Fertility Preservation Before Deployment: Oocyte and Sperm Freezing in Members of the Active Duty Military
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1701633Active duty military service and deployment has the potential to compromise fertility through combat-related genitourinary injury, gonadotoxic exposures, and physical separation from a partner. Despite a growing interest among the military community as well as promising efficacy and safety data, fertility preservation remains an uncovered benefit for active duty soldiers. In 2016, the Pentagon proposed a program that would cover oocyte and sperm cryopreservation for any member of the active duty military desiring its use. Regrettably, that funding was not secured and predeploymen...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - February 10, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Martini, Anne E. Doyle, Joseph O. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy in the Military Healthcare System
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400461The number of women serving in the Armed Forces is growing and readiness has been decreed as the number 1 priority for the total Army. Provision of contraception and unintended pregnancy rates higher than the general population are two key factors in readiness of female soldiers. An in-depth review of women's healthcare in the military identified these two areas of women's health as greatly understudied. Long-acting reversible contraception provides effective and cost-efficient method for contraception and a proven way to decrease unintended pregnancy. Increased research and focu...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Heitmann, Ryan J. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Progesterone Elevation and Preventive Strategies to Avoid Implantation Failure
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1700531Despite the wide utilization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, progesterone elevation (P4E) in the late follicular phase occurs in 5 to 30% of all ovarian stimulation (OS) cycles. Although the detrimental effect of P4E on pregnancy rates in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles is valid in all subsets of cases, higher levels of P4 and a longer duration of P4E may be needed in patients with a hyper-ovarian response in order for a negative impact on pregnancy rates to occur. Available preclinical and clinical data suggest that aggressive OS with high doses of follicle-stimul...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Bozdag, Gurkan Turkyilmaz, Esengul Yildiz, Sule Mumusoglu, Sezcan Yarali, Hakan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

KISS1/KISS1R and Breast Cancer: Metastasis Promoter
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 197-206 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400968Kisspeptins (KPs), peptide products of the kisspeptin-1 (KISS1) gene, are the endogenous ligands for the KISS1 receptor, KISS1R, which is a G protein-coupled receptor. In many human tumors, KISS1 functions as a metastasis-suppressor gene and KISS1/KISS1R signaling has antimetastatic and tumor-suppressor roles. On the contrary, emerging evidence indicates that the KP/KISS1R pathway plays detrimental roles in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most difficult type of breast cancer to treat. TNBC patients initially respond to chemotherapy, but tumors acquire ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Guzman, Stephania Brackstone, Muriel Wondisford, Frederic Babwah, Andy V. Bhattacharya, Moshmi Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Phoenixin and Its Role in Reproductive Hormone Release
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 191-196 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400964Phoenixin is novel neuropeptide, recently identified following the description of a peptide sequence highly conserved across several animal species, including humans, cows, and pigs. Expressed both centrally in the hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus and peripherally in cardiac and gastrointestinal tissue, it appears to modulate reproductive hormone secretion in a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone–dependent manner and may also influence anxiety and memory. While there remains much to be described regarding its signaling, this review assesses the currently avail...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Clarke, Sophie A. Dhillo, Waljit S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Regulation of Pregnancy: Evidence for Major Roles by the Uterine and Placental Kisspeptin/KISS1R Signaling Systems
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 182-190 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400966Several studies provide strong evidence suggesting that in addition to central kisspeptin/KISS1R signaling, the peripheral uterine- and placental-based kisspeptin/KISS1R signaling systems are major regulators of pregnancy. Specifically, the evidence suggests that the uterine-based system regulates embryo implantation and decidualization, while both the uterine- and placental-based systems regulate placentation. Uterine kisspeptin and KISS1R regulate embryo implantation by controlling the availability of endometrial glandular secretions, like leukemia inhibitory ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Radovick, Sally Babwah, Andy V. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

DLK1, Notch Signaling and the Timing of Puberty
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 174-181 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400963The factors that trigger human puberty are among the central mysteries of reproductive biology. Several approaches, including mutational analysis of candidate genes, large-scale genome-wide association studies, whole exome sequencing, and whole genome sequencing have been performed in attempts to identify novel genetic factors that modulate the human hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis to result in premature sexual development. Genetic abnormalities involving excitatory and inhibitory pathways regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, repr...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Macedo, Delanie B. Kaiser, Ursula B. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Evolutionary Conservation of MKRN3 and Other Makorins and Their Roles in Puberty Initiation and Endocrine Functions
