Carbon Nanodots as Feedstock for a Uniform Hematite ‐Graphene Nanocomposite
In this study, carbon nanodots are used to fabricate a homogeneous, finely dispersed Fe2O3‐graphene composite aerogel in a one‐step conversion process from a precursor mixture. The laser‐assisted conversion of small size carbon nanodots enables a uniform distribution of 6.5 nm Fe2O3 nanoparticles during the formation of a highly conductive carbon matrix. Structural and electrochemical characterization shows that the features of both material entities are maintained and successfully integrated. The presence of Fe2O3 nanoparticles has a positive effect on the active surface area of the carbon aerogel and thus on the ca...
Source: Small - November 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Volker Strauss, Mackenzie Anderson, Chenxiang Wang, Arie Borenstein, Richard B. Kaner Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Enzymatic Reaction Generates Biomimic Nanominerals with Superior Bioactivity
Biomimic amorphous calcium phosphate (EACP) nanominerals are synthesized by an in vitro enzymatic reaction strategy, which promotes the autophagy and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow ‐derived mesenchymal stem cells by activating an AMPK related pathway and displays a high performance in promoting bone regeneration. AbstractIn vivo mineralization is a multistep process involving mineral ‐protein complexes and various metastable compounds in vertebrates. In this complex process, the minerals produced in the mitochondrial matrix play a critical role in initiating extracellular mineralization. However, the f...
Source: Small - November 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ying ‐Ying Jiang, Zi‐Fei Zhou, Ying‐Jie Zhu, Fei‐Fei Chen, Bing‐Qiang Lu, Wen‐Tao Cao, Yong‐Gang Zhang, Zheng‐Dong Cai, Feng Chen Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

General Nondestructive Passivation by 4 ‐Fluoroaniline for Perovskite Solar Cells with Improved Performance and Stability
A general nondestructive passivation approach is developed for perovskite solar cells by using 4 ‐fluoroaniline (FAL). FAL is not only an antisolvent surface modifier, but also a large dipole molecule with a directional field to separate charge at the interface, thus delivering a 20.48% power conversion efficiency with improved stability. Micro/time‐resolved photoluminescence reveals the im pact picture of boundary on the local carriers after passivation. AbstractHybrid perovskite thin films are prone to producing surface vacancies during the film formation, which degrade the stability and photovoltaic performance. Pas...
Source: Small - November 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shenghe Zhao, Jiangsheng Xie, Guanghui Cheng, Yuren Xiang, Houyu Zhu, Wenyue Guo, Han Wang, Minchao Qin, Xinhui Lu, Junle Qu, Jiannong Wang, Jianbin Xu, Keyou Yan Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Hybrid Architectures of Heterogeneous Carbon Nanotube Composite Microstructures Enable Multiaxial Strain Perception with High Sensitivity and Ultrabroad Sensing Range
A high ‐performance flexible electronic skin is generated by incorporating a piezoresistive carbon nanotube composite into a hierarchical topography of micropillar —wrinkle hybrid architectures. Owing to the unique hierarchical topography of the hybrid architectures, the hybrid electronic skin exhibits versatile and superior sensing performance, which includes multiaxial force detection, remarkable sensitivity, ultrabroad sensing range, sensing tunability, f ast response time, and high durability. AbstractLow ‐dimensional nanomaterials are widely adopted as active sensing elements for electronic skins. When the n...
Source: Small - November 11, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Kahyun Sun, Hangil Ko, Hyun ‐Ha Park, Minho Seong, Sang‐Hyeon Lee, Hoon Yi, Hyung Wook Park, Tae‐il Kim, Changhyun Pang, Hoon Eui Jeong Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Quinic Acid ‐Conjugated Nanoparticles Enhance Drug Delivery to Solid Tumors via Interactions with Endothelial Selectins
To overcome the endothelial barrier when accessing tumors, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are modified with a quinic acid (QA) derivative, synthetic mimic of selectin ligands, via polydopamine. The QA ‐decorated NPs interact with selectin‐overexpressing endothelial cells and induce a transient increase in endothelial permeability to translocate across the endothelial layer. The QA‐NPs reach selectin‐upregulated tumors, achieving greater tumor accumulation and paclitaxel delivery than poly ethylene glycol‐decorated NPs. AbstractCurrent nanoparticle (NP) drug carriers mostly depend on the enhanced permeability and r...
Source: Small - November 9, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jun Xu, Steve Seung ‐Young Lee, Howon Seo, Liang Pang, Yearin Jun, Ruo‐Yu Zhang, Zhong‐Yin Zhang, Pilhan Kim, Wooin Lee, Stephen J. Kron, Yoon Yeo Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Photoresponsive Devices: Ultrahigh Photoresponsive Device Based on ReS2/Graphene Heterostructure (Small 45/2018)
In article number1802593, Changgu Lee and co ‐workers develop a photodetector based on a ReS2/graphene heterostructure, which exhibits outstanding photoresponsivity, detectivity, and ultrafast responsivity due to the excellent light absorption property of ReS2 and high carrier mobility of graphene. The interface between ReS2 and graphene facilitates a high photocurrent because of the photogating effect under the applied gate voltage. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Byunggil Kang, Youngchan Kim, Won Jong Yoo, Changgu Lee Tags: Back Cover Source Type: research

