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Direct Imaging of Space ‐Charge Accumulation and Work Function Characteristics of Functional Organic Interfaces
Abstract The tailoring of organic systems is crucial to further extend the efficiency of charge transfer mechanisms and represents a cornerstone for molecular device technologies. However, this demands control of electrical properties and understanding of the physics behind organic interfaces. Here, a quantitative spatial overview of work function characteristics for phthalocyanine architectures on Au substrates is provided via kelvin probe microscopy. While macroscopic investigations are very informative, the current approach offers a nanoscale spatial rendering of electrical characteristics which is not possible to attai...
Source: Small - February 16, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Pablo F. Siles, Mirunalini Devarajulu, Feng Zhu, Oliver G. Schmidt Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Imparting Designer Biorecognition Functionality to Metal –Organic Frameworks by a DNA‐Mediated Surface Engineering Strategy
Abstract Surface functionality is an essential component for processing and application of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). A simple and cost‐effective strategy for DNA‐mediated surface engineering of zirconium‐based nanoscale MOFs (NMOFs) is presented, capable of endowing them with specific molecular recognition properties and thus expanding their potential for applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology. It is shown that efficient immobilization of functional DNA on NMOFs can be achieved via surface coordination chemistry. With this strategy, it is demonstrated that such porphyrin‐based NMOFs can be mo...
Source: Small - February 16, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Weiyu Ning, Zhenghan Di, Yingjie Yu, Pingmei Zeng, Chunzhi Di, Daquan Chen, Xueqian Kong, Guangjun Nie, Yuliang Zhao, Lele Li Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Self ‐Template‐Directed Metal–Organic Frameworks Network and the Derived Honeycomb‐Like Carbon Flakes via Confinement Pyrolysis
Abstract Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have become a research hotspot since they have been explored as convenient precursors for preparing various multifunctional nanomaterials. However, the preparation of MOF networks with controllable flake morphology in large scale is not realized yet. Herein, a self‐template strategy is developed to prepare MOF networks. In this work, layered double‐metal hydroxide (LDH) and other layered metal hydroxides are used not only as a scaffold but also as a self‐sacrificed metal source. After capturing the abundant metal cations identically from the LDH by the organic linkers, M...
Source: Small - February 16, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jie Wang, Jing Tang, Bing Ding, Zhi Chang, Xiaodong Hao, Toshiaki Takei, Naoya Kobayashi, Yoshio Bando, Xiaogang Zhang, Yusuke Yamauchi Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Layer ‐by‐Layer Decoupling of Twisted Graphene Sheets Epitaxially Grown on a Metal Substrate
Abstract The electronic properties of graphene can be efficiently altered upon interaction with the underlying substrate resulting in a dramatic change of charge carrier behavior. Here, the evolution of the local electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on a metal upon the controlled formation of multilayers, which are produced by intercalation of atomic carbon in graphene/Ir(111), is investigated. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau‐level spectroscopy, it is shown that for a monolayer and bilayers with small‐angle rotations, Landau levels are fully suppressed, indicating that the metal–graphene int...
Source: Small - February 16, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Sabina Simon, Elena Voloshina, Julia Tesch, Felix F örschner, Vivien Enenkel, Charlotte Herbig, Timo Knispel, Alexander Tries, Jörg Kröger, Yuriy Dedkov, Mikhail Fonin Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Multicellular Tumor Spheroids (MCTS) as a 3D In Vitro Evaluation Tool of Nanoparticles
Abstract Multicellular tumor spheroid models (MCTS) are often coined as 3D in vitro models that can mimic the microenvironment of tissues. MCTS have gained increasing interest in the nano‐biotechnology field as they can provide easily accessible information on the performance of nanoparticles without using animal models. Considering that many countries have put restrictions on animals testing, which will only tighten in the future as seen by the recent developments in the Netherlands, 3D models will become an even more valuable tool. Here, an overview on MCTS is provided, focusing on their use in cancer research as most ...
Source: Small - February 16, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Hongxu Lu, Martina H. Stenzel Tags: Review Source Type: research

How to Construct DNA Hydrogels for Environmental Applications: Advanced Water Treatment and Environmental Analysis
Abstract With high binding affinity, porous structures, safety, green, programmability, etc., DNA hydrogels have gained increasing recognition in the environmental field, i.e., advanced treatment technology of water and analysis of specific pollutants. DNA hydrogels have been demonstrated as versatile potential adsorbents, immobilization carriers of bioactive molecules, catalysts, sensors, etc. Moreover, altering components or choosing appropriate functional DNA optimizes environment‐oriented hydrogels. However, the lack of comprehensive information hinders the continued optimization. The principle used to fabricate the ...
