Regulatory Roles of Human Surfactant Protein B Variants on Genetic Susceptibility to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pneumonia-Induced Sepsis: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Retraction of Articles Published in Shock With Joachim Boldt as Principle Author
No abstract available (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Retraction Source Type: research

Aluminum Adjuvant Improves Survival Via NLRP3 Inflammasome and Myeloid Non-Granulocytic Cells in a Murine Model of Neonatal Sepsis
Neonatal sepsis leads to significant morbidity and mortality with the highest risk of death occurring in preterm ( (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Luteolin Suppresses Sepsis-Induced Cold-Inducible RNA-Binding Protein Production and Lung Injury in Neonatal Mice
In conclusion, administration of luteolin suppresses CIRP production and attenuates lung injury in neonatal sepsis. The beneficial effect of luteolin may be related to downregulation of HIF-1α and NLRP3 expression in neonatal macrophages. Luteolin may be developed as an adjunctive therapy for neonatal sepsis. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Remote Ischemic Conditioning Reduced Acute Lung Injury After Traumatic Brain Injury in the Mouse
In this study, we hypothesized that RIC would reduce TBI-induced ALI by regulating the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-dependent pathway, a central regulator of endothelial barrier integrity, lymphocyte, and myokine trafficking. Male mice were subjected to either diffuse TBI by midline fluid percussion or control sham injury and randomly assigned among four groups: sham, TBI, sham RIC, or TBI RIC; RIC was performed 1 h prior to TBI. Mice were euthanized at 1-h postinjury or 7 days post-injury (DPI) and lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and blood were collected. Lung tissue was analyzed for histopathology, iris...
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Overexpressed lncRNA AC068039.4 Contributes to Proliferation and Cell Cycle Progression of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells Via Sponging miR-26a-5p/TRPC6 in Hypoxic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Conclusion: In conclusion, downregulation of lncRNA AC068039.4 inhibited pulmonary vascular remodeling through AC068039.4/miR-26a-5p/TRPC6 axis, providing new therapeutic insights for the treatment of HPH. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Paracoxib Alleviates Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury Through Functional Modulation of Lung-Recruited CD11bloLy6Chi Monocytes
Conclusion: Parecoxib-induced alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation in lung-recruited Ly6Chi monocytes may partly explain the beneficial action of COX-2 inhibition in VILI. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

