Complications in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries and Related Surgery
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury, especially in isolation, is a less frequent injury than injury to the anterior cruciate ligament and other ligaments of knee. In addition, the complex injury patterns involving the PCL, the technically demanding nature of surgical treatments, the anatomic proximity to vital neurovascular structures and the controversy surrounding optimal management of PCL injuries, make these injuries and their treatment potentially prone to more complications. This chapter will review the common complications of PCL injuries and related surgery. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - December 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Arthroscopic Posterior Cruciate Ligament Primary Repair
Injury to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is most commonly seen in the setting of a multiligamentous injured knee, and isolated PCL tears are rare. PCL injuries are generally treated either conservatively or by PCL reconstruction using a graft. If a proximal or distal tear is present, the injured ligament can also be treated by primary repair, in which the ligament is reattached to the tibial or femoral insertion. This has the (theoretical) advantages of preserving the native tissue, maintaining proprioception, and can be performed in a less invasive way when compared with reconstruction surgery. In this review, the ...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - December 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Posterior Cruciate Ligament All-Inside Reconstruction
Several techniques for posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction have been described. Reported clinical outcomes for the various techniques are often affected by concomitant injuries. Therefore, the optimal surgical technique choice remains controversial. Variations include transtibial versus tibial inlay, single-bundle versus double-bundle, and autograft versus allograft. The all-inside technique has recently been described as a transtibial method that uses adjustable loop suspensory fixation through sockets rather than tunnels on both the femur and tibia. This technique preserves more bone and may decrease the ris...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - December 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Tibial Inlay Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament is typically made through either tibial inlay or transtibial methods. Double-bundle reconstruction can be combined with either technique and has clear biomechanical advantages. On the basis of prior evidence and the author’s own surgical experiences, this technique paper provides the reasoning for using these methods. Further evidence and reasoning is given for when to use the inlay technique rather than the transtibial technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - December 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

PCL Transtibial Tunnel Reconstruction
The keys to successful posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction are to identify and treat all pathology, use strong graft material, accurately place tunnels in anatomic insertion sites, minimize graft bending, mechanical graft tensioning, secure graft fixation, and the appropriate postoperative rehabilitation program. Adherence to these technical principles results in successful single and double bundle arthroscopic transtibial tunnel PCL reconstruction based upon stress radiography, arthrometer, knee ligament rating scales, and patient satisfaction measurements. The purpose of this article is to describe the arthr...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - December 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Diagnosing PCL Injuries: History, Physical Examination, Imaging Studies, Arthroscopic Evaluation
Isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are uncommon and can be easily missed with physical examination. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the clinical, diagnostic and arthroscopic evaluation of a PCL injured knee. There are some specific injury mechanisms that can cause a PCL including the dashboard direct anterior blow and hyperflexion mechanisms. During the diagnostic process it is important to distinguish between an isolated or multiligament injury and whether the problem is acute or chronic. Physical examination can be difficult in an acutely injured knee because of pain and swelling, b...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - December 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament and Their Surgical Implications
Knowledge and understanding of the complex anatomy and biomechanical function of the native posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is vitally important when evaluating PCL injury and possible reconstruction. The PCL has important relationships with the anterior cruciate ligament, menisci, tibial spines, ligament of Humphrey, ligament of Wrisberg, and the posterior neurovascular structures. Through various experimental designs, the biomechanical role of the PCL has been elucidated. The PCL has its most well-defined role as a primary restraint/stabilizer to posterior stress and it seems this role is greatest at higher degrees of ...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - December 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Digital Exclusive Source Type: research

Posterior Cruciate Ligament
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - December 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Subject Index
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Subject Index: PDF Only Source Type: research

Author Index
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Author Index: PDF Only Source Type: research

Pediatric Management of Recurrent Patellar Instability
This article discusses various risk factors associated with patellofemoral instability, reconstruction techniques, and a case example. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