MnO2 ‐Based Micromotors: Electrochemical Deposition Tailors the Catalytic Performance of MnO2‐Based Micromotors (Small 45/2018)
Artificial micro/nanomotors that could perform diverse tasks autonomously at the micro/nano scale hold great promise in environmental remediation applications. In article number1802771, Wenjuan Liu, Xiaolong Lu, Jinxing Li, Joseph Wang, and co ‐workers synthesize highly efficient tubular poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene)/MnO2 micromotors via potentiostatic deposition to obtain unique ramsdellite structures. The active ramsdellite ‐MnO2 layer enables effective propulsion and remarkable organic waste deconimination. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Wenjuan Liu, Hongbin Ge, Zhongwei Gu, Xiaolong Lu, Jinxing Li, Joseph Wang Tags: Inside Back Cover Source Type: research

Light ‐Induced Colloidal Assembly: Photothermal Convection Lithography for Rapid and Direct Assembly of Colloidal Plasmonic Nanoparticles on Generic Substrates (Small 45/2018)
In article number1803055, Dongchoul Kim, Taewook Kang, Inhee Choi, and co ‐workers develop a novel photothermal convection lithography technique for the direct and rapid assembly of colloidal plasmonic nanoparticles on generic substrates. Under resonant light illumination, the colloidal nanoparticles spontaneously move toward the focal point in a photothermally induced convective flow and densely assemble together. Such assemblies can be completed within a minute. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Chang Min Jin, Wooju Lee, Dongchoul Kim, Taewook Kang, Inhee Choi Tags: Frontispiece Source Type: research

Microstructural Degradation: Microstructural Degradation of Ni ‐Rich Li[NixCoyMn1−x−y]O2 Cathodes During Accelerated Calendar Aging (Small 45/2018)
In article number1803179, Yang ‐Kook Sun and co‐workers report the microstructural degradation of Ni‐rich Li[NixCoyMn1 −x −y]O2 (NCM) cathodes during calendar aging. Because an electric vehicle (EV) is intermittently used and remains stationary for long periods in the fully charged state, calendar aging significantly affects the lifetimes of EVs. In their work, Ni ‐rich NCM cathodes for EV are investigated to characterize their microstructural degradation during calendar aging. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Hoon ‐Hee Ryu, Geon‐Tae Park, Chong S. Yoon, Yang‐Kook Sun Tags: Inside Front Cover Source Type: research

Fluorescent Nanofibrous Membranes: Self ‐Assembly of Perovskite Crystals Anchored Al2O3‐La2O3 Nanofibrous Membranes with Robust Flexibility and Luminescence (Small 45/2018)
In article number1801963, Bin Ding, Hakyong Kim, and co ‐workers prepare Al2O3‐La2O3 nanofibrous membranes via facile electrospinning. The self ‐assembly “plum‐pudding” like CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 perovskite crystals anchor onto the Al2O3‐La2O3 nanofibers via a supersaturated recrystallization process. The (CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6)@Al2O3‐La2O3 (CCAL) membranes display outstanding mechanical flexibility and luminescence properties. CCAL membranes have potential applications in green light devices through remote packaging of the green ‐emissive CCAL membranes with a GaN light‐emitting device chip. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Weidong Han, Fuhai Cui, Yang Si, Xue Mao, Bin Ding, Hakyong Kim Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research

Masthead: (Small 45/2018)
Small, Volume 14, Issue 45, November 8, 2018. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Tags: Masthead Source Type: research

