Hepatic Steatosis: Etiology, Patterns and Quantification
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Ilkay S. Idilman, Ilknur Ozdeniz, Musturay Karcaaltincaba Hepatic steatosis can occur due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholism, chemotherapy, metabolic, toxic and infectious causes. Pediatric hepatic steatosis is also becoming more frequent and can have distinctive features. Most common pattern is diffuse form, however it can present as heterogenous, focal, multinodular, perilesional, perivascular, subcapsular and lobar forms. Focal steatosis and fat sparing can occur due to presence of veins of Sappey...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - August 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Avoiding Pitfalls in the Interpretation of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MR Imaging
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Marco Dioguardi Burgio, Maxime Ronot, Luisa Paulatto, Sylvain Terraz, Valérie Vilgrain, Giuseppe Brancatelli Gadoxetic acid is extensively used in three main clinical situations: characterization of small nodules in patients with cirrhosis, preoperative staging of liver metastases, and characterization of incidentally discovered focal liver lesions. Due to the rapid entry of gadoxetic acid into hepatocytes, the traditional features of liver tumors are modified on MR imaging, especially during delayed phase sequenc...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - August 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Spinal Cord Injury: Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury, Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy, and Cord Herniation
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Kiran Talekar, Michael Poplawski, Rahul Hegde, Mougnyan Cox, Adam Flanders We review the pathophysiology and imaging findings of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and briefly review the much less common cord herniation as a unique cause of myelopathy. Acute traumatic SCI is devastating to the patient and the costs to society are staggering. There are currently no “cures” for SCI and the only accepted pharmacologic treatment regimen for traumatic SCI is currently being ques...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - August 3, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An Imaging-Based Approach to Spinal Cord Infection
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Jason F. Talbott, Jared Narvid, J. Levi Chazen, Cynthia T. Chin, Vinil Shah Infections of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and surrounding meninges are uncommon, but highly significant given their potential for severe morbidity and even mortality. Prompt diagnosis can be lifesaving, as many spinal infections are treatable. Advances in imaging technology have now firmly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the gold standard for spinal cord imaging evaluation, enabling the depiction of infectious myelopathies wi...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 27, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Transverse Myelitis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders
This article describes the different entities of transverse myelitis, with a particular focus on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 26, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular Diseases of the Spinal Cord: Infarction, Hemorrhage, and Venous Congestive Myelopathy
This article presents clinical and imaging approaches to the diagnosis and management of spinal vascular conditions most commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ischemia, infarction, hemorrhage, aneurysms, and vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are discussed. Pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical classification schemes, clinical presentations, imaging findings, and treatment modalities are considered. Recent advances in genetic and syndromic vascular pathologies of the spinal cord are also discussed. Clinically relevant spinal vascular anatomy is reviewed in detail. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter From the Guest Editor: Spinal Cord Imaging. I: Anatomical, Pathophysiologic, and Clinical Correlate
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Humberto Morales (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abnormal Spinal Cord Magnetic Resonance Signal: Approach to the Differential Diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Humberto Morales, Aaron Betts T2-hyperintense signal abnormalities within the spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging can evoke a broad differential diagnosis and can present a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and provide a succinct and relevant differential diagnosis based on imaging patterns and anatomical or physiopathologic correlation. Clues and imaging pearls are provided focusing on inflammatory, infectious, demyelinating, vascular, and metabolic involvement of the spinal cord. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spinal Cord in Multiple Sclerosis: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features and Differential Diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Alex Rovira, Cristina Auger Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that affects not only the brain but also the spinal cord. In the diagnostic and monitoring process of MS, spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not performed as commonly as brain MRI, mainly because of certain technical difficulties and the increase in total acquisition time. Nonetheless, spinal cord MRI findings are important to establish a prompt accurate diagnosis of MS, impart prognostic i...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cord Cystic Cavities: Syringomyelia and Prominent central canal