A Noninvasive Stroke Volume Monitoring for Early Detection of Minimal Blood Loss: A Pilot Study
Conclusion: Continuous noninvasive monitoring of SV may be superior to conventional indices (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, or shock index) for early identification of acute blood loss. As an operator-independent and point-of-care technology, the SV whole body bio-impedance measurement may assist in accurate monitoring of potentially bleeding patients and early identification of hemorrhage. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Association Between Intravenous Fluid Resuscitation and Hospital Mortality in Post Cardiac Arrest Patients: A Retrospective Study
Objective: To assess the role for intravenous fluid (IVF) resuscitation in the postarrest state. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge and 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were associations with amount of vasopressor use and mechanical ventilation days. Design: Retrospective study design. Setting: Single-center tertiary hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Patients: All patients admitted to the intensive care unit between 2018 and 2019. Interventions: Patients were divided into two groups based on amount of IVF received within 24 h (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Early Hemoglobin Status as a Predictor of Long-Term Mortality for Sepsis Patients in Intensive Care Units
Conclusions: Hemoglobin levels at or below 80 g/L in the first 48 h after ICU admission are an alternative indicator for predicting long-term mortality of sepsis. Awareness should be encouraged of the importance of targeting early hemoglobin levels when treating sepsis to improve prognosis. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Abrupt Discontinuation Versus Down-Titration of Vasopressin in Patients Recovering from Septic Shock
Purpose: To compare patient outcomes based on management of arginine vasopressin (AVP) during the recovery phase of septic shock (abrupt vs. tapering discontinuation). Patients and Methods: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients receiving AVP with concomitant norepinephrine for septic shock. Primary outcome measure was time to intensive care unit (ICU) discharge (from decision to titrate or stop AVP). Secondary outcomes included ICU and hospital mortality, and incidence of hypotension. Results: A total of 958 (73%) abrupt discontinuation and 360 (27%) down-titration patients were included. Pa...
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Early Screening of Risk for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in the Emergency Department in Patients With Pneumonia and Early Septic Shock: Single-Center, Retrospective Cohort Study
This study investigated the disease outcomes of pneumonia with septic shock in patients admitted in the emergency department (ED) intensive care unit (ICU), a population with a high prevalence of MDROs, after early screening of MDROs risk. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with pneumonia and early septic shock (n = 533) admitted to the ED at the Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from 2013 to 2019 were selected. The study population was divided into four subgroups after the MDROs risk and screening procedure were completed within 1 or 6 h of admission. ICU mortality and multidrug antibiotic therapy we...
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Good Platelets Gone Bad: The Effects of Trauma Patient Plasma on Healthy Platelet Aggregation
Conclusion: Shock-mediated soluble factors impair platelet aggregation, and tissue injury-mediated soluble factors amplify platelet aggregation. Future characterization of these soluble factors will support development of novel treatments of TIC. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Macrophage Efferocytosis in Cardiac Pathophysiology and Repair
As an integral component of cardiac tissue, macrophages are critical for cardiac development, adult heart homeostasis, as well as cardiac healing. One fundamental function of macrophages involves the clearance of dying cells or debris, a process termed efferocytosis. Current literature primarily pays attention to the impact of efferocytosis on apoptotic cells. However, emerging evidence suggests that necrotic cells and their released cellular debris can also be removed by cardiac macrophages through efferocytosis. Importantly, recent studies have demonstrated that macrophage efferocytosis plays an essential role in cardiac...
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Cell–Cell Interaction Mechanisms in Acute Lung Injury
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are caused by an exaggerated inflammatory response arising from a wide variety of pulmonary and systemic insults. Lung tissue is composed of a variety of cell populations, including parenchymal and immune cells. Emerging evidence has revealed that multiple cell populations in the lung work in concert to regulate lung inflammation in response to both direct and indirect stimulations. To date, the question of how different types of pulmonary cells communicate with each other and subsequently regulate or modulate inflammatory cascades remains to be fully a...
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Platelet–Monocyte Aggregates: Understanding Mechanisms and Functions in Sepsis
Platelets have been shown to play an important immunomodulatory role in the pathogenesis of various diseases through their interactions with other immune and nonimmune cells. Sepsis is a major cause of death in the United States, and many of the mechanisms driving sepsis pathology are still unresolved. Monocytes have recently received increasing attention in sepsis pathogenesis, and multiple studies have associated increased levels of platelet–monocyte aggregates observed early in sepsis with clinical outcomes in sepsis patients. These findings suggest platelet–monocyte aggregates may be an important prognostic...
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Septic Neutrophil—Friend or Foe
Neutrophils play a critical role in the eradication of pathogenic organisms, particularly bacteria. However, in the septic patient the prolonged activation and accumulation of neutrophils may augment tissue and organ injury. This review discusses the different activation states and chemotaxis of neutrophils in septic patients. Neutrophil killing of bacteria and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps represent important components of the innate immune response and they become dysregulated during sepsis, possibly through changes in their metabolism. Delayed neutrophil apoptosis may contribute to organ injury, or all...
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

What's New in Shock, February 2021?
No abstract available (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - January 16, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Neutrophil Elastase Inhibition Ameliorates Endotoxin-induced Myocardial Injury Accompanying Degradation of Cardiac Capillary Glycocalyx: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Reply to Radermacher et al. on “Serum Hydrogen Sulfide and Outcome Association in Pneumonia by the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus”
No abstract available (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