Efficient Ternary Organic Solar Cells with Two Compatible Non ‐Fullerene Materials as One Alloyed Acceptor
Optimized ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 12.55% with simultaneously improvedJSC and fill factor due to the complementary absorption spectra and good compatibility of MeIC and MeIC2. The two acceptors with good compatibility and similar lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels may prefer to form one alloyed state for efficient electron transport in ternary OSCs. AbstractEfficient ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) are fabricated by employing a polymer PBT1 ‐C as the donor and two non‐fullerene materials, MeIC and MeIC2, as one alloyed acceptor. The optimized ternary OSCs wi...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Qiaoshi An, Jian Zhang, Wei Gao, Feng Qi, Miao Zhang, Xiaoling Ma, Chuluo Yang, Lijun Huo, Fujun Zhang Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Vessel ‐on‐a‐chip with Hydrogel‐based Microfluidics
This study presents a method of fabricating hydrogel ‐based microfluidics with a twice cross‐linking strategy. Based on this method, a vessel‐on‐a‐chip system is established. It is feasible to realize the vascular function in both physiological and pathological situations, offering a model for investigation of vascularization, vascular infla mmation, tissue engineering, and drug development. AbstractHydrogel structures equipped with internal microchannels offer more in vivo ‐relevant models for construction of tissues and organs in vitro. However, currently used microfabrication methods of constructing microflu...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jing Nie, Qing Gao, Yidong Wang, Jiahui Zeng, Haiming Zhao, Yuan Sun, Jian Shen, Hamed Ramezani, Zhenliang Fu, Zhenjie Liu, Meixiang Xiang, Jianzhong Fu, Peng Zhao, Wei Chen, Yong He Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Functionalized MoS2 Nanovehicle with Near ‐Infrared Laser‐Mediated Nitric Oxide Release and Photothermal Activities for Advanced Bacteria‐Infected Wound Therapy
A novel 808 nm laser ‐mediated nitric oxide (NO)‐releasing nanovehicle (MoS2‐BNN6) based on simple assembly of α‐ cyclodextrin‐modified MoS2 nanosheets with a heat ‐sensitive NO donor (BNN6) is developed. The nanovehicle possesses a synergetic photothermal therapy/NO antibacterial function for low‐cost, rapid, and effective action against typical Gram's bacteria as well as promotion of wound healing. AbstractThe rising dangers of bacterial infections have created an urgent need for the development of a new generation of antibacterial nanoagents and therapeutics. A new near ‐infrared 808 nm laser‐med...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Qin Gao, Xiao Zhang, Wenyan Yin, Dongqing Ma, Changjian Xie, Lirong Zheng, Xinghua Dong, Linqiang Mei, Jie Yu, Chaozhan Wang, Zhanjun Gu, Yuliang Zhao Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

3D 3C ‐SiC/Graphene Hybrid Nanolaminate Films for High‐Performance Supercapacitors
High ‐performance electrical double layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors are fabricated and compared using vertically aligned 3C ‐SiC/graphene nanolaminate films in both aqueous and organic solutions. Their big and stable capacitances and high power and energy densities result from a 3D alternating structure of 3C‐SiC and graphene layers inside these chemical vapor deposited films, their high surface areas, and excellent conductivity. AbstractHigh ‐performance supercapacitors feature big and stable capacitances and high power and energy densities. To fabricate high‐performance supercapacitors, 3D 3C‐SiC/graphe...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Steffen Heuser, Nianjun Yang, Felix Hof, Anna Schulte, Holger Sch önherr, Xin Jiang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles Mediated Platelet Blocking Disrupt Vascular Barriers to Improve the Efficacy of Oxygen ‐Sensitive Antitumor Drugs
In this study, it is originally discovered that perfluorotributylamine‐based albumin nanoparticles (PFTBA@HSA) possess excellent platelet inhibiting abilities, which then selectively disrupt the tumor vessel barrier, resulting in a remarkably enhanced int ratumoral drug accumulation. Interestingly enough, the tumor hypoxia is also obviously relieved by enhanced oxygen carrier red blood cell distribution and PFTBA@HSA infiltration in the tumors. Finally, the efficacy of oxygen‐sensitive antitumor drugs is significantly amplified by PFTBA@HSA owing t o enhanced drug permeation and relieved tumor hypoxia. Therefore, for t...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Zaigang Zhou, Baoli Zhang, Shushan Wang, Wenjing Zai, Ahu Yuan, Yiqiao Hu, Jinhui Wu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Soft, Skin ‐Interfaced Microfluidic Systems with Wireless, Battery‐Free Electronics for Digital, Real‐Time Tracking of Sweat Loss and Electrolyte Composition
Skin ‐interfaced soft microfluidic systems that incorporate battery‐free wireless electronic sensors allow for measurements of the loss of sweat and the concentration of electrolytes in the sweat, all in a continuous, in situ manner. Systematic studies of the operational aspects of the devices and demonstrations of their use in human field testing reveal the fundamental and practical aspects of this technology for applications ranging from sports and fitness to clinical health. AbstractSweat excretion is a dynamic physiological process that varies with body position, activity level, environmental factors, and health st...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Sung Bong Kim, KunHyuck Lee, Milan S. Raj, Boram Lee, Jonathan T. Reeder, Jahyun Koo, Aur élie Hourlier‐Fargette, Amay J. Bandodkar, Sang Min Won, Yurina Sekine, Jungil Choi, Yi Zhang, Jangryeol Yoon, Bong Hoon Kim, Yeojeong Yun, Seojin Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