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 166-173 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400965Puberty is a critical period of development regulated by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The role of makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3) in the regulation of pubertal timing was revealed when loss-of-function mutations were identified in patients with central precocious puberty (CPP). To date, MKRN3 mutations are the most common known genetic cause of CPP. MKRN3 is a member of the makorin family of ubiquitin ligases, together with MKRN1 and MKRN2. The Mkrn genes have been identified in both vertebrates and invertebrates and show high evolution...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Naul é, Lydie Kaiser, Ursula B. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Neuropeptide Control of Puberty: Beyond Kisspeptins
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 155-165 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400967Puberty is a fundamental developmental event in the lifespan of any individual, when sexual and somatic maturation is completed, and reproductive capacity is achieved. While the tempo of puberty is under strong genetic determination, it is also modulated by a wide array of internal and environmental cues, including, prominently, nutritional and metabolic signals. In the last decade, our understanding of the neurohormonal basis of normal puberty and its perturbations has enlarged considerably. This is illustrated by the elucidation of the essential roles of kissp...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Barroso, Alexia Roa, Juan Tena-Sempere, Manuel Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and New Players in Reproduction
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 153-154 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1701704 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dhillo, Waljit S. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Waljit S. Dhillo, MD
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 151-152 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1701703 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Legro, Richard S. Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Should We Make More Bone or Not, As Told by Kisspeptin Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 147-150 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400238Since its initial discovery in 2002, the neuropeptide Kisspeptin (Kiss1) has been anointed as the master regulator controlling the onset of puberty in males and females. Over the last several years, multiple groups found that Kiss1 signaling is mediated by the 7TM surface receptor GPCR54. Kiss1 mRNA is highly enriched in the basal medial and lateral subregions of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in the medial basal hypothalamus. Thus, Kiss1ARC neurons reside in a unique anatomical location ideal for sensing and responding to circulating steroid hormones as well as nutr...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Herber, Candice B. Ingraham, Holly A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Kisspeptin and Glucose Homeostasis
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 141-146 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400242Kisspeptin has well-established critical roles in the control of reproduction and fertility. Recently, evidence has emerged that suggests kisspeptin may have additional roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Conflicting reports on the effects of kisspeptin on insulin secretion in animal models have been published, which cannot be fully accounted for by the different kisspeptin isoforms and range of kisspeptin doses used in these studies. Human studies have demonstrated associations between circulating kisspeptin levels and measures of insulin secretion ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma Hill, Thomas G. Bowe, James E. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Arcuate Kisspeptin Neurons Coordinate Reproductive Activities with Metabolism
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 131-140 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400251Hypothalamic control of fertility is the quintessential homeostatic function. However, fertility is metabolically demanding; so, there must be coordination between energy states and reproductive functions. Because gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are devoid of many of the critical metabolic hormone receptors for sensing nutrient levels, it has long been recognized that the sensing of energy stores had to be done by neurons presynaptic to GnRH neurons. Some of the obvious players have been the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic ne...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: R ønnekleiv, Oline K. Qiu, Jian Kelly, Martin J. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Neurokinin B and Neurokinin-3 Receptor Signaling: Promising Developments in the Management of Menopausal Hot Flushes
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 125-130 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400241Vasomotor symptoms, including hot flushes and night sweats, pose a significant symptomatic burden to women undergoing menopause, and negatively impact on both their physical and psychological well-being. Management of these symptoms can be challenging, with the use of conventional hormone replacement therapy limited by duration of treatment and clinical contraindications. Recent advances in our understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the reproductive axis and thermoregulation postmenopause has helped identify a promising new therapeutic target to ameli...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Modi, Manish Dhillo, Waljit S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Clinical Translational Studies of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 119-124 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400240Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that are vital for reproductive health. An absence of either kisspeptin or NKB signaling results in hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and a failure to proceed through puberty. