Photocurrent amplification of graphene intercalation with titanium dioxide in photoelectrochemical devices
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Qingyuan Liu, Jungyoon Kim, Tianhong CuiAbstractAs a promising solution to renewable energy source and self-powered sensing, photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices have attracted extensive research interests in recent years. In this work, a PEC device is developed by sequentially incorporating graphene and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle multilayers using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. As a mediation layer between the TiO2 nanoparticle film and the gold substrate, compact graphene layer effectively facilitates the s...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 22, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Martensite stabilisation effect in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy with different structure and martensitic transformations
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Sergey Belyaev, Natalia Resnina, Timur Rakhimov, Vladimir AndreevAbstractThe aim of the present work was to study the martensite stabilisation effect in Ni51Ti49 alloy with different structures and martensitic transformations. The quenched Ni51Ti49 alloy underwent the B2→B19’ transformation, whereas the B2→R→B19’ transformation occurred in the annealed sample. The martensite stabilisation effect was studied after deformation in the B19’ state in both samples, and in the R state in the anne...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 20, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Low-frequency noise limitations of InAsSb-, and HgCdTe-based infrared detectors
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Łukasz Ciura, Małgorzata Kopytko, Piotr MartyniukAbstractThe 1/f noise in midwavelength InAsSb- and HgCdTe-based unipolar barrier infrared detectors, grown on GaAs substrate, are studied both experimentally and theoretically. The examination of the dark current reveals three current components: leakage, diffusion, and generation-recombination. The first dominates in the low-temperature region for all devices, while diffusion and generation-recombination components dominate in the high-temperature region. For InAsSb-base...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 20, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A parasitic type piezoelectric actuator with the asymmetrical trapezoid flexure mechanism
This study shows a meaningful idea of the utilization of the asymmetrical trapezoid flexure mechanism for the design of novel piezoelectric actuators.Graphical Abstract (Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical)
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 19, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Fabrication and modeling of β-phase PVDF-TrFE based flexible piezoelectric energy harvester
Publication date: 1 April 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 304Author(s): Sandeep Singh Chauhan, Upendra Mohan Bhatt, Piyush Gautam, Shruti Thote, M.M. Joglekar, Sanjeev Kumar ManhasAbstractThere is increased interest in flexible substrate-based piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) for self-powered wireless sensor nodes, due to their low-cost and environmental friendliness. However, it presents fabrication challenges due to the low-temperature process and formation of a highly polar β-phase of a polymer film on a flexible substrate. In this work, first, we optimize the deposition parameters to grow...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 19, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Enhanced humidity sensing performance of Samarium doped Lanthanum Aluminate at room temperature
Publication date: 1 April 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 304Author(s): S. Pratibha, B. Chethan, Y.T. Ravikiran, N. Dhananjaya, V. Jagadeesh AngadiAbstractIn the present research, the enhanced room temperature operable humidity sensing response of lanthanum aluminate (LA) and (1 mol%) Sm3+ doped Lanthanum aluminate (SDLA) compound synthesized by solution combustion method using in-toxic and bio-degradable sucrose (C12H22O11) as fuel, is been discussed. Structural analysis are carried out by many analytical methods like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform in...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 19, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A Wearable Device to Measure the Palmar Grasp Reflex of Neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
In this study, we develop a wearable pressure sensing device to quantitatively measure the elicited palmar grasp strength of clinically complicated neonates aged 0 to 2 months. A capacitive pressure sensing device was fabricated using Ecoflex which acts as a dielectric material sandwiched between two copper electrodes, and further assembled with the coupling parts to provide comfort to neonates. The characterization of the fabricated device showed a linear sensitivity (0.13kPa-1), a high pressure range up to 530 kPa, and excellent working stability. Clinical experiments were performed on 33 newborns by investigating...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 19, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Closed-loop capacitive readout based on mode localization effect in weakly-coupled RLC circuits
