Near ‐Infrared‐Driven Photocatalysts: Design, Construction, and Applications
This Review summarizes recent progress on near ‐infrared (NIR)‐driven photocatalysts, including four strategies such as adopting upconversion/surface plasmon resonance (SPR)/chromophore components and employing bandgap engineering to harvest NIR photons, as well as NIR active photocatalytic oxidation/reduction reactions such as water splitti ng, NO photooxidation, CO2 photoreduction, N2 photofixation, etc. The application of NIR ‐active photocatalysts employed as electrocatalysts is presented. AbstractPhotocatalysts, which utilize solar energy to catalyze the oxidation or reduction half reactions, have attracted trem...
Source: Small - September 20, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Li Wang, Xun Xu, Qunfeng Cheng, Shi Xue Dou, Yi Du Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molybdenum Disulfide Nanosheet/Quantum Dot Dynamic Memristive Structure Driven by Photoinduced Phase Transition
The photoinduced 2H ‐1T phase transition observed in 2D MoS2 nanosheets (NS) crystals with quantum dots allows the realization of a new dynamic ultrafast photoresistive memory of ultrahigh density. Resistive switching of the MoS2 NS/quantum dot (QD) structure in an electric field can be controlled using local QD excitations, which is attractive for real ‐time pattern recognition and photoconfiguration of artificial neural networks. AbstractMoS2 2D nanosheets (NS) with intercalated 0D quantum dots (QDs) represent promising structures for creating low ‐dimensional (LD) resistive memory devices. Nonvolatile memristors b...
Source: Small - September 20, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xiao Fu, Lei Zhang, Hak D. Cho, Tae Won Kang, Dejun Fu, Dongjin Lee, Sang Wuk Lee, Luying Li, Tianyu Qi, Abdul S. Chan, Ziyodbek A. Yunusov, Gennady N. Panin Tags: Communication Source Type: research

One ‐Step Synthesis of Monodispersed Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres for High‐Performance Flexible Quasi‐Solid‐State Micro‐Supercapacitors
Monodispersed N ‐doped mesoporous carbon nanospheres (NMCSs) are synthesized by a one‐step direct templating strategy which has a particle size of 100 nm, a pore diameter of 4 nm, and a specific area of 1093 m2 g−1. NMCSs have high capacity values in both sandwich ‐type supercapacitors and micro‐supercapacitors (22.11 mF cm−2), which indicate its promising applications for diversified energy storage. AbstractCost ‐effective synthesis of carbon nanospheres with a desirable mesoporous network for diversified energy storage applications remains a challenge. Herein, a direct templating strategy is develop...
Source: Small - September 20, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yongting Qiu, Mingzhen Hou, Jingchang Gao, Haili Zhai, Haimin Liu, Mengmeng Jin, Xiang Liu, Linfei Lai Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Tailoring the Electrochemical Production of H2O2: Strategies for the Rational Design of High ‐Performance Electrocatalysts
The production of H2O2 via selective electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction is an attractive strategy toward decentralization, however, this technology is currently limited by the discovery of a high ‐performance electrocatalyst. Here, the current frontiers in catalyst development are discussed, highlighting future strategies toward a more dramatic enhancement in catalyst performance. AbstractThe production of H2O2 via the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) presents an attractive decentralized alternative to the current industry ‐dominant anthraquinone process. However, in order to achieve viable commer...
Source: Small - September 20, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jiayi Zhang, Haochen Zhang, Mu ‐Jeng Cheng, Qi Lu Tags: Review Source Type: research

2D to 3D Manipulation and Assembly of Microstructures Using Optothermally Generated Surface Bubble Microrobots
Hydrogel microstructures are manipulated and assembled in 3D using laser and localized heating ‐induced bubble microrobots. The conditions for generating and methods of controlling the size of bubbles are studied. Additionally, the mechanism of microstructural 3D flipping is studied. Microstructures of different shapes and sizes can be assembled into more complex constructs. AbstractHydrogel microstructures that encapsulate cells can be assembled into tissues and have broad applications in biology and medicine. However, 3D posture control for a single arbitrary microstructure remains a challenge. A novel 3D manipulation ...
Source: Small - September 20, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Liguo Dai, Zhixing Ge, Niandong Jiao, Lianqing Liu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Nanoagents Based on Poly(ethylene glycol) ‐b‐Poly(l‐thyroxine) Block Copolypeptide for Enhanced Dual‐Modality Imaging and Targeted Tumor Radiotherapy
Polypeptide ‐based nanoagents featuring high iodine content, fascinating physicochemical properties, great simplicity, good safety, and remarkable potency, hold a tremendous potential in both diagnosis and therapy of varying diseases. AbstractFuture healthcare requires development of novel theranostic agents that are capable of not only enhancing diagnosis and monitoring therapeutic responses but also augmenting therapeutic outcomes. Here, a versatile and stable nanoagent is reported based on poly(ethylene glycol) ‐b‐poly(l‐thyroxine) (PEG‐PThy) block copolypeptide for enhanced single photon emission computed tom...
Source: Small - September 20, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xiaolei Gu, Zhehong Zhu, Qianyi Fan, Yaohua Wei, Guanglin Wang, Fenghua Meng, Zhiyuan Zhong, Chao Deng Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Oxidation ‐Responsive Nanoassemblies for Light‐Enhanced Gene Therapy
In this study, oxidation‐responsive supramolecular polycationic assemblies named CPAs are prepared for nucleic acid delivery via the host– guest interaction of β‐cyclodextrin based polycations and a ferrocene‐functionalized zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine core. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) can accelerate the disassembly of CPA/pDNA complexes, which would facilitate the release of pDNA in the complexes and further benefit the su bsequent transfection. Such improvement in transfection efficiency is proved in A549 cells with high H2O2 concentration. Interestingly, the transfection efficiencies mediated by ...
Source: Small - September 19, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Na Zhang, Yu Wang, Rui Wu, Chen Xu, Jing ‐Jun Nie, Nana Zhao, Bingran Yu, Zunjin Liu, Fu‐Jian Xu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