Source: Small - February 16, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yingrong Wang, Yuan Zhu, Yi Hu, Guangming Zeng, Yi Zhang, Chang Zhang, Chongling Feng Tags: Review Source Type: research

Masthead: (Small 7/2018)
(Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 15, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Tags: Masthead Source Type: research

CO2 Electroreduction: Morphological and Compositional Design of Pd –Cu Bimetallic Nanocatalysts with Controllable Product Selectivity toward CO2 Electroreduction (Small 7/2018)
The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) is an emerging route for curbing excessive CO2 emissions and producing add‐valued chemicals. In article number 1703314, Jinlong Gong and co‐workers introduce controlled synthesis of shapecontrolled and composition‐regulatory Pd–Cu nanocatalysts by a one‐pot approach. A highly efficient performance and tunable product distribution were achieved on concave rhombic dodecahedral Cu3Pd and flower‐type Pd3Cu. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 15, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Wenjin Zhu, Lei Zhang, Piaoping Yang, Xiaoxia Chang, Hao Dong, Ang Li, Congling Hu, Zhiqi Huang, Zhi ‐Jian Zhao, Jinlong Gong Tags: Back Cover Source Type: research

Visual Immunoassays: Layered Aggregation with Steric Effect: Morphology ‐Homogeneous Semiconductor MoS2 as an Alternative 2D Probe for Visual Immunoassay (Small 7/2018)
This study further reveals that 2D nanostructures could promote the development of next‐generation visual sensing devices, especially in portable detection of tumor markers. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 15, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Bang Lin Li, Li Yu Peng, Hao Lin Zou, Ling Jie Li, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li Tags: Inside Front Cover Source Type: research

Hydrogen ‐Sensing: Chiral Plasmonic Hydrogen Sensors (Small 7/2018)
In article number 1702990, Peer Fischer, Frank Neubrech, Na Liu, and co‐workers fabricate three‐dimensional palladium helices by nanoglancing angle deposition exhibiting strong circular dichroism for sensitive hydrogen detection in the flammable range. The linearity of the sensor response is significantly improved using palladiumgold hybrid helices. Such a chiral plasmonic sensor scheme is of potential interest for hydrogen‐sensing applications, where good linearity and high sensitivity are required. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 15, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Marcus Matuschek, Dhruv Pratap Singh, Hyeon ‐Ho Jeong, Maxim Nesterov, Thomas Weiss, Peer Fischer, Frank Neubrech, Na Liu Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research

Engineering Gold Nanorod –Copper Sulfide Heterostructures with Enhanced Photothermal Conversion Efficiency and Photostability
This study will provide new insight into the design of other noble metal–semiconductor heterostructures for a broad range of applications utilizing surface plasmon resonance enhancement phenomena. Core–shell and dumbbell‐like Au NRs–Cu7S4 heterostructures are synthesized via a one‐pot hydrothermal strategy. Both components not only synergistically enhance photothermal conversion efficiency and in vitro ablation effect for HeLa cancer cells, but also improve photothermal stability under 808 nm near‐infrared irradiation. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 13, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Chunbo Leng, Xin Zhang, Fanxing Xu, Yue Yuan, Hao Pei, Zhenhua Sun, Li Li, Zhihong Bao Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Microwave ‐Assisted Regeneration of Single‐Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Carbon Fragments
Abstract Direct growth of chirality‐controlled single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with metal catalyst free strategy, like cloning or epitaxial growth, has suffered from the low efficiency. The underlying problem is the activation of seed edge. Here an unexpectedly efficient microwave‐assisted pathway to regenerate SWNTs from carbon fragments on SiO2/Si substrate is demonstrated via Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM) characterization. In this attempt, microwave irradiation provides fast heating to remove polar groups bonded to carbon nanotubes and reduce the spontaneous closure of tubes’ op...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Dewu Lin, Shuchen Zhang, Zhe Zheng, Wenping Hu, Jin Zhang Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Porous Carbon ‐Hosted Atomically Dispersed Iron–Nitrogen Moiety as Enhanced Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in a Wide Range of pH
This study of nonprecious catalysts provides new insights on nanoengineering catalytically active sites and porous structures for nonprecious metal ORR catalysis in a wide range of pH. Fe‐doped metal organic framework‐derived nonprecious nanocatalysts with single active sites are obtained by a simple pyrolysis procedure. The obtained Fe–N–C single‐atom electrocatalysts possess superior oxygen reduction reaction performance in a wide range of pH. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shaofang Fu, Chengzhou Zhu, Dong Su, Junhua Song, Siyu Yao, Shuo Feng, Mark H. Engelhard, Dan Du, Yuehe Lin Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Methodologies toward Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells