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated potential avenues for the clinical utility of medications that act through these pathways in the assessment and treatment of reproductive disorders. Kisspeptin acts to stimulate hypothalamic gonadotrophic-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus. Kisspeptin induc...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hunjan, Tia Abbara, Ali Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Novel Biology of Tachykinins in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 109-118 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400252The tachykinin family of peptides, composed of the neurokinins A and B (NKA, NKB) and substance P are involved in the central control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release through a variety of neuronal circuitries that mediate the activation of Kiss1 neurons and the synchronization of their activity within the arcuate nucleus. The major outcome of this role is the precise regulation of the pulsatile pattern of GnRH release. In addition, tachykinins are involved in the maturation of the reproductive axis by determining the optimal timing of puberty ons...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Leon, Silvia Navarro, V íctor M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and New Players in Reproduction
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 107-108 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3403461 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dhillo, Waljit S. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Waljit S. Dhillo, MD
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 105-106 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3403460 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Legro, Richard S. Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Kisspeptin and Prolactin
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 093-104 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400956The relationship between elevated prolactin and infertility has been known for a long time, but the specific mechanism by which prolactin inhibited reproduction had been uncertain. The discovery of kisspeptin has provided novel insights into how prolactin might cause infertility, with extensive evidence that elevated prolactin inhibits secretion of kisspeptin, resulting in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and infertility. More recent data suggest that a converse relationship might also exist, with evidence that kisspeptin influences prolactin secretion. This brief...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Grattan, David R. Szawka, Raphael E. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Role of Kisspeptin in Sexual Behavior
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 084-092 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400992Sexual behavior is essential for the perpetuation of a species. In female rodents, mate preference and lordosis behavior depend heavily on the integration of olfactory cues into the neuroendocrine brain, yet its underlying neural circuits are not well understood. We previously revealed that kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus/periventricular nucleus continuum (AVPv/PeN) are activated by male olfactory cues in female mice. Here, we further reveal that male-directed mate preferences and lordosis are impaired in kisspeptin knockout mice ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hellier, Vincent Brock, Olivier Bakker, Julie Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Does the KNDy Model for the Control of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Pulses Apply to Monkeys and Humans?
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 071-083 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400254There is now considerable evidence supporting the role of a subpopulation of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus that coexpress kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (abbreviated as KNDy neurons) as the long sought-after gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator. The “KNDy hypothesis” of pulse generation has largely been based on findings in rodents and ruminants, and there is considerably less information about the anatomical and functional organization of the KNDy subpopulation in the primate hypothalamus. In this revie...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Lehman, Michael N. He, Wen Coolen, Lique M. Levine, Jon E. Goodman, Robert L. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Roles of the Amygdala Kisspeptin System
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 064-070 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400462The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/kiss1 gene) is the master regulator of the reproductive axis with its role in controlling gonadotrophin hormone secretion now well characterized. However, identification of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor expression within the amygdala, a key limbic brain region whose functions contribute to a broad range of physiological and behavioral processes, has heightened interest concerning kisspeptins' role in the broader aspects of reproductive physiology. In this review, we detail the important developments...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mills, Edouard G. A. O'Byrne, Kevin T. Comninos, Alexander N. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Kisspeptin as a Behavioral Hormone
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 056-063 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400239Successful reproduction is dependent not only on hormonal endocrine responses but also on suitable partner selection, copulatory acts, as well as associated emotional, behavioral, and cognitive processes many of which are supported by the limbic system. The reproductive hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/kiss1 gene) is now recognized as the key orchestrator of the reproductive axis. In addition to the hypothalamus, prominent kisspeptin neuronal populations have been identified throughout limbic and paralimbic brain regions across an assortment of species. ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mills, Edouard G.A. O'Byrne, Kevin T. Comninos, Alexander N. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Role of Kisspeptin and NKB in Puberty in Nonhuman Primates: Sex Differences