On ‐Chip Generation of Vortical Flows for Microfluidic Centrifugation
An overview is presented of the current state ‐of‐the‐art in microfluidic vortex technology for driving on ‐chip rotational flows for a range of microcentrifugation processes such as micromixing, sample preconcentration, particle separation, component fractionation, and cell agglomeration, among others. AbstractMicrocentrifugation constitutes an important part of the microfluidic toolkit in a similar way that centrifugation is crucial to many macroscopic procedures, given that micromixing, sample preconcentration, particle separation, component fractionation, and cell agglomeration are essential operations in small...
Source: Small - September 19, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Heba Ahmed, Shwathy Ramesan, Lillian Lee, Amgad R. Rezk, Leslie Y. Yeo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Recent Progress of Microfluidic Devices for Hemodialysis
Microfluidic hemodialysis techniques have attracted much attention for the treatment of kidney disease. This Review introduces the history, the basic principles, and the nanoporous membrane materials of kidney ‐inspired hemodialysis. Microfluidic devices for hemodialysis are presented and categorized. The challenges and future opportunities of hemodialysis microfluidic devices are described. AbstractMicrofluidic hemodialysis techniques have recently attracted great attention in the treatment of kidney disease due to their advantages of portability and wearability as well as their great potential for replacing clinical ho...
Source: Small - September 19, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jing Luo, Jun ‐Bing Fan, Shutao Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Synergistic Intra ‐ and Intermolecular Noncovalent Interactions for Ultralong Organic Phosphorescence
Highly efficient ultralong organic phosphorescence luminogens are developed by the synergistic effect of intermolecular π–π stacking, intermolecular electronic coupling, and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The pyrimidine‐based luminogens exhibit the longest phosphorescence lifetime of 1.37 s and the highest absolute phosphorescence quantum efficiency of 23.6%, respectively, which are rarely reported. AbstractMetal ‐free ultralong organic phosphorescence (UOP) materials have attracted significant attention owing to their anomalous photophysical properties and potential applications in various fields. Here, ...
Source: Small - September 19, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xiao ‐Ning Li, Mingxue Yang, Xu‐Lin Chen, Ji‐Hui Jia, Wan‐Wan Zhao, Xiao‐Yuan Wu, Sa‐Sa Wang, Lingyi Meng, Can‐Zhong Lu Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Na/Li ‐Ion Batteries: S‐Doped Carbon Fibers Uniformly Embedded with Ultrasmall TiO2 for Na+/Li+ Storage with High Capacity and Long‐Time Stability (Small 38/2019)
In article number, Ming Zhang and co ‐workers report a new anode of TiO2‐carbon fiber composites for Li/Na‐ion batteries. The porous properties arising from ultrasmall and uniformly distributed TiO2 nanoparticles and capacitance effects of S ‐doping make the composites ideal for high specific capacity and good stability anodes, especially in Na‐ion batteries. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Changmiao Chen, Pengchao Li, Taihong Wang, Shuangyin Wang, Ming Zhang Tags: Back Cover Source Type: research

Harmonic Mode ‐Locking: SnSe2 Nanosheets for Subpicosecond Harmonic Mode‐Locked Pulse Generation (Small 38/2019)
Tin diselenide (SnSe2) nanosheets as novel 2D layered materials have excellent optical properties. In article number, Xiao ‐Hui Li and co‐workers characterize SnSe2 nanosheets systemically and successfully apply SnSe2 nanosheets in an Er ‐doped fiber laser to obtain 31th order subpicosecond harmonic mode ‐locking, corresponding to a 257.3‐MHz repetition rate. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ji ‐Shu Liu, Xiao‐Hui Li, Yi‐Xuan Guo, Abdul Qyyum, Zhao‐Jiang Shi, Tian‐Ci Feng, Ying Zhang, Chuan‐Xiu Jiang, Xin‐Feng Liu Tags: Inside Back Cover Source Type: research

