth of information based on robust research evidence can be gleaned from blood tests, including: the identification of iron, vitamin or energy deficiency; the identification of oxidative stress and inflammation; and the status of red blood cell populations. Serial blood test data can be used to monitor athletes and make inferences about the efficacy of training interventions, nutriti...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Muscle Cramping During Exercise: Causes, Solutions, and Questions Remaining
AbstractMuscle cramp is a temporary but intense and painful involuntary contraction of skeletal muscle that can occur in many different situations. The causes of, and cures for, the cramps that occur during or soon after exercise remain uncertain, although there is evidence that some cases may be associated with disturbances of water and salt balance, while others appear to involve sustained abnormal spinal reflex activity secondary to fatigue of the affected muscles. Evidence in favour of a role for dyshydration comes largely from medical records obtained in large industrial settings, although it is supported by one large...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Does Hypohydration Really Impair Endurance Performance? Methodological Considerations for Interpreting Hydration Research
AbstractThe impact of alterations in hydration status on human physiology and performance responses during exercise is one of the oldest research topics in sport and exercise nutrition. This body of work has mainly focussed on the impact of reduced body water stores (i.e. hypohydration) on these outcomes, on the whole demonstrating that hypohydration impairs endurance performance, likely via detrimental effects on a number of physiological functions. However, an important consideration, that has received little attention, is the methods that have traditionally been used to investigate how hypohydration affects exercise out...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Genetic Approaches for Sports Performance: How Far Away Are We?
AbstractHumans vary in their ‘natural ability’ related to sports performance. One facet of natural ability reflects so-called intrinsic ability or the ability to do well with minimal training. A second facet of natural ability is how rapidly an individual adapts to training; this is termed trainability. A third facet is the upper limit achievable after years of prolonged intense training; this represents both intrinsic ability and also trainability. There are other features of natural ability to consider, for example body size, because some events, sports, or positions favor participants of different sizes. In ...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Comment on: “Effects of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Cycling Time Trial Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis” and Subsequent Comment/Author Reply from Li et al.
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Sports Nutrition for Optimal Athletic Performance and Health: Old, New and Future Perspectives
(Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Association Between the Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio and Injury and its Application in Team Sports: A Systematic Review
ConclusionsFor practitioners, it is the important to understand the intricacies of the ACWR before deciding the best method of calculation. Future research needs to focus on the more sensitive EWMA model, for both sexes, across a larger range of sports and time frames and also combinations with other injury risk factors. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 5, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: How the 2018 US Physical Activity Guidelines are a Call to Promote and Better Understand Acute Physical Activity for Cognitive Function Gains
The article How the 2018 US Physical Activity Guidelines are a Call to Promote and Better Understand Acute Physical Activity for Cognitive Function Gains, written by Yu-Kai Chang, Kirk I. Erickson, Emmanuel Stamatakis and Tsung-Min Hung, was originally published Online First without Open Access. After publication in volume 49, issue 11, pages 1625 –1627 [#-#] the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an Open Access publication. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 4, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

Insufficient Sleep in Young Athletes? Causes, Consequences, and Potential Treatments
AbstractSleep is essential in the preparation for, and the recovery from, training and competition. Despite being important for all individuals, young athletes are considered an at-risk group for reduced sleep duration and quality. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current literature relating to sleep duration and quality in young (14 –25 years) athletes. Specifically, typical sleep and wake patterns, factors affecting sleep and wake patterns, and the consequences of altered sleep and wake patterns in young athletes are discussed. Scheduling training and competition in the afternoon or evening appears ...
Source: Sports Medicine - November 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research

The Effect of the Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptives on Acute Responses and Chronic Adaptations to Resistance Training: A Systematic Review of the Literature
ConclusionsThe reviewed articles reported conflicting findings, and were often limited by small participant numbers and methodological issues, but do appear to suggest female hormones may affect resistance training responses. The findings of this review highlight the need for further experimental studies on the effects of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives on acute and chronic responses to resistance training. (Source: Sports Medicine)
Source: Sports Medicine - November 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research