To the Editor:
No abstract available (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Prevention of Severe Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Through a Single-Species Probiotics is Associated With the Activation of Microbiome-Mediated Glutamate–Glutamine Biosynthesis
Introduction: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), the leading complication in the intensive care unit, significantly disturbs the gut microbial composition by decreasing the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and increasing the relative abundance of opportunistic infectious bacteria. Methods: To evaluate the preventative effect of Lactobacillus-based probiotics on IAH-induced intestinal barrier damages, a single-species probiotics (L92) and a multispecies probiotics (VSL#3) were introduced orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days before inducing IAH. The intestinal histology and permeability to macromolecules (...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Arachidonic Acid-Dependent Pathway Inhibition in Platelets: its Role in Multiple Injury-Induced Coagulopathy and the Potential Mechanisms
Conclusion: Platelets inhibition was observed in TIC caused by MI at early stage after injury, which might be partially attributed to AA-dependent activation pathway dysfunction. The increase of plasma Prostacyclin and PGE2 levels may contribute to the inhibition process. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Modulation of Brain Transcriptome by Combined Histone Deacetylase Inhibition and Plasma Treatment Following Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock
Conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that VPA treatment creates an environment that favors production of new neurons, removal of damaged cells, and attenuation of inflammation, which could explain its previously observed neuroprotective effects. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Hydrogen Gas Alleviates Sepsis-Induced Brain Injury by Improving Mitochondrial Biogenesis Through the Activation of PGC-α in Mice
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) affects approximately one-third of septic patients, and there is a lack of effective therapeutics for SAE. Hydrogen gas is a new medical gas that exerts anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and anti-apoptotic effects and can effectively protect septic mice. Mitochondrial dysfunction, which can be improved by mitochondrial biogenesis, is a type of molecular pathology in sepsis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), which can be inhibited by SR-18292, is the key regulatory factor of mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the ef...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Sepsis Activates the TLR4/MyD88 Pathway in Schwann Cells to Promote Infiltration of Macrophages, Thereby Impeding Neuromuscular Function
Conclusion: Sepsis significantly promotes the infiltration of macrophages by activating the TLR4/MyD88 pathway in SCs, thereby impeding neuromuscular function. Consistently, our study provides a novel concept in the area of neuromuscular dysfunction therapeutics following sepsis. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

The Cardiac Physiology Underpinning Exsanguination Cardiac Arrest: Targets for Endovascular Resuscitation
Exsanguination leading to cardiac arrest is the terminal phase of uncontrolled hemorrhage. Resuscitative interventions have focused on preload and afterload support. Outcomes remain poor due to several factors but poor coronary perfusion undoubtedly plays a role. The aim of this study is to characterize the relationship between arterial pressure and flow during hemorrhage in an effort to better describe the terminal phases of exsanguination. Male swine weighing 60 kg to 80 kg underwent splenectomy and instrumentation followed by a logarithmic exsanguination until asystole. Changes in hemodynamic parameters over time w...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Remote Ischemic Postconditioning Inhibits Hippocampal Neuronal Apoptosis and Mitophagy After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Rats
Conclusion: Taken together, our results show that remote ischemic post-conditioning improves neural function after CPR by inhibiting P53 mitochondrial translocation-induced apoptosis and Parkin-mediated mitophagy. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Effects of Different Target Temperatures on Angiogenesis and Neurogenesis Following Resuscitation in a Porcine Model After Cardiac Arrest
Conclusion: Lower target temperature showed greater protective effects against cerebral injuries after CPR, and the improved neurological outcomes after TTM may be associated with decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of blood–brain barrier and neurogenesis regulatory factors in this porcine model of CA following resuscitation. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Risk Factors for the 90-Day Prognosis Of Severe Heat Stroke: a Case-Control Study
Background: Severe heat stroke is a clinical syndrome caused by host stress dysfunction due to heat stress and subsequent life-threatening organ dysfunction. We aimed to explore the early risk factors affecting the 90-day prognosis of severe heat stroke patients. Methods: A case-control study was used to retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 117 severe heat stroke patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the General Hospital of Southern Theater Command from April 2014 to May 2019. The risk factors affecting the 90-day mortality of the patients were analyzed, and subgroup analysis was performed comp...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Is Tranexamic Acid Associated With Mortality or Multiple Organ Failure Following Severe Injury?
We examined TXA administration, admission fibrinolysis phenotypes, and clinical outcomes following traumatic injury and hypothesized that TXA was associated with increased multiple organ failure (MOF). Methods: Two-year, single-center, retrospective investigation. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, Injury Severity Score (ISS)>16, admitted from scene of injury, thromboelastography within 30 min of arrival. Fibrinolysis was evaluated by lysis at 30 min (LY30) and fibrinolysis phenotypes were defined as: Shutdown: LY30 ≤ 0.8%, Physiologic: LY30 0.81–2.9%, Hyperfibrinolysis: LY30 ≥ 3.0...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Shock Severity and Hospital Mortality In Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated With Targeted Temperature Management
Background: Shock in patients resuscitated after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with an increased risk of mortality. We sought to determine the associations between lactate level, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and vasopressor/inotrope doses with mortality. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult patients with OHCA of presumed cardiac etiology treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) between December 2005 and September 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of hospital death. Results: Among 268 included patients, the median age was ...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