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 047-055 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400253To understand the roles of kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) in puberty and sex differences in their involvement, we conducted a series of experiments measuring the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the hypothalamus in male and female monkeys throughout sexual development. Results indicate that kisspeptin-10 and the NKB agonist, senktide, stimulated GnRH release in males and females at the prepubertal and pubertal stages, but females are much more sensitive to kisspeptin signaling than males. Moreover, thro...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Garcia, James P. Keen, Kim L. Seminara, Stephanie B. Terasawa, Ei Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and New Players in Reproduction
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 045-046 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400487 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dhillo, Waljit S. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Waljit S. Dhillo, MD
Semin Reprod Med 2019; 37: 043-044 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400463 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Legro, Richard S. Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Reproductive Health Needs of the Military and Veterans, Part 2
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1698793 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - October 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Segars, James H. Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Reproductive Health Needs of the Military and Veterans
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1698443 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - September 25, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Christy, Alicia Y. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

A Mentorship Program for Academic Obstetrician Gynecologists that Improved Publication and Overall Confidence for Success
This article aims to evaluate the impact of a mentorship program to enhance the training of clinical and research scientists in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN). A departmental course was developed for junior faculty and fellows based on their areas of interest. The research was IRB-approved. The curriculum consisted of monthly interactive workshops for an interdisciplinary group of trainees in OBGYN. Themes included research, education, and leadership in academic OBGYN. There was a strong emphasis on participatory exercises. Examples of curriculum topics included manuscript publication and review, grant writing, working ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - September 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Nasab, Susan Rushing, John S. Segars, James H. Evers, Emily Handa, Victoria L. Lawson, Shari Miller, Colleen Yenokyan, Gayane Bienstock, Jessica Satin, Andrew J. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Infertility and the Military Male
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1694027Male infertility is a condition that affects approximately 50% of infertile couples and about 30% of those couples have only male factor infertility identified. There has been speculation that male military service members may have an even greater lifetime prevalence of infertility as compared to the general population, but very few scientific publications focus on male factor infertility in the military population specifically. This review will discuss many of the unique considerations regarding male infertility in the military and highlight future opportunities for research. Th...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - August 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Reed-Maldonado, Amanda B. Madden, Kristin C. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Contraceptive Care in the Veterans Health Administration
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1692201In recent years, the number of women Veterans obtaining care in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System has grown, expanding the need for provision of contraceptive care. Women Veterans are a diverse group of women with complex sociodemographic and medical backgrounds, and meeting their needs presents a unique challenge for VA. Efforts including the establishment of comprehensive women's health clinics and training practitioners in women's health have greatly improved healthcare services for women Veterans over the last few decades. Recent data from a large cross-sectional su...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - June 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Yecies, Emmanuelle B. Judge-Golden, Colleen P. Callegari, Lisa Borrero, Sonya Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Obstetric Outcomes in U.S. Veterans: Emerging Knowledge, Considerations, and Gaps
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1692128In the post-9/11 era, the number of young women serving, and deploying, in the military grew rapidly; as they exit service, there is tremendous increase in reproductive-aged women Veterans. Here, we review the limited but growing research regarding Veterans' pregnancy and obstetric outcomes. U.S. women Veterans returning from deployment carry a high burden of physical and mental health conditions, and often trauma. As poor mental health is known to predict poorer maternal and infant sequelae, there are unique concerns around perinatal outcomes in Veterans. Accordingly, there is n...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - June 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hugin, Michele Shaw, Jonathan G. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Infertility Services for Veterans: Policies, Challenges, and Opportunities
Semin Reprod Med DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1692127Infertility prevalence and care needs among male and female Veterans are understudied topics. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical benefits package covers full infertility evaluation and many infertility treatments for Veterans but not, by law, for their spouses. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is also specifically excluded from this medical benefits package by regulation. Congress passed a law in 2016 that allowed VHA to provide IVF to Veterans and their legal spouses, and broader infertility benefits to the legal spouse, if the Veteran has a service-connected condition...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - June 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Edmonds, Stephanie W. Zephyrin, Laurie C. Christy, Alicia Ryan, Ginny L. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Coordinating Care for Reproductive Health Malignancies in the Veterans' Health Administration: Promising Practices, Ongoing Challenges, and Future Research
