The roles of mycorrhiza and Penicillium inoculants in phosphorus uptake by biochar-amended wheat
Publication date: December 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 127Author(s): Aikaterini Efthymiou, Birgit Jensen, Iver JakobsenAbstractBiochar (BC) application to soil can potentially replace mineral P fertilizers and its effectiveness as fertilizer can be improved by plant inoculation with the phosphate-solubilizing microorganism Penicillium aculeatum (Pa). Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi are important in plant P nutrition and may possibly act synergistically with Pa to improve the uptake of BC-P. Responses in wheat to inoculation with Pa and the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis were studied in a pot exper...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Consistent responses of surface- and subsurface soil fungal diversity to N enrichment are mediated differently by acidification and plant community in a semi-arid grassland
In this study, we used Illumina sequencing of the ITS1 barcode region to elucidate the responses of soil fungal communities using a 7-year simulated N deposition experiment that spanned a broad range of N addition rates and made a systematic evaluation of the role and relative importance of N availability, plant community and soil acidification as drivers of soil fungal diversity in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem. Our results showed that N enrichment led to significant declines in soil fungal alpha diversity and promoted strong shifts in beta diversity (community composition) in both surface and subsurface soil layers. We...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Tree species richness and fungi in freshly fallen leaf litter: Unique patterns of fungal species composition and their implications for enzymatic decomposition
Publication date: December 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 127Author(s): Naili Zhang, Yinong Li, Tesfaye Wubet, Helge Bruelheide, Yu Liang, Witoon Purahong, François Buscot, Keping MaAbstractA major gap in understanding the relationship between tree diversity and litter decomposition concerns knowledge of the saprotrophic fungal communities mediating decomposition processes. Making use of experimental tree diversity plots in subtropical China, our objective was to disentangle the effects of tree species richness on diversity, abundance, and composition of saprotrophic fungal communities in freshly ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Water flow drives small scale biogeography of pesticides and bacterial pesticide degraders - A microcosm study using 2,4-D as a model compound
The objective of this study was to test whether water flow can accelerate microbial pesticide degradation by facilitating the encounter of spatially separated pesticides and bacterial degraders at the millimeter scale.Combining natural and sterilized soil aggregates, we built soil cores with different spatial localizations of the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and microbial degraders: (i) homogeneous distribution of microorganisms and 2,4-D throughout the soil core, (ii) co-localized microorganisms and 2,4-D in a mm3 soil location, and iii) separated microorganisms and 2,4-D in two mm3 soil locations spac...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of drought legacy and tree species admixing on bacterial growth and respiration in a young forest soil upon drying and rewetting
Publication date: December 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 127Author(s): Md Masudur Rahman, Lettice C. Hicks, Kris Verheyen, Johannes Rousk, Monique CarnolAbstractIn the context of future climate change, the flush of CO2 emissions from soils after drying-rewetting events could have a strong impact on the terrestrial carbon balance. Mixed forests may be more resistant and resilient to drought events compared to monocultures, and as such may modulate the effects of drought on soil functioning belowground. We investigated the influence of mixed planting and drought legacy on respiration and bacterial growth ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Quantitative soil zymography: Mechanisms, processes of substrate and enzyme diffusion in porous media
Publication date: December 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 127Author(s): Andrey Guber, Alexandra Kravchenko, Bahar S. Razavi, Daniel Uteau, Stephan Peth, Evgenia Blagodatskaya, Yakov KuzyakovAbstractSoil membrane zymography enables 2D mapping of enzyme activities on the surface of soil samples. The method is based on diffusion of components of enzymatically-mediated reactions to/from membrane, and, thus, reflects the distribution of enzyme activities at the intact soil surface. Zymography has been already successfully implemented in numerous soil ecology applications. Here we identify two methodological a...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Probing soil nitrification and nitrate consumption using Δ17O of soil nitrate
In this study, we conducted both laboratory and field experiments to assess the use of Δ17O-NO3- for tracing soil nitrification and NO3− consumption. Soil samples spanning a wide range of physical and chemical properties were sampled from four sites for batch incubations and amendments with a Δ17O-enriched NO3− fertilizer. After amendments, the triple isotopes (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) of soil NO3− were measured periodically and used in a developed Δ17O-based numerical model to simultaneously derive gross rates and isotope effects of soil nitrification and NO3− consu...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Organic matter removal associated with forest harvest leads to decade scale alterations in soil fungal communities and functional guilds
