Sleep Measurement in Children —Are We on the Right Track?
Sleep plays a critical role in the development of healthy children. Detecting sleep and sleep disorders and the effectiveness of interventions for improving sleep in children require valid sleep measures. Assessment of sleep in children, in particular infants and young children, can be a quite challenging task. Many subjective and objective methods are available to evaluate various aspects of sleep in childhood, each with their strengths and limitations. None can, however, replace the importance of thorough clinical interview with detailed history and clinical examination by a sleep specialist. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 26, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Barbara Gnidovec Stra žišar Source Type: research

New Paths in Respiratory Sleep Medicine
Sleep health and tracking sleep with contemporary wearables have become more popular. Sleep disorders, in particular, sleep-disordered breathing, have a higher prevalence than estimated previously. Many patients with apnea and hypopnea events suffer whereas others do not report complaints or show cardiovascular consequences. Assessment with wearables may support efforts to distinguish which type of apnea is related to aging and which to cardiovascular comorbidities. Innovative methods offer smart solutions for problems that are insufficiently addressed. Telemedical concepts help bring patients to sleep medicine expertise a...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 26, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Thomas Penzel, Sarah Dietz-Terjung, Holger Woehrle, Christoph Sch öbel Source Type: research

Measuring Sleep
SLEEP MEDICINE CLINICS (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 26, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Erna Sif Arnardottir Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 26, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Causes of Sleep Complaints (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 26, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Contributors
TEOFILO LEE-CHIONG Jr, MD (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 26, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Contents
Erna Sif Arnardottir (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 26, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Objective Measures of Cognitive Performance in Sleep Disorder Research
Neurocognitive tests offer objective and reliable assessment of patients ’ status and progress. However, there is no consensus on how to use neurocognitive assessment in sleep disorder research. An effective use of neurocognitive assessment must be based on standardized practices and have a firm theoretic basis. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of how dif ferent tests have been used in the field, mapping each test onto a corresponding cognitive domain and propose how to move forward with a suggested cognitive battery of tests covering all major cognitive domains. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 6, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Kamilla R ún Jóhannsdóttir, Dimitri Ferretti, Birta Sóley Árnadóttir, María Kristín Jónsdóttir Source Type: research

Improving Machine Learning Technology in the Field of Sleep
The authors discuss the challenges of machine- and deep learning –based automatic analysis of obstructive sleep apnea with respect to known issues with the signal interpretation, patient physiology, and the apnea-hypopnea index. Their goal is to provide guidance for sleep and machine learning professionals working in this area of sleep medicine. They suggest th at machine learning approaches may well be better targeted at examining and attempting to improve the diagnostic criteria, in order to build a more nuanced understanding of the detailed circumstances surrounding OSA, rather than merely attempting to reproduce ...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 6, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Jacky Mallett, Erna S. Arnardottir Source Type: research

Measuring Sleep, Wakefulness, and Circadian Functions in Neurologic Disorders
Neurologic disorders impact the ability of the brain to regulate sleep, wake, and circadian functions, including state generation, components of state (such as rapid eye movement sleep muscle atonia, state transitions) and electroencephalographic microarchitecture. At its most extreme, extensive brain damage may even prevent differentiation of sleep stages from wakefulness (eg, status dissociatus). Given that comorbid sleep-wake-circadian disorders are common and can adversely impact the occurrence, evolution, and management of underlying neurologic conditions, new technologies for long-term monitoring of neurologic patien...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - October 6, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Markus H. Schmidt, Martijn P.J. Dekkers, S ébastien Baillieul, Jasmine Jendoubi, Marie-Angela Wulf, Elena Wenz, Livia Fregolente, Albrecht Vorster, Oriella Gnarra, Claudio L.A. Bassetti Source Type: research

Improving Sleep Measurements for the Future
The field of sleep is at a crossroads. Experts in sleep medicine and sleep research are calling out for new methods for both the diagnosis and treatment of different sleep disorders. We are realizing that the current state-of-the-art sleep measurement is not sufficient. We need to raise the bar and employ emerging technology to the fullest for the benefit of the numerous patients with sleep problems. This challenge is highlighted in the 10 excellent reviews in this issue on different aspects of sleep measurements. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - September 29, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Erna Sif Arnardottir Tags: Preface Source Type: research