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Xueyong Wei, Hongcai Zhang, Yanyu Ding, Juan RenAbstractAccurate detection of capacitance change is an essential requirement for capacitive sensors development. This paper presents a closed-loop circuit of weakly-coupled RLC resonators for high-resolution capacitive readout. Mode localization effect in the weakly-coupled RLC resonators is studied and the comparison shows superiority in linearity by a closed-loop method. The experimental results validate a capacitive readout resolution of 37.5fF and a 216 times improvement...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 16, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Enhanced humidity sensing performance of Samarium doped Lanthanum Aluminate operable at room temperature
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): S. Pratibha, B. Chethan, Y.T. Ravikiran, N. Dhananjaya, V. Jagadeesh AngadiAbstractIn the present research, the enhanced room temperature operable humidity sensing response of lanthanum aluminate (LA) and (1 mol%) Sm3+ doped Lanthanum aluminate (SDLA) compound synthesized by solution combustion method using in-toxic and bio-degradable sucrose (C12H22O11) as fuel, is been discussed. Structural analysis are carried out by many analytical methods like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourie...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of ammonia sensing by QCM modified with boric acid-doped PVAc nanofiber
In this study, we devised a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method to detect ammonia gas in the air using electrospun polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) nanofiber that was doped with boric acid to obtain better ammonia sensing characteristics. The produced nanofiber was checked mainly by SEM-EDX and FTIR spectroscopy. The sensitivity of the PVAc/BA6 nanofiber QCM sensor was found to be 0.072 Hz/ppm, which was higher than that of the undoped one (0.044 Hz/ppm). Apart from the enhanced sensitivity, the PVAc/BA6 nanofiber sensor also showed good and enhanced selectivity towards ammonia gas detection. Doping PVAc nanofib...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 303Author(s): (Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical)
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Underwater oscillation performance and 3D vortex distribution generated by miniature caudal fin-like propulsion with macro fiber composite actuation
Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 303Author(s): Lou Junqiang, Yang Yiling, Wu Chuanyu, Li Guoping, Chen Tehuan, Ma JianqiangAbstractUnderwater biomimetic propulsion systems that mimic the BCF (Body and/or Caudal Fin) fishes have attracted considerable attention. A miniature caudal fin-like propulsion device, whose design is based on the morphology and kinematics of the koi fish, is proposed in this paper. The propulsion is actuated by flexible fiber-based piezoelectric actuators, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC). A vacuum fabrication procedure is employed to bond the components of t...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Multi-axis force sensors: a state-of-the-art review
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Jack O. Templeman, Brian B. Sheil, Tong SunAbstractA multi-axis force sensor measures forces and moments occurring in more than one spatial direction. In this way, a single multi-axis sensor can perform what is essentially a three-dimensional measurement of physical quantities. This feature makes multi-axis sensors popular in a wide range of engineering research including automation, machining processes, aerospace, medical applications and civil engineering. Measurement of multi-directional forces and moments is typically...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A Mathematical Model of OECTs with variable internal geometry
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Francesco Gentile, Filippo Vurro, Francesco Picelli, Manuele Bettelli, Andrea Zappettini, Nicola CoppedèAbstractOrganic Electrochemical Transistor (OECTs) are devices that can measure the ionic content of liquid samples and biological systems. The response of an OECT can provide information on the physiological conditions and characteristics of a biological system. In a typical OECT configuration, the system or sample is connected to a reference electrode (the gate) and to a semiconducting material, typically PEDOT:...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 12, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Signal enhancement of FBG-based Cantilever Accelerometer by resonance suppression using magnetic damper
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Waldo Udos, Yen-Sian Lee, Kok-Sing Lim, Zhi-Chao Ong, Muhammad Khairol Annuar Zaini, Harith AhmadAbstractIn this work, we propose the use of a magnetic damper in the FBG-based cantilever accelerometer (FCA) to reduce the distortion of signal due to the infinite signal amplification at the resonant frequency. The magnetic damper comprises a permanent magnet and a U-shape aluminum structure. The permanent magnet serves as a load and is attached to one end of the cantilever whereas the aluminum structure serves as a damper t...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 12, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