Abstract A perovskite solar cell (PSC) employing an organic–inorganic lead halide perovskite light harvester, seeded in 2009 with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.8% and grown in 2011 with PCE of 6.5% in dye‐sensitized solar cell structure, has received great attention since the breakthrough reports ≈10% efficient solid‐state PCSs demonstrating 500 h stability. Developments of device layout and high‐quality perovskite film eventually lead to a PCE over 22%. As of October 31, 2017, the highest PCE of 22.7% is listed in an efficiency chart provided by NREL. In this Review, the methodologies to obtain ...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Sang Il Seok, Michael Gr ätzel, Nam‐Gyu Park Tags: Review Source Type: research

Controlling the Diameters of Nanotubes Self ‐Assembled from Designed Peptide Bolaphiles
Abstract Controlling the diameters of nanotubes represents a major challenge in nanostructures self‐assembled from templating molecules. Here, two series of bolaform hexapeptides are designed, with Set I consisting of Ac‐KI4K‐NH2, Ac‐KI3NleK‐NH2, Ac‐KI3LK‐NH2 and Ac‐KI3TleK‐NH2, and Set II consisting of Ac‐KI3VK‐NH2, Ac‐KI2V2K‐NH2, Ac‐KIV3K‐NH2 and Ac‐KV4K‐NH2. In Set I, substitution for Ile in the C‐terminal alters its side‐chain branching, but the hydrophobicity is retained. In Set II, the substitution of Val for Ile leads to the decrease of hydrophobicity, but the side‐chain ...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yurong Zhao, Wei Yang, Dong Wang, Jiqian Wang, Zongyi Li, Xuzhi Hu, Stephen King, Sarah Rogers, Jian R. Lu, Hai Xu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Alpha Lead Oxide ( α‐PbO): A New 2D Material with Visible Light Sensitivity
Abstract Even though transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are deemed to be novel photonic and optoelectronic 2D materials, the visible band gap being often limited to monolayer, hampers their potential in niche applications due to fabrication challenges. Uncontrollable defects and degraded functionalities at elevated temperature and under extreme environments further restrict their prospects. To address such limitations, the discovery of a new 2D material, α‐PbO is reported. Micromechanical as well as sonochemical exfoliation of 2D atomic sheets of α‐PbO are demonstrated and its optical behavior is inve...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Prashant Kumar, Jing Liu, Pranay Ranjan, Yaowu Hu, Sharma SRKC Yamijala, Swapan K. Pati, Joseph Irudayaraj, Gary J. Cheng Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Dynamically PEGylated and Borate ‐Coordination‐Polymer‐Coated Polydopamine Nanoparticles for Synergetic Tumor‐Targeted, Chemo‐Photothermal Combination Therapy
Abstract Multifunctional nanomaterials with efficient tumor‐targeting and high antitumor activity are highly anticipated in the field of cancer therapy. In this work, a synergetic tumor‐targeted, chemo‐photothermal combined therapeutic nanoplatform based on a dynamically PEGylated, borate‐coordination‐polymer‐coated polydopamine nanoparticle (PDA@CP‐PEG) is developed. PEGylation on the multifunctional nanoparticles is dynamically achieved via the reversible covalent interaction between the surface phenylboronic acid (PBA) group and a catechol‐containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecule. Due to the acid...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Shucheng Liu, Jianming Pan, Jinxin Liu, Yue Ma, Fengxian Qiu, Lin Mei, Xiaowei Zeng, Guoqing Pan Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Monoclonal Cell Line Generation and CRISPR/Cas9 Manipulation via Single ‐Cell Electroporation
Abstract Stably transfected cell lines are widely used in drug discovery and biological research to produce recombinant proteins. Generation of these cell lines requires the isolation of multiple clones, using time‐consuming dilution methods, to evaluate the expression levels of the gene of interest. A new and efficient method is described for the generation of monoclonal cell lines, without the need for dilution cloning. In this new method, arrays of patterned cell colonies and single cell transfection are employed to deliver a plasmid coding for a reporter gene and conferring resistance to an antibiotic. Using a nanofo...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ruiguo Yang, Vincent Lema ître, Changjin Huang, Abbas Haddadi, Rebecca McNaughton, Horacio D. Espinosa Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Intranasal Nanovaccine Confers Homo ‐ and Hetero‐Subtypic Influenza Protection
In this study, an intranasal nanovaccine is developed targeting the conserved ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2(M2e). 3‐sequential repeats of M2e (3M2e) is presented on the self‐assembling recombinant human heavy chain ferritin (rHF) cage to form the 3M2e‐rHF nanoparticle. Intranasal vaccination with 3M2e‐rHF nanoparticles in the absence of an adjuvant induces robust immune responses, including high titers of sera M2e‐specific IgG antibodies, T‐cell immune responses, and mucosal secretory‐IgA antibodies in mice. The 3M2e‐rHF nanoparticles also confer complete protection against a lethal infection of ...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Mi Qi, Xian ‐En Zhang, Xianxun Sun, Xiaowei Zhang, Yanfeng Yao, Siling Liu, Ze Chen, Wei Li, Zhiping Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Zongqiang Cui Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Co Nanoparticles Confined in 3D Nitrogen ‐Doped Porous Carbon Foams as Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Long‐Life Rechargeable Zn–Air Batteries
