Modeling of the ecological niches of the Anopheles spp in Ecuador by the use of geo-informatic tools
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Oswaldo Padilla Almeida, Pablo Rosas Montalvo, Wilson Moreno Ortiz, Theofilos Toulkeridis Ecuador in the northwestern edge of South America is struggling by vector-borne diseases with an endemic-epidemic behavior leading to an enormous public health problem. Malaria, which has a cyclicality in its dynamics, is closely related to climatic, ecological and socio-economic phenomena. The main objective of this research has been to compare three different prediction species models, the so-called Maxent, Logistic Regres...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - January 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Analysing malaria incidence at the small area level for developing a spatial decision support system: a case study in Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India
We report the first stage of a project to develop a spatial decision support system for infectious diseases for Karnataka State in India. The focus of this paper is on malaria incidence and we draw on small area data on new cases of malaria analysed in two-monthly time intervals over the period February 2012 to January 2016 for Kalaburagi taluk, a small area in Karnataka. We report the results of data mapping and cluster detection (identifying areas of excess risk) including evaluating the temporal persistence of excess risk and the local conditions with which high counts are statistically associated. We comment on how thi...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - December 30, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Special section on spatial epidemiology based on nation-wide health-related registers with individual-level data
Publication date: November 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 19 Author(s): Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Ulf Strömberg (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 10, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Modeling of spatio-temporal variation in plague incidence in Madagascar from 1980 to 2007
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Emanuele Giorgi, Katharina Kreppel, Peter J. Diggle, Cyril Caminade, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Matthew Baylis Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which, during the fourteenth century, caused the deaths of an estimated 75–200 million people in Europe. Plague epidemics still occur in Africa, Asia and South America. Madagascar is today one of the most endemic countries, reporting nearly one third of the human cases worldwide from 2004 to 2009. The persis...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - October 27, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Modelling of spatio-temporal variation in plague incidence in Madagascar from 1980 to 2007
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Emanuele Giorgi, Katharina Kreppel, Peter J. Diggle, Cyril Caminade, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Matthew Baylis Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which, during the fourteenth century, caused the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Europe. Plague epidemics still occur in Africa, Asia and South America. Madagascar is today one of the most endemic countries, reporting nearly one third of the human cases worldwide from 2004 to 2009. The persisten...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - October 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal relative survival of breast and colorectal cancer in Queensland, Australia 2001 –2011
This study investigated changes in breast and colorectal cancer survival across 478 areas over 11 years (2001–2011), and the influence of early diagnosis on changes. Queensland Cancer Registry data were analysed using an introduced Bayesian spatio-temporal flexible parametric relative survival model. All areas showed survival improvements between 2001–2003 and 2008–2011. The median absolute 5-year survival improvement for localised breast cancer was small (1.8%), compared to advanced (4.8%) and unknown (7.9%) breast cancer, as well as localised (2.6%), advanced (5.0%) and unknown (4.8%) colorectal cancers...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - September 11, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal relative survival of breast and colorectal cancer in Queensland, Australia 2001-2011
This study investigated changes in breast and colorectal cancer survival across 478 areas over 11 years (2001-2011), and the influence of early diagnosis on changes. Queensland Cancer Registry data were analysed using an introduced Bayesian spatio-temporal flexible parametric relative survival model. All areas showed survival improvements between 2001-2003 and 2008-2011. The median absolute 5-year survival improvement for localised breast cancer was small (1.8%), compared to advanced (4.8%) and unknown (7.9%) breast cancer, as well as localised (2.6%), advanced (5.0%) and unknown (4.8%) colorectal cancers. Improvements in ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - September 6, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal variation of mood and anxiety symptom treatments in Christchurch in the context of the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquake sequence
This article explores the spatio-temporal variation of mood and anxiety treatments in the context of a severe earthquake sequence. The aim was to examine a possible earthquake exposure effect, identify populations at risk and areas with particularly large mood and anxiety treatment rate increases or decreases in the affected Christchurch urban area. A significantly stronger increase of mood and anxiety treatments among residents in Christchurch compared to others in New Zealand have been found, as well as children and elderly identified as especially vulnerable. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis and Bayesian spatio-temporal...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - September 3, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Spatio-Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol Outlets And Violence Before And After Privatization: A Natural Experiment, Seattle, Wa 2010-2013
