Influence of Pore Architecture and Chemical Structure on the Sodium Storage in Nitrogen ‐Doped Hard Carbons
The impact of porosity and nitrogen content on the sodium storage mechanism in sodium ion battery anodes is studied using a series of nitrogen ‐doped, microporous hard carbons. It is found that nitrogen functionalities contribute to the sloping region, while the formation of quasimetallic sodium occurs during a voltage plateau. Further, important relations between gas physisorption and sodium storage are revealed. AbstractHard carbon is the material of choice for sodium ion battery anodes. Capacities comparable to those of lithium/graphite can be reached, but the understanding of the underlying sodium storage mechanisms ...
Source: Small - February 22, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Konstantin Schutjajew, Jonas Pampel, Wuyong Zhang, Markus Antonietti, Martin Oschatz Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Switching Propulsion Mechanisms of Tubular Catalytic Micromotors
A new holistic theoretical model implying the switching and coexistence of propulsion mechanisms for conical catalytic micromotors is proposed. The model combines the already reported mechanisms based on capillary forces, bubble growth, and bubble expulsion phenomena in one single approach, allowing for an adequate description of the experimentally detected micromotor dynamics. AbstractDifferent propulsion mechanisms have been suggested for describing the motion of a variety of chemical micromotors, which have attracted great attention in the last decades due to their high efficiency and thrust force, enabling several appl...
Source: Small - February 22, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Paul Wrede, Mariana Medina ‐Sánchez, Vladimir M. Fomin, Oliver G. Schmidt Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

In Situ Porphyrin Substitution in a Zr(IV) ‐MOF for Stability Enhancement and Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction
The in situ porphyrin substitution strategy is developed for modifying labile interpenetrated BUT ‐109(Zr), affording BUT‐110 with enhanced chemical stability and photocatalytic activity. By tuning the species and contents of metalloporphyrin in BUT‐110, some of the BUT‐110 MOFs may serve as potential photocatalysts for selective CO2‐to‐CO reduction, in the absence of photosensitizer. AbstractDespite numerous inherent merits of metal –organic frameworks (MOFs), structural fragility has imposed great restrictions on their wider involvement in many applications, such as in catalysis. Herein, a strategy for ...
Source: Small - February 22, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xiang ‐Jing Kong, Tao He, Jian Zhou, Chen Zhao, Tong‐Chuan Li, Xue‐Qian Wu, Kecheng Wang, Jian‐Rong Li Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Topological Assembly of a Deployable Hoberman Flight Ring from DNA
This work introduces the first deployable nanoscale geometry using DNA origami. This planar structure is inspired by Hoberman sphere and the topology is a trefoil knot. The DNA flight ring can switch between open and closed states, showing auxetic reconfiguration with negative Poisson's ratios. AbstractDeployable geometries are finite auxetic structures that preserve their overall shapes during expansion and contraction. The topological behaviors emerge from intricately arranged elements and their connections. Despite the considerable utility of such configurations in nature and in engineering, deployable nanostructures ha...
Source: Small - February 22, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ruixin Li, Haorong Chen, Jong Hyun Choi Tags: Communication Source Type: research

HPV ‐Associated Tumor Eradication by Vaccination with Synthetic Short Peptides and Particle‐Forming Liposomes
A liposomal vaccine platform that induces spontaneous conversion of peptides into serum ‐stable particles is used with a synthetic short peptide derived from the human papilloma virus. Vaccination results in robust protection from tumor challenge and re‐challenge, a strong infiltrating CD8+ T ‐cell response within the tumor microenvironment, and eradicates tumors upward of 100 mm3 and lung metastases. AbstractHuman papilloma virus (HPV) ‐16 is associated with cervical cancers and induces expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. Using a murine cell line that expresses these, the genes are sequenced, and six predicted ...
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xuedan He, Shiqi Zhou, Breandan Quinn, Dushyant Jahagirdar, Joaquin Ortega, Scott I. Abrams, Jonathan F. Lovell Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Rare ‐Earth‐Based Metal–Organic Frameworks as Multifunctional Platforms for Catalytic Conversion
The rare ‐earth (RE)‐based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) can exhibit good catalytic abilities for the cooperation of RE elements and porous MOF structures, and have been studied in many areas such as energy conversion, environmental governance, and organic synthesis. In this review, RE‐MOFs for cat alytic conversion are summarized for the first time. AbstractThe development of catalytic conversion is very important for human society. In the catalytic process, metal –organic frameworks (MOFs) can be utilized to obtain effective catalysts for their porous structures and adjustable properties. In addition,...
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xiaomeng Shi, Bo Cao, Jinghai Liu, Jun Zhang, Yaping Du Tags: Review Source Type: research