Abstract Proper design and simple preparation of nonnoble bifunctional electrocatalysts with high cost performance and strong durability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is highly demanded but still full of enormous challenges. In this work, a spontaneous gas‐foaming strategy is presented to synthesize cobalt nanoparticles confined in 3D nitrogen‐doped porous carbon foams (CoNCF) by simply carbonizing the mixture of citric acid, NH4Cl, and Co(NO3)2·6H2O. Thanks to its particular 3D porous foam architecture, ultrahigh specific surface area (1641 m2 g−1), and ho...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Hao Jiang, Yong Liu, Wenzhang Li, Jie Li Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Specific Oxygenated Groups Enriched Graphene Quantum Dots as Highly Efficient Enzyme Mimics
Abstract Significant progress is achieved for the utilization of graphene quantum dots as enzyme mimics in various biomedical fields recently. Although promising, the biocatalytic performance is far from satisfactory. Here, the rational design and synthesis of specific oxygenated groups enriched graphene quantum dots (o‐GQDs) via a facile oxidation reflux route is reported. These well‐prepared o‐GQDs with uniform size exhibit an ultrahigh peroxidase‐like activity in a wide range of pH values, and their superior performance is verified by using glucose detection as a typical model. Compared with classical nanozymes,...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Huan Wang, Chaoqun Liu, Zhen Liu, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Colloid ‐Interface‐Assisted Laser Irradiation of Nanocrystals Superlattices to be Scalable Plasmonic Superstructures with Novel Activities
Abstract High‐efficient charge and energy transfer between nanocrystals (NCs) in a bottom‐up assembly are hard to achieve, resulting in an obstacle in application. Instead of the ligands exchange strategies, the advantage of a continuous laser is taken with optimal wavelength and power to irradiate the film‐scale NCs superlattices at solid–liquid interfaces. Owing to the Au‐based NCs' surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect, the gentle laser irradiation leads the Au NCs or Au@CdS core/shell NCs to attach each other with controlled pattern at the interfaces between solid NCs phase and liquid ethanol/ethylene gl...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Liu Huang, Xiaodong Wan, Hongpan Rong, Yuan Yao, Meng Xu, Jia Liu, Muwei Ji, Jiajia Liu, Lan Jiang, Jiatao Zhang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Creating Graphitic Carbon Nitride Based Donor ‐π–Acceptor‐π–Donor Structured Catalysts for Highly Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution
Abstract Conjugated polymers with tailored donor–acceptor units have recently attracted considerable attention in organic photovoltaic devices due to the controlled optical bandgap and retained favorable separation of charge carriers. Inspired by these advantages, an effective strategy is presented to solve the main obstructions of graphitic carbon nitride (g‐C3N4) photocatalyst for solar energy conversion, that is, inefficient visible light response and insufficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. Donor‐π–acceptor‐π–donor polymers are prepared by incorporating 4,4′‐(...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Kui Li, Wei ‐De Zhang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Design and Synthesis of Spherical Multicomponent Aggregates Composed of Core –Shell, Yolk–Shell, and Hollow Nanospheres and Their Lithium‐Ion Storage Performances
Abstract Micrometer‐sized spherical aggregates of Sn and Co components containing core–shell, yolk–shell, hollow nanospheres are synthesized by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion in the large‐scale spray drying process. The Sn2Co3–Co3SnC0.7–C composite microspheres uniformly dispersed with Sn2Co3–Co3SnC0.7 mixed nanocrystals are formed by the first‐step reduction of spray‐dried precursor powders at 900 °C. The second‐step oxidation process transforms the Sn2Co3–Co3SnC0.7–C composite into the porous microsphere composed of Sn–Sn2Co3@CoSnO3–Co3O4 core&n...
Source: Small - February 12, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Gi Dae Park, Yun Chan Kang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Chiral Shell Core –Satellite Nanostructures for Ultrasensitive Detection of Mycotoxin
Abstract Herein, the design of a DNA‐based chiral biosensor is described utilizing the self‐assembly of shell core–gold (Au) satellite nanostructures for the detection of mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA). The assembly of core–satellite nanostructures based on OTA‐aptamer binding exhibits a strong chiral signal with an intense circular dichroism (CD) peak. The integrity of the assembly of core–satellite nanostructures is limited to some extent in the presence of different levels of OTA. Correspondingly, the chiral intensity of assembly is weakened with increasing OTA concentrations, allowing quantitativ...
Source: Small - February 9, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jiarong Cai, Changlong Hao, Maozhong Sun, Wei Ma, Chuanlai Xu, Hua Kuang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

In Situ Oxidation Synthesis of p ‐Type Composite with Narrow‐Bandgap Small Organic Molecule Coating on Single‐Walled Carbon Nanotube: Flexible Film and Thermoelectric Performance
Abstract Although composites of organic polymers or n‐type small molecule/carbon nanotube (CNT) have achieved significant advances in thermoelectric (TE) applications, p‐type TE composites of small organic molecules as thick surface coating layers on the surfaces of inorganic nanoparticles still remain a great challenge. Taking advantage of in situ oxidation reaction of thieno[3,4‐b]pyrazine (TP) into TP di‐N‐oxide (TPNO) on single‐walled CNT (SWCNT) surface, a novel synthesis strategy is proposed to achieve flexible films of TE composites with narrow‐bandgap (1.19 eV) small molecule coating on SWCNT surface....