The Role of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Sleep Measurements
Several questionnaires aka patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been developed for specific use in sleep medicine. Some PROMS are “disease-specific,” that is, related to a specific sleep disorder, whereas others are generic. These PROMS constitute a valuable add-on to the conventional history taking. They can be used in the areas of research, clinical practice, and quality of health care appraisal. Still, these instruments have inherent limitations, requiring proficient application in the various areas of interest. Disease-specificity includes a risk for nosologic bias that may confound diagnostic and...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - September 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Dirk Pevernagie, Fr é A. Bauters, Katrien Hertegonne Source Type: research

Sleep Measurements in Women
Sleep in women and men have been studied in several studies with higher prevalence of sleep complaints in women compared with men. Several factors can affect sleep and could be argued to contribute to sex and gender differences in general sleep. There are no differences in guidelines when measuring sleep in women but several sleep assessment tools have been validated or compared between sexes. Because there is still a lack of knowledge on sleep measurements in women, the present review aimed to produce an overview of the current knowledge of objective and subjective sleep measurements in women. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - September 8, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Martin Ulander, Frida R ångtell, Jenny Theorell-Haglöw Source Type: research

Self-Applied Home Sleep Recordings
Sleep disorders form a massive global health burden and there is an increasing need for simple and cost-efficient sleep recording devices. Recent machine learning –based approaches have already achieved scoring accuracy of sleep recordings on par with manual scoring, even with reduced recording montages. Simple and inexpensive monitoring over multiple consecutive nights with automatic analysis could be the answer to overcome the substantial economic burden caused by poor sleep and enable more efficient initial diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up monitoring for individuals suffering from sleep disorders. (Sou...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - September 7, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Henri Korkalainen, Sami Nikkonen, Samu Kainulainen, Amit Krishna Dwivedi, Sami Myllymaa, Timo Lepp änen, Juha Töyräs Source Type: research

Getting More from the Sleep Recording
Sleep studies have typically followed criteria established many decades ago, but emerging technologies allow signal analyses that go far beyond the scoring rules for manual analysis of sleep recordings. These technologies may apply to the analysis of signals obtained in standard polysomnography in addition to novel signals more recently developed that provide both direct and indirect measures of sleep and breathing in the ambulatory setting. Automated analysis of signals such as electroencephalogram and oxygen saturation, in addition to heart rate and rhythm, provides a wealth of additional information on sleep and breathi...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - September 7, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Walter T. McNicholas Source Type: research

Challenges and Opportunities for Applying Wearable Technology to Sleep
Wearable technology has a history in sleep research dating back to the 1970s. Because modern wearable technology is relatively cheap and widely used by the general population, this represents an opportunity to leverage wearable devices to advance sleep medicine and research. However, there is a lack of published validation studies designed to quantify device performance against accepted gold standards, especially across different populations. Recommendations for conducting performance assessments and using wearable devices are now published with the goal of standardizing wearable device implementation and advancing the fie...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - August 30, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Selene Y. Tobin, Paula G. Williams, Kelly G. Baron, Tanya M. Halliday, Christopher M. Depner Source Type: research

New Trends and New Technologies in Sleep Medicine
New trends in sleep medicine make use of the increased computational power of digital transformation. A current trend toward fewer sensors on the body of the sleeper and to more data processing from derived signals is observed. Telemedicine technologies are used for data transmission and for better patient management in terms of diagnosis and in terms of treatment of chronic conditions. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 27, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Thomas Penzel, Martin Glos, Ingo Fietze Source Type: research

Sleep Medicine: A Wise Investment
Sleep medicine is a young, interdisciplinary medical field that over the past decades slowly and persistently paved its way through diverse health care systems in different parts of the world. There is no doubt that good and sufficient sleep is essential for health and well-being. However, with growing demands to the health care systems brought by aging of the population and special circumstances, like the current COVID-19 pandemic, there is justified fear that diagnosing and treating sleep disorders might in the future face less affection from health care decison makers. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 27, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Barbara Gnidovec Stra žišar Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Sleep Medicine: Current Challenges and its Future
SLEEP MEDICINE CLINICS (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 27, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Barbara Gnidovec Stra žišar Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 27, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Measuring Sleep (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 27, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Contributors
TEOFILO LEE-CHIONG Jr, MD (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 27, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Contents
Barbara Gnidovec Stra žišar (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 27, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