Preparation of CdSySe1 −y‐MoS2 Heterostructures via Cation Exchange of Pre‐Epitaxially Synthesized Cu2−χSySe1−y‐MoS2 for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution
Cu2 −χSySe1 −y‐MoS2 epitaxial heterostructures are synthesized by a facile one ‐pot wet‐chemical method. They can be transformed to CdSySe1 −y‐MoS2 without morphological change via cation exchange. The CdSySe1 −y‐MoS2 heterostructures with different chalcogen ratio and loading amount of MoS2 are used as photocatalysts in the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation, exhibiting distinctive catalytic activities. AbstractConstruction of 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ‐based epitaxial heterostructures with different compositions is important for various...
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Junze Chen, Xue ‐Jun Wu, Qipeng Lu, Meiting Zhao, Peng‐Fei Yin, Qinglang Ma, Gwang‐Hyeon Nam, Bing Li, Bo Chen, Hua Zhang Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Dynamic Coloration of Complex Emulsions by Localization of Gold Rings Near the Triphase Junction
Multiphilic triblcok copolymer surfactants are developed to manipulate the biphasic emulsion shape and optical behavior. Site ‐specific conjugation of gold nanoparticles enables the creation of gold rings along the triphase junction, which isotropize the structural colors. Dynamic behavior of complex emulsions is imparted to the gold rings, affording the visualization of emulsion shape into the specific color reflection. AbstractMultiphase microscale emulsions are a material platform that can be tuned and dynamically configured by a variety of chemical and physical phenomena, rendering them inexpensive and broadly progra...
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Kang Hee Ku, Benjamin R. McDonald, Harikrishnan Vijayamohanan, Cassandra A. Zentner, Sara Nagelberg, Mathias Kolle, Timothy M. Swager Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Multi ‐Elemental Electronic Coupling for Enhanced Hydrogen Generation
This study provides a valuable methodology to produce interacted multi‐heteroatomic doped graphitic carbon‐transition metal phosphide electrocatalysts with superior HER performance in a wide pH range. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Huan Li, Minghao Hu, Bo Cao, Peng Jing, Baocang Liu, Rui Gao, Jun Zhang, Xiaomeng Shi, Yaping Du Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Nanoporous Metal Phosphonate Hybrid Materials as a Novel Platform for Emerging Applications: A Critical Review
Nanoporous metal phosphonates have shown great potential in facilitating functionality, shapeability, combination, and miniaturization, which offer a multifunctional platform to make breakthroughs in many promising application fields, such as optics, electronics, ionics, membranes, and catalysis. All the recent developments in designing these porous metal phosphonates are summarized here with a special emphasis on the porosity ‐property‐functionality relationships. AbstractNanoporous metal phosphonates are propelling the rapid development of emerging energy storage, catalysis, environmental intervention, and biology, t...
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xian ‐Wei Lv, Chen‐Chen Weng, Yun‐Pei Zhu, Zhong‐Yong Yuan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Unveiling the Nature of Pt Single ‐Atom Catalyst during Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution and Oxygen Reduction Reactions
Operando X ‐ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) unveils the nature of Pt single atoms under realistic reactions. The total unoccupied density of states of Pt 5d orbitals on Pt1 atoms is higher than that of Pt nanoparticles in a hydrogen evolution reaction, while a stable Pt oxide is formed during an oxygen reduction reaction. AbstractSingle ‐atom catalysts (SACs) have attracted significant attention due to their superior catalytic activity and selectivity. However, the nature of active sites of SACs under realistic reaction conditions is ambiguous. In this work, high loading Pt single atoms on graphitic carbon nitride (g...
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Junjie Li, Mohammad Norouzi Banis, Zhouhong Ren, Keegan R. Adair, Kieran Doyle ‐Davis, Debora Motta Meira, Y. Zou Finfrock, Lei Zhang, Fanpeng Kong, Tsun‐Kong Sham, Ruying Li, Jun Luo, Xueliang Sun Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

3D Thioether ‐Based Covalent Organic Frameworks for Selective and Efficient Mercury Removal
This study not only puts forward a new route to construct stable functionalized 3D COFs, but also promotes their potential applications in areas related to the environment. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yiying Zhang, Hui Li, Jianhong Chang, Xinyu Guan, Lingxue Tang, Qianrong Fang, Valentin Valtchev, Yushan Yan, Shilun Qiu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Adding Toxicological Context to Nanotoxicity Study Reporting Using the NanoTox Metadata List
The novelty in the proposed nanotoxicity reporting checklist is a modular approach in selecting reporting standards for nanomaterial toxicity studies where the three components need to be covered: material characteristics, experimental set ‐up/biological test system description, and toxicological context. It is designed to allow for nanomaterials toxicity data and knowledge integration, reuse, and cross‐disciplinary communication. AbstractThis paper proposes a list of specifications (NanoTox metadata list) to be reported about nanotoxicity experiments (metadata) together with resultant data to add toxicological context...
Source: Small - February 19, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Damjana Drobne Tags: Concept Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Peptides: Cross ‐Strand Interaction, Central Bending, and Sequence Pattern Act as Biomodulators of Simplified β‐Hairpin Antimicrobial Amphiphiles (Small 7/2021)
In article number2003899, Anshan Shan and co ‐workers establish a progressive screening system to obtain simplified, potent and nontoxic β‐hairpin amphipathic prototypes against bacterial infections. Functional optimization triggered by the delicate balance of biomodulators could facilitate the advancement of peptide‐based antimicrobial biomaterials. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Changxuan Shao, Yongjie Zhu, Qiao Jian, Zhenheng Lai, Peng Tan, Guoyu Li, Anshan Shan Tags: Back Cover Source Type: research