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Loni Philip Tabb, Lance Ballester, Tony H. Grubesic Alcohol-related violence is a well-documented public health concern, where various individual and community-level factors contribute to this relationship. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a significant policy change at the local level, which privatized liquor sales and distribution. Specifically, we explored the relationship between alcohol and violence in Seattle, WA, 2010-2013, via hierarchical spatio-temporal disease mapping models. To me...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - September 2, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial disparities in melanoma incidence and prognosis with consideration to stage at diagnosis, gender and marital status
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Ulf Strömberg, Anders Holmén, Stefan Peterson Screening strategies need to consider differences in late-stage disease detection linked to socio-demographic and geographic factors. We specifically addressed disparity in melanoma stage at diagnosis linked to residential municipality, gender and marital status within the middle- and old-age population of southern and western Sweden. Population-based registers were used to identify the melanoma cases diagnosed in 2004–2013 (n =7,417). Disease mapping fo...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 13, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Editorial for SSTE special issue on Environment and Health
Publication date: August 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 18 Author(s): Duncan Lee, Sujit Sahu, Gavin Shaddick (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 13, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial variations in cervical cancer prevention in Colombia: Geographical differences and associated socio-demographic factors
We examined spatial variations in the frequencies of women who had not heard of human papillomavirus vaccination (NHrd-Vac) and who had not had Pap testing (NHd-Pap) among Colombian administrative divisions (departments), before and after considering differences in socio-demographic factors. Following global and local tests for clustering, Bayesian Poisson hierarchical models identified department factors associated with NHrd-Vac and NHd-Pap, as well as the extent of the spatially structured and unstructured heterogeneity. Models of spatial variations for both outcomes included the department percentage of women with subsi...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 13, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparing children ’s GPS tracks with geospatial proxies for exposure to junk food
This study conducts a GIS-based analysis of GPS tracks—‘activity spaces’—and 21 proxies for activity spaces (e.g. buffers, container approaches) for a sample of 526 children (ages 9–14) in London, Ontario, Canada. These measures are combined with a validated food environment database (including fast food and convenience stores) to create a series of junk food exposure estimates and quantify the errors resulting from use of different proxy methods. Results indicate that exposure proxies consistently underestimate exposure to junk foods by as much as 68%. This underestimation is important to pol...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 23, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Space –time airborne disease mapping applied to detect specific behaviour of varicella in Valencia, Spain
Publication date: July–October 2015 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volumes 14–15 Author(s): Adina Iftimi, Francisco Montes, Ana Míguez Santiyán, Francisco Martínez-Ruiz Airborne diseases are one of humanity’s most feared sicknesses and have regularly caused concern among specialists. Varicella is an airborne disease which usually affects children before the age of 10. Because of its nature, varicella gives rise to interesting spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal patterns. This paper studies spatio-temporal exploratory analysis tools to detect specific behaviou...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 23, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Space –time mapping of wasting among children under the age of five years in Somalia from 2007 to 2010
Conclusion There was a clear seasonal variation in wasting with minimal year-to-year variability from 2007 to 2010 in Somalia. The prevalence was high during the long dry season, which affects the prevalence in the preceding long rainy season. Understanding the seasonal fluctuations of wasting in different locations and at different times is important to inform timely interventions. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 23, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Model-based testing for space –time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area
Publication date: May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 17 Author(s): Sebastian Meyer, Ingeborg Warnke, Wulf Rössler, Leonhard Held Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space–time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 23, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Modelling African swine fever presence and reported abundance in the Russian Federation using national surveillance data from 2007 to 2014
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Timothée Vergne, Fedor Korennoy, Lisa Combelles, Andrey Gogin, Dirk U. Pfeiffer African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease of swine that has been present in the Russian Federation since 2007. Counts of ASF outbreaks reported in the Southern regions of the country (2007-2014) were aggregated to a grid of hexagons, and a zero-inflated Poisson model accounting for spatial dependence between hexagons was used to identify factors associated with the presence of ASF outbreaks and factors associated with the ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Geographical variation in a fatal outcome of acute myocardial infarction and association with contact to a general practitioner
Conclusions A fatal outcome of AMI was significantly associated with contact to a GP. A high population to GP ratio and long distance to GP could not explain the increased odds of a fatal outcome of AMI for individuals with no contact to a GP. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Investigating trends in asthma and COPD through multiple data sources: a small area study
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Areti Boulieri, Anna Hansell, Marta Blangiardo This paper investigates trends in asthma and COPD by using multiple data sources to help understanding the relationships between disease prevalence, morbidity and mortality. GP drug prescriptions, hospital admissions, and deaths are analysed at clinical commissioning group (CCG) level in England from August 2010 to March 2011. A Bayesian hierarchical model is used for the analysis, which takes into account the complex space and time dependencies of asthma and COPD, w...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 16, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Joint modeling of Anaemia and Malaria in children under five in Nigeria