Gene Editing: Friend or Foe? Evidence Indicates Endogenous Exosomes Can Deliver Functional gRNA and Cas9 Protein (Small 38/2019)
In article number, Jie Wang, Fengmin Lu, and co ‐workers indicate the potential of exosomes as a safe and effective delivery vehicle of functional gRNA and Cas9 protein, and the exosomes‐mediated delivery of gene editing activity to adjacent and distant cells or tissues, which may further complicate the off‐target and safety concerns of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ran Chen, Hongxin Huang, Hui Liu, Jingyuan Xi, Jing Ning, Wanjia Zeng, Congle Shen, Ting Zhang, Guangxin Yu, Qiang Xu, Xiangmei Chen, Jie Wang, Fengmin Lu Tags: Frontispiece Source Type: research

Black Phosphorus: Avalanche Carrier Multiplication in Multilayer Black Phosphorus and Avalanche Photodetector (Small 38/2019)
In article number, Euyheon Hwang, Sungjoo Lee, and co ‐workers demonstrate black phosphorus‐based avalanche photodetectors integrated with Au‐nanoparticles. By exploiting a strong avalanche multiplication of electron–hole pairs at low electric field, significantly enhanced sensitivity and gains are achieved for application in low‐power‐cons umption, high‐sensitivity, and low‐noise optical communication and imaging systems. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jingyuan Jia, Jaeho Jeon, Jin ‐Hong Park, Byoung Hun Lee, Euyheon Hwang, Sungjoo Lee Tags: Inside Front Cover Source Type: research

Electrocatalysis: Atomic Carbon Layers Supported Pt Nanoparticles for Minimized CO Poisoning and Maximized Methanol Oxidation (Small 38/2019)
In article number, Xili Tong, Nianjun Yang, and co ‐workers report uniform growth of Pt nanoparticles on an atomic carbon layer derived from SiC spheres. They exhibit maximized catalytic activity toward methanol oxidation to CO2 and minimized CO poison effect. The produced electricity is high enough to light the lotus. Such a catalyst utilizes efficient Pt catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Gailing Bai, Chang Liu, Zhe Gao, Baoying Lu, Xili Tong, Xiangyun Guo, Nianjun Yang Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research

Masthead: (Small 38/2019)
Small, Volume 15, Issue 38, September 18, 2019. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Tags: Masthead Source Type: research

Surface and Interface Engineering: Molybdenum Carbide –Based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion
Surface and interface engineering is drawing wide attention to optimize the physicochemical properties of molybdenum carbide materials, which can efficiently accelerate electrocatalytic performances. Molybdenum carbide nanomaterials possess many electrochemical applications such as the hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, nitrogen reduction reaction, and carbon dioxide reduction reaction. The characterizations, properties, and applications of molybdenum carbide –based nanomaterials are discussed. AbstractMolybdenum carbide (MoxC) ‐based nanomaterials have shown competitive performances for energy...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Riyue Ge, Juanjuan Huo, Mingjie Sun, Mingyuan Zhu, Ying Li, Shulei Chou, Wenxian Li Tags: Review Source Type: research

Phosphorus Incorporation into Co9S8 Nanocages for Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution Catalysis
A highly active and stable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst with tunable charge density from Co2+ tetrahedral and Co3+ octahedral sites based on phosphorus doped Co9S8 nanocages is prepared by a sacrificial template method. P doping endows Co9S8 with increased electron density at the Fermi level, which improves electrical conductivity of Co9S8, thus improving the OER performance. AbstractThe improvement of activity of electrocatalysts lies in the increment of the density of active sites or the enhancement of intrinsic activity of each active site. A common strategy to realize dual active sites is the use of bimetal...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Bocheng Qiu, Lejuan Cai, Yang Wang, Xuyun Guo, Sainan Ma, Ye Zhu, Yuen Hong Tsang, Zijian Zheng, Renkui Zheng, Yang Chai Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Solvent ‐Exchange Strategy toward Aqueous Dispersible MoS2 Nanosheets and Their Nitrogen‐Rich Carbon Sphere Nanocomposites for Efficient Lithium/Sodium Ion Storage
A solvent ‐exchange strategy is presented for efficient exfoliation and uniform dispersion of few‐layer MoS2 nanosheets in low ‐boiling‐point solvents, which facilitates further decorations of nitrogen‐rich carbon spheres for significantly enhanced Li/Na ion storage. AbstractMajor challenges in developing 2D transition ‐metal disulfides (TMDs) as anode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries (LIBs/SIBs) lie in rational design and targeted synthesis of TMD‐based nanocomposite structures with precisely controlled ion and electron transport. Herein, a general and scalable solvent‐exchange strategy is presen...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yufeng Wang, Kai Wang, Chao Zhang, Jixin Zhu, Jingsan Xu, Tianxi Liu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