Conformational Isomerism: Influence of the Z/E Isomerism on the Pathway Complexity of a Squaramide ‐Based Macrocycle (Small 7/2021)
In article number2006133, Juan Arag ó, Antonio Costa, Bartolome Soberats, and co‐workers report that the macrocycleMSq self ‐assembles into two different aggregates (A and B) depending of theZ,E conformation of the squaramide units. The different self ‐assembly modes and the corresponding aggregates ofMSq are represented in a tile ‐matching puzzle video game screenplay. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Francisca Orvay, Jes ús Cerdá, Carmen Rotger, Enrique Ortí, Juan Aragó, Antonio Costa, Bartolome Soberats Tags: Inside Back Cover Source Type: research

Eukaryotic Cell Biomimetics: Construction of Eukaryotic Cell Biomimetics: Hierarchical Polymersomes ‐in‐Proteinosome Multicompartment with Enzymatic Reactions Modulated Protein Transportation (Small 7/2021)
Different membrane characteristics regulate biological pathways in eukaryotic cells. In article number2005749, Xin Huang, Dietmar Appelhans, and co ‐workers demonstrate the function of orthogonal‐responsive membranes of eukaryotic cell biomimetics for the modulation of protein transport. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ping Wen, Xueyi Wang, Silvia Moreno, Susanne Boye, Dagmar Voigt, Brigitte Voit, Xin Huang, Dietmar Appelhans Tags: Inside Front Cover Source Type: research

Bifunctional Electrocatalysts: Self ‐Anti‐Stacking 2D Metal Phosphide Loop‐Sheet Heterostructures by Edge‐Topological Regulation for Highly Efficient Water Oxidation (Small 7/2021)
2D metal phosphide loop ‐sheet heterostructures are controllably synthesized by edge‐topological regulation, where Ni2P nanosheets are edge ‐confined by the N‐doped carbon loop containing ultrafine NiFeP nanocrystals. In article number2006860, Johnny C. Ho and co ‐workers report that the loop‐sheet feature with lifted‐edges can prevent the self‐stacking of 2D nanosheets and induce accessible open channels for catalytic site exposure and charge carriers/mass transfer, resulting in a remarkable oxygen evolution activity. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Quan Quan, Zhengxun Lai, Yan Bao, Xiuming Bu, You Meng, Wei Wang, Tsunaki Takahashi, Takuro Hosomi, Kazuki Nagashima, Takeshi Yanagida, Chuntai Liu, Jian Lu, Johnny C. Ho Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research

Masthead: (Small 7/2021)
(Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Tags: Masthead Source Type: research

Rolled ‐Up Metal Oxide Microscaffolds to Study Early Bone Formation at Single Cell Resolution
Transparent 3D microscaffolds are developed to mimic tiny pores of metal ‐oxide implants, to study single cell–material interactions as well as early steps of bone formation: anchoring, adhesion, and cell‐body crystallization, providing deeper insights on the influence of the material choice and confinement on the osteoinduction and osseointegration processes. AbstractTitanium and its alloys are frequently used to replace structural components of the human body due to their high mechanical strength, low stiffness, and biocompatibility. In particular, the use of porous materials has improved implant stabilization ...
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Raffael Herzer, Annett Gebert, Ute Hempel, Franziska Hebenstreit, Steffen Oswald, Christine Damm, Oliver G. Schmidt, Mariana Medina ‐Sánchez Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