When and How I Add Trochleoplasty in the Treatment of Recurrent Patella Instability
Long experience and recent evidence suggest that trochleoplasty is needed in very few patella stabilization surgeries. As trochleoplasty adds risk, this author recommends it only in patients with high degrees of dysplasia, prominent supratrochlear spurs, ligamentous laxity, and more dramatic J signs. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

When is Trochleoplasty a Rational Addition?
Trochlear dysplasia has been recognized as a dominant anatomic risk factor in patients with recurrent patellar instability. Sulcus-deepening trochleoplasty is a very effective and powerful procedure for correcting trochlear dysplasia and, specifically, eliminating the supratrochlear spur. However, it must be emphasized that trochleoplasty is not appropriate for patients with mild trochlear dysplasia or those without a large supratrochlear spur or bump. We discuss the characteristics and classification of trochlear dysplasia and discuss specific indications for sulcusdeepening trochleoplasty. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

When to Add Lateral Soft Tissue Balancing?
Lateral patellofemoral (PF) soft tissue abnormalities range from excessive lateral PF tightness (lateral patellar compression syndrome, lateral patellar instability and arthritis), to excessive laxity (iatrogenic lateral PF soft tissue insufficiency postlateral release). The lateral soft tissue complex is composed of the iliotibial band extension to the patella, the vastus lateralis tendon, the lateral PF ligament, lateral patellotibial ligament, and lateral patellomeniscal ligament, with intimate connections between those structures. To identify lateral retinaculum tightness or insufficiency the most important tests are t...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Digital Exclusive Source Type: research

Why and Where to Move the Tibial Tubercle: Indications and Techniques for Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy
This article will review the indications for performing a TTT and highlight the various techniques. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Ribbon-shaped Femoral Footprint of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament: Implications for Reconstruction
We describe the ribbon-shaped footprint of the MPFL on the medial femur and the associated difficulty in identifying the origin as a single “point.” Varying isometry and biomechanical functions have been shown to exist within the most proximal and most distal fibers, suggesting the function of the MPFL may not be fully recreated with a tubular graft in a round tunnel. We review the anatomical descriptions of the elongated femoral footprint of the MPFL and describe our surgical technique to recreate this. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Concepts of the Distal Medial Patellar Restraints: Medial Patellotibial Ligament and Medial Patellomeniscal Ligament
The important medial patellar ligamentous restraints to lateral dislocation are the proximal group (the medial quadriceps tendon femoral ligament and the medial patellofemoral ligament) and the distal group [medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL) and medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML)]. The MPTL patellar insertion is at inferomedial border of patella and tibial insertion is in the anteromedial tibia. The MPML originates in the inferomedial patella, right proximal to the MPTL, inserting in the medial meniscus. On the basis of anatomy and biomechanical studies, the MPTL and MPML are more important in 2 moments during knee ...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