On the Structure of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
The first description of molecular ‐scale mechanisms that are important with regards to the formation and morphology of tripalmitin solid lipid nanoparticles is presented using all‐atom molecular dynamics simulations and small angle neutron scattering experiments. A detailed description of the internal structure of the liquid and solid aggregates of tripalmitin and a solid lipid nanoparticle made of C18:1E10 surfactants and tripalmitin is provided. AbstractSolid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have a crystalline lipid core which is stabilized by interfacial surfactants. SLNs are considered favorable candidates for drug deli...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Demi L. Pink, Orathai Loruthai, Robert M. Ziolek, Prawarisa Wasutrasawat, Ann E. Terry, M. Jayne Lawrence, Christian D. Lorenz Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Ultrahigh Rate Performance of Hollow Antimony Nanoparticles Impregnated in Open Carbon Boxes for Sodium ‐Ion Battery under Elevated Temperature
A facile sacrificial template method is established to synthesize hollow Sb nanoparticles impregnated in open carbon boxes (Sb HPs@OCB). The Sb HPs@OCB composite exhibits a robust rate capability of 345 mAh g−1 at 16 A g−1 and long ‐term cycling performance at 50 °C. Those factors enable great potential for high energy storage of sodium‐ion batteries even in harsh environments. AbstractAntimony is a competitive and promising anode material for sodium ‐ion batteries (SIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity. However, the poor rate capability and fast capacity fading greatly restrict its practical app...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Anding Xu, Qi Xia, Shenkui Zhang, Huanhuan Duan, Yurong Yan, Songping Wu Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Carbon ‐Intercalated 0D/2D Hybrid of Hematite Quantum Dots/Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanosheets as Superior Catalyst for Advanced Oxidation
0D hematite quantum dots/2D ultrathin g ‐C3N4 nanosheet hybrids are developed by simple chemical reactions and calcination. Highly exposed active surfaces, charge transfer at the intrinsic interface, and synergy between photocatalysis and H2O2 lead to excellent catalytic performance for degradingp‐nitrophenol. This work provides new insights into the development of heterogeneous catalysis for optoelectronic applications. AbstractEfficient charge separation and sufficiently exposed active sites are important for light ‐driving Fenton catalysts. 0D/2D hybrids, especially quantum dots (QDs)/nanosheets (NSs), offer a bet...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Junhua Xi, Hong Xia, Xingming Ning, Zhen Zhang, Jia Liu, Zijie Mu, Shouting Zhang, Peiyao Du, Xiaoquan Lu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Microfluidics ‐Implemented Biochemical Assays: From the Perspective of Readout
Versatile strategies for the readout of microfluidics ‐implemented assays are reviewed. These strategies include employing volume, time, and barcode as the parameters for readout, or using features of molecules/materials such as fluorescence, luminescence, plasmonics, or color intensity for signal readout. Recent advances in microfluidics‐implement ed assays are discussed from the perspective of readout. AbstractOver the past decades, microfluidics has emerged as an increasingly important tool to perform biochemical assays for diagnosis and healthcare. The precise fluid control and molecule manipulation within microflu...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Wenwen Chen, Fangchi Shao, Yunlei Xianyu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Critical Advances in Ambient Air Operation of Nonaqueous Rechargeable Li –Air Batteries
This Review addresses challenges in ambient air operation of nonaqueous Li –air batteries and comprehensively demonstrates critical progress with the cathode in terms of oxygen‐selective membranes and multifunctional catalysts, electrolyte alternatives, and anode protection to advance this battery system. Perspectives for the future development of ambient air Li–air batteries are also given. AbstractOver the past few years, great attention has been given to nonaqueous lithium –air batteries owing to their ultrahigh theoretical energy density when compared with other energy storage systems. Most of the r...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Lili Liu, Haipeng Guo, Lijun Fu, Shulei Chou, Simon Thiele, Yuping Wu, Jiazhao Wang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Moir é‐Potential‐Induced Band Structure Engineering in Graphene and Silicene
In this Review, recent research on the effect of moir é periodic potential on the electronic structures of graphene and silicene is focused on. These novel phenomena, including new generation of Dirac cones, emergence of Van Hove singularities, Mott‐like insulating behavior, unconventional superconductivity, and electronic Kagome lattice and flat ba nd with nontrivial edge state, are introduced. AbstractA moir é pattern results from the projection of one periodic pattern to another with relative lattice constant or misalignment and provides great periodic potential to modify the electronic properties of pri...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Mengting Zhao, Jincheng Zhuang, Qunfeng Cheng, Weichang Hao, Yi Du Tags: Review Source Type: research