M2 ‐Like TAMs Function Reversal Contributes to Breast Cancer Eradication by Combination Dual Immune Checkpoint Blockade and Photothermal Therapy
The designed highly biocompatible dual immune checkpoint blockade combined with photothermal therapy nanoplatform remarkably wakes up both the innate and adaptive immune responses to eliminate breast cancer –promoting tumor infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocyte, while reversing protumor M2‐like tumor‐associated macrophages to anti‐tumor M1‐like subtype. The research may provide a promising strategy to optimize immunotherapy based on nanotechnology. AbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is considered to be a revolutionary anti ‐tumor strategy that may surpass other traditional therapies. Breast ...
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Wenrong Zhao, Xiaochun Hu, Wenhui Li, Ruihao Li, Jinjin Chen, Lulu Zhou, Sufeng Qiang, Wenjing Wu, Shuo Shi, Chunyan Dong Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Boosting Room Temperature Phosphorescence Performance by Alkyl Modification for Intravital Orthotopic Lung Tumor Imaging
In this study, a series of keto derivatives with efficient RTP in crystals are developed through the regulation of molecular aggregation states by simple alkyl groups, resulting in impressive luminescence performance with a longer lifetime and higher efficiency of up to 868  ms and 51.59%, respectively. All the alkyl‐substituted derivatives exhibit bright RTP intensities after heavy grinding with a pestle, indicating their robust RTP features, which are suitable for many fields. Encouraged by the excellent RTP performance of these luminogens in the crystalline state , successful orthotopic lung tumor imaging with a ...
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Heqi Gao, Zhiyuan Gao, Di Jiao, Jingtian Zhang, Xiaolin Li, Qiyun Tang, Yang Shi, Dan Ding Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Multipoint Hydrogen Bonding ‐Based Molecular Recognition of Amino Acids and Peptide Derivatives in a Porous Metal‐Macrocycle Framework: Residue‐Specificity, Diastereoselectivity, and Conformational Control
Amino acid and peptide derivatives are site ‐selectively recognized in a porous metal‐macrocycle framework through multiple hydrogen bonding. Serine residues are diastereoselectively and residue‐specifically adsorbed on the pore‐surface through multiple hydrogen bonds. In addition, conformation of a peptide adsorbed on the pore‐surf ace is highly controlled to adopt a poly‐l‐proline type I helix‐like structure. AbstractPorous crystals have great potential to exert space ‐specific functions such as multipoint molecular recognition. In order to rationally enhance the porous function, it is necessary to prec...
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shohei Tashiro, Kosuke Nakata, Ryunosuke Hayashi, Mitsuhiko Shionoya Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Porous Carbon Nitride Thin Strip: Precise Carbon Doping Regulating Delocalized π‐Electron Induces Elevated Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution
1D strip ‐like carbon nitride (CN) with a large π‐electron conjugated system realizes the synchronization control of its electronic structure and morphology, which improves the separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. Thus, such strip‐like carbon nitride exhibits a significant enhancem ent in photocatalytic activity with the hydrogen evolution rate of 126.2 µmol h−1, about 18 times higher than that of bulk CN. AbstractThe photocatalytic efficiency of polymeric carbon nitride is hampered by high carrier recombination rate and low charge transfer. Herein, these issues are addressed b...
Source: Small - February 18, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Qi Li, Luoming Zhang, Jianan Liu, Jing Zhou, Yanqing Jiao, Xudong Xiao, Chen Zhao, Yang Zhou, Sheng Ye, Baojiang Jiang, Jian Liu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Activating Layered Metal Oxide Nanomaterials via Structural Engineering as Biodegradable Nanoagents for Photothermal Cancer Therapy
The structural engineering of layered MoO3 and WO3 nanostructures is reported here to activate their NIR ‐II absorption for efficient photothermal cancer therapy. The MoO3 −x nanobelts can be used as a robust nanoagent for photoacoustic imaging ‐guided photothermal therapy to achieve efficient cancer cell ablation and tumor eradication in the NIR‐II window. AbstractLayered metal oxides including MoO3 and WO3 have been widely explored for biological applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility, low toxicity, and easy preparation. However, they normally exhibit weak or negligible near ‐infrared (NIR) ...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Zhan Zhou, Xianwen Wang, Hui Zhang, Haoxin Huang, Lina Sun, Lu Ma, Yonghua Du, Chengjie Pei, Qinghua Zhang, Hai Li, Lufang Ma, Lin Gu, Zhuang Liu, Liang Cheng, Chaoliang Tan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