The Future of Sleep Measurements
This article provides an overview of the current use, limitations, and future directions of the variety of subjective and objective sleep assessments available. This article argues for various ways and sources of collecting, combining, and using data to enlighten clinical practice and the sleep research of the future. It highlights the prospects of digital management platforms to store and present the data, and the importance of codesign when developing such platforms and other new instruments. It also discusses the abundance of opportunities that data science and machine learning open for the analysis of data. (Source: Sl...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 5, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Erna Sif Arnardottir, Anna Sigridur Islind, Mar ía Óskarsdóttir Source Type: research

Daylight Saving Time
The original rationale for the adoption of daylight saving time (DST) was to conserve energy; however, the effects of DST on energy consumption are questionable or negligible. Conversely, there is substantial evidence that DST transitions have the cumulative effect on sleep deprivation with its adverse health effects. In light of current evidence, the European Commission in 2018 decided that biannual clock change in Europe would be abolished. Current indirect evidence supports the adoption of perennial standard time, which aligns best with the human circadian system and has the potential to produce benefits for public heal...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 2, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Barbara Gnidovec Stra žišar, Lea Stražišar Source Type: research

Telemedicine in Sleep-Disordered Breathing
Interest in telemedicine has increased exponentially. There is a growing body of published evidence on the use of telemedicine for patients using continuous positive airway pressure. Telemedicine-ready devices can support the transmission on use time, apnea –hypopnea index, and leakage. This approach enables early activation of troubleshooting. Automated, personalized feedback for patients and patient access to their own data provide unprecedented opportunities for integrating comanagement approaches, multiactor interactions, and patient empowerment. Telemedicine is likely cost effective, but requires better evidence...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - July 2, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Johan Verbraecken Source Type: research

Sleep and Cardiovascular Risk
Sleep is essential for healthy being and healthy functioning of human body as a whole, as well as each organ and system. Sleep disorders, such as sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, sleep fragmentation, and sleep deprivation are associated with the deterioration in human body functioning and increased cardiovascular risks. However, owing to the complex regulation and heterogeneous state sleep per se can be associated with cardiovascular dysfunction in susceptible subjects. The understanding of sleep as a multidimensional concept is important for better prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - June 25, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Lyudmila Korostovtseva, Mikhail Bochkarev, Yurii Sviryaev Source Type: research

Future Treatment of Sleep Disorders
Sleep disorders are categorized in line with traditional taxonomy. This conventional approach allows adequate management of many patients. Failure of treatment, however, may be due to nonspecificity of symptoms, coincidental association between symptoms and pathophysiological endotype, as well as co-occurrence of different pathologic mechanisms affecting sleep. Complex phenotypes often do not respond well to standard therapeutic interventions. In these cases, the clinical workup should aim at identifying treatable traits that will likely improve under targeted therapy. The challenge for sleep medicine is to further develop...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - June 25, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Dirk Pevernagie Source Type: research

Insomnia Burden and Future Perspectives
This article discusses the role of insomnia in modern societies, newer complicating factors, and its overall social and public health burden. Acute insomnia and sleep difficulties during pandemic and confinement are reviewed. The article also focuses on newer developments accumulating in the field of insomnia and possible future trends. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - June 25, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Samson G. Khachatryan Source Type: research

Sleep in Neurologic Disorders
Sleep is a complex brain state with fundamental relevance for cognitive functions, synaptic plasticity, brain resilience, and autonomic balance. Sleep pathologies may interfere with cerebral circuit organization, leading to negative consequences and favoring the development of neurologic disorders. Conversely, the latter can interfere with sleep functions. Accordingly, assessment of sleep quality is always recommended in the diagnosis of patients with neurologic disorders and during neurorehabilitation programs. This review investigates the complex interplay between sleep and brain pathologies, focusing on diseases in whic...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - June 19, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Carlotta Mutti, Francesco Rausa, Liborio Parrino Source Type: research