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Blaise V. Jones Syringomyelia is the term given to cystic cavities in the spinal cord, most of which are associated with congenital malformations of the craniocervical junction and represent dilation of the central canal of the cord. As such, syrinxes can be considered analogous to hydrocephalus. The exact etiology of syrinx formation remains a subject of debate, but there is good evidence that they are the result of obstruction of the normal flow of CSF between the intracranial and spinal compartments. The chances that ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Spinal Ultrasound: Neonatal and Intraoperative Applications
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Enrique Alvarado, James Leach, Marguerite Caré, Francesco Mangano, Sara O′Hara The purpose of this article is to review the utility of ultrasound as a screening tool for spinal diseases in neonates and infants and its intraoperative value in selected pediatric neurosurgical disorders. A review of spinal embryology followed by a description of common spinal diseases in neonates assessed with ultrasound is presented. Indications for spinal ultrasound in neonates, commonly identified conditions, and the imp...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Application of Human Spinal Cord Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Clinical Studies: A Review
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Patrik Oliver Wyss, Andreas Hock, Spyros Kollias This paper reviews the current state of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) applied in the human spinal cord with respect to its clinical applications and challenges in comparison to investigations in the human brain. Results from several disease processes affecting the spinal cord are presented and potential advantages of applying clinical MRS in their investigation are emphasized. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular imaging techniques of the spinal cord
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Maria Isabel Vargas, Isabelle Barnaure, Joanna Gariani, José Boto, Alain Pellaton, Jean-Louis Dietemann, Zsolt Kulcsar The different imaging techniques used to depict vascular lesions of the spinal cord are described in this article with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), vascular sequences and advantages of high field MRI. Technical vascular protocols are discussed in computed tomography (CT), MRI and conventional angiography (CA). The diverse MRA protocols are presented as well as the...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Functional MRI of the Spinal Cord: Current Status and Future Developments
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): J. Cohen-Adad While functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become popular for brain imaging, it is still difficult to apply this technique to the spinal cord because of complex issues related to the physiology of the spinal cord and technical challenges related to MRI hardware, pulse sequences and image processing techniques. In this review we will examine these key aspects and discuss their present status, unresolved issues, and future directions. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Advanced Neuroimaging in the Evaluation of Spinal Cord Tumors and Tumor Mimics: Diffusion Tensor and Perfusion Weighted Imaging
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Xiang Liu, Wei Tian, Hongyan Chen, Thomas A. LoStracco, Jing Zhang, Michael Yan Li, Barbara Germin, Henry Wang Spinal cord tumors are an important component of pathologic diseases involving the spinal cord. Conventional MR imaging only provides anatomic information. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) may detect microstructure diffusion and hemodynamic changes in these tumors. We review recent application studies of MR DTI and PWI in spinal cord tumors. Overall, MR DTI and PWI ar...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter from the Guest Editor: Spinal Cord Imaging II: Pediatrics and Advanced Techniques
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Humberto Morales (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Congenital and Hereditary Diseases of the Spinal Cord
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Lily L. Wang, Karin S. Bierbrauer Congenital anomalies of the spinal cord can pose a diagnostic dilemma to the radiologist. Several classification systems of these anomalies exist. Antenatal ultrasound and fetal MRI is playing an increasingly important role in the early diagnosis and management of patients. Understanding the underlying anatomy as well as embryology of these disorders can be valuable in correctly identifying the type of spinal cord dysraphic defect. Hereditary spinal cord diseases are rare but can be dev...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - July 23, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Primary Rectal Cancer —Standard Protocol and Beyond
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Sofia Gourtsoyianni, Nickolas Papanikolaou New-generation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners with optimal phased-array body coils have contributed to obtainment of high-resolution T2-weighted turbo spin echo images in which visualization of anatomical details such as the mesorectal fascia and the bowel wall layers is feasible. Preoperative, locoregional staging of rectal cancer with MRI, considered standard of care nowadays, relies on these images for stratification of high-risk patients for local recurrence,...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - June 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Enterography in Crohn ׳s Disease
This article reviews the role of MR enterography in assessing the extent and activity of Crohn׳s disease at baseline and on treatment follow-up. It discusses the role of diffusion-weighted imaging, and the recent introduction of MR scoring systems to facilitate noninvasive objective assessment of disease activity and cumulative bowel damage. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - June 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Role of Magnetic Resonance Enterography in the Evaluation of Non-Crohn ׳s Pathologies