MXenes: Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Applications in Ultrafast Photonics
As a kind of 2D material, MXenes are gradually used as saturable absorbers to realize ultrafast pulses in lasers. This review summarizes the latest progress of MXenes, focuses on the synthesis, optical properties, and applications in ultrafast photonics, as well as stimulates the exploration of novel MXenes and promotes the balance between easy fabrication and better  performance. AbstractRecently, 2D materials are in great demand for various applications such as optical devices, supercapacitors, sensors, and biomedicine. MXenes as a kind of novel 2D material have attracted considerable research interest due to their ...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Bo Fu, Jingxuan Sun, Cong Wang, Ce Shang, Lijun Xu, Jiebo Li, Han Zhang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Anisotropic 2D SiAs for High ‐Performance UV–Visible Photodetectors
The in ‐plane anisotropic optical and (photo)electrical properties of 2D SiAs nanosheets are reported. The angle‐resolved polarized Raman spectrum shows high in‐plane anisotropy of the phonon vibration modes. Moreover, photodetectors exhibit high anisotropic ratio of the photocurrent that reached 5.3 at 514.5 nm and 2.3 at 325 nm. AbstractRecently, extensive efforts have been directed at finding novel 2D ‐layered structures with anisotropic crystal structures. Herein, the in‐plane anisotropic optical and (photo)electrical properties of 2D SiAs nanosheets synthesized using a solid‐state reaction and subsequent m...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Doyeon Kim, Kidong Park, Jong Hyun Lee, Ik Seon Kwon, In Hye Kwak, Jeunghee Park Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Microenvironment ‐Protected Exosome‐Hydrogel for Facilitating Endometrial Regeneration, Fertility Restoration, and Live Birth of Offspring
In this study, a multifunctional microenvironment‐prote cted exosome‐hydrogel is designed for facilitating endometrial regeneration and fertility restoration via in situ microinjection and endometrial regeneration. This exosome hydrogel is formulated via Ag+‐S dynamic coordination and fusion with adipose stem cell‐derived exosomes (ADSC‐exo), yielding an injectable preparation that is sufficient to mitigate infection risk while also possessing the antigenic contents and paracrine signaling activity of the ADSC source cells, enabling regeneration of the endometrial microenvironment. In vitro, this exosome‐hydrog...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jiaying Lin, Zhen Wang, Jialyu Huang, Shengluan Tang, Qimanguli Saiding, Qianqian Zhu, Wenguo Cui Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Highly Active Hollow RhCu Nanoboxes toward Ethylene Glycol Electrooxidation
High ‐quality porous RhCu nanoboxes are synthesized by facile galvanic replacement reaction and sodium borohydride reduction. Benefiting from hierarchical pore structure, RhCu nanoboxes display excellent electrocatalytic performance and stability than commercial Rh nanocrystal toward the ethylene glyco l oxidation reaction (EGOR) in alkaline medium, which provides meaningful reference for developing highly effective electrocatalysts for the EGOR, revealing a highly promising robust anodic electrocatalysts in ADMFCs. AbstractThe efficient electrocatalysts toward the ethylene glycol oxidation reaction (EGOR) are highly des...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Bin Qiao, Ting Yang, Shufeng Shi, Nan Jia, Yu Chen, Xinbing Chen, Zhongwei An, Pei Chen Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Immune Stimulating Antibody ‐Photosensitizer Conjugates via Fc‐Mediated Dendritic Cell Phagocytosis and Phototriggered Immunogenic Cell Death for KRAS‐Mutated Pancreatic Cancer Treatment
Antibody ‐photosensitizer conjugates that specifically bind to epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressing tumor are designed for both innate and adaptive immune response, resulting in synergism of antitumor effect. The conjugates provoke immunogenic cell death via photodynamic therapy and facilitate a ntigen phagocytosis as well as maturation effect of dendritic cells. Finally, antibody‐photosensitizer conjugates eliminate the solid tumor and offer long‐term anticancer immunity. AbstractAlthough cetuximab (CTX) is a chimeric epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody, the antitumor efficacy of CTX has a ne...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Dahye Kim, Sanghee Lee, Kun Na Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Ni/Mo Bimetallic ‐Oxide‐Derived Heterointerface‐Rich Sulfide Nanosheets with Co‐Doping for Efficient Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution by Boosting Volmer Reaction
This study provides a potentially feasible strategy for the design of heterostructure ‐based electrocatalysts with abundant active interfaces. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Liyang Zhang, Yujie Zheng, Jiacheng Wang, Yang Geng, Ben Zhang, Junjie He, Junmin Xue, Thomas Frauenheim, Meng Li Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

A Powder Self ‐Healable Hydrogel Electrolyte for Flexible Hybrid Supercapacitors with High Energy Density and Sustainability
A recyclable hydrogel electrolyte with excellent conductivity and self ‐healing ability is designed for flexible supercapacitors. Compared with existing flexible supercapacitor, the sodium alginate polymethylacrylic acid hydrogels based zinc hybrid supercapacitor not only exhibits high energy density and excellent self‐healing ability, but also possesses good powde r self‐healable ability to guarantee the hydrogel electrolyte‐based supercapacitor with excellent recyclability, exhibiting great potential for sustainable flexible energy storage devices. AbstractIonic conductive hydrogel electrolyte is considered to be...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Hailong Huang, Lu Han, Xiaobin Fu, Yanling Wang, Zhongli Yang, Likun Pan, Min Xu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Dual ‐Active Sites Engineering of N‐Doped Hollow Carbon Nanocubes Confining Bimetal Alloys as Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Flexible Metal–Air Batteries
The hybrid catalysts consisting of bimetallic alloy nanoparticles confined in the N ‐doped hollow carbon nanocubes are successfully fabricated through a general heat‐treatment strategy of introducing NH3 pyrolysis of dopamine ‐coated metal–organic frameworks, which exhibit remarkable bifunctional catalytic properties toward oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction, and demonstrate to be excellent air electrodes for both flexible Zn/Al–air batteries. AbstractSince the sluggish kinetic process of oxygen reduction (ORR)/evolution (OER) reactions, the design of highly ‐efficient, robust, and ...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Dengyu Xie, Deshuang Yu, Yanan Hao, Silin Han, Guanghua Li, Xiaoli Wu, Feng Hu, Linlin Li, Han ‐Yi Chen, Yen‐Fa Liao, Shengjie Peng Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