STEMI, Cardiogenic Shock, and Mortality in Patients Admitted for Acute Angiography: Associations and Predictions from Plasma Proteome Data
Conclusion: The association analyses propose individual proteins as putative protein biomarkers for definitive STEMI and survival after suspected STEMI, while the prediction models put forward sets of proteins with putative predicting ability of CS and survival. These proteins may be verified as biomarkers of potential clinical relevance. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

The Effect of Xinmailong Infusion on Sepsis-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction: a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial
Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) contributes significantly to cardiovascular dysfunction during septic shock. We aimed to evaluate the potential role of Xinmailong injection (XMLI), a polypeptide medicine extracted from Periplaneta americana, in reversing the progression of myocardial damage to SIMD in sepsis patients. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. We recruited all patients consecutively admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) who were aged 18 to 85 years old and met the sepsis 3.0 criteria. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of sepsis-induced myocardial dysf...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Temporal Changes in REBOA Utilization Practices are Associated With Increased Survival: an Analysis of the AORTA Registry
This study examined the AORTA registry over a 5-year period (2014–2018). AO outcomes and utilization were analyzed using year of procedure as an independent variable. A multivariable model adjusting for year of procedure, signs of life (SOL), SBP at AO initiation, operator level, timing of AO, and hemodynamic response to AO was created to analyze AO mortality. Results: One thousand four hundred fifty-eight AO were included. Mean age (39.1 ± 16.7) and median ISS (34[25,49]) were comparable between REBOA and open AO. Open AO patients were more likely: male (84% vs. 77%, P = 0.001), s/p penetrati...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Tissue-Resident Macrophages in the Control of Infection and Resolution of Inflammation
Macrophage, as an integral component of the immune system and the first responder to local damage, is on the front line of defense against infection. Over the past century, the prevailing view of macrophage origin states that all macrophage populations resided in tissues are terminally differentiated and replenished by monocytes from bone-marrow progenitors. Nonetheless, this theory has been reformed by ground-breaking discoveries from the past decades. It is now believed that tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) are originated from the embryonic precursors and seeded in tissue prenatally. They can replenish via self-renewal...
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Short-Term Efficacy and Safety of Different Mechanical Hemodynamic Support Devices for Cardiogenic Shock or High-Risk Pci: a Network Meta-Analysis of Thirty-Seven Trials
Conclusion: Following this analysis, ECMO+IABP might be a more suitable intervention measure in improving short-term mortality for patients with CS and who underwent HS-PCI. However, the result was limited by the lack of sufficient direct comparisons and evidence from randomized controlled trials. Moreover, bleeding and other device-related complications should be considered in clinical applications. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

What's New in Shock? January 2021
No abstract available (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - December 21, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Attenuate LPS-Induced ARDS by Modulating Macrophage Polarization Through Inhibiting Glycolysis in Macrophages
Macrophages play a key role in the development of sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent evidence has proved that glycolysis plays an important role in regulating macrophage polarization through metabolic reprogramming. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can alleviate sepsis-induced lung injury and possess potent immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive properties via secreting exosomes. However, it is unknown whether BMSCs-derived exosomes exert their therapeutic effect against sepsis-induced lung injury by inhibiting glycolysis in macrophages. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluat...
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Burn-Induced Apoptosis of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cell is NHE1 Dependent and Regulated by PI3K-Akt and p38 MAPK Pathways
This study investigated the role of NHE1 in burn-induced apoptosis of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Based on the western blot analyses, real-time PCR, fluorescence spectroscopy, and apoptosis analysis, we found that burn serum significantly induced NHE1 activation, promoted intracellular Na+ accumulation, and elevated apoptosis ratio. Inhibition of NHE1 with cariporide reversed burn-induced intracellular Na+ accumulation and cell apoptosis. Different doses of cariporide also significantly decreased Ca2+i concentrations and calpain activity induced by burn serum. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K contribute...
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Effects of the Non-Neutralizing Humanized Monoclonal Anti-Adrenomedullin Antibody Adrecizumab on Hemodynamic and Renal Injury in a Porcine Two-Hit Model
Adrenomedullin is a vasoactive peptide that improves endothelial barrier function in sepsis, but may also cause hypotension and organ failure. Treatment with a non-neutralizing monoclonal anti-adrenomedullin antibody showed improvement in murine sepsis models. We tested the effects of the humanized monoclonal anti-adrenomedullin antibody Adrecizumab in a porcine two-hit model of hemorrhagic and septic shock. In this randomized, blinded study 12 German Landrace pigs were bled to half of baseline mean arterial pressure for 45 min. Sepsis was induced using an Escherichia coli clot placed into the abdominal cavity 6 h aft...
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