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Nyree Griffin, Olwen Westerland In the young patient population, magnetic resonance enterography is fast becoming a preferred imaging tool for the investigation of patients with non–Crohn׳s small bowel and mesenteric pathologies. Its advantages include lack of ionizing radiation and high-contrast resolution. This review discusses the range of small bowel and mesenteric pathologies that can be easily demonstrated with this technique. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - June 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Perianal Fistula
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Damian J.M. Tolan Perianal fistulas and other inflammatory diseases of the anus and perianal soft tissues are a cause of substantial morbidity, and are a major part of the practice of any colorectal surgeon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a key role in the assessment of patients for the extent of fistulizing Crohn disease, complications related to fistulas, and to assist in confirming the diagnosis or proposing an alternative. Technique is critical and in particular, the selection of sequences for diagnosis and ch...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - June 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Primary Rectal Cancer—Standard Protocol and Beyond
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Sofia Gourtsoyianni, Nickolas Papanikolaou New-generation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners with optimal phased-array body coils have contributed to obtainment of high-resolution T2-weighted turbo spin echo images in which visualization of anatomical details such as the mesorectal fascia and the bowel wall layers is feasible. Preoperative, locoregional staging of rectal cancer with MRI, considered standard of care nowadays, relies on these images for stratification of high-risk patients for local recurrence,...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - June 11, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current Issues in Computed Tomography Colonography
This article discusses the current components of a high-quality examination including contemporary methods of bowel preparation and distension. Also described is the main trial data that have validated the examination. Finally, the use of the technique for nonneoplastic colonic pathology is discussed, and future directions are described including magnetic resonance colonography and wireless capsule colonic imaging. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - June 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An Imaging Based Approach to Spinal Cord Infection
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Jason F. Talbott, Jared Narvid, J. Levi Chazen, Cynthia T. Chin, Vinil Shah Infections of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and surrounding meninges are uncommon, but highly significant given their potential for severe morbidity and even mortality. Prompt diagnosis can be life-saving, as many spinal infections are treatable. Advances in imaging technology have now firmly established MRI as the gold standard for spinal cord imaging evaluation, enabling the depiction of infectious myelopathies with exquisite detail and cont...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - June 2, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neoplastic and Paraneoplastic Involvement of the Spinal Cord
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): J. Michael Hazenfield, Mary F. Gaskill-Shipley Neoplasia of the spinal cord, including both primary and metastatic tumors, is relatively rare, representing 4–10% of all central nervous system tumors, and can present a diagnostic challenge to the radiologist. More than 90% of primary spinal cord neoplasms are derived from the glial cell lineage, including the two most common tumors: ependymoma and astrocytoma. However less common spinal cord tumors, including metastatic disease, as well as non-neoplastic and paraneo...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 18, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Toxic and Metabolic Myelopathies
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Joana Ramalho, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Antonio Jose da Rocha, Mauricio Castillo Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. It is most commonly caused by its compression by neoplasms, degenerative disc disease, trauma, or infection. Less common causes of myelopathy include spinal cord tumors, infection, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic and metabolic disorders. Conditions affecting the spinal cord must be recognized as early as possible to prevent progression which may lead to ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 12, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter from the Guest Editor:Spinal Cord Imaging I: Anatomic, Pathophysiologic and Clinic Correlate
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Humberto Morales (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abnormal Spinal Cord MR Signal: Approach to the Differential Diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): H. Morales, A. Betts T2 hyper intense signal abnormalities within the spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging can evoke a broad differential diagnosis, and can present a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and provide a succinct and relevant differential diagnosis based on imaging patterns and anatomic / physiopathologic correlation. Clues and imaging pearls are provided focusing on inflammatory, infectious, demyelinating, vascular and metabolic involvement of the spinal cord. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Spinal Cord Injury: Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury, Chronic Spondylotic Myelopathy and Cord Herniation