Self ‐Destruction of Cancer Induced by Ag2S Amorphous Nanodots
Ag2S amorphous nanodots (ANDs) can specifically induce self ‐destruction of cancer without side effects. Mechanism research indicate that Ag2S ANDs well match with the redox in the tumor microenvironment (TME), to generate Ag+ and SO42 −. Ag+ amplifies reactive oxygen species generation to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. This behavior can be attributed to the higher electrochemical active surface area and lower redox potential. AbstractStudies on distinctive performances and novel applications of amorphous inorganic nanomaterials are becoming attractive. Herein, Ag2S amorphous and crystalline nanodots (ANDs and CN...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ge Wang, Jing Liu, Lin Zhu, Xiaoming Ma, Xiaobing Wang, Xiaoli Yang, Yuming Guo, Lin Yang, Jun Lu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Ultrahigh Energy Absorption Multifunctional Spinodal Nanoarchitectures
Glassy carbon nanospinodals show noncatastrophic deformability up to 80% strain, enabling an order of magnitude higher energy absorption capability than any reported nano ‐, micro‐, or macroarchitected and monolithic material. At the same time, the strength and stiffness are on par with the most advanced yet brittle nanolattices, demonstrating true multifunctionality. AbstractNanolattices are promoted as next ‐generation multifunctional high‐performance materials, but their mechanical response is limited to extreme strength yet brittleness, or extreme deformability but low strength and stiffness. Ideal impact prote...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Anna Guell Izard, Jens Bauer, Cameron Crook, Vladyslav Turlo, Lorenzo Valdevit Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Periodic Operation of a Dynamic DNA Origami Structure Utilizing the Hydrophilic –Hydrophobic Phase‐Transition of Stimulus‐Sensitive Polypeptides
Dynamic DNA origami devices functionalized with stimulus ‐sensitive elastin‐like polypeptides are periodically actuated using external temperature variations. The origami structures exhibit several conformational states which are engineered by changing the arrangement and the number of peptides. The specific designs of the devices also influence the t hermodynamic behavior which becomes apparent through changes in temperature dependence and cooperativity. AbstractDynamic DNA nanodevices are designed to perform structure ‐encoded motion actuated by a variety of different physicochemical stimuli. In this context, hybri...
Source: Small - September 18, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Marisa A. Goetzfried, Kilian Vogele, Andrea M ückl, Marcus Kaiser, Nolan B. Holland, Friedrich C. Simmel, Tobias Pirzer Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Heterocarbides Reinforced Electrochemical Energy Storage
A strategy to incorporate the carbon ‐rich transition metal carbide (TMC) with its metal‐rich TMC nanowires is provided via an ingenious in situ disproportionation reaction. The as‐prepared heterocomposites exhibit improved electrochemical performance, including facilitated kinetics and improved Li storage capacity. AbstractThe feasibility of transition metal carbides (TMCs) as promising high ‐rate electrodes is still hindered by low specific capacity and sluggish charge transfer kinetics. Improving charge transport kinetics motivates research toward directions that would rely on heterostructures. In particular, he...
Source: Small - September 17, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jing Cuan, Fan Zhang, Yang Zheng, Tengfei Zhou, Gemeng Liang, Zaiping Guo, Wei Kong Pang, Xuebin Yu Tags: Communication Source Type: research

An Adaptive Real ‐Time 3D Single Particle Tracking Method for Monitoring Viral First Contacts
An adaptive real ‐time 3D single particle tracking method is demonstrated which captures the heterogeneous dynamics of single particles with high spatiotemporal resolution. This adaptive microscope, which adjusts the tracking parameters in real time for different diffusive speeds, is applied to monitoring viral landing events at the cell membrane, enabling direct measurement of the first viral contacts with the cell surface. AbstractHere, an adaptive real ‐time 3D single particle tracking method is proposed, which is capable of capturing heterogeneous dynamics. Using a real‐time measurement of a rapidly diffusing par...
Source: Small - September 17, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shangguo Hou, Kevin Welsher Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Gradient ‐Distributed Nucleation Seeds on Conductive Host for a Dendrite‐Free and High‐Rate Lithium Metal Anode
A 3D carbon nanofiber framework with gradient ‐distributed ZnO particles is proposed for a dendrite‐free and high‐rate lithium metal anode. By introducing ZnO particles as lithium nucleation seeds to reduce the lithium nucleation energy and address the Li‐ion concentrate gradient in the 3D host, a uniform and safe lithium deposition pro cess is achieved. AbstractMuch attention is paid to metal lithium as a hopeful negative material for reversible batteries with a high specific capacity. Although applying 3D hosts can relieve the dendrite growth to some extent, gradient ‐distributed lithium ion in 3D uniform hosts...
Source: Small - September 17, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yang Nan, Songmei Li, Yongzheng Shi, Shubin Yang, Bin Li Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Amorphous Ruthenium ‐Sulfide with Isolated Catalytic Sites for Pt‐Like Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production Over Whole pH Range
A pH ‐universal amorphous ruthenium‐sulfide/sulfide‐doped graphene oxide (GO) catalyst with isolated active sites is fabricated by a hydrothermal reaction for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with Pt‐like activity. This is the first‐time abundant single atom catalytic sites are demonstrated in an amorphous catalyst. Theoretical calculations suggest that the isolated Ru sites exhibit Pt‐like bonding strength towards hydrogen, which contributes to the high intrinsic HER activity. AbstractElectrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is an efficient way to generate hydrogen fuel for the storage of renewable ...
Source: Small - September 17, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Pengsong Li, Xinxuan Duan, Shiyuan Wang, Lirong Zheng, Yaping Li, Haohong Duan, Yun Kuang, Xiaoming Sun Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Boosting Interleukin ‐12 Antitumor Activity and Synergism with Immunotherapy by Targeted Delivery with isoDGR‐Tagged Nanogold
Gold nanospheres can be functionalized with interleukin ‐12 (IL12), a potent anticancer and immunostimulatory cytokine, and a cyclic peptide containing the isoDGR motif (Iso1) that, after coupling to albumin (Iso1‐HSA), recognizes the αvβ3 integrin overexpressed in tumor vessels and on different tumor cell types. Bifunctional nanospheres (Iso1/Au/I L12) increase the infiltration of immune cells and inhibit tumor growth in preclinical tumor models. AbstractThe clinical use of interleukin ‐12 (IL12), a cytokine endowed with potent immunotherapeutic anticancer activity, is limited by systemic toxicity. The hy...
Source: Small - September 16, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Anna Maria Gasparri, Angelina Sacchi, Veronica Basso, Filippo Cortesi, Massimo Freschi, Eltjona Rrapaj, Matteo Bellone, Giulia Casorati, Paolo Dellabona, Anna Mondino, Angelo Corti, Flavio Curnis Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