19-picometer mechanical step displacement measurement using heterodyne interferometer with phase-locked loop and piezoelectric driving flexure-stage
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Thanh Dong Nguyen, Quang Anh Duong, Masato Higuchi, Thanh Tung Vu, Dong Wei, Masato AketagawaAbstractIn this paper, we discuss 20-picometer-order mechanical step displacement measurements using a heterodyne interferometer with a phase-locked loop (PLL) and two piezoelectric (PZT) driving flexure-stages. First, the phase meter for heterodyne interferometry using one simple digital PLL is developed. Two inputs and one output of the single PLL are the reference and measurement signals of the heterodyne interferometer and the ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 9, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Fabrication and Modelling of β-phase PVDF-TrFE based Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Sandeep Singh Chauhan, Upendra Mohan Bhatt, Piyush Gautam, Shruti Thote, M.M. Joglekar, Sanjeev Kumar ManhasAbstractThere is increased interest in flexible substrate-based piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) for self-powered wireless sensor nodes, due to their low cost and environmental friendliness. However, it presents fabrication challenges due to the low-temperature process and formation of a highly polar β phase of a polymer film on a flexible substrate. In this work, first, we optimize the deposition parameters...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 9, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Chemical Vapor Deposition of 3D Graphene/Carbon Nanotubes Networks for Hybrid Supercapacitors
We present the direct synthesis of graphene as well as carbon nanotube within the vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests to form either the 3D CNT-graphene or 3D CNT-CNT network by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The multi-dimensional material assembly process is achieved by the electroplating of a thin nickel layer around the individual CNTs followed by a second CVD process for the synthesis of graphene or CNTs branching out of the original VACNT, respectively. The combinations of large surface areas (graphene and CNT), high electrochemical reactions sites (graphene), and metal particles as pseudocap...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 8, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A route to detect H2 in ambient conditions using a sensor based on reduced Graphene Oxide
In this study, we have fabricated a H2 (g) sensor based on the precise positioning of GO flakes across sputtered aluminium-doped ZnO (AZO) electrodes on a glass substrate using a positive dielectrophoretic force (DEP). GO flakes assembly was performed between AZO electrodes gap of 4 μm and optimized by controlling the DEP parameters. A chemical reduction using a solution of 10 mM sodium borohydride was used to enhance the conductivity of the GO flakes up to two orders of magnitude. The arrangement of the GO flakes, the efficiency of the reduction process, the morphology and the surface potential of these was anal...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 7, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Fracture Strength and Fatigue Endurance in Gd-Doped Ceria Thermal Actuators
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Eran Mishuk, Andrei Ushakov, Jenny Shklovsky, Slava Krylov, Yosi Shacham-Diamand, Vladimir Ya. Shur, Andrei Kholkin, Igor LubomirskyAbstractWe studied the stability of the mechanical properties and the fatigue endurance of Gd-doped ceria (CGO), which is a promising electromechanically active material for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Specifically, the fracture strength and long-term operation of plate-type circular (2 mm diameter) thermal actuators made of ≈1.15 μm thick Ce0.95Gd0.05O1.975 (CGO5) w...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 7, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Ultraviolet photodetectors using hollow p-CuO nanospheres/n-ZnO nanorods with a pn junction structure
We report on ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with a pn junction structure consisting of hollow p-CuO (h-CuO) nanospheres and n-ZnO nanorods (NRs). To form the pn junction structure, thermal annealing was conducted using a transferred monolayer of Cu-ion-incorporated polymer spheres onto the n-ZnO NRs/n-Si substrate. Device performance was evaluated by comparing the effects of h-CuO nanosphere coverage changed by sphere shrinkage during thermal annealing of Cu-ion-incorporated polymer spheres. Three samples were prepared by varying the transfer times of h-CuO on ZnO NRs: 0 times (Reference), 1 time (CZ-I), and 2 times (CZ-I...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 7, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

2-D to 3-D Conversion of WO3 Nanostructures Using Structure Directing Agent for Enhanced NO2 Gas Sensing Performance