Source: Small - February 9, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Caiyan Gao, Guangming Chen Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Hollow PtPdRh Nanocubes with Enhanced Catalytic Activities for In Vivo Clearance of Radiation ‐Induced ROS via Surface‐Mediated Bond Breaking
Abstract Catalytic nanomaterials can be used extrinsically to combat diseases associated with a surplus of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Rational design of surface morphologies and appropriate doping can substantially improve the catalytic performances. In this work, a class of hollow polyvinyl pyrrolidone‐protected PtPdRh nanocubes with enhanced catalytic activities for in vivo free radical scavenging is proposed. Compared with Pt and PtPd counterparts, ternary PtPdRh nanocubes show remarkable catalytic properties of decomposing H2O2 via enhanced oxygen reduction reactions. Density functional theory calculation indicat...
Source: Small - February 9, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jun ‐Ying Wang, Xiaoyu Mu, Yonghui Li, Fujuan Xu, Wei Long, Jiang Yang, Peixian Bian, Junchi Chen, Lufei Ouyang, Haile Liu, Yaqi Jing, Jingya Wang, Lingfang Liu, Haitao Dai, Yuanming Sun, Changlong Liu, Xiao‐Dong Zhang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Ultralong ‐Discharge‐Time Biobattery Based on Immobilized Enzymes in Bilayer Rolled‐Up Enzymatic Nanomembranes
In this study, a novel GBFC design based on the enzyme biocatalysts glucose dehydrogenase, diaphorase, and bilirubin oxidase immobilized in rolled‐up titanium nanomembranes is reported. The setup delivers a maximum areal power density of ≈3.7 mW cm−2 and a stable power output of ≈0.8 mW cm−2. The power discharges over 452 h, which is considerably longer than reported previously. These results demonstrate that the GBFC design is in principle a feasible and effective approach to solve the long‐term discharge challenge for implantable biomedical device applications. An enzyme‐driven glucose biof...
Source: Small - February 9, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Bo Liu, Chenglin Yan, Wenping Si, Xiaolei Sun, Xueyi Lu, Marion Ansorge ‐Schumacher, Oliver G. Schmidt Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Highly Efficient and Stable Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Metal Oxides Nanoparticle Charge Extraction Layers
In this study, the fabrication of highly efficient and durable flexible inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is reported. Presynthesized, solution‐derived NiOx and ZnO nanoparticles films are employed at room temperature as a hole transport layer (HTL) and electron transport layer (ETL), respectively. The triple cation perovskite films are produced in a single step and for the sake of comparison, ultrasmooth and pinhole‐free absorbing layers are also fabricated using MAPbI3 perovskite. The triple cation perovskite cells exhibit champion power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 18.6% with high stabilized power conversi...
Source: Small - February 9, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Mehrdad Najafi, Francesco Di Giacomo, Dong Zhang, Santhosh Shanmugam, Alessia Senes, Wiljan Verhees, Afshin Hadipour, Yulia Galagan, Tom Aernouts, Sjoerd Veenstra, Ronn Andriessen Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Neutrophil Phenotyping: A Novel Microdevice for Rapid Neutrophil Purification and Phenotyping in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Small 6/2018)
Rapid neutrophil profiling using a drop of blood is imperative for point‐of‐care risk stratification and precision medicine approaches in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In article number 1702832, Bernhard O. Boehm, Han Wei Hou, and co‐workers develop and clinically validate a novel integrated neutrophil purification and phenotyping (chemotaxis and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis)) microfluidic device to demonstrate the prognostic potential of neutrophil biomarkers. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Hui Min Tay, Rinkoo Dalan, King Ho Holden Li, Bernhard O. Boehm, Han Wei Hou Tags: Frontispiece Source Type: research

Masthead: (Small 6/2018)
(Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Tags: Masthead Source Type: research

2D Nanocrystals: SMART Design of a Bulk ‐Capped Supramolecular Segment for the Assembly into Organic Interdigital Lipid Bilayer‐Like (ILB) Nanosheets (Small 6/2018)
In article number 1703151, Ling‐Hai Xie, Li‐Tao Sun, Wei Huang, and co‐workers propose a general strategy for programmable 2D organic nanosheets formation based on the synergistically molecular attractor‐repulsor theory (SMART). As a typical attractor‐repulsor model molecule, TPA‐PF is made up of a supramolecular segment TPA and a bulky group PF. The synergetic effect between them leads to an interdigital lipid bilayer‐like (ILB) molecular packing mode and 2D organic nanosheets. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Yin ‐Xiang Li, Sha‐Sha Wang, Yang Yu, He Zhang, Wu‐You Wang, Ru‐Qian Yang, Ling‐Hai Xie, Feng Liu, Zong‐Qiong Lin, Nai‐En Shi, Li‐Tao Sun, Wei Huang Tags: Back Cover Source Type: research

Biomedicine: A 3D Real ‐Scale, Biomimetic, and Biohybrid Model of the Blood‐Brain Barrier Fabricated through Two‐Photon Lithography (Small 6/2018)