ROS ‐Sensitive Degradable PEG–PCL–PEG Micellar Thermogel
Triggered degradability is a promising property for designing disease ‐responsive systems or accelerating degradation of polymers. Here, a thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)–polycaprolactone–poly(ethylene glycol) triblock copolymer with an oxalate group at the middle of the polymer is reported. The micelle‐based thermogel is used as an injectable drug deliver y system and its degradation is accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). AbstractA reactive oxygen species (ROS) ‐sensitive degradable polymer would be a promising material in designing a disease‐responsive system or accelerating degradation ...
Source: Small - September 16, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Hyun Jung Lee, Byeongmoon Jeong Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Applications of Catalytic Hairpin Assembly Reaction in Biosensing
Catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA), a robust, versatile, and enzyme ‐free nucleic acid isothermal amplification method, has attracted broad attention. Herein, the mechanisms of several extended CHA systems, hairpin designs, and reaction conditions are introduced in detail. Various analytical platforms are applied for signal output of CHA. Biosensors based on CHA a re presented. Finally, challenges and the outlook of CHA developments are considered. AbstractNucleic acids are considered as perfect programmable materials for cascade signal amplification and not merely as genetic information carriers. Among them, catalytic hai...
Source: Small - September 16, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jumei Liu, Ye Zhang, Huabin Xie, Li Zhao, Lei Zheng, Huiming Ye Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rational Design of Ultrathin Gas Barrier Layer via Reconstruction of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanoflakes to Enhance the Chemical Stability of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
An effective gas barrier layer is developed via reconstruction of mechanically exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoflakes. By using an hBN ‐dispersed Nafion solution, the gas barrier layer is directly formed on a membrane through a simple spin‐coating process. The layer ensures high proton conductivity and low gas crossover simultaneously, promising excellent chemical durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. AbstractHexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has great potential as a promising gas barrier layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) as it shows high proton conductivity as well as excellen...
Source: Small - September 16, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Seongsoo Lee, Wonseok Jang, Mansu Kim, Jae Eun Shin, Ho Bum Park, Namgee Jung, Dongmok Whang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Compositional Control as the Key for Achieving Highly Efficient OER Electrocatalysis with Cobalt Phosphates Decorated Nanocarbon Florets
The cooperativity between different forms of cobalt phosphates and the nanostructured high surface area carbon host leads to enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen evolution reaction with reduced onset overpotential and increased current density. AbstractCompositional interplay of two different cobalt phosphates (Co(H2PO4)2; Co ‐DP and Co(PO3)2; Co ‐MP) loaded on morphologically engineered high surface area nanocarbon leads to an increased electrocatalytic efficiency for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in near neutral conditions. This is reflected as significant reduction in the onset overpotential (301 mV) a...
Source: Small - September 16, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jayeeta Saha, Sonam Verma, Ranadeb Ball, Chandramouli Subramaniam, Ramaswamy Murugavel Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Cyclophospholipids Increase Protocellular Stability to Metal Ions
Short chain, prebiotically plausible lipids with a cyclic phosphate headgroup spontaneously form vesicles that are resistant to high concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ individually and together. Stability to Mg2+ and Ca2+ is improved by the presence of environmental concentrations of Na+. Lipids of similar characteristics may have been crucial to support the transition from abiotic to biotic chemistry. AbstractModel protocells have long been constructed with fatty acids, because these lipids are prebiotically plausible and can, at least theoretically, support a protocell life cycle. However, fatty acid protocells are st...
Source: Small - September 15, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ö. Duhan Toparlak, Megha Karki, Veronica Egas Ortuno, Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, Sheref S. Mansy Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Engineering Bimetal Synergistic Electrocatalysts Based on Metal –Organic Frameworks for Efficient Oxygen Evolution
A bimetal synergistic electrocatalyst (FN ‐2) based on Fe‐MOFs@Ni‐MOFs is successfully synthesized via a simple method. The as‐prepared FN‐2 exhibits superior catalytic activity and stability in the oxygen evolution reaction. A ligand/ionic‐exchange phenomenon of Fe‐MOFs@Ni‐MOFs in alkaline solution is found and it is confir med that the active species (NiFe‐LDH) is produced in alkali conditions. AbstractBenefiting from metal –organic frameworks (MOFs) unique structural characteristics, their versatility in composition and structure has been well explored in electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction...
Source: Small - September 13, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ming Liu, Lingjun Kong, Xuemin Wang, Jie He, Xian ‐He Bu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Selectively Permeable Double Emulsions
Double emulsion drops stabilized with a pH ‐responsive surfactant that selectively transports specific molecules across the oil shell are presented.R1 andR2 represent the fluorophilic and hydrophilic groups of the surfactant, respectively. AbstractNatural organisms are made of different types of microcompartments, many of which are enclosed by cell membranes. For these organisms to display a proper function, the microcompartments must be selectively permeable. For example, cell membranes are typically permeable toward small, uncharged molecules such as water, selected nutrients, and cell signaling molecules, but impermea...
Source: Small - September 13, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Irvine Lian Hao Ong, Esther Amstad Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Tuning the Optical and Electrical Properties of Few ‐Layer Black Phosphorus via Physisorption of Small Solvent Molecules
The effects of nine common solvent molecules physisorbed onto few ‐layer black phosphorus (BP) are studied. Solvents could lead to non‐negligible tuning of the work function of BP, originating from charge transfer and dipolar effects. Importantly, these small molecules obviously modify the charge carrier density, field effect mobility, and Raman peak position of few‐layer BP, being comparable to traditional organic dopants. AbstractBlack phosphorus (BP) is recently becoming more and more popular among semiconducting 2D materials for (opto)electronic applications. The controlled physisorption of molecules on the BP su...
Source: Small - September 13, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ye Wang, Amine Slassi, J érôme Cornil, David Beljonne, Paolo Samorì Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Orange ‐Emissive Carbon Quantum Dots: Toward Application in Wound pH Monitoring Based on Colorimetric and Fluorescent Changing
Novel orange ‐emitting carbon quantum dots with pH‐induced fluorescence variation and colorimetric behavior are synthesized by a microwave method. By simply incorporating these fluorescent nanostructures with cotton cloth, the resultant composite with yellow emission exhibits high response to pH variation in the range of 5–9 via both fluorescence and colorimetric changes, thus demonstrating its potential in wound pH monitoring. AbstractMonitoring of wound pH is critical for interpreting wound status, because early identification of wound infection or nonhealing wounds is conducive to administion of therapies at t...
Source: Small - September 13, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Pei Yang, Ziqi Zhu, Tao Zhang, Wei Zhang, Weimin Chen, Yizhong Cao, Minzhi Chen, Xiaoyan Zhou Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