One ‐Step Synthesis of Iodinated Polypyrrole Nanoparticles for CT Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy of Tumors
A one ‐step synthesis strategy is proposed for the fabrication of iodinated polypyrrole (I ‐PPy) nanoparticles via a smart combined chemical oxidation and iodination method. The I‐PPy nanoparticles not only guarantee remarkable contrast‐enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging of blood pool and tumors, but also realize effective tumor theranostics via I‐PPy nanoparticles‐mediat ed CT imaging‐guided photothermal therapy. AbstractTheranostic materials are of great significance to a personalized precise medicine. However, conventional theranostic agents are mainly fabricated by combining presynthesized independ...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Quan Zou, Jiani Huang, Xuejun Zhang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Patterned Optoelectronic Tweezers: A New Scheme for Selecting, Moving, and Storing Dielectric Particles and Cells
Patterned optoelectronic tweezers (p ‐OET),a technique that is useful for selecting, moving, and storing dielectric particles and cells, is introduced. In p ‐OET devices, a portion of the photoconductive layer that is present in conventional OET devices is patterned, forming structures useful for repelling unwanted particles/cells, and also for keeping selected particles/cells in place after turning off the light source. AbstractOptical micromanipulation has become popular for a wide range of applications. In this work, a new type of optical micromanipulation platform, patterned optoelectronic tweezers (p ‐OET), is i...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shuailong Zhang, Nika Shakiba, Yujie Chen, Yanfeng Zhang, Pengfei Tian, Jastaranpreet Singh, M. Dean Chamberlain, Monika Satkauskas, Andrew G. Flood, Nazir P. Kherani, Siyuan Yu, Peter W. Zandstra, Aaron R. Wheeler Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Self ‐Assembly of Perovskite Crystals Anchored Al2O3‐La2O3 Nanofibrous Membranes with Robust Flexibility and Luminescence
A fluorescent nanofibrous membrane with robust flexibility for the light ‐emitting diodes of the (CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6)@Al2O3‐La2O3 membranes, which can be synthesized by anchoring “plum‐pudding” like perovskite crystals (CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6) onto Al2O3‐La2O3 nanofibers through a simple electrospinning and a subsequent supersaturated recrystallization process, is reported. AbstractInorganic luminescent materials as one of the important high ‐performance materials are widely used for industry and scientific research, mainly owing to their outstanding luminescence properties. However, inorganic luminescent mat...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Weidong Han, Fuhai Cui, Yang Si, Xue Mao, Bin Ding, Hakyong Kim Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Improving the Sensitivity of Fluorescence ‐Based Immunoassays by Photobleaching the Autofluorescence of Magnetic Beads
In fluorescence ‐based assays, the autofluorescence of capture surfaces produces strong background noise. Here, photobleaching is used as a novel method to reduce the autofluorescence of magnetic beads, a commonly used capture surface. The technique yields a threefold improvement in the limit of detection and signal ‐to‐noise ratio of a fluorescence‐based immunoassay. AbstractIn fluorescence ‐based assays, usually a target molecule is captured using a probe conjugated to a capture surface, and then detected using a second fluorescently labeled probe. One of the most common capture surfaces is a magnetic bead. How...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shira Roth, Orr Hadass, Meir Cohen, Jasenka Verbarg, Jennifer Wilsey, Amos Danielli Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Surface Engineering of Nanomaterials for Photo ‐Electrochemical Water Splitting
Rational engineering of the surface features and properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials can fundamentally tune their performance for photo ‐electrochemical water splitting. Here, the surface engineering methods, including morphology, crystal facet, reconstruction, defect, and doping engineering, as well as the surface sensitization, plasmon resonance, protective layer and catalytic layer are summarized. Their functions and performanc e advantages are highlighted and compared. AbstractPhoto ‐electrochemical water splitting represents a green and environmentally friendly method for producing solar hydrogen...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Bin Yao, Jing Zhang, Xiaoli Fan, Jianping He, Yat Li Tags: Review Source Type: research

Photoresponsive Devices: Ultrahigh Photoresponsive Device Based on ReS2/Graphene Heterostructure (Small 45/2018)
In article number1802593, Changgu Lee and co ‐workers develop a photodetector based on a ReS2/graphene heterostructure, which exhibits outstanding photoresponsivity, detectivity, and ultrafast responsivity due to the excellent light absorption property of ReS2 and high carrier mobility of graphene. The interface between ReS2 and graphene facilitates a high photocurrent because of the photogating effect under the applied gate voltage. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Byunggil Kang, Youngchan Kim, Won Jong Yoo, Changgu Lee Tags: Back Cover Source Type: research