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Kiran Talekar, Michael Poplawski, Rahul Hegde, Mougnyan Cox, Adam Flanders We review the pathophysiology and imaging findings of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), chronic spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and briefly review the much less common cord herniation as a unique cause of myelopathy. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating to the patient and the costs to society are staggering. There are currently no “cures” for SCI and the only accepted pharmacologic treatment regimen for traum...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spinal Cord in Multiple Sclerosis: MR Imaging Features and Differential Diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Alex Rovira, Cristina Auger Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that affects not only the brain, but also the spinal cord. In the diagnostic and monitoring process of MS, spinal cord MRI is not performed as commonly as brain MRI, mainly because of certain technical difficulties and the increase in total acquisition time. Nonetheless, spinal cord MRI findings are important to establish a prompt accurate diagnosis of MS, impart prognostic information, and provide valu...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Anatomy and Clinical Syndromes
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): E. Diaz, H. Morales We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as MR imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis / cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Whereas laminae 1 to 5 carry sensitive-neuron information in the posterior horn, lamina 9 carries the majority of lower motor-neuron...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Vascular Diseases of the Spinal Cord: Infarction, Hemorrhage and Venous Congestive Myelopathy
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Shawn M. Vuong, William J. Jeong, Humberto Morales, Todd A. Abruzzo Vascular pathologies of the spinal cord are rare and often overlooked. This review presents clinical and imaging approaches to the diagnosis and management of spinal vascular conditions most commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ischemia, infarction, hemorrhage, aneurysms and vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are discussed. Pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical classification schemes, clinical presentations, imaging findings, and ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Transverse Myelitis and NMO Spectrum Disorders
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Victoria Young, Gerardine Quaghebeur Transverse myelitis is defined as inflammation of the spinal cord, named due to its typical clinical presentation with band like symptoms of altered sensation or pain - in a horizontal fashion - at a specific dermatome level. Radiographic patterns might vary but the idiopathic form is more frequent to present as involvement of three to four vertebral segments and both sides of the cord. It is now recognised that there are numerous other causes as well as the idiopathic type, with often...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - May 7, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI for perianal fistula
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Damian J.M. Tolan Perianal fistulas and other inflammatory diseases of the anus and perianal soft tissues are a cause of substantial morbidity, and a major part of the practice of any colorectal surgeon. MRI has a key role in the assessment of patients for the extent of fistulizing disease, complications related to fistulas and to assist in confirming the diagnosis or proposing an alternative. Technique is critical and in particular the selection of sequences for diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities with the ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - April 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter from the guest editor: Bowel imaging
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Nyree Griffin (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - April 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 37, Issue 2 Author(s): William G. Bradley Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome found in the elderly, which is characterized by ventriculomegaly and deep white matter ischemia (DWMI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence. NPH has been estimated to account for up to 10% of cases of dementia and is significant because it is treatable by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Patients with a known cause of chronic communicating hydrocephalus, that is, meningitis or ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - April 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Communicating Hydrocephalus
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 37, Issue 2 Author(s): Amit Agarwal, Girish Bathla, Sangam Kanekar Hydrocephalus basically means an increase in the volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the ventricles. As simple as it may sound, the definition and classification of hydrocephalus have been a matter of debate over many decades. Many international neurosurgical and radiological workgroups have tried to develop a consensus and over the last 5-10 years have been able to put forth a more well-defined and standardized approach. Though, the debate and controversy surrounding th...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - April 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter From the Guest Editor: Ventricles and CSF
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 37, Issue 2 Author(s): Amit Agarwal (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - April 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tracheal diverticula