This article reviews VA's successes, challenges, and future opportunities in research and innovation in the context of care coordination across the cancer continuum (i.e., prevention and screening, diagnosis and treatment, survivorship care, palliative and supportive care) for women Veterans with reproductive health malignancies. We describe how coordination of VA care for reproductive health malignancies currently reflects a mix of successes that demonstrate use of strong evidenced-based practices and challenges, with solutions yet to be fully developed and implemented. We conclude that there are a multitude of opportunit...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - June 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Cordasco, Kristina M. Moreau, Jessica L. Chawla, Neetu Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Impact of Deployment on Reproductive Health in U.S. Active-Duty Servicewomen and Veterans
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 361-370 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678749Reproductive-age women are a fast-growing component of active-duty military personnel who experience deployment and combat more frequently than previous service-era women Veterans. With the expansion of the number of women and their roles, the United States Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs have prioritized development and integration of reproductive services into their health systems. Thus, understanding associations between deployments or combat exposures and short- or long-term adverse reproductive health outcomes is imperative for policy and progra...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Gawron, Lori M. Mohanty, April F. Kaiser, Jennifer E. Gundlapalli, Adi V. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Research Program: Assessing the Reproductive Health of U.S. Active-Duty Women
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 351-360 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678751As the percentage of women serving in the active-duty military continues to grow, and as their roles continue to expand, the importance of monitoring reproductive health in the military community increases. The Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Research (BIHR) program conducts ongoing epidemiologic studies to assess potential increased risks for adverse reproductive and infant health outcomes in the military population. Military personnel endure unique physical and mental demands as a part of their occupational duties (e.g., extensive preventive care...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Khodr, Zeina G. Bukowinski, Anna T. Hall, Clinton Gumbs, Gia R. Wells, Natalie Y. Conlin, Ava Marie S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Gynecologic Health Consequences of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Military Servicewomen
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 340-350 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678752 Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States. Within the U.S. military, the age- and race-adjusted chlamydia infection rates among female service members are consistently higher than civilian rates, with a 20% annual acquisition rate among young active-duty women. The sequelae of chlamydia disproportionately impact women in terms of severity and cost. Untreated chlamydia progresses to pelvic inflammatory disease in 40% of cases, and is a leading cause of fallopian tube damage and pelvic adhesive disea...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Nadeau, Christine Fujii, Dennis Lentscher, Jessica Haney, Amanda Burney, Richard O. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Preconception Care in the Veterans Health Administration
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 327-339 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678753Preconception care (PCC), defined as a set of interventions to help women optimize their health and well-being prior to pregnancy, can improve pregnancy outcomes and is recommended by national organizations including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Women Veterans who use the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system may face elevated risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes due to a high prevalence of chronic medical and mental health conditions as well as psychosocial ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Callegari, Lisa S. Edmonds, Stephanie W. Borrero, Sonya Ryan, Ginny L. Cusack, Caitlin M. Zephyrin, Laurie C. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Assisted Reproductive Technology and the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Specialist in the U.S. Military
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 323-326 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1681084The U.S. military mirrors the U.S. population given the diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds of the service members. Active-duty military members, veterans, and Department of Defense beneficiaries can be negatively impacted by infertility. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Pilgrim, Justin Healy, Mae Yauger, Belinda J. Torrealday, Saioa Csokmay, John Hill, Micah Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Reproductive Health of Women Veterans: A Systematic Review of the Literature from 2008 to 2017
This article aims to synthesize recent literature on reproductive health and healthcare of women Veterans. We updated a literature search to identify manuscripts published between 2008 and July 1, 2017. We excluded studies that were not original research, only included active-duty women, or had few women Veterans in their sample. Manuscripts were reviewed using a standardized abstraction form. We identified 52 manuscripts. Nearly half (48%) of the new manuscripts addressed contraception and preconception care (n = 15) or pregnancy (n = 10). The pregnancy and family planning literature showed tha...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Katon, Jodie G. Zephyrin, Laurie Meoli, Anne Hulugalle, Avanthi Bosch, Jeane Callegari, Lisa Galvan, Ileana V. Gray, Kristen E. Haeger, Kristin O. Hoffmire, Claire Levis, Silvina Ma, Erica W. Mccabe, Jennifer E. Nillni, Yael I. Pineles, Suzanne L. Reddy, Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Reproductive Health Needs of the Military and Veterans: Part 1