This study investigated how OMR influences long-term stability of soil fungi to a depth of 1 meter using a replicated experimental pine forest in the Gulf Coastal Plain, USA. Treatments included unharvested control stands as well as low- and high-OMR stands. Intensive OMR led to significant differences in community structure and the abundance of functional guilds in surficial soil. Saprophytic taxa increased while ectomycorrhizal (ECM) taxa decreased with intensive-OMR, which correlated strongly with increased surface temperature and reduced soil nitrogen. Ericoid mycorrhizae (ERM) also increased in intensive-OMR stands, w...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The influence of drought intensity on soil respiration during and after multiple drying-rewetting cycles
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Jin-Tao Li, Jun-Jian Wang, De-Hui Zeng, Shan-Yu Zhao, Wan-Ling Huang, Xue-Kai Sun, Ya-Lin HuAbstractGlobal climate change is projected to intensify soil drying-rewetting (DRW) events with extended drought, especially in arid and semiarid ecosystems. However, the extent to which the soil DRW with intensified drought can alter soil respiration (Rs) in forests is still under debate, and subsequent legacy effects on Rs are not well understood. Here, we conducted a 180-d soil incubation experiment to investigate how soil DRW with...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Invasion by Fallopia japonica alters soil food webs through secondary metabolites
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): C. Abgrall, E. Forey, L. Mignot, M. ChauvatAbstractBiological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity with varying degrees of impact. There is increasing evidence that allelopathy often plays an important role in explaining both invasion success and impact on native taxa (e.g. novel weapons hypothesis). The effects of these secondary metabolites on plant communities and microorganisms are well known. However, their direct and indirect effects on soil fauna are unresolved, despite the importance of the latter in ecosyste...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Impacts of moisture, soil respiration, and agricultural practices on methanogenesis in upland soils as measured with stable isotope pool dilution
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): P.E. Brewer, F. Calderón, M. Vigil, J.C. von FischerAbstractAnoxic microsites can alter the habitat of upland soils and host diverse anaerobic processes that affect greenhouse gas production, nitrogen dynamics, and biodiversity. Microsites that are methanogenic indicate deeply reducing conditions that may have especially strong impacts on soil function. However, there have not been controlled studies to determine the regulators of methanogenic microsite formation or persistence and most studies have been limited to tr...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Environmental drivers of the geographical distribution of methanotrophs: Insights from a national survey
In this study, 697 soil samples were collected across Scotland and 62 climo-edaphic properties were analysed. Combined with a set of hybrid geostatistical modelling approaches, the aim of this study was to investigate the biogeographical distribution (pmoA gene relative abundance) of key methanotrophic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and of methanotrophic community structure. The main objectives were to: 1) identify major environmental drivers influencing the distribution and composition of methanotrophs; and 2) perform spatial modelling and mapping of soil methanotrophic community assemblage and distribution of those d...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 20, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Plant roots alter microbial functional genes supporting root litter decomposition
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Shengjing Shi, Donald J. Herman, Zhili He, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Liyou Wu, Jizhong Zhou, Mary K. FirestoneAbstractDecomposition of soil organic carbon is central to the global carbon cycle and profoundly affected by plant roots. While root “priming” of decomposition has been extensively investigated, it is not known how plants alter the molecular ecology of soil microbial decomposers. We disentangled the effects of Avena fatua, a common annual grass, on 13C-labeled root litter decomposition and quantified multiple...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Characterization of microbial community response to cover crop residue decomposition
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Clayton J. Nevins, Cindy Nakatsu, Shalamar ArmstrongAbstractCover crop adoption in the U.S. Corn Belt region is a rapidly emerging management practice in corn (Zea mays) agroecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of the inclusion of cover crops on the soil microbiome and its relation to the decomposition of the cover crop residue during the cash crop growing season. Therefore, this study sought to determine the impact of cover crop species and residue management practices on soil microbial community compositio...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interaction of straw amendment and soil NO3− content controls fungal denitrification and denitrification product stoichiometry in a sandy soil