An Updated Overview of the Anatomy and Function of the Proximal Medial Patellar Restraints (Medial Patellofemoral Ligament and the Medial Quadriceps Tendon Femoral Ligament)
The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been widely accepted to function as “the primary static restraint to lateral patellar displacement.” However, current growing evidence suggests that there is a complex of medial patellofemoral/tibial ligaments, both proximal [MPFL, and medial quadriceps tendon femoral ligament (MQTFL)], and distal (medial patellotibial ligament and the medial patellomeniscal ligament) which restrain lateral patellar translation at different degrees of knee flexion. Specifically, the MQTFL has gained popularity over the last decade because of pure soft tissue attachments into the ext...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Treatment of First-time Patellar Dislocations and Evaluation of Risk Factors for Recurrent Patellar Instability
Approximately one-third of skeletally mature patients with primary patellar dislocation will experience recurrent patellar instability over time. Because of the multifactorial combination of features contributing to overall stability of the patellofemoral joint, first-time patella dislocation presents a challenge to the treating physician. A detailed patient history, focused physical examination, and appropriate diagnostic imaging are essential for identifying risk factors for recurrent instability. Individual risk factors include young patient age, patella alta, trochlear dysplasia, and lateralization of the tibial tuberc...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Foreword
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Resilient Athlete: Lessons Learned in the Military
This article explores the concept of resilience, the efforts to build resilience, lessons learned from the military and applications of the resilience concept to surgical and trauma patients. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction Therapy: From Development to Applications
Blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to produce beneficial adaptations to skeletal muscle. These adaptations have been documented in the civilian and military populations. BFR therapy may provide patients a safe method to begin strength training at earlier stages of rehabilitation to allow for earlier and more effective return to activity and improved military readiness. The purpose was to review BFR therapy physiology, complications, side effects, standardized treatment algorithms, and long-term patient outcomes. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Perioperative Pain Management and Avoidance of Long-term Opioid Use
The opioid epidemic continues to be a problem in the United States and prescription opioid overdose fatalities continue to rise. Chronic opioid use threatens military readiness and puts service members at risk for medical separation from military service. Orthopedic surgeons commonly prescribe opioid medications for postsurgical patients. Long-term opioid use can be the result of acute, postoperative opioid intake. Overprescribing may increase the risk of long-term opioid use, medication diversion and adverse outcomes. Preoperative administration of opioids dramatically increases the risk of continued use up to 1 year afte...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Advanced Functional Bracing in Lower Extremity Trauma: Bracing to Improve Function
There are many bracing options for patients with functional limitations of the lower extremity following trauma. The first question that the provider must ask when evaluating a patient with a foot and ankle functional limitation because of weakness or pain is, “what are the patient’s expectations?” One option for the patient who desires to return to a higher level of function is a novel, custom dynamic orthosis (CDO) that, when coupled with an advanced rehabilitation program, has improved outcomes in patients following lower extremity trauma who have plateaued after traditional rehabilitation pathways. Al...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Warrior Model for Human Performance Optimization
Special Operations Combat Personnel (SOCP) face significant challenges and occupational demands that put them at significant risk for musculoskeletal injury. Musculoskeletal injury leads to lost-duty days, medical disqualification, and compromises operational readiness and mission success. Optimizing human performance and developing injury prevention strategies can position SOCP for success, but human performance optimization is a complex process that demands the integration of multiple disciplines to address a broad range of capabilities necessary for this success. The Warrior Model for Human Performance Optimization outl...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Warrior Athlete Part 2—Return to Duty in the US Military: Advancing ACL Rehabilitation in the Tactical Athlete
Rehabilitation following an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a crucial component of the healing and recovery process and full return to duty/play in the tactical modern-day warfighter. The burden of anterior cruciate ligament injuries and subsequent loss of readiness in these military warfighters highlights one of the most significant gaps in musculoskeletal injury care today. Emphasis must be placed on early weight-bearing and range of motion (ROM), namely in this athlete population, to best facilitate a timely care and recovery process. Preoperative rehabilitation should commence immediately following the dia...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Digital Exclusive Source Type: research