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 313-314 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1683423 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Burney, Richard Christy, Alicia Y. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Alicia Y. Christy, MD, MHSCR, FACOG and Richard Burney, MD, MSc
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 311-312 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1683914 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Segars, James H. Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Legal Issues in Gamete and Embryo Cryopreservation: An Overview
This article provides an overview of existing and developing law surrounding IVF embryos and those who handle them. It discusses what law and legal theories of liability may apply to embryology labs, and gamete and embryo banks in the context of embryo loss, abandonment, shipping and implantation. It explores how often intertwined theories of law have been applied to this unique field, including contract, informed consent, health, tort and Constitutional law. Recent so-called “Personhood” initiatives are reviewed for their impact on ART practice. The article also explores how legal principles related to patient...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Crockin, Susan L. Gottschalk, Kathryn C. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Safe Storage of Gametes and Embryos: No Time for Complacency
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 289-298 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678596Recent serious untoward incidents in the field of assisted reproduction have once again highlighted the need for vigilance and in particular improved risk management in relation to the cryopreservation of gametes and embryos. Despite increasing levels of regulation and the requirement to adhere to total quality management practices, catastrophic incidents such as the death of an employee or the loss of a freezer full of patient embryos or sperm continue to occur sufficiently frequently for the industry to be concerned and highlight the need to make practices con...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tomlinson, Mathew James Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Reproductive Tissue Storage: Quality Control and Management/Inventory Software
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 280-288 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1676851The recent failure of two liquid nitrogen storage tanks at two separate facilities in the United States has highlighted the need to reexamine our approach to how reproductive laboratories handle the storage of tissue. If we wish to truly understand how we can increase the security and safety of stored reproductive tissue, we really need to understand how often these events (tank failure) occur and what are the ultimate causes of these failures. Are there design flaws in the storage tanks or are these really failures in protocols and following protocols? Unfortun...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Pomeroy, Kimball O. Marcon, Mark Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Life Interrupted: The Nature and Consequences of Cryostasis
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 273-279 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1676850Cryopreservation and associated cryostorage has become a well-established technique in both basic and clinical science. When the potentially lethal consequences of freezing itself are ameliorated, existence at cryogenic temperatures seems to be a form of true viable stasis that can persist for long periods of time. Natural cryopreservation and revival after long-term periods in cryostasis is reality in many species. While some evidence exists for imperfections in artificial cryopreservation protocols and storage, these protocols are for the most part successful ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Malter, Henry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Human Reproductive Cell Cryopreservation, Storage, Handling, and Transport: Risks and Risk Management
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 265-272 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1676849Millions of human oocytes and embryos are stored in thousands of locations across the globe. This inventory continues to grow as cryopreservation becomes more successful and more widely applied. The results of studies assessing pregnancy and neonatal outcomes following frozen embryo transfer (FET) have been encouraging, showing lower incidences of small for gestational age neonates and preterm birth compared with fresh transfers. However, many of these studies have also shown that the odds of large for gestational age births and macrosomia are higher after FET. ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Alikani, Mina Parmegiani, Lodovico Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Perspectives in Gamete and Embryo Cryopreservation
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 253-264 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1677463Cryopreserved gametes and embryos are a major feature of human-assisted reproduction and patient care services, accounting for an increasing number of births worldwide. Since the first success obtained using frozen human spermatozoa, cryopreservation technology has been successfully extended to include oocytes and embryos, in a variety of both medical and nonmedical indications. Over the years, the available procedures have become widely implemented and the increasing evidence of its efficacy has contributed to acceptance of the technology. Nevertheless, a gold ...
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Rienzi, Laura Francesca Iussig, Benedetta Dovere, Lisa Fabozzi, Gemma Cimadomo, Danilo Ubaldi, Filippo Maria Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Gamete and Embryo Storage
Semin Reprod Med 2018; 36: 251-252 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678597 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Cohen, Jacques Tags: Preface Source Type: research