Publication date: November 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 126Author(s): Mehmet Senbayram, Reinhard Well, Roland Bol, David R. Chadwick, David L. Jones, Di WuAbstractThe return of agricultural crop residues are vital to maintain or even enhance soil fertility. However, the influence of application rate of crop residues on denitrification and its related gaseous N emissions is not fully understood. We conducted a fully robotized continuous flow incubation experiment using a Helium/Oxygen atmosphere over 30 days to examine the effect of maize straw application rate on: i) the rate of denitrification, ii) de...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Respiration of downed logs in pine and oak forests in the Qinling Mountains, China
This study presents a full year time series of Rlog measurements for 30 logs (3 replicate logs × 5 decay classes × 2 tree species). The Rlog measurements were repeated 468 times for each log from May 2014 to April 2015. The log temperature (Tlog), air temperature (TA), soil temperature (TS) at a depth of 10 cm, and log water content (Wlog) were measured simultaneously with Rlog. Moreover, the log density (Dlog) and chemical composition (C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg)) were determined. Our results showed significant seasonal variation in Rlog for both s...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Dynamics of soil respiration and microbial communities: Interactive controls of temperature and substrate quality
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Rana Shahbaz Ali, Christian Poll, Ellen KandelerAbstractSoil microbial communities mediate soil feedbacks to climate; a thorough understanding of their response to increasing temperatures is therefore central to predict climate-induced changes in carbon (C) fluxes. However, it is unclear how microbial communities will change in structure and function in response to temperature change and to the availability of organic C which varies in complexity. Here we present results from a laboratory incubation study in which soil micro...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil fungal taxonomic and functional community composition as affected by biochar properties
Publication date: November 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 126Author(s): Zhongmin Dai, Akio Enders, Jorge L.M. Rodrigues, Kelly L. Hanley, Philip C. Brookes, Jianming Xu, Johannes LehmannAbstractBiochar greatly influences the soil bacterial community and nutrient transformations, while our knowledge of the responses of fungal lifestyles to biochar is still in its infancy. Here, we used experimental pre-treatments (acetone extraction) of nutrient-rich biochars to identify which major biochar properties influence fungi the most: the easily mineralizable C, fused aromatic backbone, or the inorganic nutrients...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Warming increased feeding of a root-chewing insect at the soil surface and enhanced its damage on a grass
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Tomonori Tsunoda, Kobayashi Makoto, Jun-Ichirou Suzuki, Nobuhiro KanekoAbstractAir and soil warming influences both plants and root herbivorous insects, but how warming alters their interactions is largely unknown. Because both the intensity of herbivory and plant susceptibility to the herbivory depend on temperature, it is difficult to predict the effects of insect herbivory on plant growth under warming. To analyse changes in belowground plant-insect interaction due to warming, we conducted a pot experiment using one grass...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil microbial response to Rhododendron understory removal in southern Appalachian forests: Effects on extracellular enzymes
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Ernest D. Osburn, Katherine J. Elliottt, Jennifer D. Knoepp, Chelcy F. Miniat, J.E. BarrettAbstractRhododendron maximum is a native evergreen shrub that has expanded in Appalachian forests following declines of american chestnut (Castanea dentata) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). R. maximum is of concern to forest managers because it suppresses hardwood tree establishment by limiting light and soil nutrient availability. We are testing R. maximum removal as a management strategy to promote recovery of Appalachian fore...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interaction of straw amendment and soil NO3- content controls fungal denitrification and denitrification product stoichiometry in a sandy soil
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Mehmet Senbayram, Reinhard Well, Roland Bol, David R. Chadwick, David L. Jones, Di WuAbstractThe return of agricultural crop residues are vital to maintain or even enhance soil fertility. However, the influence of application rate of crop residues on denitrification and its related gaseous N emissions is not fully understood. We conducted a fully robotized continuous flow incubation experiment using a Helium/Oxygen atmosphere over 30 days to examine the effect of maize straw application rate on: i) the rate of denitrification...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 8, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Water stress history and wheat genotype modulate rhizosphere microbial response to drought
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Hamed Azarbad, Philippe Constant, Charlotte Giard-Laliberté, Luke D. Bainard, Etienne YergeauAbstractDifferent crop genotypes and soils with different water stress histories are known to harbour different microorganisms, but their relative effect on the response of plant-associated microbes to water stress is not known. In a pot experiment, four wheat genotypes (two with recognized drought resistance and two without) were grown in semi-arid soils with different irrigation histories (irrigated and non-irrigated soils) a...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Can N fertilizer use efficiency be estimated using 15N natural abundance?