Publication date: May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 17 Author(s): Samson B. Adebayo, Ezra Gayawan, Christian Heumann, Christian Seiler Malaria and anaemia which jointly account for high proportion of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries have been individually studied using binary regression model. We adopt geoadditive latent variable model for binary/ordinal indicators to analyze the influence of variables of different types on the morbidity among young children in Nigeria. Latent variable models allow for the analysis of multidimensional response variabl...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 4, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Accelerating the discovery of space-time patterns of infectious diseases using parallel computing
Publication date: Available online 27 May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Alexander Hohl, Eric Delmelle, Wenwu Tang, Irene Casas Infectious diseases have complex transmission cycles, and effective public health responses require the ability to monitor outbreaks in a timely manner. Space-time statistics facilitate the discovery of disease dynamics including rate of spread and seasonal cyclic patterns, but are computationally demanding, especially for datasets of increasing size, diversity and availability. High-performance computing reduces the effort required to identify these patterns...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 4, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Small-area based smoothing method for cancer risk mapping
This article describes – with real-data examples – a mapping method developed in Finland for such visualization but also utilized for data from numerous other countries and non-cancer outcomes. The Finnish smoothing is based on weighting small-area specific observations with population sizes and distance without losing the interpretability of the values. The approach has essentially improved the readability of spatio-temporal trends of incidence and mortality rates of cancers and has been applied in many studies. With help of the tool, decision makers can understand the key message of existing data and use it m...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 4, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Geographical clustering of incident acute myocardial infarction in Denmark: a spatial analysis approach
Conclusions : AMI is geographically unequally distributed throughout Denmark and determinants of these geographical patterns might include individual- and neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 4, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Uncertainty in maternal exposures to ambient PM2.5 and benzene during pregnancy: sensitivity to exposure estimation decisions
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Jean Paul Tanner, Jason L. Salemi, Amy L. Stuart, Haofei Yu, Melissa M. Jordan, Chris DuClos, Philip Cavicchia, Jane A. Correia, Sharon M. Watkins, Russell S. Kirby We investigate uncertainty in estimates of pregnant women's exposure to ambient PM2.5 and benzene derived from central-site monitoring data. Through a study of live births in Florida during 2000-2009, we discuss the selection of spatial and temporal scales of analysis, limiting distances, and aggregation method. We estimate exposure concentratio...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 14, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Stepwise and stagewise approaches for spatial cluster detection
Publication date: May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 17 Author(s): Jiale Xu, Ronald E. Gangnon Spatial cluster detection is an important tool in many areas such as sociology, botany and public health. Previous work has mostly taken either a hypothesis testing framework or a Bayesian framework. In this paper, we propose a few approaches under a frequentist variable selection framework for spatial cluster detection. The forward stepwise methods search for multiple clusters by iteratively adding currently most likely cluster while adjusting for the effects of previously identified clusters. T...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 13, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Joint modelling of Anaemia and Malaria in children under five in Nigeria
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Samson B. Adebayo, Ezra Gayawan, Christian Heumann, Christian Seiler Malaria and anaemia which jointly account for high proportion of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries have been individually studied using binary regression model. We adopt geoadditive latent variable model for binary/ordinal indicators to analyze the influence of variables of different types on the morbidity among young children in Nigeria. Latent variable models allow for the analysis of multidimensional respons...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 12, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

An analysis of temporal and spatial patterns in Italian hospitalization rates for multiple diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Michela Cameletti, Francesco Finazzi In this paper, the Italian hospitalization database provided by the Ministry of Health is analyzed in terms of the temporal and spatial patterns of the hospitalization rates. The database covers the period 2010-2012 and the rates are evaluated for 110 Italian provinces and 18 diagnosis groups as defined by the ICD-9 classification. Tha analysis is based on a novel model-based clustering approach which enables clustering of spatially registered time series with respect to latent t...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 6, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): André TJ Alves, Flavio F. Nobre, Lance A Waller Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographical...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 6, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial Data Aggregation for Spatio-Temporal Individual-Level Models of Infectious Disease Transmission
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Lorna E. Deeth, Rob Deardon A class of complex statistical models, known as individual-level models, have been effectively used to model the spread of infectious diseases. These models are often fitted within a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework, which can have a significant computational expense due to the complex nature of the likelihood function associated with this class of models. Increases in population size or duration of the modeled epidemic can contribute to this computational burden. Here, we expl...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 6, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia
Publication date: May 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 17 Author(s): Kim Blasdell, Serge Morand, Heikki Henttonen, Annelise Tran, Philippe Buchy To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambo...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 1, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Identifying Spatial Data Availability and Spatial Data Needs for Chagas Disease Mitigation in South America
The objective of this paper on Chagas disease is to determine the availability and spatial resolution of existing data that can be used to address Chagas disease transmission risk in South America. A literature review was conducted to determine prominent variables that models utilize to assist with efforts to mitigate Chagas disease. Next, a Web search was performed to collect publicly available spatial data pertaining to these variables for the countries in South America. The data were classified based on type and spatial extent, which were then used to create maps of data availability of variables related to Chagas disea...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 30, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Non-stationary spatio-temporal modeling of traffic-related pollutants in near-road environments
Publication date: Available online 28 April 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Owais Gilani, Veronica J. Berrocal, Stuart Batterman A problem often encountered in environmental epidemiological studies assessing the health effects associated with ambient exposure to air pollution is the spatial misalignment between monitors’ locations and subjects’ actual residential locations. Several strategies have been adopted to circumvent this problem and estimate pollutants concentrations at unsampled sites, including spatial statistical or geostatistical models that rely on the assumptio...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 29, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Air Pollution is associated with Primary Health Care visits for Asthma in Sweden: A Case-Crossover Design with A Distributed lag Non-linear Model
Conclusion Even though the air quality in Scania between 2005 and 2010 was within EU's guidelines, the number of PHC visits for asthma increased with increasing levels of air pollution. This suggests that as well as increasing hospital and emergency room visits, air pollution increases the burden on PHC due to milder symptoms of asthma. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 29, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Geographically weighted discriminant analysis of environmental conditions associated with Rift Valley fever outbreaks in South Africa
This study compares the classification performance of GWDA and traditional DA when used to distinguish between locations where livestock are at risk or are not at risk for acquiring RVF virus (RVFV) using 699 case reports of RVF (affecting 18,894 animals) from two outbreaks in South Africa in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011. GWDA produced better results than traditional DA for all bandwidth and kernel combinations. The best GWDA model correctly classified 96.6% of the original data versus 84.5% obtained with traditional DA. With GWDA, false positives decreased from 10.9% to 3.7%, and false negatives decreased from 19.9% to 3.2%. G...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 29, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Modelling collinear and spatially correlated data
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Silvia Liverani, Aurore Lavigne, Marta Blangiardo In this work we present a statistical approach to distinguish and interpret the complex relationship between several predictors and a response variable at the small area level, in the presence of i) high correlation between the predictors and ii) spatial correlation for the response. Covariates which are highly correlated create collinearity problems when used in a standard multiple regression model. Many methods have been proposed in the literature to address th...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 28, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hantavirus seroposivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Kim Blasdell, Serge Morand, Heikki Henttonen, Annelise Tran, Philippe Buchy To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analyzed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thai...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 27, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mitigating the effects of preferentially selected monitoring sites for environmental policy and health risk analysis
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Gavin Shaddick, James V. Zidek, Yi Liu The potential effects of air pollution are a major concern both in terms of the environment and in relation to human health. In order to support both environmental and health policy there is a need for accurate estimates of the exposures that populations might experience. The information for this typically comes from environmental monitoring networks but often the locations of monitoring sites are preferentially located in order to detect high levels of pollution. Using the...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 17, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Francesca Pannullo, Duncan Lee, Eugene Waclawski, Alastair H. Leyland The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Air pollution and stroke – an overview of the evidence base
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Ravi Maheswaran Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution ex...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 14, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Model-based testing for space–time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Sebastian Meyer, Ingeborg Warnke, Wulf Rössler, Leonhard Held Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 14, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Acute effects of aircraft noise on cardiovascular admissions – an interrupted time-series analysis of a six-day closure of London Heathrow Airport caused by volcanic ash