This article describes the prevalence, possible pathophysiology and associated complications of tracheal diverticula and illustrates the spectrum of their appearance on CT. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - April 8, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter from the Editor: The Mediastinum
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Gabriela Gayer (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - April 2, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Enterography in Crohn׳s Disease
This article reviews the role of MR enterography in assessing the extent and activity of Crohn׳s disease at baseline and on treatment follow-up. It discusses the role of diffusion-weighted imaging, and the recent introduction of MR scoring systems to facilitate noninvasive objective assessment of disease activity and cumulative bowel damage. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - March 16, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Role of Magnetic Resonance Enterography in the Evaluation of Non-Crohn׳s Pathologies
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Nyree Griffin, Olwen Westerland In the young patient population, magnetic resonance enterography is fast becoming a preferred imaging tool for the investigation of patients with non–Crohn׳s small bowel and mesenteric pathologies. Its advantages include lack of ionizing radiation and high-contrast resolution. This review discusses the range of small bowel and mesenteric pathologies that can be easily demonstrated with this technique. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - March 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Solid Tumors of the mediastinum in adults
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Shameem Azizad, Bhagya Sannananja, Carlos S. Restrepo (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - March 10, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current role of ultrasound in small bowel imaging
We present the normal sonographic appearances of large and small bowel and the sonographic appearances of acute appendicitis, Crohn’s Disease, Coeliac Disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, intestinal tuberculosis, small bowel ileus and obstruction, small bowel ischaemia and malignant tumours. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - March 4, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter from the guest editor: Ventricles and Cisterns
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Amit Agarwal (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - March 3, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Chapter 4: Imaging of Communicating Hydrocephalus
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Amit Agarwal, Girish Bathla, Sangam Kanekar Hydrocephalus basically means an increase in the volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the ventricles. As simple as it may sound, the definition and classification of hydrocephalus has been a matter of debate over many decades. Many International neurosurgical and radiological workgroups have tried to develop a consensus and over the last 5-10 years have been able to put forth a more well defined and standardized approach. Though, the debate and controversy surrounding ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - February 25, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Esophageal cancer: Role of imaging in primary staging and response assessment post neoadjuvant therapy
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Yvette Griffin Abstract Advances in the early detection and treatment of esophageal cancer have meant improved survival rates for esophageal cancer patients. Accurate pre-treatment and post neo-adjuvant treatment staging of esophageal cancer is essential for assessing operability and determining the optimum treatment plan. This paper reviews the multimodality imaging approach in the diagnosis, staging and assessment of treatment response in esophageal cancer. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - February 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of gastrointestinal cancers
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Vicky Goh, Davide Prezzi, Andrew Mallia, Usman Bashir, J. James Stirling, Joemon John, Geoff Charles-Edwards, Jane MacKewn, Gary Cook As an integrated system, hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) is able to provide simultaneously complementary high-resolution anatomic, molecular and functional information, allowing comprehensive cancer phenotyping in a single imaging examination. In addition to an improved patient experience by combining two separate imaging examinations an...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - February 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The role of MR enterography in the evaluation of non-Crohn’s pathologies
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Nyree Griffin, Olwen Westerland In the young patient population, MR enterography is fast becoming a preferred imaging tool for the investigation of patients with non-Crohn's small bowel and mesenteric pathologies. Its advantages include lack of ionising radiation and high contrast resolution. This review will discuss the range of small bowel and mesenteric pathologies that can be easily demonstrated with this technique. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - February 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current issues in CT colonography
This article will discuss the current components of a high quality examination including contemporary methods of bowel preparation and distension. Also described is the main trial data that has validated the examination. Finally the use of the technique for non-neoplastic colonic pathology is discussed and future directions are described including MR colonography and wireless capsule colonic imaging. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - February 17, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research