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Phillip M. ChalkAbstractNitrogen fertilizer use efficiency can be estimated by using 15N enriched or 15N depleted synthetic fertilizers. However, it has also been proposed that differences in the relative natural 15N abundances (δ15N) of soil and fertilizer N can be used to estimate efficiency. This proposition is examined in this short communication on the basis of theory and published experimental data. The data did not support the concept that fertilizer use efficiency can be quantitatively estimated using δ15N...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Nitrogen addition reduces dissolved organic carbon leaching in a montane forest
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Ruiying Chang, Na Li, Xiangyang Sun, Zhaoyong Hu, Xuesong Bai, Genxu WangAbstractDissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a significant role in the forest soil carbon cycle and can be regulated by nitrogen (N) addition. However, the regulatory direction, mechanism and seasonal pattern of DOC under N addition are less clear. Here, in a montane evergreen forest located at the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, 2 levels of N were applied over 2 years to determine the effects of N addition on DOC release from organic (O layer) and ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Contrasting effects of N and P on rhizosphere processes in two northern hardwood species
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): S. Shan, M.C. Fisk, T.J. FaheyAbstractRhizosphere soils receive a substantial input of plant carbon (rhizosphere C flux, RCF), and therefore support larger microbial populations and higher decomposing activity compared to bulk soils. The relative difference between rhizosphere and bulk soils (rhizosphere effect) may be sensitive to the effects of soil nutrient availability on plant belowground C allocation and RCF. However, it is not known whether rhizosphere effects are similarly responsive to availability of different nutri...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 7, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Conversion to bioenergy crops alters the amount and age of microbially-respired soil carbon
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Laura M. Szymanski, Gregg R. Sanford, Kate Heckman, Randall D. Jackson, Erika Marín-SpiottaAbstractBioenergy cropping systems have the potential to supply plant biomass as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuels and bioproducts that will reduce reliance on fossil energy. Identifying the effects of alternative bioenergy cropping systems on soil carbon (C) is necessary to assess the sustainability of renewable fuels. We measured the response of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools to four bioenergy cropping systems using soils...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of long-term increased N deposition on tropical montane forest soil N2 and N2O emissions
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Wenguang Tang, Dexiang Chen, Oliver L. Phillips, Xian Liu, Zhang Zhou, Yide Li, Dan Xi, Feifei Zhu, Jingyun Fang, Limei Zhang, Mingxian Lin, Jianhui Wu, Yunting FangAbstractNitrogen (N) deposition is projected to substantially increase in the tropics over the coming decades, which is expected to lead to enhanced N saturation and gaseous N emissions from tropical forests (via NO, N2O, and N2). However, it is unclear how N deposition in tropical forests influences both the magnitude of gaseous loss of nitrogen and its partition...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Nitrogen addition reduces soil bacterial richness, while phosphorus addition alters community composition in an old-growth N-rich tropical forest in southern China
We examined the snapshot responses of soil bacterial richness and community composition to the elevated N and P levels after six years using a 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing method. The soil bacterial α-diversity, which is represented by Chao1 index in terms of bacterial richness, was 783 ± 87 (mean ± SD) across all samples in this study. The N addition caused a decline in soil bacterial richness, most likely through its negative effect on soil pH. The decrease in soil pH resulted from the direct N input and indirect NO3− increase. However, the P treatment had no effect on soil bacterial r...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Nutrient supply enhanced wheat residue-carbon mineralization, microbial growth, and microbial carbon-use efficiency when residues were supplied at high rate in contrasting soils