In article number 1702959, Attilio Marino, Omar Tricinci, Edoardo Sinibaldi, Gianni Ciofani, and co‐workers fabricate a real‐scale, biohybrid and biomimetic microfluidic model of the blood‐brain barrier through two‐photon lithography and characterize it in vitro. This image represents the concept of the approach, from the design to the cell testing, with a merging of computer‐assisted drawing, scanning electron imaging, and confocal imaging of the device. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Attilio Marino, Omar Tricinci, Matteo Battaglini, Carlo Filippeschi, Virgilio Mattoli, Edoardo Sinibaldi, Gianni Ciofani Tags: Inside Front Cover Source Type: research

Nanowelding: Shape ‐Controlled 3D Periodic Metal Nanostructures Fabricated via Nanowelding (Small 6/2018)
In article number 1703102, Sang‐Hu Park, Jun‐Ho Jeong, and co‐workers propose a new method for fabricating three‐dimensional (3D) metal nanostructures based on nanoimprint lithography, electron‐beam evaporation, and nanowelding. This method allows for the shape of the nanostructures to be controlled by adjusting the temperature for the nanowelding process. This nanowelding method will find wide use in several important applications, including the fabrication of 3D metal nanostructures, color displays, holographic imaging, information encoding, anti‐counterfeiting, and biosensors. (Source: Small)
Source: Small - February 8, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Zhi ‐Jun Zhao, Sang‐Ho Shin, Dae‐Geun Choi, Sang‐Hu Park, Jun‐Ho Jeong Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research

Determining the Optimized Interlayer Separation Distance in Vertical Stacked 2D WS2:hBN:MoS2 Heterostructures for Exciton Energy Transfer
Abstract The 2D semiconductor monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, WS2 and MoS2, are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and assembled by sequential transfer into vertical layered heterostructures (VLHs). Insulating hBN, also produced by CVD, is utilized to control the separation between WS2 and MoS2 by adjusting the layer number, leading to fine‐scale tuning of the interlayer interactions within the VLHs. The interlayer interactions are studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and are demonstrated to be highly sensitive to the input excitation power. For thin hBN separators (one to two layers), the tot...
Source: Small - February 7, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Wenshuo Xu, Daichi Kozawa, Yu Liu, Yuewen Sheng, Ke Wei, Volodymyr B. Koman, Shanshan Wang, Xiaochen Wang, Tian Jiang, Michael S. Strano, Jamie H. Warner Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Unraveling the Raman Enhancement Mechanism on 1T ′‐Phase ReS2 Nanosheets
Abstract 2D transition metal dichalcogenides materials are explored as potential surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates. Herein, a systematic study of the Raman enhancement mechanism on distorted 1T (1T′) rhenium disulfide (ReS2) nanosheets is demonstrated. Combined Raman and photoluminescence studies with the introduction of an Al2O3 dielectric layer unambiguously reveal that Raman enhancement on ReS2 materials is from a charge transfer process rather than from an energy transfer process, and Raman enhancement is inversely proportional while the photoluminescence quenching effect is proportional to the lay...
Source: Small - February 7, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Peng Miao, Jing ‐Kai Qin, Yunfeng Shen, Huimin Su, Junfeng Dai, Bo Song, Yunchen Du, Mengtao Sun, Wei Zhang, Hsing‐Lin Wang, Cheng‐Yan Xu, Ping Xu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Uncovering the Rab5 ‐Independent Autophagic Trafficking of Influenza A Virus by Quantum‐Dot‐Based Single‐Virus Tracking
Abstract Autophagy is closely related to virus‐induced disease and a comprehensive understanding of the autophagy‐associated infection process of virus will be significant for developing more effective antiviral strategies. However, many critical issues and the underlying mechanism of autophagy in virus entry still need further investigation. Here, this study unveils the involvement of autophagy in influenza A virus entry. The quantum‐dot‐based single‐virus tracking technique assists in real‐time, prolonged, and multicolor visualization of the transport process of individual viruses and provides unambiguous dis...
Source: Small - February 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Qiu ‐Mei Wu, Shu‐Lin Liu, Gang Chen, Wei Zhang, En‐Ze Sun, Geng‐Fu Xiao, Zhi‐Ling Zhang, Dai‐Wen Pang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Photosensitive Nanoparticles Combining Vascular ‐Independent Intratumor Distribution and On‐Demand Oxygen‐Depot Delivery for Enhanced Cancer Photodynamic Therapy
Abstract In drug delivery, the poor tumor perfusion results in disappointing therapeutic efficacy. Nanomedicines for photodynamic therapy (PDT) greatly need deep tumor penetration due to short lifespan and weak diffusion of the cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The damage of only shallow cells can easily cause invasiveness and metastasis. Moreover, even if the nanomedicines enter into deeper lesion, the effectiveness of PDT is limited due to the hypoxic microenvironment. Here, a deep penetrating and oxygen self‐sufficient PDT nanoparticle is developed for balanced ROS distribution within tumor and efficient cancer...