MiR-433 Regulates Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Targeting NDRG4 Via the PI3K/Akt Pathway
Conclusion: MiR-433 regulated myocardial IR injury by targeting NDRG4 and modulating PI3K/Akt signal pathway. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

The Effect of Washing of Stored Red Blood Cell Transfusion Units on Post Transfusion Recovery and Outcome in a Pneumosepsis Animal Model
Conclusion: In healthy recipients, washing increased 24h-PTR of donor RBCs and decreased trapping in organs. In pneumoseptic rats, washing reduced bacterial outgrowth and lung injury, but did not improve PTR. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

PINK1 Activation and Translocation to Mitochondria-Associated Membranes Mediates Mitophagy and Protects Against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major concern in liver surgery settings. Mitochondria are critical targets or the origin of tissue injury, particularly I/R injury. Mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy, is a fundamental process that removes damaged or unwanted mitochondria for mitochondrial quality control, but its role in hepatic I/R remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitophagy in hepatic I/R by focusing on PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Livers from 10-week-old mice and primary hepatocytes were subjected to in vivo hepatic I/R and in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation (H...
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Superior Effects of Nebulized Epinephrine to Nebulized Albuterol and Phenylephrine in Burn and Smoke Inhalation-Induced Acute Lung Injury
In conclusion, the results of our studies suggest that nebulized epinephrine more effectively ameliorated the severity of BSI-ALI than albuterol or phenylephrine, possibly by its combined α1- and β2-agonist properties. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Systemic and Cardiac Alterations After Long Bone Fracture
The purpose of this study was to reveal possible consequences of long-bone fracture on cardiac tissue and to analyze the role of systemically elevated danger associated molecular patterns, complement anaphylatoxins and cytokines. Blood samples of mice, pigs, and humans after a fracture were analyzed by ELISAs for complement component 5a (C5a), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and extracellular histones. In vivo results were completed by in vitro experiments with human cardiomyocytes treated with TNF and extracellular histones. The influence of histones and human plasma after fracture on isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocy...
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

Does End-Expiratory Occlusion Test Predict Fluid Responsiveness in Mechanically Ventilated Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the end-expiratory occlusion (EEO) test induced changes in cardiac index (CI) and in arterial pressure as predictors of fluid responsiveness in adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, and Chinese database were screened for relevant original and review articles. The meta-analysis determined the pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), and threshold for the EEO test assessed with CI and arterial pressure....
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Prognosis Value of Early Veno Arterial PCO2 Difference in Patients Under Peripheral Veno Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Introduction: Veno arterial membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) is increasingly used for cardiogenic failure. However, hemodynamic targets for adequate resuscitation remain a challenge. The PCO2 gap and the ratio between PCO2 gap and the arteriovenous difference in oxygen (PCO2 gap/Da–vO2) are marker of peripheral hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that the PCO2 gap and the PCO2 gap/Da–vO2 ratio might be useful parameters in VA ECMO patients. Patients and Methods: We conducted an observational prospective study between September 2015 and February 2017. All consecutive patients>18 years of age who had b...
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Autotaxin Activity Predicts 30-Day Mortality in Sepsis Patients and Correlates With Platelet Count and Vascular Dysfunction
Conclusions: Platelet count, the ratio of angiopoietin-2/1, and autotaxin activity all predicted 30-day mortality. Autotaxin activity within the plasma correlates with both platelet counts and vascular dysfunction biomarkers across both survivors and non-survivors indicating a possible involvement of autotaxin within sepsis. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research

Aminoglycosides in Immunocompromised Critically Ill Patients With Bacterial Pneumonia and Septic Shock: A Post-Hoc Analysis of a Prospective Multicenter Multinational Cohort
Conclusion: Aminoglycoside combination therapy was not associated with hospital mortality or need for renal replacement therapy in immunocompromised patients with pulmonary sepsis. (Source: Shock)
Source: Shock - November 23, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Clinical Science Aspects Source Type: research