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Yunying Fang, Bhupinder Pal Singh, Damian Collins, Bingzhi Li, Jiang Zhu, Ehsan TavakkoliAbstractCrop residue is a source of energy and nutrients for microbial growth, and can be converted into soil organic matter (SOM). However, there are still knowledge gaps on how the interaction of crop residue and supplementary nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur) influence the fate of residue in microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial use efficiency. Here, we quantified the carbon (C) mineralization of wheat residue (δ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 6, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Long-term fertilization influences community assembly processes of soil diazotrophs
In this study, we investigated soil diazotrophic communities under different long-term (30 years) fertilization managements, using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Long-term chemical fertilization significantly changed soil diazotrophic community structure and resulted in the decrease of diazotrophic diversity, while the addition of livestock manure could maintain the diversity. Diazotrophic community structure and diversity were mostly correlated with soil pH. Deterministic processes structured diazotrophic communities in both unfertilized and fertilized soils. However, the deterministic selection of phylogenetically non-conser...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of interspecific competition on plant-soil feedbacks generated by long-term grazing
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Tao Chen, Zhibiao Nan, Paul Kardol, Tingyu Duan, Hui Song, Jianfeng Wang, Chenhui Li, Fujiang HouAbstractGrazing by large herbivores leads to changes in soil properties which can in turn modify plant performance. However, little is known about how competition among plant species alters the strength and direction of grazing-induced plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs). In a previous monoculture experiment, we found that the intensity of sheep grazing generated consistent abiotic feedback effects and species-specific biotic feedback eff...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Niche separation of comammox Nitrospira and canonical ammonia oxidizers in an acidic subtropical forest soil under long-term nitrogen deposition
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xiuzhen Shi, Hang-Wei Hu, Jianqing Wang, Ji-Zheng He, Chengyang Zheng, Xiaohua Wan, Zhiqun HuangAbstractThe recent discovery of comammox Nitrospira capable of converting ammonia to nitrate in a single organism radically challenged our century-long perception of the classic two-step nitrification performed by ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers. However, our understanding of the niche separation of comammox Nitrospira and canonical nitrifiers in forest ecosystems remains limited, especially under a global scenario of eleva...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Efficacy of mitigation measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from intensively cultivated peatlands
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Helen E. Taft, Paul A. Cross, Davey L. JonesAbstractDrained and cultivated fen peats represent some of the world's most productive soils, however, they are susceptible to degradation and typically exhibit high rates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. We hypothesised that GHG losses from these soils could be reduced by manipulating water table depth, tillage regime, crop residue application or horticultural fleece cover. Using intact soil columns from a horticultural peatland, emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 were monitored over a...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the abundance of nitrogen cycling genes in agricultural soils: A meta-analysis of field studies
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Yang Ouyang, Sarah E. Evans, Maren L. Friesen, Lisa K. TiemannAbstractQuantification of functional genes involved in nitrogen (N) transformation improves our understanding of N-cycling microbial population responses to environmental disturbance. Agricultural N fertilization affects N-cycling gene abundances in soil, but the general patterns and variability of N cycling gene abundances in response to N fertilization have yet to be synthesized. We conducted a meta-analysis comprising 47 field studies in agricultural ecosystems....