MnO2 ‐Based Micromotors: Electrochemical Deposition Tailors the Catalytic Performance of MnO2‐Based Micromotors (Small 45/2018)
Artificial micro/nanomotors that could perform diverse tasks autonomously at the micro/nano scale hold great promise in environmental remediation applications. In article number1802771, Wenjuan Liu, Xiaolong Lu, Jinxing Li, Joseph Wang, and co ‐workers synthesize highly efficient tubular poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene)/MnO2 micromotors via potentiostatic deposition to obtain unique ramsdellite structures. The active ramsdellite ‐MnO2 layer enables effective propulsion and remarkable organic waste deconimination. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Wenjuan Liu, Hongbin Ge, Zhongwei Gu, Xiaolong Lu, Jinxing Li, Joseph Wang Tags: Inside Back Cover Source Type: research

Light ‐Induced Colloidal Assembly: Photothermal Convection Lithography for Rapid and Direct Assembly of Colloidal Plasmonic Nanoparticles on Generic Substrates (Small 45/2018)
In article number1803055, Dongchoul Kim, Taewook Kang, Inhee Choi, and co ‐workers develop a novel photothermal convection lithography technique for the direct and rapid assembly of colloidal plasmonic nanoparticles on generic substrates. Under resonant light illumination, the colloidal nanoparticles spontaneously move toward the focal point in a photothermally induced convective flow and densely assemble together. Such assemblies can be completed within a minute. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Chang Min Jin, Wooju Lee, Dongchoul Kim, Taewook Kang, Inhee Choi Tags: Frontispiece Source Type: research

Microstructural Degradation: Microstructural Degradation of Ni ‐Rich Li[NixCoyMn1−x−y]O2 Cathodes During Accelerated Calendar Aging (Small 45/2018)
In article number1803179, Yang ‐Kook Sun and co‐workers report the microstructural degradation of Ni‐rich Li[NixCoyMn1 −x −y]O2 (NCM) cathodes during calendar aging. Because an electric vehicle (EV) is intermittently used and remains stationary for long periods in the fully charged state, calendar aging significantly affects the lifetimes of EVs. In their work, Ni ‐rich NCM cathodes for EV are investigated to characterize their microstructural degradation during calendar aging. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Hoon ‐Hee Ryu, Geon‐Tae Park, Chong S. Yoon, Yang‐Kook Sun Tags: Inside Front Cover Source Type: research

Fluorescent Nanofibrous Membranes: Self ‐Assembly of Perovskite Crystals Anchored Al2O3‐La2O3 Nanofibrous Membranes with Robust Flexibility and Luminescence (Small 45/2018)
In article number1801963, Bin Ding, Hakyong Kim, and co ‐workers prepare Al2O3‐La2O3 nanofibrous membranes via facile electrospinning. The self ‐assembly “plum‐pudding” like CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 perovskite crystals anchor onto the Al2O3‐La2O3 nanofibers via a supersaturated recrystallization process. The (CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6)@Al2O3‐La2O3 (CCAL) membranes display outstanding mechanical flexibility and luminescence properties. CCAL membranes have potential applications in green light devices through remote packaging of the green ‐emissive CCAL membranes with a GaN light‐emitting device chip. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Weidong Han, Fuhai Cui, Yang Si, Xue Mao, Bin Ding, Hakyong Kim Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research

Masthead: (Small 45/2018)
Small, Volume 14, Issue 45, November 8, 2018. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Tags: Masthead Source Type: research

Improving the Sensitivity of Fluorescence ‐Based Immunoassays by Photobleaching the Autofluorescence of Magnetic Beads
In fluorescence ‐based assays, the autofluorescence of capture surfaces produces strong background noise. Here, photobleaching is used as a novel method to reduce the autofluorescence of magnetic beads, a commonly used capture surface. The technique yields a threefold improvement in the limit of detection and signal ‐to‐noise ratio of a fluorescence‐based immunoassay. AbstractIn fluorescence ‐based assays, usually a target molecule is captured using a probe conjugated to a capture surface, and then detected using a second fluorescently labeled probe. One of the most common capture surfaces is a magnetic bead. How...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shira Roth, Orr Hadass, Meir Cohen, Jasenka Verbarg, Jennifer Wilsey, Amos Danielli Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Surface Engineering of Nanomaterials for Photo ‐Electrochemical Water Splitting
Rational engineering of the surface features and properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials can fundamentally tune their performance for photo ‐electrochemical water splitting. Here, the surface engineering methods, including morphology, crystal facet, reconstruction, defect, and doping engineering, as well as the surface sensitization, plasmon resonance, protective layer and catalytic layer are summarized. Their functions and performanc e advantages are highlighted and compared. AbstractPhoto ‐electrochemical water splitting represents a green and environmentally friendly method for producing solar hydrogen...
Source: Small - November 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Bin Yao, Jing Zhang, Xiaoli Fan, Jianping He, Yat Li Tags: Review Source Type: research