Sleepiness Behind the Wheel and the Implementation of European Driving Regulations
Sleep disturbance and sleepiness are established risk factors for driving accidents and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most prevalent medical disorder associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. Because effective treatment of OSA reduces accident risk, several jurisdictions have implemented regulations concerning the ability of patients with OSA to drive, unless effectively treated. This review provides a practical guide for clinicians who may be requested to certify a patient with OSA as fit to drive regarding the scope of the problem, the role of questionnaires and driving simulators to evaluate sleepiness, and t...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - June 19, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Walter T. McNicholas Source Type: research

Prolonged Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Sleep Medicine Services —Longitudinal Data from the Swedish Sleep Apnea Registry
The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has affected the operation of health care systems. The direct impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on COVID-19 infection outcome remains to be elucidated. However, the coincidence of common risk factors for OSA and severe COVID-19 suggests that patients with OSA receiving positive airway pressure therapy may have an advantage relative to those untreated when confronted with a COVID-19 infection. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to a substantial reduction of sleep medicine services, and the long-term consequences may be considerable. New strategies for the management of sleep disorder...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 31, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Ludger Grote, Jenny Theorell-Hagl öw, Martin Ulander, Jan Hedner Source Type: research

Prolonged effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep medicine services - longitudinal data from the Swedish Sleep Apnea Registry (SESAR)
In conclusion, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has lead to a substantial reduction of sleep medicine services and the long-term concequences may be considerable. Novel clinical techniques such as telemedicine support may facilitate the recovery of sleep medicine services. New strategies for the management of sleep disorders are needed to overcome the current underdiagnosis and delay of treatment. This includes OSA patients who potentially may be on high risk for severe COVID-19. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 31, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Ludger Grote, Jenny Theorell-Hagl öw, Martin Ulander, Jan Hedner Source Type: research

Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep
Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are a frequent finding in nocturnal sleep registrations that include tibialis anterior electromyographic signals. Different PLMS scoring rules exist and can have a major impact on PLMS frequency, which tends to be underappreciated. There is no consistent evidence that frequent PLMS are a causal risk factor for clinically significant outcomes. Several critical open questions are identified that need to be addressed, including but not limited to the consideration of the full range of all sleep-related leg movement activity. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Stephany Fulda Source Type: research

Sleep and Epilepsy, Clinical Spectrum and Updated Review
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording is essential in the evaluation of complex movement and behaviors during sleep, but in particular for differentiating epileptic versus nonepileptic events. In general, epileptiform discharges occur with greater density in the first few nonerapid eye movement cycles, and approximately 12% to 20% of seizures occur exclusively at night. This review examines the epilepsy types and syndromes whose presentation is strongly influenced by the sleep state, with an appraisal about the role that sleep plays in facilitating seizures, while deleaneatign EEG findings and clinical manifestation. The re...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Ting Wu, Alon Y. Avidan, Jerome Engel Source Type: research

Restless Sleep Disorder
Restless sleep disorder is (RSD) a condition characterized by frequent large movements during sleep associated with daytime impairment. RSD has been studied in children aged 6 to 18  years. Polysomnography is necessary for the diagnosis of RSD. The current diagnostic criteria include more than 5 large movements per hour of sleep documented by PSG. The pathophysiology is not known yet, but iron deficiency and sleep instability and increased sympathetic activation are suspected to play a role. Iron supplementation is the only treatment option studied so far. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Lourdes M. DelRosso, Rosalia Silvestri, Raffaele Ferri Source Type: research

Preface
Traditionally, sleep was considered a period of brain inactivity characterized by an overall reduction of the main neural functions. However, this concept changed following the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the middle of the last century. During REM sleep, the brain is active while the rest of the body is paralyzed: sleep is not a uniform state, but a dual state of REM and non-REM sleep. As sleep deepens, muscle tone gradually decreases, becoming markedly diminished during REM sleep. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Diego Garcia-Borreguero Source Type: research

Movement Disorders in Sleep
SLEEP MEDICINE CLINICS (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Diego Garcia-Borreguero Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Sleep Medicine: Current Challenges and its Future (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Contributors
TEOFILO LEE-CHIONG, Jr., MD (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Contents
Diego Garcia-Borreguero (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - May 11, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Restless Legs Syndrome - Clinical Features
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most common neurologic conditions, with an estimated prevalence in European and North American heritage populations of about 2% to 5%. Because RLS diagnosis is essentially clinical, a careful evaluation of the symptoms is mandatory. It is important to exclude RLS mimics and evaluate factors that could exacerbate RLS symptoms. It is mandatory to evaluate systemic iron parameters, because the initial treatment depends on this result. Other complementary tests could help support the diagnosis or exclude mimics. The decision about when and how to treat should be carefully tailored to ...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - April 23, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Celia Garcia-Malo, Sofia Romero-Peralta, Irene Cano-Pumarega Source Type: research