A Highly Conductive MOF of Graphene Analogue Ni3(HITP)2 as a Sulfur Host for High ‐Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
A highly conductive metal –organic framework of pristine Ni3(HITP)2 with hierarchical pores and abundant polar sites serves as an advanced sulfur host for lithium –sulfur batteries. In conjunction with carbon nanotube additives, matrix conduction networks can be constructed which endow the fabricated battery with enhanced rate and cycling performance. AbstractLithium –sulfur (Li–S) batteries have been considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems owing to their high theoretical capacity and energy density. However, their commercial applications are obstructed by sluggish reaction ki...
Source: Small - September 13, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Dong Cai, Mengjie Lu, La Li, Junming Cao, Duo Chen, Haoran Tu, Junzhi Li, Wei Han Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Colloidal Crystals from Microfluidics
Microfluidics provide a new option for the preparation of high quality colloidal crystals. Microfluidic devices based on different materials have been used for the assembly and synthesis of colloidal crystals. These colloidal crystals have been used in barcodes, sensors, displays, and drug delivery. Colloidal crystals from microfluidics have good prospects and commercial value. AbstractColloidal crystals are of great interest to researchers because of their excellent optical properties and broad applications in barcodes, sensors, displays, drug delivery, and other fields. Therefore, the preparation of high quality colloida...
Source: Small - September 12, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Feika Bian, Lingyu Sun, Lijun Cai, Yu Wang, Yuetong Wang, Yuanjin Zhao Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rational Design of Nanoporous MoS2/VS2 Heteroarchitecture for Ultrahigh Performance Ammonia Sensors
In this study, MoS2 nanosheets are successfully assembled on the porous VS2 (P ‐VS2) scaffold to form a MoS2/VS2 heterostructure. Their gas ‐sensing features, such as sensitivity and selectivity, are investigated by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. The QCM results and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the impressive affinity of the MoS2/VS2 heterostructure sensor toward ammonia with a higher adsorption uptake than the pristine MoS2 or P ‐VS2 sensor. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics of the MoS2/VS2 heterostructure sensor toward ammonia follow the pseudo ‐first‐order kineti...
Source: Small - September 12, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shuaihua Zhang, Jiayu Wang, Nagy L. Torad, Wei Xia, Muhammad Aamir Aslam, Yusuf Valentino Kaneti, Zhufeng Hou, Zejun Ding, Bo Da, Amanullah Fatehmulla, Abdullah M. Aldhafiri, Wazirzada Aslam Farooq, Jing Tang, Yoshio Bando, Yusuke Yamauchi Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Multidimensional Integrated Chalcogenides Nanoarchitecture Achieves Highly Stable and Ultrafast Potassium ‐Ion Storage
The first example of preparing 3D hierarchical nanoboxes multidimensionally assembled from interlayer ‐expanded nano‐2D MoS2@dot ‐like Co9S8 embedded into a nitrogen and sulfur codoped porous carbon matrix (Co9S8/NSC@MoS2@NSC) for greatly boosting the electrochemical properties of potassium ‐ion batteries in terms of reversible capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability, is reported. AbstractPotassium ‐ion batteries (KIBs) have come into the spotlight in large‐scale energy storage systems because of cost‐effective and abundant potassium resources. However, the poor rate performance and problematic cycle...
Source: Small - September 12, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Chao Yang, Jianrui Feng, Yelong Zhang, Qifeng Yang, Peihao Li, Tobias Arlt, Feili Lai, Junjie Wang, Chaochuang Yin, Wei Wang, Guoyu Qian, Lifeng Cui, Wenjuan Yang, Yanan Chen, Ingo Manke Tags: Communication Source Type: research