Direct Visualization of Li Dendrite Effect on LiCoO2 Cathode by In Situ TEM
In this study, using in situ transmission electron microscopy, the interaction of Li metal with well ‐defined, epitaxial thin films of LiCoO2, the most widely used cathode material, is directly visualized at an atomic scale. It is shown that a spontaneous and prompt chemical reaction is triggered once Li contact is made, leading to expansion and pulverization of LiCoO2 and ending with the final reaction products of Li2O and Co metal. A topotactic phase transition is identified close to the reaction front, resulting in the formation of CoO as a metastable intermediate. Dynamic structural and chemical imaging, in combinati...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Zhenzhong Yang, Phuong ‐Vu Ong, Yang He, Le Wang, Mark E. Bowden, Wu Xu, Timothy C. Droubay, Chongmin Wang, Peter V. Sushko, Yingge Du Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Enhanced Sensitivity in Nanopore Sensing of Cancer Biomarkers in Human Blood via Click Chemistry
A new strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarkers is developed based on the combination of a sandwich assay, “click” chemistry, and DNA‐assisted nanopore sensing. The limit of detection of the strategy can be as low as the femtomolar level. Furthermore, it can effectively eliminate interferences from plasma proteins and be applied in the clinical detection of cancer biomarkers. AbstractCancer biomarkers are expected to be indicative of the occurrence of certain cancer diseases before the tumors form and metastasize. However, many biomarkers can only be acquired in extremely low concentratio...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Zehui Zhang, Ting Li, Yingying Sheng, Lei Liu, Hai ‐Chen Wu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

A Conductive and Highly Deformable All ‐Pseudocapacitive Composite Paper as Supercapacitor Electrode with Improved Areal and Volumetric Capacitance
The presented conductive and highly deformable composite paper based on all ‐pseudocapacitive components demonstrates extraordinary specific areal and volumetric capacitances of 205 mF cm−2 and 1025 F cm−3, respectively, which is higher than those of previous reported MXene ‐based flexible composite electrodes. AbstractFlexible energy storage electronics have gained increasing attention in recent years, but the simultaneous acquiring of high volumetric and high areal capacities as well as excellent flexibility in order to truly implement wearable and portable electronics in practice remains challenging. Her...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jie Zhou, Jiali Yu, Ludi Shi, Zhe Wang, Huichao Liu, Bo Yang, Cuihua Li, Caizhen Zhu, Jian Xu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Programed Assembly of Nucleoprotein Nanoparticles Using DNA and Zinc Fingers for Targeted Protein Delivery
Nucleoprotein nanoparticles (NNPs) are assembled through specific interactions between zinc fingers and template DNAs on gold nanoparticles for targeted protein delivery. With controlled loading of a cytotoxic protein, the NNPs show a remarkable antitumor activity in xenograft mice. The NNPs find wide applications in biological and medical sciences. AbstractWith a growing number of intracellular drug targets and the high efficacy of protein therapeutics, the targeted delivery of active proteins with negligible toxicity is a challenging issue in the field of precision medicine. Herein, a programed assembly of nucleoprotein ...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yiseul Ryu, Jung Ae Kang, Dasom Kim, Song ‐Rae Kim, Seungmin Kim, Seong Ji Park, Seung‐Hae Kwon, Kil‐Nam Kim, Dong‐Eun Lee, Joong‐jae Lee, Hak‐Sung Kim Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Nanoparticle Gradient Materials by Centrifugation
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) meets material chemistry. AUC is used as a new method to fabricate nanoparticle gradient materials. The materials are designed at the computer in advance and are able to be detected anytime during centrifugation with the optical systems of the centrifuge. A variety of gradients of gold nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes in gelatin is presented. AbstractNanoparticle gradient materials are a unique class of functional materials. They combine the specific properties of nanoparticles with macroscopic materials. A continuous spatial gradient of the nanoparticle concentration leads...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Andreas Spinnrock, David Schupp, Helmut C ölfen Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Enhanced Sensitivity in Nanopore Sensing of Cancer Biomarkers in Human Blood via Click Chemistry
A new strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarkers is developed based on the combination of a sandwich assay, “click” chemistry, and DNA‐assisted nanopore sensing. The limit of detection of the strategy can be as low as the femtomolar level. Furthermore, it can effectively eliminate interferences from plasma proteins and be applied in the clinical detection of cancer biomarkers. AbstractCancer biomarkers are expected to be indicative of the occurrence of certain cancer diseases before the tumors form and metastasize. However, many biomarkers can only be acquired in extremely low concentratio...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Zehui Zhang, Ting Li, Yingying Sheng, Lei Liu, Hai ‐Chen Wu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