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil fungal taxonomic and functional community as affected by biochar properties
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Zhongmin Dai, Akio Enders, Jorge L.M. Rodrigues, Kelly L. Hanley, Philip C. Brookes, Jianming Xu, Johannes LehmannAbstractBiochar greatly influences the soil bacterial community and nutrient transformations, while our knowledge of the responses of fungal lifestyles to biochar is still in its infancy. Here, we used experimental pre-treatments (acetone extraction) of nutrient-rich biochars to identify which major biochar properties influence fungi the most: the easily mineralizable C, fused aromatic backbone, or the inorganic n...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interactive priming effect of labile carbon and crop residues on SOM depends on residue decomposition stage: Three-source partitioning to evaluate mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Muhammad Shahbaz, Amit Kumar, Yakov Kuzyakov, Gunnar Börjesson, Evgenia BlagodatskayaAbstractInputs of crop residues and labile C (e.g. root exudates) can affect the decomposition rate of soil organic matter (SOM) through the priming effect (PE). Most previous priming studies describe the addition of single labile or residue C, ignoring the interactions of labile C and fresh or decaying crop residues commonly present in field conditions. Using a dual 13C/14C labelling approach in a 62-day incubation, we investigated the ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Greater variations of rhizosphere effects within mycorrhizal group than between mycorrhizal group in a temperate forest
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xiao Chen, Zongju Ding, Mao Tang, Biao ZhuAbstractThe presence of living roots can markedly change soil properties, microbial activities, and biogeochemical cycling in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil. Such rhizosphere effect has been increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the rhizosphere effects of 12 tree species associated with two contrasting mycorrhizal types (arbuscular mycorrhizal, AM vs. ectomycorrhizal, ECM) and co-oc...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Wood biochar impacts soil phosphorus dynamics and microbial communities in organically-managed croplands
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Si Gao, Thomas H. DeLucaAbstractBiochar (a carbon-rich product from pyrolysis of organic materials) addition to agricultural soils has been proposed as a novel technology for enhancing soil C storage and fertility; however, few studies have evaluated the effects of biochar on nutrients from an integrated perspective. Previous studies have demonstrated that biochar has the potential to improve bioavailable phosphorus (P) of sandy soils in organic farming systems; yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypot...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Mycorrhizal fungi enhance nutrient uptake but disarm defences in plant roots, promoting plant-parasitic nematode populations
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Adam Frew, Jeff R. Powell, Gaétan Glauser, Alison E. Bennett, Scott N. JohnsonAbstractArbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous components of the soil biota which live symbiotically with terrestrial plants. Substantial research has examined how AM fungi alter interactions between plants and plant antagonists. Plant-parasitic nematodes are an important group of soil-dwelling invertebrates that inflict considerable damage to crops, representing a serious threat to food security. The effects of the AM symbiosis on ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance genes and associated bacterial communities in agricultural soils amended with different sources of animal manures
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xue-Mei Han, Hang-Wei Hu, Qing-Lin Chen, Li-Yuan Yang, He-Lian Li, Yong-Guan Zhu, Xiang-Zhen Li, Yi-Bing MaAbstractLand application of animal manures is a major dissemination route for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in agro-ecosystems, which are a potential risk to public health if they migrate into the food chain. Despite the fact that animal manure is a rich reservoir of ARGs our knowledge of the impacts of different types and amounts of animal manures on the temporal succession of a wide array of ARGs and potential ARG...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 4, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The afterlife effects of fungal morphology: Contrasting decomposition rates between diffuse and rhizomorphic necromass
Publication date: November 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 126Author(s): Amanda K. Certano, Christopher W. Fernandez, Katherine A. Heckman, Peter G. KennedyAbstractMicrobial necromass is now recognized as an important input into stable soil organic matter pools in terrestrial ecosystems. While melanin and nitrogen content have been identified as factors that influence the decomposition rate of fungal necromass, the effects of mycelial morphology on necromass decomposition remain largely unknown. Using the fungus Armillaria mellea, which produces both diffuse and rhizomorphic biomass in pure culture, we as...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 2, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Depth dependence of soil carbon temperature sensitivity across Tibetan permafrost regions
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Jinquan Li, Dong Yan, Elise Pendall, Junmin Pei, Nam Jin Noh, Jin-Sheng He, Bo Li, Ming Nie, Changming FangAbstractPermafrost regions with high soil organic carbon (SOC) storage are extremely vulnerable to global warming. However, our understanding of the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in permafrost regions remains limited, leading to considerable uncertainties in predicting carbon-climate feedback magnitude and direction in these regions. Here, we investigate general patterns and underlying mechanisms of SOC deco...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 1, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effect of slope aspect on the phylogenetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a boreal alpine ecosystem