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): S.A. Beknalkar, V.L. Patil, N.S. Harale, M.P. Suryawanshi, A.P. Patil, V.B. Patil, J.H. Kim, P.S. PatilAbstractAn exotic 3-D tungsten oxide (WO3) microflower was synthesized via low-cost and environmental-friendly hydrothermal strategy. The effect of structure-directing agent on the formation of 3-D microflowers from a 2-D nanosheets of WO3 and its gas sensing behavior are investigated. The as-synthesized WO3 powder was used in morphological, structural and phase studies by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micros...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 7, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Development of a combined Prandtl Ishlinskii–Preisach model
Publication date: 1 April 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 304Author(s): Zhi Li, Xiuyu Zhang, Lianwei MaAbstractThe Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model and the Preisach model are commonly used models to predict the hysteretic behaviors in smart materials-based actuators. The advantages of the PI model are that (1) the structure of the model is simple, which facilitates the implementation of the model; (2) the analytical inverse of the model is available. The disadvantage of the PI model is that it can only describe the symmetric hysteresis effects. For the Preisach model, it is capable of describing various ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Effect of biaxial curvature on the resonance frequency of uncoated microcantilevers
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): S. Balasubramanian, K. Prabakar, Aditi, Ravindra Mukhiya, S. Tripura SundariAbstractMicrocantilevers (MCs) are extensively studied as physical, chemical and biological sensors in dynamic mode, where the shift in resonance frequency due to the adsorption of target analytes/biomolecules on their surface is measured. However, surface stress generated during adsorption or microfabrication induced curvature inherently present in MCs can influence the observed frequency shift, introducing significant errors in the quantification...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 2, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Giant enhancement in photoresponse via engineering of photo-induced charge (electron and hole) transfer in linear and non-linear devices
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): G V Sai Manohar, S B Krupanidhi, K K NandaAbstractZinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely explored for UV detection despite its high exciton binding energy that can inhibit its photoresponse due to high probability of recombination. Here, we describe an approach that suppresses recombination and enhances the photoresponse via engineering of photo-induced charge transfer (PCT) in a linear MSM device Ag/ZnO/Ag and a non-linear p-Si/ZnO junction device. ZnO film when coated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/ nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) f...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 1, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Dual-spectroscopy technique based on quartz crystal tuning fork detector
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Linguang Xu, Ningwu Liu, Shen Zhou, Lei Zhang, Jingsong LiAbstractQuartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) as a sensitive element and valuable component has been widely used for developing mass and stress sensor, pressure and temperature sensor, optoacoustic transducer and photoelectric detector, due to its high quality factor, high stability and precision, and low power consumption. In this paper, QCTF was reported for simultaneous detection of both acoustic signal induced by photoacoustic effect (i.e. photoacoustic spectroscopy...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 1, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A simple micro check valve using a photo-patterned hydrogel valve core
This study makes the flow control more simplified in integrated microfluidic systems.Graphical abstract (Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical)
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 1, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

An optimized Deep Convolutional Neural Network for dendrobium classification based on electronic nose
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): You Wang, Junwei Diao, Zhan Wang, Xianghao Zhan, Bixuan Zhang, Nan Li, Guang LiAbstractThis paper introduces an optimized Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) using special banded 1D kernels at the convolutional and the pooling layers adapted for electronic nose (E-nose) data. It is used to classify multiple types of Chinese herbal medicine. The optimized DCNN network is composed of 5 special convolutional layers with 1D convolutional kernels, 2 special pooling layers with 1D size, 1 fully connected layer and 1 Softmax...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - February 1, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Development of a Combined Prandtl Ishlinskii-Preisach Model
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Zhi Li, Xiuyu Zhang, Lianwei MaAbstractThe Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model and the Preisach model are commonly used models to predict the hysteretic behaviors in smart materials-based actuators. The advantages of the PI model are that (1) the structure of the model is simple, which facilitates the implementation of the model; (2) the analytical inverse of the model is available. The disadvantage of the PI model is that it can only describe the symmetric hysteresis effects. For the Preisach model, it is capable of describing ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 31, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Synthesis of WO3 Nanoflakes by Hydrothermal Route and its Gas Sensing Application