A Conductive and Highly Deformable All ‐Pseudocapacitive Composite Paper as Supercapacitor Electrode with Improved Areal and Volumetric Capacitance
The presented conductive and highly deformable composite paper based on all ‐pseudocapacitive components demonstrates extraordinary specific areal and volumetric capacitances of 205 mF cm−2 and 1025 F cm−3, respectively, which is higher than those of previous reported MXene ‐based flexible composite electrodes. AbstractFlexible energy storage electronics have gained increasing attention in recent years, but the simultaneous acquiring of high volumetric and high areal capacities as well as excellent flexibility in order to truly implement wearable and portable electronics in practice remains challenging. Her...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jie Zhou, Jiali Yu, Ludi Shi, Zhe Wang, Huichao Liu, Bo Yang, Cuihua Li, Caizhen Zhu, Jian Xu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Programed Assembly of Nucleoprotein Nanoparticles Using DNA and Zinc Fingers for Targeted Protein Delivery
Nucleoprotein nanoparticles (NNPs) are assembled through specific interactions between zinc fingers and template DNAs on gold nanoparticles for targeted protein delivery. With controlled loading of a cytotoxic protein, the NNPs show a remarkable antitumor activity in xenograft mice. The NNPs find wide applications in biological and medical sciences. AbstractWith a growing number of intracellular drug targets and the high efficacy of protein therapeutics, the targeted delivery of active proteins with negligible toxicity is a challenging issue in the field of precision medicine. Herein, a programed assembly of nucleoprotein ...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yiseul Ryu, Jung Ae Kang, Dasom Kim, Song ‐Rae Kim, Seungmin Kim, Seong Ji Park, Seung‐Hae Kwon, Kil‐Nam Kim, Dong‐Eun Lee, Joong‐jae Lee, Hak‐Sung Kim Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Nanoparticle Gradient Materials by Centrifugation
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) meets material chemistry. AUC is used as a new method to fabricate nanoparticle gradient materials. The materials are designed at the computer in advance and are able to be detected anytime during centrifugation with the optical systems of the centrifuge. A variety of gradients of gold nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes in gelatin is presented. AbstractNanoparticle gradient materials are a unique class of functional materials. They combine the specific properties of nanoparticles with macroscopic materials. A continuous spatial gradient of the nanoparticle concentration leads...
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Andreas Spinnrock, David Schupp, Helmut C ölfen Tags: Communication Source Type: research

2D Crystals in Three Dimensions: Electronic Decoupling of Single ‐Layered Platelets in Colloidal Nanoparticles
Small, EarlyView. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Roman Kempt, Agnieszka Kuc, Jae Hyo Han, Jinwoo Cheon, Thomas Heine Source Type: research

Direct Visualization of Li Dendrite Effect on LiCoO2 Cathode by In Situ TEM
Small, EarlyView. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Zhenzhong Yang, Phuong ‐Vu Ong, Yang He, Le Wang, Mark E. Bowden, Wu Xu, Timothy C. Droubay, Chongmin Wang, Peter V. Sushko, Yingge Du Source Type: research

Size ‐Controlled Nanoparticle Assembly: Size‐Controlled Nanoparticle Clusters of Narrow Size‐Polydispersity Formed Using Multiple Particle Types Through Competitive Stabilizer Desorption to a Liquid–Liquid Interface (Small 44/2018)
In article number1802278, Dermot F. Brougham and co ‐workers prepare suspensions of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies in chloroform through a gradual process in which the size distribution narrows over time. The assembly is driven by depletion of stabilising ligands onto a chloroform‐water interface, while maintaining full colloidal sta bility. The authors would like to thank Eoghan MacMahon and Patricia Monks for their work on the cover design. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Eoin K. Fox, Fadwa El Haddassi, Jose Hierrezuelo, Tsedev Ninjbadgar, Jacek K. Stolarczyk, Jenny Merlin, Dermot F. Brougham Tags: Back Cover Source Type: research

Janus Micromotors: Visible Light Actuated Efficient Exclusion Between Plasmonic Ag/AgCl Micromotors and Passive Beads (Small 44/2018)
In article number1802537, Larysa Baraban, Denys Makarov, and co ‐workers present novel plasmonic Ag/AgCl‐based spherical Janus micromotors and investigate their collective behavior upon interaction with nonmotile passive beads. An efficient exclusion behavior between Ag/AgCl micromotors and the surrounding passive beads is observed under visible light illumi nation in pure H2O. The exclusion effect is tunable by the number of catalytically active Janus particles forming a micromotor, which is demonstrated experimentally and using molecular ‐dynamics simulations. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xu Wang, Larysa Baraban, Vyacheslav R. Misko, Franco Nori, Tao Huang, Gianaurelio Cuniberti, J ürgen Fassbender, Denys Makarov Tags: Frontispiece Source Type: research