One ‐Pot Exfoliation of Graphitic C3N4 Quantum Dots for Blue QLEDs by Methylamine Intercalation
Graphitic C3N4 quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by a one ‐pot methylamine intercalation–stripping method; spin coating of these QDs yields uniform films with full coverage and low surface roughness, ideal for QD light‐emitting diode (QLED) fabrication. This QLED exhibits satisfactory device performance with luminance of 605 cd m−2 at 9 V and maximum current efficiency of 0.09 cd A−1. AbstractHere, a simplified synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots (g ‐C3N4‐QDs) with improved solution and electroluminescent properties using a one‐pot methylamine intercalation–stripping method...
Source: Small - September 12, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Xingchen He, Yanliang Liu, Christopher J. Butch, Bo Ram Lee, Feng Guo, Jiangxiao Wu, Ziyang Wang, Qian Lu, Jung Hyun Jeong, Yiqing Wang, Sung Heum Park Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Composite Microgels Created by Complexation between Polyvinyl Alcohol and Graphene Oxide in Compressed Double ‐Emulsion Drops
Composite microgels are formed by complexation between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and graphene oxide (GO) in shrinking double ‐emulsion drops. By setting enrichment faster than diffusion, PVA‐tethered GO sheets are rapidly concentrated along droplet interfaces, leading to gelation through hydrogen bonding without any chemical cues. This microfluidic approach is highly biocompatible and applicable for various polymers, potentially serving as a useful means to produce microgels. AbstractMicrogels, microparticles made of hydrogels, show fast diffusion kinetics and high reconfigurability while maintaining the advantages of hy...
Source: Small - September 12, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ye Hun Choi, Sang Seok Lee, Dong ‐Myeong Lee, Hyeon Su Jeong, Shin‐Hyun Kim Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Virus ‐Templated Nickel Phosphide Nanofoams as Additive‐Free, Thin‐Film Li‐Ion Microbattery Anodes
Transition metal phosphides (TMP) are promising lithium ‐ion electrode materials. However, TMP syntheses remain underdeveloped regarding simultaneous control over phase composition and nanostructure. Here, M13 bacteriophage is employed to develop 3D nickel phosphide nanofoams with controllable phase composition and structural elements. Virus‐template d nanofoams are integrated as additive‐free, thin‐film, lithium‐ion microbattery electrodes. Virus‐templating can further enable TMP development in energy storage. AbstractTransition metal phosphides are a new class of materials generating interest as alternative n...
Source: Small - September 12, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: William C. Records, Shuya Wei, Angela M. Belcher Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Planar Anchoring of C70 Liquid Crystals Using a Covalent Organic Framework Template
The elliptical molecule, C70, can only form structurally well ‐defined crystals without an external templated effect. Through an introduction of anchored effect with covalent organic frameworks, several C70 mesophases are observed. The effects of C70 molecular anisotropy on the epitaxial growth of molecular crystals are understood by a stepwise breakdown in ordering in comparison to the C60 system. AbstractThe surface ‐induced anchoring effect is a well‐developed technique to control the growth of liquid crystals (LCs). Nevertheless, a defined nanometer‐scale template has never been used to induce the anchored grow...
Source: Small - September 12, 2019 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Daling Cui, Jennifer M. MacLeod, Federico Rosei Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research