Source: Small - February 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Caiyan Zhao, Yujia Tong, Xianlei Li, Leihou Shao, Long Chen, Jianqing Lu, Xiongwei Deng, Xuan Wang, Yan Wu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Atomic Layers of MoO2 with Exposed High ‐Energy (010) Facets for Efficient Oxygen Reduction
Abstract Although 2D nanocrystals with exposed high‐energy facets are highly desired in the field of catalysts due to their anticipant high catalytic activities, they are difficult to be gained. Here, atomic layers of metallic molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) with primarily exposed high‐energy (010) facet are achieved via a facile carbothermic reduction approach. The resultant MoO2 exhibits single‐crystalline, monoclinic, and ultrathin features with nearly 100% exposed (010) facet, which can significantly reduce reaction barriers toward the oxygen reduction reaction. As a consequence, the atomic layers of MoO2 exhibit high ...
Source: Small - February 6, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Chao Zhang, Xiaolong Zou, Zhiguo Du, Jianan Gu, Songmei Li, Bin Li, Shubin Yang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Penne ‐Like MoS2/Carbon Nanocomposite as Anode for Sodium‐Ion‐Based Dual‐Ion Battery
Abstract The dual‐ion battery (DIB) system has attracted great attention owing to its merits of low cost, high energy, and environmental friendliness. However, the DIBs based on sodium‐ion electrolytes are seldom reported due to the lack of appropriate anode materials for reversible Na+ insertion/extraction. Herein, a new sodium‐ion based DIB named as MoS2/C‐G DIB using penne‐like MoS2/C nanotube as anode and expanded graphite as cathode is constructed and optimized for the first time. The hierarchical MoS2/C nanotube provides expanded (002) interlayer spacing of 2H‐MoS2, which facilitates fast Na+ insertion/ex...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Haili Zhu, Fan Zhang, Jinrui Li, Yongbing Tang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Green Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous Carbon Nanotubes as Advanced Materials for High ‐Efficient Energy Storage
Abstract Hierarchically porous carbon nanomaterials with well‐defined architecture can afford a promising platform for effectively addressing energy and environmental concerns. Herein, a totally green and straightforward synthesis strategy for the fabrication of hierarchically porous carbon nanotubes (HPCNTs) by a simple carbonization treatment without any assistance of soft/hard templates and activation procedures is demonstrated. A high specific surface area of 1419 m2 g−1 and hierarchical micro‐/meso‐/macroporosity can be achieved for the HPCNTs. The unique porous architecture enables the HPCNTs serving as e...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Jian ‐Gan Wang, Hongzhen Liu, Xingyuan Zhang, Xu Li, Xingrui Liu, Feiyu Kang Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Edge ‐Riched MoSe2/MoO2 Hybrid Electrocatalyst for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
Abstract Molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) is widely considered as one of the most promising catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the absence of active sites and poor conductivity of MoSe2 severely restrict its HER performance. By introducing a layer of MoO2 on Mo foil, MoSe2/MoO2 hybrid nanosheets with an abundant edge and high electrical conductivity can be synthesized on the surface of Mo foil. Metallic MoO2 can improve the charge transport efficiency of MoSe2/MoO2, thereby enhancing the overall HER performance. MoSe2/MoO2 exhibits fast hydrogen evolution kinetics with a small overpotential of 142 m...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Chuanyong Jian, Qian Cai, Wenting Hong, Jing Li, Wei Liu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Tailoring Highly N ‐Doped Carbon Materials from Hexamine‐Based MOFs: Superior Performance and New Insight into the Roles of N Configurations in Na‐Ion Storage
Abstract To prepare highly N‐doped carbon materials (HNCs) as well as to determine the influence of N dopants on Na‐ion storage performance, hexamine‐based metal–organic frameworks are employed as new and efficient precursors in the preparation of HNCs. The HNCs possess reversible capacities as high as 160 and 142 mA h g−1 at 2 A g−1 (≈8 C) and 5 A g−1 (≈20 C), respectively, and maintain values of 145 and 123 mA h g−1 after 500 cycles, thus exhibiting excellent rate and long‐term cyclic performance. Based on systematic analysis, a new insight into the roles of the different...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Sitong Liu, Jisheng Zhou, Huaihe Song Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Layered Ti3C2Tx MXene for Electrochemical Energy Storage
Abstract Ti3C2Tx, a typical representative among the emerging family of 2D layered transition metal carbides and/or nitrides referred to as MXenes, has exhibited multiple advantages including metallic conductivity, a plastic layer structure, small band gaps, and the hydrophilic nature of its functionalized surface. As a result, this 2D material is intensively investigated for application in the energy storage field. The composition, morphology and texture, surface chemistry, and structural configuration of Ti3C2Tx directly influence its electrochemical performance, e.g., the use of a well‐designed 2D Ti3C2Tx as a recharg...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Dongbin Xiong, Xifei Li, Zhimin Bai, Shigang Lu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Sandwiched Porous Carbon Enabling Superior Sodium Storage Performances