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Pankaj S. Kolhe, Pallavi Mutadak, Namita Maiti, Kishor M. SonawaneAbstractThe controlled morphology and size of inorganic materials have attracted intense interest, as these parameters play an important role in determining sensing properties. Herein, WO3 thin film is hydrothermally grown on FTO substrate at 175 ℃ with the assistance of seed layer deposited by spray pyrolysis technique. The WO3 thin film was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmissio...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 31, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 302Author(s): (Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical)
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 31, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Design and Testing of a New Dual-Axial Underfloor Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Zehao Wu, Qingsong XuAbstractThis paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a dual-axial underfloor piezoelectric energy harvester based on piezoelectric stack. Usually, an underfloor energy harvester can only scavenge the energy from vertical force excitation. In addition to vertical pressure, the floor also suffers from lateral friction force during human walking. One uniqueness of the designed underfloor energy harvester lies in that it can collect energy from both vertical and horizontal excitation forces....
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Design and experimental performance of a low-frequency piezoelectric motor based on inertia drive
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Jiantao Wang, Wu Yin, Zhigang Yang, Xiaolong Zhao, Xiafei Chen, Dingxuan ZhaoAbstractThe inertia drive piezoelectric motor generally employs an asymmetric waveform driving signal, and the power supply for generating such type of driving signal is complicated and costly. In order to simplify the driving power of the inertia drive piezoelectric motor, a low-frequency piezoelectric motor driven by a 50 Hz sine wave is proposed in this paper. We first analyze the working principle: the pressure between the rotor and the...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Development of a directional magnetic-concentrator-type electromagnetic acoustic transducer for ultrasonic guided wave inspection
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Zenghua Liu, Aili Li, Yongchen Zhang, Liming Deng, Bin Wu, Cunfu HeAbstractPermanent magnet is widely used as one of the three elements of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (magnet, coil, tested specimen). However, due to the immutability and non-uniformity of the permanent magnet magnetic field, the electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) will produce other unwanted modes, which will affect the purity of the targeted mode in signals. Therefore, the multi-mode problem of EMAT is still an important issue to be solved. ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Eigenvalues and dynamic stiffness of picket-shaped cantilevers
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): M.A. MahmoudAbstractA comprehensive data set is presented that covers eigenvalues and dynamic stiffness of picket-shaped microcantilevers for a wide range of the taper ratio and tip mass ratios. The shape of these microcantilevers is such that most of the length is of uniform cross section and the end segment of the beam is width-tapered to a point at the free end. This configuration is widely used in MEMS devices. Closed form expressions are presented for the eigenvalues, and for static and dynamic stiffness. These expres...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Novel Coil-less Room-temperature Resettable Magnetic-bead Manipulation by Using Thermomagnetic Tracks
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Tien-Kan Chung, Chih-Cheng Cheng, Jaganmohan Reddy, Jeng-Han ChiouAbstractIn this paper, we report a novel coil-less room-temperature resettable magnetic bead manipulation by using thermomagnetic Gd tracks. When comparing to conventional magnetic-track-guided magnetic bead motion, the thermomagnetic Gd tracks (whose Curie temperature is at room temperature) not only can guide the bead motion (as well as the conventional tracks) but also can be reset (demagnetized) in room temperature range without use of any conventional r...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Transition Metal Dichalcogenides-Based Flexible Gas Sensors
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Rahul Kumar, Neeraj Goel, Mirabbos Hojamberdiev, Mahesh KumarAbstractIn recent years, two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2, SnS2, etc., have gained enormous interest in sensing applications with low-power consumption owing to their unique electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Among a broad range of sensors, rapid advances in flexible and wearable sensors have paved the way for smart sensing applications, including electronic skin (e-skin), home security, air- and health-monitori...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Measurement of Impact Characteristics in a String using Electrospun PVDF Nanofibers Strain Sensors