P3/O3 Integrated Layered Oxide as High ‐Power and Long‐Life Cathode toward Na‐Ion Batteries
P3/O3 biphasic Na2/3Ni1/3Mn1/3Ti1/3O2 cathode material is prepared for Na ‐ion batteries by tuning the Ti amounts. This P3/O3 intergrown cathode delivers superior rate capability and cycling stability to those of the pristine P3 and O3 phases, which are underpinned by the observed highly reversible structural transition of P3/O3 biphase and the rapid Na+ diffusion kinetics. AbstractLow ‐cost and stable sodium‐layered oxides (such as P2‐ and O3‐phases) are suggested as highly promising cathode materials for Na‐ion batteries (NIBs). Biphasic hybridization, mainly involving P2/O3 and P2/P3 biphases, is typically u...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Si ‐Yuan Zhang, Yu‐Jie Guo, Ya‐Nan Zhou, Xu‐Dong Zhang, Yu‐Bin Niu, En‐Hui Wang, Lin‐Bo Huang, Peng‐Fei An, Jing Zhang, Xin‐An Yang, Ya‐Xia Yin, Sailong Xu, Yu‐Guo Guo Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Structural Phase Transitions to 2D and 3D Oxygen Vacancy Patterns in a Perovskite Film Induced by Electrical and Mechanical Nanoprobing
A reversible transition from a perovskite structure to a never ‐before‐seen oxygen‐vacancy‐ordered phase is imaged by scanning transmission electron microscopy in an epitaxial La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 −δ film during concurrent voltage pulsing and local mechanical straining. The new structure, comprising a regular 3D network of distorted oxygen polyhedra, forms when a piezo ‐controlled nanoprobe restricts the out‐of‐plane lattice expansion that migrating oxygen vacancies generate. AbstractOxygen vacancy migration and ordering in perovskite oxides enable manipulation of material properties through changes in ...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Lide Yao, Sampo Inkinen, Hannu ‐Pekka Komsa, Sebastiaan Dijken Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Label ‐Free Biophysical Markers from Whole Blood Microfluidic Immune Profiling Reveal Severe Immune Response Signatures
A 15 ‐min label‐free immune profiling assay using deterministic lateral displacement microfluidics to measure the immune biophysical signatures of cell size and deformability from a drop of whole blood. The assay detects severe immune response of admission patients in the emergency department and the speed of patient stratification has promising impact in deployable point‐of‐care systems for clinical triage. AbstractDisease manifestation and severity from acute infections are often due to hyper ‐aggressive host immune responses which change within minutes. Current methods for early diagnosis of infections focus o...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Kerwin Kwek Zeming, Rohan Vernekar, Mui Teng Chua, Kai Yun Quek, Greg Sutton, Timm Kr üger, Win Sen Kuan, Jongyoon Han Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