This study took advantage of a six-day closure of a major airport in April 2010 caused by volcanic ash to examine if there was a decrease in emergency cardiovascular hospital admissions during or immediately after the closure period, using an interrupted daily time-series study design. The population living within the 55 dB(A) noise contour was substantial at 0.7 million. The average daily admission count was 13.9 (SD 4.4). After adjustment for covariates, there was no evidence of a decreased risk of hospital admission from cardiovascular disease during the closure period (relative risk 0.97 (95% CI 0.75 – 1.26)). Us...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 7, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Two-stage Bayesian model to evaluate the effect of air pollution on chronic respiratory diseases using drug prescriptions
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Marta Blangiardo, Francesco Finazzi, Michela Cameletti Exposure to high levels of air pollutant concentration is known to be associated with respiratory problems which can translate into higher morbidity and mortality rates. The link between air pollution and population health has mainly been assessed considering air quality and hospitalization or mortality data. However this approach limits the analysis to individuals characterized by severe conditions. In this paper we evaluate the link between air pollution an...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 5, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Characterizing the spatial distribution of multiple pollutants and populations at risk in atlanta, georgia
Conclusion : Placing multipollutant air quality within a geographic regionalization problem reveals the nature and spatial distribution of differential pollutant combinations across urban environments and provides helpful insights for identifying spatial exposure and demographic contrasts for future health studies. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - March 25, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A coregionalization model can assist specification of Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression: application to an ecological study
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Manuel Castro Ribeiro, António Jorge Sousa, Maria João Pereira The geographical distribution of health outcomes is influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors operating on different spatial scales. Geographical variations in relationships can be revealed with semi-parametric Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (sGWPR), a model that can combine both geographically varying and geographically constant parameters. To decide whether a parameter should vary geographically, two models...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessing the spatial nonstationarity in relationship between local patterns of HIV infections and the covariates in South Africa: A geographically weighted regression analysis
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2016 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Njeri Wabiri, Olive Shisana, Khangelani Zuma, Jeffrey Freeman Beyond the structural drivers such as distance from the road, rural/urban divide or demographic profiles, not much is known about the spatial relationship between HIV and social covariates. Spatial relations between social covariates and HIV infection of persons above 15 years were explored and mapped using geographically weighted regression model using data from a national HIV household survey conducted in 2008 and comprising 23 369 individuals fro...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 13, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Space–time mapping of wasting among children under the age of five years in Somalia from 2007 to 2010
Conclusion There was a clear seasonal variation in wasting with minimal year-to-year variability from 2007 to 2010 in Somalia. The prevalence was high during the long dry season, which affects the prevalence in the preceding long rainy season. Understanding the seasonal fluctuations of wasting in different locations and at different times is important to inform timely interventions. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 13, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial modelling of perinatal mortality in Mchinji, Malawi
Conclusion: Targeting health interventions to higher risk areas and ensuring universal coverage are promising approaches for promoting equity and reducing perinatal mortality. Graphical abstract (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 13, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial and socio-economic effects on malaria morbidity in children under 5years in Malawi in 2012
Conclusion This study showed that malaria is a disease of poverty. Enhanced vegetation index was an important factor in malaria morbidity. The central region was identified as the area with greatest disease burden. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - December 23, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Geography and correlates of attitude toward Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Sudan: what can we learn from successive Sudan opinion poll data?
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2015 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Alexander Hamilton, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala In Sudan, prevalence of FGM is declining; likely as a result of changing attitude surrounding FGM, as more women believe the practice should be discontinued amid growing awareness about its health dangers. DFID Sudan opinion poll data collected from 2012 to 2014 was used. Bayesian geo-additive mixed models were used to map the spatial distribution of the likelihood of pro-FGM attitude at the state-level accounting for associated risk factors. During 2012 to 2014, the ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - December 23, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Bayesian cluster detection via adjacency modelling
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2015 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Craig Anderson, Duncan Lee, Nema Dean Disease mapping aims to estimate the spatial pattern in disease risk across an area, identifying units which have elevated disease risk. Existing methods use Bayesian hierarchical models with spatially smooth conditional autoregressive priors to estimate risk, but these methods are unable to identify the geographical extent of spatially contiguous high-risk clusters of areal units. Our proposed solution to this problem is a two-stage approach, which produces a set of pote...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - December 19, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research