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Rahul Kumar Singh, Sun Woh Lye, Jianmin MiaoAbstractMechanical behaviour of solid structures upon the action of an impact force is an important indicator of the structures’ performance. The location of an impact force and the subsequent dynamic characteristics of strain and deflection on a string are important parameters for applications such as musical instruments and sports rackets. This paper proposes a flexible, lightweight and self-powered polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) strain sensor for attachment on a string. ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 27, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Characterization of a Parametric Resonance Based Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducer in Air for Acoustic Power Transfer and Sensing
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Sushruta Surappa, F. Levent DegertekinAbstractCapacitive transducers typically require a DC bias or a pre-charged electret to operate, rendering them non-ideal for applications such as energy harvesting and wireless power transfer. Parametric resonance based capacitive transducers offer an alternative to traditional capacitive transducers as they can be operated without the need for a bias voltage or a pre-charged electret. In this paper, we experimentally validate a 1D lumped parameter model and characterize a CPUT operat...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 25, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Effect of permittivity and frequency on induced velocity in ac-DBD surface and channel plasma actuators
In this study, the performance of plasma actuators are experimentally characterised with dielectric material, dielectric thickness, and operating frequency for surface and channel actuator geometries. The channel height, changing the effective dielectric constant, is also varied. Induced velocities were measured using a pitot tube and PIV, and power consumption levels were recorded. For the surface plasma actuator, PTFE and GRE dielectric materials show similar performance, with Kapton producing the highest induced velocity jet. Higher plasma ionisation tends to occur with operating frequencies of 5 and 10 kHz, with a mini...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 25, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

An Improved Tactile Sensing Device for Material Characterization via Friction-Induced Vibrations
We report an improvement of an instrument used to correlate perceived material surface characteristics to vibrations induced in a transducer via surface profile tracing by addition of stick-slip vibration and stochastic measurements. Our instrument utilizes an inductive transducer and turntable stage to measure and characterize induced vibrations, and additionally incorporates an elastic bead of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) on the stylus tip to simulate the slight tackiness and elasticity of skin, when in contact with certain types of materials. It is thus able to tease vibrational frequencies out of the measureme...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 25, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Three-energy-level-cascaded strategy for a more sensitive luminescence ratiometric thermometry
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Leipeng Li, Feng Qin, Yuan Zhou, Yangdong Zheng, Jipeng Miao, Zhiguo ZhangAbstractLuminescence ratiometric thermometry has gained increasing attention in recent years because of its several merits, such as non-invasive operating mode, fast response time, excellent spatial resolution, and so forth. It can be realized by using the thermally coupled energy levels (TCELs) of rare earth ions. The maximum thermal sensitivity for the TCELs-based luminescence ratiometric thermometry has been found to be ∼2000/kT2. Here we show...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 25, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Design of Methane Sensor Based on Slow Light Effect in Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Hai Liu, Wen Zhang, Haoran Wang, Cancan Chen, Shoufeng TangAbstractA tunable methane gas sensor is proposed and optimized by introducing a gas-sensitive film into the cladding air holes of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The characteristics of dispersion curve and group index of band-gap photonic crystal fiber are analyzed by the Plane Wave Expansion Method (PWM) and Finite Element Method (FEM). The results show that the micro-fluid infiltration technology can effectively improve the slow light characteristics...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 25, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A novel miniaturized asymmetric CPW split ring resonator with extended field distribution pattern for sensing applications