De Novo Designed Peptide and Protein Hairpins Self ‐Assemble into Sheets and Nanoparticles
Homodimerizing and homotrimerizing α‐helical coiled‐coils are connected by a linker and joined back‐to‐back using a disulfide bond to make hairpin building blocks. Nanoparticles form when the pin is proximal to the loop, and flat sheets when pinned distal from the loop. These are made by peptide synthesis or with recombinant DNA, allowing decoration of assemblies with functional small molecules and proteins. AbstractThe design and assembly of peptide ‐based materials has advanced considerably, leading to a variety of fibrous, sheet, and nanoparticle structures. A remaining challenge is to account for and co...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Johanna M. Galloway, Harriet E. V. Bray, Deborah K. Shoemark, Lorna R. Hodgson, Jennifer Coombs, Judith M. Mantell, Ruth S. Rose, James F. Ross, Caroline Morris, Robert L. Harniman, Christopher W. Wood, Christopher Arthur, Paul Verkade, Derek Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Dual ‐Channel Theranostic System for Quantitative Self‐Indication and Low‐Temperature Synergistic Therapy of Cancer
Herein, ICG and Ce6 dual ‐loaded amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) based core–shell nanoparticles are successfully developed. This platform not only represents a dual‐channel theranostic system to precisely indicate the accumulation and quantitative drug release in tumor tissue in a “turn‐on” manner, but also of fers a unique low‐temperature synergistic strategy to destroy tumor in an effective and minimally invasive way. AbstractA conventional theranostic system usually employs a single fluorescence channel to show the pharmacokinetic events, which usually fails to quantitatively reveal the true ...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Cheng Wang, Shaoqing Chen, Fangying Yu, Jianghong Lv, Rui Zhao, Fuqiang Hu, Hong Yuan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Benchmarking Phases of Ruthenium Dichalcogenides for Electrocatalysis of Hydrogen Evolution: Theoretical and Experimental Insights
A new class of transition metal ‐based dichalcogenide catalysts, ruthenium dichalcogenides (RuX2, X = S, Se, Te), are comprehensively investigated toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from theoretical calculation predictions to experimental verifications. All kinds of single ‐phase RuX2 crystals are successfully synthesized via a simple strategy. Pt ‐like or even superior to Pt catalytic performance are achieved in both acidic and alkaline media. AbstractThe hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a significant cathode step in electrochemical devices, especially in water splitting, but developing efficient HER catal...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Zhen Zhang, Cheng Jiang, Ping Li, Keguang Yao, Zhiliang Zhao, Jiantao Fan, Hui Li, Haijiang Wang Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Degradable Photonic Synaptic Transistors Based on Natural Biomaterials and Carbon Nanotubes
Degradable photonic synaptic transistors based on chlorophyll ‐a and single‐walled carbon nanotubes are designed to successfully emulate the synaptic plasticity. Decent synaptic behaviors can still be achieved at a low voltage of −0.0001 V, which results in low energy consumption of 17.5 fJ per pulse. This work provides a new guide to the development of next‐generation green and degradable neuromorphic computing electronics. AbstractArtificial synaptic devices have potential for overcoming the bottleneck of von Neumann architecture and building artificial brain ‐like computers. Up to now, developing syna...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Qingqing Ou, Ben Yang, Junyao Zhang, Dapeng Liu, Tianqi Chen, Xin Wang, Dandan Hao, Yang Lu, Jia Huang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Transfer of 1D Photonic Crystals via Spatially Resolved Hydrophobization
The facile transfer is reported of 1D photonic crystal based sensors applying a sacrificial layer method combined with hydrophobization of the sample through amine intercalation and subsequent peel ‐off in water. The intercalant does not impair the sensing capabilities and can be exchanged or removed post transfer. Pattern transfer can be conducted with spatially resolved hydrophobization. Abstract1D photonic crystals (1DPCs) are well known from a variety of applications ranging from medical diagnostics to optical fibers and optoelectronics. However, large ‐scale application is still limited due to complex fabrication ...
Source: Small - February 16, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Marie D äntl, Susanna Guderley, Katalin Szendrei‐Temesi, Dimitra Chatzitheodoridou, Pirmin Ganter, Alberto Jiménez‐Solano, Bettina V. Lotsch Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Sphagnum Inspired g ‐C3N4 Nano/Microspheres with Smaller Bandgap in Heterojunction Membranes for Sunlight‐Driven Water Purification
An advanced all ‐in‐one separation membrane is presented. It endows with excellent self‐cleaning ability due to its smaller bandgap. Hence, the designed heterojunction membrane can realize continuous water purification with stable separation performance, catalytic degradation ability, and antibacterial capaci ty, suggesting its potential value for optimizing water environment. AbstractMembrane separation is recognized as one of the most effective strategies to treat the complicated wastewater system for economic development. However, serious membrane fouling has restricted its further application. Inspired by sphagnu...
Source: Small - February 15, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Lingtong Ji, Luke Yan, Min Chao, Mengru Li, Jincui Gu, Miao Lei, Yanmei Zhang, Xun Wang, Junyuan Xia, Tianyu Chen, Yujing Nie, Tao Chen Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Limbal Stem Cells on Bacterial Nanocellulose Carriers for Ocular Surface Regeneration
Limbal stem cells (LSC) hold great value in the treatment of blinding corneal pathologies and can be transplanted to the ocular surface with the help of biocompatible cell carriers. To this end, bacterial nanocellulose membranes are conditioned with human proteins to create a favorable substrate for LSC maintenance and prospective transplantation under the most clinically relevant conditions possible. AbstractLimbal stem cells (LSCs) are already used in cell ‐based treatments for ocular surface disorders. Clinical translation of LSCs‐based therapies critically depends on the successful delivery, survival, and retention...