Multiligamentous Knee Injuries in the Military Tactical Athlete
We present a synthesis of the available civilian and military literature and provide an evidence-based review with considerations specific to a military population. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Combat and Noncombat Musculoskeletal Injuries in the US Military
Musculoskeletal Injuries (MSKI) are exceedingly common in the US Military, resulting in compromised military medical readiness and a substantial burden on both health care and financial resources. Severe combat-related MSKI sustained during nearly 2 decades of conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in frequently devastating injuries that challenge acute care capabilities, require extensive rehabilitation, and often result in long-term disability. Non–combat-related MSKI, while often less severe, are far more common than combat-related MSKI and overall cause a substantially greater number of lost duty days and...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Warrior Athlete Part 2: Return to Duty in the US Military
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Impact of Adaptive Sports Participation on Quality of Life
The health benefits of regular recreational physical activity are well known in reducing secondary health consequences of a sedentary lifestyle in the general population. However, individuals with physical disabilities participate less frequently in recreational activity compared with those without disabilities. Although evidence on the impact of recreational physical activity on quality of life in this population is in its infancy, regular recreational and sports activity participation has shown to have a positive association with improvements in quality of life, life satisfaction, community reintegration, mood, and emplo...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - May 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Shoulder Rehabilitation Protocol and Equipment Fit Recommendations for the Wheelchair Sport Athlete With Shoulder Pain
Shoulder injuries in wheelchair sport athletes is the most commonly reported injury site and can directly impact not only sport performance, but everyday function and mobility. There is abundant research on shoulder rehabilitation for able bodied athletes, but minimal specifically related to wheelchair sport athletes. The purpose of this paper is to outline an exercise protocol and wheelchair sport equipment fit guidelines based off current research and expert opinion. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of a wheelchair athlete specific shoulder rehabilitation protocol, and biomechanical analysis of ideal wheel...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - May 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Bone Health in Adaptive Sports Athletes
Adaptive sports athletes represent a growing population within the athletic community worldwide. Given potential cardiometabolic and psychosocial benefits of adaptive sports participation, the impact on bone health and injury risk in adaptive athletes is of increasing clinical interest. Impaired bone health as a result of low energy availability has been well described in able-bodied athletic women and, more recently, men as part of the female athlete triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). However, the applicability of these models to adaptive athletes remains unclear given altered physiology and biomechani...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - May 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Winter Adaptive Sports Participation, Injuries, and Equipment
As the participation rate and popularity of winter adaptive sports increases, understanding injury patterns and equipment is crucial for athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, sports physicians, prosthetists/orthotists, and all the staff involved. While the inaugural Winter Paralympics in 1976 had 17 participating countries, the most recent paralympic games in Pyeongchang, South Korea had>500 athletes from 49 different countries competing in 6 disciplines: alpine skiing, nordic skiing, sledge hockey, wheelchair curling, biathlon, and snowboarding. In this paper, we review participation rates, injury trends and equipment,...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - May 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Summer Adaptive Sports Technology, Equipment, and Injuries
As adaptive sports grow in popularity, it is increasingly important to understand the injuries for which their athletes are at risk. This population is challenging to study given its small size and diversity of its participants; accordingly, research is mostly low quality because of limited sample sizes and study durations. Summer adaptive sports account for 22 of 28 Paralympic sports, with the most frequently studied being wheelchair basketball, rugby, tennis, athletics, swimming, and soccer. Injuries vary by sport because of differences in contact level, limbs utilized, and athlete impairments. Equipment changes and tech...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - May 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Shoulder Pain and the Weight-bearing Shoulder in the Wheelchair Athlete
Shoulder pain is one of the most common complaints amongst wheelchair athletes. There are many debated potential risk factors for shoulder pain in this population including inherent anatomy, increased loading forces, overuse, age, wheelchair use duration, trunk control, and sport played. Proper identification of etiology of shoulder pain with a thorough history and physical examination is important for management purposes. Treatment can be challenging as complete rest from exacerbating activities is often difficult as upper extremity use is necessary for everyday life activities such as mobility and transfers. Addition of ...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - May 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Adaptive Sports Injury Epidemiology
The benefit of sport for athletes with impairments is well established. However, sport participation is not without risk. The existing literature informs us that injury patterns are sport and disability specific. Further research is needed to study injuries in this population. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - May 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Digital Exclusive Source Type: research