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Navid Hosseini, Seyi Stephen Olokede, Mojgan DaneshmandAbstractNovel modified split-ring resonator (SRR) for expanded field distribution and miniaturized dimensions for sensing with double sided detection capability is proposed. The proposed design is based on an asymmetric coplanar waveguide type SRR and demonstrate a smaller radius of 0.035 × λ with a resonance of 1.57 GHz at its first harmonic. The proposed structure has the potential of higher sensitivity, requires smaller sample volum...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 25, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Design and Characterization of Surface Relief Grating on Etched Multimode Optical Fiber For Refractive Index Sensing
We report a simple and compact optical fiber sensor based on surface relief gratings in conventional graded-index multimode optical fiber (GIMMF) for refractive index sensing. Bragg gratings on MMF are less explored compare to its single mode counterpart, even though the MMF platform possesses several advantages such as robustness, enhanced light-matter interaction and easy light coupling. In this work, surface relief gratings are directly written on one side of the cladding etched MMF core surface by using focused ion beam milling (FIB). A detailed theoretical analysis of the structure and sensing principle is analysed. T...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 25, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Dosed carbon precipitation and graphene layer number control on nickel micro-electromechanical systems surfaces
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): A. Gkouzou, G.C.A.M. Janssen, W.M. van SpengenAbstractIn this paper, we report on the in situ synthesis of graphene layers by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), directly on nickel micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) surfaces. We have developed MEMS structures of which the temperature can be increased locally by Joule heating while in a methane environment. For our MEMS structures, the thermal time constant is 28 µs. As a result, we have control over the carbon precipitation time, thereby governing how many ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 24, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Fabrication of single crystalline WO3 nano-belts based photoelectric gas sensor for detection of high concentration ethanol gas at room temperature
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Hua-Liang Yu, Jun Wang, Biao Zheng, Bing-Wen Zhang, Li-Qin Liu, Ying-Wu Zhou, Cheng Zhang, Xiao-Ling XueAbstractWO3 gas sensing material was synthesized by hydrothermal process, exhibiting a belt-like surface morphology. By comparing and analysing the UV-vis absorption spectra, it is shown that the band gap of WO3 nano-belts (NBs) is 0.56 eV larger than that of WO3 nano-particles (NPs). Surface photo-voltage (SPV) spectra and SPV phase spectra indicate that the direction of the surface built-in electric field is fro...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 24, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A readout integrated circuit for sensitive infrared photodetection operating in intense backgrounds
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Pablo Nunes Agra Belmonte, Davies William de Lima MonteiroAbstractInfrared photodetection generally presents some undesirable features: low detector shunt resistance, large pixel dark current, high noise levels, and intense background signal. These impose challenges to design the readout integrated electronics to properly extract signal information from the detector, mainly due to the effect of low injection efficiency and the limited on-chip voltage supply. Signal sensitivity and saturation are, therefore, often compromis...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 24, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Dual-axis optical spatial heterodyning angle measurements using CMOS sensor color crosstalk
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): James Leibold, Ribal Georges SabatAbstractA simple, yet precise, optical angle measurement device was developed by analyzing the light interference pattern from a modified Lloyd’s mirror interferometer combined with a CMOS camera sensor. The resulting spatially heterodyned signal was very sensitive to small angle changes from an incident low-power laser beam, with an accuracy better than 8.9 arcsec over a range of 1.47 degrees. Measurement dead zones, estimated to have an angular span of ± 0.96 arcmin, occurre...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 24, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Harmonic excitation response performance and active regulation of the high-frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer used in the thermosonic bonding for microelectronics
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Hongjie Zhang, Chunyang Zhao, Xiangfei Ning, Jiawei Huang, Jichang ZhangAbstractHigh-frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is one of the most important components in the modern thermosonic bonding for microelectronics and its harmonic excitation response performance can vary due to many reasons, often leading to a mutable bonding quality. In this research, an in-depth understanding of the harmonic excitation response performance of the transducer was provided. Relying on the electromechanical equivalent method and ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - January 24, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research