Abstract The red P anode for sodium ion batteries has attracted great attention recently due to the high theoretical capacity, but the poor intrinsic electronic conductivity and large volume expansion restrain its widespread applications. Herein, the red P is successfully encapsulated into the cube shaped sandwich‐like interconnected porous carbon building (denoted as P@C‐GO/MOF‐5) via the vaporization–condensation method. Superior cycling stability (high capacity retention of about 93% at 2 A g−1 after 100 cycles) and excellent rate performance (502 mAh g−1 at 10 A g−1) can be obtained for th...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Ying Wu, Zheng Liu, Xiongwu Zhong, Xiaolong Cheng, Zhuangjun Fan, Yan Yu Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Magnetic Gated Biomimetic Artificial Nanochannels for Controllable Ion Transportation Inspired by Homing Pigeon
Abstract The homing pigeon‐inspired artificial nanochannel can be modulated by moderate magnetic field in a fast and noncontacting way. The ionic current, as well as rectifying ability and conductance is controlled by the magnetic field reversibly through elastic deformation of the nanochannel. Different gating effects are obtained at the two sides of the asymmetrically conical nanochannel due to the different response models. The magnetic gated nanochannel system also exhibits an excellent stability and a quick response in a noncontacting way, which may be promising in electronic devices related to biological or healthc...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Guanglei Hou, Dianyu Wang, Kai Xiao, Huacheng Zhang, Shuang Zheng, Pei Li, Ye Tian, Lei Jiang Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Proton ‐Gated Rectification Regimes in Nanofluidic Diodes Switched by Chemical Effectors
Abstract During the last decade, nanofluidic devices based on solid‐state nanopores and nanochannels have come into scene in materials science and will not leave anytime soon. One of the main reasons for this is the excellent control over ionic transport exerted by such devices that promises further important advances when integrated into more complex molecular devices. As a result, pH, temperature, and voltage‐regulated devices have been obtained. However, nowadays, there is still a necessity for molecule‐driven nanofluidic devices. Here, a sugar‐regulated pH‐responsive nanofluidic diode is presented obtained by...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Gonzalo P érez‐Mitta, Waldemar A. Marmisolle, Loïc Burr, María Eugenia Toimil‐Molares, Christina Trautmann, Omar Azzaroni Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Scalable 2D Mesoporous Silicon Nanosheets for High ‐Performance Lithium‐Ion Battery Anode
Abstract Constructing unique mesoporous 2D Si nanostructures to shorten the lithium‐ion diffusion pathway, facilitate interfacial charge transfer, and enlarge the electrode–electrolyte interface offers exciting opportunities in future high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries. However, simultaneous realization of 2D and mesoporous structures for Si material is quite difficult due to its non‐van der Waals structure. Here, the coexistence of both mesoporous and 2D ultrathin nanosheets in the Si anodes and considerably high surface area (381.6 m2 g−1) are successfully achieved by a scalable and cost‐efficie...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Song Chen, Zhuo Chen, Xingyan Xu, Chuanbao Cao, Min Xia, Yunjun Luo Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Flexible Lithium ‐Ion Batteries with High Areal Capacity Enabled by Smart Conductive Textiles
Abstract Increasing demand for flexible devices in various applications, such as smart watches, healthcare, and military applications, requires the development of flexible energy‐storage devices, such as lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) with high flexibility and capacity. However, it is difficult to ensure high capacity and high flexibility simultaneously through conventional electrode preparation processes. Herein, smart conductive textiles are employed as current collectors for flexible LIBs owing to their inherent flexibility, fibrous network, rough surface for better adhesion, and electrical conductivity. Conductivity ...
Source: Small - February 5, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Sung Hoon Ha, Kyu Hang Shin, Hae Won Park, Yun Jung Lee Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Super ‐Absorbent Polymer Valves and Colorimetric Chemistries for Time‐Sequenced Discrete Sampling and Chloride Analysis of Sweat via Skin‐Mounted Soft Microfluidics
Abstract This paper introduces super absorbent polymer valves and colorimetric sensing reagents as enabling components of soft, skin‐mounted microfluidic devices designed to capture, store, and chemically analyze sweat released from eccrine glands. The valving technology enables robust means for guiding the flow of sweat from an inlet location into a collection of isolated reservoirs, in a well‐defined sequence. Analysis in these reservoirs involves a color responsive indicator of chloride concentration with a formulation tailored to offer stable operation with sensitivity optimized for the relevant physiological range...
Source: Small - February 2, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Sung Bong Kim, Yi Zhang, Sang Min Won, Amay J. Bandodkar, Yurina Sekine, Yeguang Xue, Jahyun Koo, Sean W. Harshman, Jennifer A. Martin, Jeong Min Park, Tyler R. Ray, Kaitlyn E. Crawford, Kyu ‐Tae Lee, Jungil Choi, Rhonda L. Pitsch, Claude C. Grigsby, Ad Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research