In this study, we investigated AM fungal communities in an alpine ecosystem on a northwest-facing slope (NS) and a southeast-facing slope (SS) along a steep environmental gradient. Ecological processes structuring the fungal communities were inferred according to phylogenetic patterns and species abundance distributions. Thirty-two distinct AM fungal virtual taxa (VTs) were identified, predominantly belonging to the genus Glomus. The change of slope aspect from SS to NS recorded a significant decline in AM fungal richness, resulting in a marked loss of Glomus VTs and the dominance of Rhizophagus. Moreover, both taxonomic a...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 31, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 125Author(s): (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biological processes dominate phosphorus dynamics under low phosphorus availability in organic horizons of temperate forest soils
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Chiara Pistocchi, Éva Mészáros, Federica Tamburini, Emmanuel Frossard, Else Katrin BünemannAbstractUnderstanding the mechanisms underlying phosphorus (P) availability is important to predict forest productivity in a changing environment. We quantified P fluxes and traced P from plant litter into inorganic and organic soil P pools in organic horizons from two contrasting temperate forest soils with low and high inorganic P availability, respectively. We incubated the two organic horizons with and withou...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 21, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Relationship between home-field advantage of litter decomposition and priming of soil organic matter
Publication date: November 2018Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 126Author(s): D.P. Di Lonardo, M. Manrubia, W. De Boer, H. Zweers, G.F. Veen, A. Van der WalAbstractHome field advantage (HFA; acceleration of plant litter decomposition in soils that receive their indigenous litter) and priming effects (PE; short-term changes in the turnover of soil organic matter caused by the addition of fresh organic carbon) are two aspects of decomposition processes that are driven by the composition and functioning of soil decomposer communities. Physicochemical similarity between added organic compounds and soil organic mat...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 18, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Processes contributing to nitrite accumulation and concomitant N2O emissions in frozen soils
The objectives of this study were to determine the processes leading to NO2− accumulation and its contribution to N2O emissions in frozen soils. Soil microcosms were incubated for 21 days under frozen (−2 °C) or unfrozen (+0.5 °C) conditions. Soils were amended with either 15N-NH4+ or 15N-NO3 to quantify the contribution of nitrification and denitrification processes to NO2− accumulation, respectively. Production of 15N-N2O was measured to determine the contribution of NO2− accumulation to N2O emissions. Nitrite progressively accumulated over 21 days in soils incubated at −2...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Changes in functional gene structure and metabolic potential of the microbial community in biological soil crusts along a revegetation chronosequence in the Tengger Desert
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Yubing Liu, Lina Zhao, Zengru Wang, Lichao Liu, Peng Zhang, Jingyao Sun, Bingyao Wang, Guang Song, Xinrong LiAbstractBiological soil crusts (BSCs), the pioneers of restoration of degraded vegetation, act as an organizing principle in drylands largely through metabolic activities of microbial communities. However, little is known about the microbial functional potential involved in biogeochemical processes during BSC succession in desert ecosystems. Here, we utilized a functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in conjunction with dete...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Variation in microbial community structure correlates with heavy-metal contamination in soils decades after mining ceased
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Rachelle E. Beattie, Wyatt Henke, Maria F. Campa, Terry C. Hazen, L. Rex McAliley, James H. CampbellAbstractMicroorganisms play vital roles in Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Identifying disturbances in microbial communities due to anthropogenic contamination can provide insights into the health of ecosystems. Picher, Oklahoma, was the site of large-scale mining operations for Pb, Zn, and other heavy metals until the mid-1950s, operating within the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma. Although minin...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), not denitrification dominates nitrate reduction in subtropical pasture soils upon rewetting
This study combines the direct quantification of N2 and N2O with a numerical 15N tracing model to establish the relationship between denitrification and DNRA in pasture soils after wetting. Soil microcosms were fertilised with NH4NO3 (35 μg N g−1 soil) using a triple 15N labelling approach, wetted to four different water-filled pore space (WFPS) levels and incubated over two days. The abrupt increase in soil moisture triggered a burst of N2 and N2O emissions, with peak fluxes of N2 > 13.1 μg N g−1 soil day−1 at high soil moisture levels. At 95% and 80% WFPS, denitrification was ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research