Restless Legs Syndrome- Clinical Features
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most common neurologic conditions, with an estimated prevalence in European and North American heritage populations of about 2% to 5%. Because RLS diagnosis is essentially clinical, a careful evaluation of the symptoms is mandatory. It is important to exclude RLS mimics and evaluate factors that could exacerbate RLS symptoms. It is mandatory to evaluate systemic iron parameters, because the initial treatment depends on this result. Other complementary tests could help support the diagnosis or exclude mimics. The decision about when and how to treat should be carefully tailored to ...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - April 23, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Celia Garcia-Malo, Sofia Romero-Peralta, Irene Cano-Pumarega Source Type: research

Restless Legs Syndrome. Clinical Features
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most common neurologic conditions, with an estimated prevalence in European and North American heritage populations of about 2% to 5%. Because RLS diagnosis is essentially clinical, a careful evaluation of the symptoms is mandatory. It is important to exclude RLS mimics and evaluate factors that could exacerbate RLS symptoms. It is mandatory to evaluate systemic iron parameters, because the initial treatment depends on this result. Other complementary tests could help support the diagnosis or exclude mimics. The decision about when and how to treat should be carefully tailored to ...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - April 23, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Celia Garcia-Malo, Sofia Romero-Peralta, Irene Cano-Pumarega Source Type: research

The Clinical Evaluation of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders
This article is a comprehensive review of the clinical evaluation of sleep-related movement disorders. In this review, the authors present a practical approach to help clinicians identify the “pattern recognition” of movement and behavior disorders during sleep, with the process of translating a particular movement that occurs when asleep, with clinically classifying disorders, and with obtaining an etiologic diagnosis. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive review of the literature , but to concentrate on the most important symptoms, so the clinical approach can be improved and the best choices can be made du...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - April 17, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Samantha S. Anguizola E, Laura M. Botta P, Andrea Castro-Villaca ñas, Diego García-Borreguero Source Type: research

Sleep Bruxism
The vision of adult sleep bruxism (SB) has changed over time. Thus, among the most important concomitant factors of SB noted are the pathophysiological aspect, namely sleep arousal, obstructive sleep apnea, gastroesophageal pH/gastroesophageal reflux disease, and the use or abuse of certain substances. The aim of this article was to review the main clinically relevant pathophysiological SB-associated factors and a proposal for a diagnostic process. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - April 17, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Thomas Bornhardt, Veronica Iturriaga Source Type: research

Restless Legs Syndrome: Challenges to Treatment
For a long time, dopaminergic treatment (DT) was the medication for restless legs syndrome. Although DT is effective and safe over the short-term, complications develop over longer periods, including augmentation, tolerance, and impulse control disorders. Nowadays, it is recommended that first-line treatment should be alpha-2 ligands, which are more effective in the absence of previous DT. As a second-line treatment, opioids, such as oxycodone extended-release with naloxone, are approved in Europe. Brain iron should be monitored before and during treatment and corrected if necessary. Two new promising non-DTs are being dev...
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - April 15, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Laura Botta, Samantha Anguizola, Andrea Castro-Villaca ñas, Diego Garcia-Borreguero Source Type: research

The Long-Term Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality of Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movements of Sleep
This article summarizes the literature investigating the potential consequences of both RLS and PLMS. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - April 15, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Benjamin Wipper, John W. Winkelman Source Type: research

Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder
Sleep-related rhythmic movements disorder (SRRMD), typically considered a benign pediatric sleep disorder, comprise a group of movement disorders that occur predominantly early in childhood with an average age of onset of 9  months of age. Although it usually resolves spontaneously as the child ages, it can persist into adulthood. In this article, the authors review the identification, diagnosis, and management of SRRMD in children and adults. (Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics)
Source: Sleep Medicine Clinics - April 15, 2021 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Lourdes M. DelRosso, Irene Cano-Pumarega, Samantha Anguizola Source Type: research