Plant Protoplasts: Rational Design Principles for the Transport and Subcellular Distribution of Nanomaterials into Plant Protoplasts (Small 44/2018)
In article number1802086, Michael S. Strano and co ‐workers develop an experimentally verified model to predict the passive transport of nanoparticles into plant protoplasts and chloroplasts. The surface charge and size of the nanoparticles are found to be the critical parameters that determine the subcellular localization of nanoparticles. The wo rk demonstrates that nanoparticles can be rationally designed to target subcellular compartments in plant cells for plant biology and engineering applications. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Tedrick Thomas Salim Lew, Min Hao Wong, Seon ‐Yeong Kwak, Rosalie Sinclair, Volodymyr B. Koman, Michael S. Strano Tags: Inside Front Cover Source Type: research

Flexible Gas Sensors: Glass ‐Fabric Reinforced Ag Nanowire/Siloxane Composite Heater Substrate: Sub‐10 nm Metal@Metal Oxide Nanosheet for Sensitive Flexible Sensing Platform (Small 44/2018)
In article number1802260, Byeong ‐Soo Bae, Il‐Doo Kim, and co‐workers describe a highly sensitive, flexible sensing platform that employs Pt‐loaded SnO2 nanosheets (Pt ‐SnO2 NSs) and an Ag nanowires embedded glass ‐fabric reinforced hybrimer heater substrate. The ultrathin Pt‐SnO2 NSs ‐loaded flexible heater substrate offers not only high mechanical stability but also a superior response towards 1 ppm dimethyl sulfide gas with exceptional selectivity. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ji ‐Soo Jang, Young‐Woo Lim, Dong‐Ha Kim, Daewon Lee, Won‐Tae Koo, Hyunhwan Lee, Byeong‐Soo Bae, Il‐Doo Kim Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research

Masthead: (Small 44/2018)
Small, Volume 14, Issue 44, November 2, 2018. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - November 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Tags: Masthead Source Type: research

Glass ‐Fabric Reinforced Ag Nanowire/Siloxane Composite Heater Substrate: Sub‐10 nm Metal@Metal Oxide Nanosheet for Sensitive Flexible Sensing Platform
A highly sensitive flexible sensing platform is successfully achieved by integrating ultrathin Pt ‐loaded SnO2 nanosheets and Ag nanowires embedded flexible hybrimer heater. As a result, via tailored combination of Pt ‐SnO2 NSs with AgNW ‐GFRVPH film substrate, not only improved bendability with high thermal stability but also extremely sensitive and selective DMS sensing properties are obtained. AbstractThe development of flexible chemiresistors is imperative for real ‐time monitoring of air quality and/or human physical conditions without space constraints. However, critical challenges such as poor sensing charac...
Source: Small - November 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ji ‐Soo Jang, Young‐Woo Lim, Dong‐Ha Kim, Daewon Lee, Won‐Tae Koo, Hyunhwan Lee, Byeong‐Soo Bae, Il‐Doo Kim Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Phosphate Species up to 70% Mass Ratio for Enhanced Pseudocapacitive Properties
Highly proportioned and well ‐dispersed phosphate species with superwettability and strong affinity for OH− in the electrolyte are leveraged to comprehensively enhance the redox reaction kinetics and capacitive contribution of the highly conductive mesoporous Ni ‐doped CoP nanowire matrix. The nanohybrids can deliver an ultrahigh specific capacity of 250 mAh g−1 at the high current density of 50 A g−1. AbstractThe emerging phosphate species on the surface or near ‐surface of electrode materials are versatile and have an intriguing ability for dramatically enhanced electrochemical performance. Unfort...
Source: Small - November 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shaofeng Li, Chang Yu, Ying Yang, Xuedan Song, Shuangming Chen, Li Song, Bo Qiu, Juan Yang, Huawei Huang, Wei Guo, Changtai Zhao, Mengdi Zhang, Jieshan Qiu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

2D Crystals in Three Dimensions: Electronic Decoupling of Single ‐Layered Platelets in Colloidal Nanoparticles
Optoelectronic properties of 2D crystals are distinct from their bulk counterparts, and advantageous for applications. Band gaps are larger, and sometimes direct, well ‐suited for optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications. However, being atomically thin, low density is a bottleneck for quantitative performance. The proposed intercalation of layered materials with short surfactants yields electronically decoupled layers with similar properties as monolayers, but higher cross‐sections. Abstract2D crystals, single sheets of layered materials, often show distinct properties desired for optoelectronic applications, suc...
Source: Small - November 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Roman Kempt, Agnieszka Kuc, Jae Hyo Han, Jinwoo Cheon, Thomas Heine Tags: Communication Source Type: research