Source: Small - February 15, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Irene Anton ‐Sales, Laura Koivusalo, Heli Skottman, Anna Laromaine, Anna Roig Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Stimulating the Reversibility of Sb2S3 Anode for High ‐Performance Potassium‐Ion Batteries
Sluggish kinetics of conversion ‐alloy sulfide anode for potassium‐ion batteries brings the partial‐reversible reaction and sulfur loss, resulting in inferior potassium‐ion storage behavior. A strategy that uses the confinement and catalyzed effect of Nb2O5 layers to restrict the sulfur species and facilitate them to form sulfides reversibly is proposed, and carried out on Sb2S3 anode electrode successfully. AbstractConversion ‐alloy sulfide materials for potassium‐ion batteries (KIBs) have attracted considerable attention because of their high capacities and suitable working potentials. However, the sluggish k...
Source: Small - February 15, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Huiqiao Liu, Yanan He, Kangzhe Cao, Shaodan Wang, Yong Jiang, Xiaogang Liu, Ke ‐Jing Huang, Qiang‐Shan Jing, Lifang Jiao Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The Use of Nanomaterial In Vivo Organ Burden Data for In Vitro Dose Setting
Using nanomaterial in vivo organ burden data for in vitro dose setting: 1) determine in vivo exposure to be reflected in vitro; 2) identify in vivo organ burden at LOAEC; 3) extrapolate to in vitro effective dose; 4) extrapolate to in vitro nominal concentration; 5) set in vitro concentration range; 6) consider uncertainties and specificities of in vitro test system. AbstractEffects of nanomaterials are usually observed at higher concentrations in vitro compared to animal studies. This is pointing to differences between in vivo situations and generally less complex in vitro models. These differences concern toxicodynamics ...
Source: Small - February 15, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Lan Ma ‐Hock, Ursula G. Sauer, Emmanuel Ruggiero, Johannes‐Georg Keller, Wendel Wohlleben, Robert Landsiedel Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Immune Cell Membrane ‐Coated Biomimetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Cancer Therapy
Biocompatibility and targeting potential are the main features of immune cell membranes, which have rendered them the potential of being used as coating platforms for biomimetic nanoparticles for drug delivery, cancer therapy, and bioimaging. Herein, an overview of requirements for the successful coating of nanomedicines with cell membranes and the most recent progresses in their biomedical applications are discussed. AbstractNanotechnology has provided great opportunities for managing neoplastic conditions at various levels, from preventive and diagnostic to therapeutic fields. However, when it comes to clinical applicati...
Source: Small - February 12, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Fatemeh Oroojalian, Mohammad Beygi, Behzad Baradaran, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Mohammad ‐Ali Shahbazi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Long ‐Range Surface‐Assisted Molecule‐Molecule Hybridization
On a silver surface, magnesium phthalocyanine molecules undergo a perturbation of their electronic structure as a result of an attractive interaction with their nearest ‐neighbors. Quantitative agreement with supporting theoretical modelling indicates that this interaction consists of multiple‐nanometer‐range intermolecular hybridization enabled by the underlying substrate. These observations offer new possibilities to control electronic properties for engin eered nanomaterials. AbstractMetalated phthalocyanines (Pc's) are robust and versatile molecular complexes, whose properties can be tuned by changing their ...
Source: Small - February 12, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Marina Castelli, Jack Hellerstedt, Cornelius Krull, Spiro Gicev, Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg, Muhammad Usman, Agustin Schiffrin Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Biodegradable Silica ‐Based Nanotheranostics for Precise MRI/NIR‐II Fluorescence Imaging and Self‐Reinforcing Antitumor Therapy
In this study, a novel tumor microenvironments ‐responsive sequential activation nanosystems (FMSN‐MnO2‐BCQ) employing degradable silica‐based nanoplatform is designed, adjusting the ratio of intratumoral H2O2/GSH for accurate dual ‐modality magnetic resonance imaging/second near‐infrared window fluorescence imaging and self‐reinforcing chemodynamic therapy. The nanosystems integrate tandem functions in sequence, and each reaction has a high‐efficiency feature that is beneficial to the next step. AbstractMulti ‐modality cancer diagnosis techniques based on the second near‐infrared window fluorescence (N...
Source: Small - February 12, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ziliang Zheng, Zhuo Jia, Chunrong Qu, Rong Dai, Yufei Qin, Shuo Rong, Yulong Liu, Zhen Cheng, Ruiping Zhang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Single ‐Atom Catalysts: Enhancement of Mass Transport for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Using Petal‐Like Porous Fe‐NC Nanosheet (Small 6/2021)
This article presents a unique perspective on how to maximize the utilization of Fe ‐N4 active sites for electro ‐catalytic reactions. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 11, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Chunfeng Shao, Shiguang Zhuang, Haocheng Zhang, Qike Jiang, Xiaoyan Xu, Jianshan Ye, Baitao Li, Xiujun Wang Tags: Back Cover Source Type: research

Electrocatalysis: Nickel Iron Diselenide for Highly Efficient and Selective Electrocatalytic Conversion of Methanol to Formate (Small 6/2021)
In article number2006623, Andreu Cabot, Chunhua Cui, and co ‐workers present nickel iron diselenide nanorods, which are produced in solution and used electrocatalytically to convert methanol to formate at a high rate and with a Faradaic conversion efficiency of 99%. This work demonstrates the highly efficient and selective methanol‐to‐formate conversio n on Ni‐based catalysts as a promising example of an electrocatalytic route to exploit biomass‐derived chemicals. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 11, 2021 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Junshan Li, Congcong Xing, Yu Zhang, Ting Zhang, Maria Chiara Spadaro, Qianbao Wu, Yunan Yi, Shenglan He, Jordi Llorca, Jordi Arbiol, Andreu Cabot, Chunhua Cui Tags: Inside Back Cover Source Type: research