Adaptive Sports and the Warrior Athlete
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - May 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Effects of Endurance Sports on Children and Youth
In the United States, youth participation in sports continues to increase yearly. This increase in participation, in conjunction with the trend toward early sports specialization and year round training, has led to a similar increase in athletically developed injuries. These injuries vary in nature and acuity, with the type of injury often related to the athlete’s age, sport, and level of training. Endurance athletes are at an elevated risk of injury as they frequently push their body to the limit during their arduous training. Pediatric endurance athletes can be particularly vulnerable, especially to overuse injurie...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Depression in Ultra-endurance Athletes, A Review and Recommendations
This article will review depression in the endurance athlete and approaches in treatment in that population. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Common and Uncommon Injuries in Ultra-endurance Sports
Ultra-endurance sports are associated with prolonged physical exercise both during training and competition. Musculoskeletal injuries are common as a result of the repetitive physical stresses. Stress fractures in the weight-bearing bones should always be suspected when ultra-endurance athletes present with pain over bony structures. Most stress fractures can be treated with activity modifications but some such as femoral neck and tibial shaft stress fractures may require operative fixation. The knee seems to be the most frequent source of injuries in ultra-endurance athletes. Patellofemoral symptoms from tendon injuries o...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Cardiac Risk of Extreme Exercise
Habitual moderate intensity exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle. For most of the population, increasing exercise duration and intensity beyond current recommendations appears to impart additional cardiovascular benefits; however, recent data has raised the possibility of an inflection point after which additional exercise no longer imparts benefit and may even result in negative cardiovascular outcomes. Exercise at the extremes of human endurance places a large hemodynamic stress on the heart and results in occasionally profound cardiac remodeling in order to accommodate the huge increases in cardiac outpu...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Digital Exclusive Source Type: research

Fueling and Recovery
As ultra-endurance races continue to rise in popularity, it is critical that athletes understand how to nourish their bodies with proper amounts of calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The importance of carbohydrate for fueling endurance exercise and protein for recovery is well established; however, the role of fat is debated. Specific amounts of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight are recommended for before, during, and after ultra-endurance exercise. Total grams of protein per day and after exercise are established. After carbohydrate and protein needs are determined the balance of calories typically come ...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Physiology and Biomechanics of the Master Runner
The Master runner (age 35 y and above) represents a unique athletic patient. Lifelong participation in endurance running slows the inevitable age-related decline in aerobic function and muscular strength. Still, the Master runner does not escape the inevitable effects of aging. Master runners experience a steady decline in running performance, that is, typical and maximal running speeds, after the age of 50 years of age. Age-related declines in running performance are driven by a host of factors, including declining cardiovascular function, reduced muscular capacity, altered biomechanics, and greater susceptibility ...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Proper Hydration During Ultra-endurance Activities
The health and performance of ultra-endurance athletes is dependent on avoidance of performance limiting hypohydration while also avoiding the potentially fatal consequences of exercise-associated hyponatremia due to overhydration. In this work, key factors related to maintaining proper hydration during ultra-endurance activities are discussed. In general, proper hydration need not be complicated and has been well demonstrated to be achieved by simply drinking to thirst and consuming a typical race diet during ultra-endurance events without need for supplemental sodium. As body mass is lost from oxidation of stored fuel, a...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Participation Trends of Ultra Endurance Events
Ultra endurance events are defined as sporting activities lasting>6 hours and include events such as ultramarathon foot races, ultra triathlons, ultra distance swimming, ultra cycling, and cross-country skiing. Popularity in these events has risen especially over the last 25 years with increasing participation notably in ultramarathon races where an exponential increase in participation has been observed. This is in large part due to the increasing popularity and participation of women and master athletes in these events. Other endurance sports have seen similar increases but overall numbers are much lower compared with...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Mystical Experience—An Editorial
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - January 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Subject Index
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Subject Index: PDF Only Source Type: research

Author Index
No abstract available (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Author Index: PDF Only Source Type: research

Surgery in Tendinopathies
Tendinopathies are challenging. The term “tendinopathy” refers to clinical condition characterized by pain, swelling, and functional limitations of tendons and nearby structures. Tendinopathies give rise to significant morbidity, and, at present, only limited scientifically proven management modalities exist. Achilles and patellar tendons are among the most vulnerable tendons, and among the most frequent lower extremity overuse injuries. Achilles and patellar tendinopathies can be managed conservatively and surgically. Several surgical procedures have been described for both conditions, and, if performed well, ...
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Surgical Applications of Biologics in Sports Medicine
Over the past 25 years an increased appreciation of the positive impact of biologic interventions has driven significant advances in the surgical treatment of shoulder and knee conditions. These biologic adjuncts to treatment promote improved outcomes and have set the stage and increased research and development in this arena. (Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review)
Source: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review - November 6, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research