Identifying the unique Aspects of adolescent and young adult palliative care: A Case Study to Propel Programmatic Changes in Pediatric Hospitals
Utilizing a case study, in this article we seek to highlight how the distinct developmental needs of adolescent and young adult patients facing a life threatening condition require a different approach to patient care by pediatric health care workers. The case underscores pitfalls in utilizing a pediatric construct of care in areas of pain management, social stressors and advanced care planning and suggests programs to implement for improvement, including partnership with psychiatry, substance abuse, and palliative care specialists. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lisa Humphrey, Mary Lynn Dell Source Type: research

A parent’s journey: Incorporating Principles of Palliative Care into Practice for Children with Chronic Neurological Diseases
Rather than in conflict or in competition with the curative model of care, pediatric palliative care is a complementary and interdisciplinary approach used to optimize medical care for the children with complex medical conditions. It provides care to the whole child, including the physical, mental, and spiritual dimensions, in addition to support for the family. Through the voice of a parent, the following case based discussion demonstrates how the fundamentals of palliative care medicine, when instituted early in the course of disease, can assist parents and families with shared medical decision making, ultimately improvi...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Allyson Brown, Jonna D. Clark Source Type: research

Obesity and Altered Sleep: A Pathway to Metabolic Derangements in Children?
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a frequent disorder in children and is primarily associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy., The prominent increases in childhood overweight and obesity rates in the world even among youngest of children have translated into parallel increases in the prevalence of OSA, and such trends will undoubtedly be associated with deleterious global health outcomes and life expectancy. Even an obesity phenotype in childhood OSA, more close to the adult type, has been recently proposed. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Fahed Hakim, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal Source Type: research

Sleep in Children with Psychiatric Disorders
Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant inter relationship in development, severity and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep distu...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Ujjwal Ramtekkar, Anna Ivanenko Source Type: research

Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders and Sleep: Bi-directional Relationship on the Complex Interplay and Potential Interventions
The main facts in human life are five: birth, food, sleep, love and death.”—E.M. Forster (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Anne Marie Morse, Sanjeev V. Kothare Source Type: research

TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders and Sleep: An Editorial on the Complex Interplay and Potential Interventions
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Morse Anne Marie, Sanjeev Kothare Source Type: research

Neurologic and Psychiatric Disorders and Sleep: An Editorial on the Complex Interplay and Potential Interventions
The main facts in human life are five: birth, food, sleep, love and death.”― E.M. Forster (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Morse Anne Marie, Kothare Sanjeev Source Type: research

Sleep and headache
The interaction between sleep and headache or migraine is powerful and an elevated comorbidity between these two disorders has been reported in either adults or children. This comobidity is linked to common neurophysiological and neuroanatomical substrates that are strongly genetically-based.The first reports on this relationship were related to the prevalence of parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing in headache but recent research has expanded the comorbidity to several other sleep disorders, such as restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements during sleep, and narcolepsy. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 15, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Dosi Claudia, Figura Mariagrazia, Ferri Raffaele, Bruni Oliviero Source Type: research

Introduction
Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are the second most common type of childhood cancer after hematologic malignancies. Their biologic behavior, natural history, and amenability to treatment depend, to a large degree, on their histologic typing and grading1 but also on genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular signatures.2 More than half of all pediatric CNS tumors are of glial origin (gliomas). According to the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, the distribution of all primary CNS tumors by histology groupings in patients between ages 0-14 years during the period 2007-2011 demonstrated that the most ...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Christos D. Katsetos Source Type: research

Introduction to "emerging Molecularly-Targeted therapeutic Strategies in brain Cancer"
Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are the second most common type of childhood cancer after hematologic malignancies. Their biologic behavior, natural history, and amenability to treatment depend, to a large degree, on their histologic typing and grading1 but also on genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular signatures. 2 Over half of all pediatric CNS tumors are of glial origin (gliomas). According to the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), the distribution of all primary CNS tumors by histology groupings in patients between ages 0–14 years during the period 2007-2011, demonstrated th...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Christos D. Katsetos Source Type: research

Emerging microtubule Targets in glioma therapy
Major advances in the genomics and epigenomics of diffuse gliomas and glioblastoma have not been translated to date into effective therapy, necessitating pursuit of alternative treatment approaches for these therapeutically challenging tumors. Current knowledge of microtubules in cancer and the development of new microtubule-based treatment strategies for high-grade gliomas are the topic in this review article. Discussed are cellular, molecular, and pharmacological aspects of the microtubule cytoskeleton underlying mitosis and interactions with other cellular partners involved in cell cycle progression, directional cell mi...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 3, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Christos D. Katsetos, Mauricio J. Reginato, Peter W. Baas, Luca D’Agostino, Agustin Legido, Jack A. Tuszyński, Eduarda Dráberová, Pavel Dráber Source Type: research

Letter from the New Editor
For the past 20 years, Dr. John B. Bodensteiner has been the Editor of the Seminars in Pediatric Neurology. Together with his Editorial Board (Drs. Walter C. Allen, James C. Bale, Raj D. Sheth, and Michael I. Shevell), they created a journal that focused solely on thematic areas of interest in Pediatric Neurology, led by knowledgeable and renowned Guest Editors. As the only review journal in this discipline, it has become a reputable publication at an international level disseminating knowledge on important clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic advances. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 2, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Agustin Legido Source Type: research

Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation in Children
This article serves to provide a primer on sleep-dependent memory consolidation, a process in which memory is stabilized or even enhanced over a period of sleep. Given the increased amounts of sleep needed in infancy and childhood, the link between sleep and neuronal plasticity is highlighted in this article. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kiran P. Maski Source Type: research

Malnutrition and Neurologic Problems Among Children in the Developing World
Malnutrition is a big challenge to most of developing and low-income countries. It not only results in death of people, and especially children, but also those who survive face severe mental and other physical health problems. In addition, malnutrition brings not only sufferings to families but also great loss to the economy of the country as malnourished people develop brain and other health disorders, and therefore, they cannot be productive individuals of society.1 The worldwide prevalence of severe malnutrition in children is very high and results in approximately 1 million deaths each year. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Aftab Ahmad, Shoji Komai Source Type: research

Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Sleep problems are common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD require prompt attention and management. This chapter is presented in two sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation/manage...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kanwaljit Singh, Andrew W. Zimmerman Source Type: research

Malnutrition and neurological Problems among children in the developing world
Malnutrition is a big challenge to most of developing and low income countries. It not only results in death of people, and especially children, but those who survive face severe mental and other physical health problems. In addition, malnutrition not only brings sufferings to families but also great loss to the economy of the country as malnourished people develop brain and other health disorders, and therefore, they cannot be productive individuals of society.1 The worldwide prevalence of severe malnutrition in children is very high and results in around 1 million deaths each year. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Aftab Ahmad, Shoji Komai Source Type: research

Sleep Dependent Memory Consolidation in Children
This article serves to provide a primer on sleep dependent memory consolidation, a process in which memory is stabilized or even enhanced over a period of sleep. Given the increased amounts of sleep needed in infancy and childhood, the link between sleep and neuronal plasticity is highlighted in this article. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kiran P. Maski Source Type: research

Sleep in Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders
There is a bidirectional relationship between many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders and sleep. In some of these disorders, sleep –wake function gets disrupted early in the clinical course, e.g. Smith Magenis syndrome and autism. In other conditions such as neuronal ceroid lipofucsinosis, sleep disruption develops in the mid to late stages. Attention to sleep-wake function can help in improving the quality of life of these patients. This chapter provides an overview of the common static and progressive disorders of the nervous system and the associated sleep disorder. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 22, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Suresh Kotagal Source Type: research

Central Hypersomnia
Sleepiness is not uncommon in the pediatric population. While the etiology can be multifactorial, sleepiness due to increased sleep drive, also called central hypersomnia, is a common cause. The third edition of International Classification of Sleep Disorders updated the diagnostic criteria for several of the central disorders of hypersomnolence, most notably narcolepsy. Though the ICSD-3 is not specific to pediatric patients, the peak incidence for many of the included disorders occurs during childhood or adolescence. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 22, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Thomas J. Dye, Sejal V. Jain, Sanjeev V. Kothare Source Type: research

Sleep and Epilepsy
Sleep and epilepsy are common bedfellows. Sleep can affect frequency and occurrence of interictal spikes, and occurrence, timing and threshold of seizure. Epilepsy can worsen sleep architecture and severity of sleep disorders. Thus a vicious cycle is set. Certain epilepsy syndromes are so intertwined with sleep, that they are considered sleep related epilepsies. Poor sleep in epilepsy is multifactorial and is worsened by poorly controlled seizures. On the other end, poor sleep is associated with worsened quality of life, psychological function and memory. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 22, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Sejal V. Jain, Sanjeev V. Kothare Source Type: research

Pediatric Sleep Pharmacology: A primer
“What will you give my child to help him sleep?” is a common question parents ask and some healthcare providers abhor hearing. Entire families may suffer when one member does not sleep well. Poor sleep may complicate the management of other co-morbid conditions. Healthcare providers may have received only limited education on sleep disorders and are frequently forced to choose between treatment options that are poorly studied in children. Fortunately, when addressed correctly, many children with chronic sleep disorders may improve their sleep and daytime behavior in a relatively short time. (Source: Seminars in...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthew M. Troester, Rafael Pelayo Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor
Dr. Jo M. Wilmshurst, was the Guest Editor of the Seminars in Pediatric Neurology issue about Child Neurology in Africa (2014;21:1-58). In it, Kerac et al. (pages 42-49) reviewed the topic “The Interaction of Malnutrition and Neurologic Disability in Africa.” They emphasized the high frequency of malnutrition and associated neurological disability. Specifically, they reviewed the consequences of global malnutrition, and deficits of macronutrients and micronutrients. Mechanisms include decreased food intake, increased nutrient losses and increased nutrient requirements. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Aftab Ahmad, Shoji Komai, Agustin Legido Source Type: research

Cover
(Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dedication
(Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Medulloblastoma: Toward Biologically Based Management
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and, as such, has been the focus of tremendous efforts to genomically characterize it. What was once thought to be a single disease has been divided into multiple, molecularly unique subgroups through gene expression profiling. Each subgroup is not only unique in its origin and pathogenesis but also in the prognosis and potential therapeutic options. Targeted therapy of malignancies has long been the goal of clinical oncology. The progress made in the classification of medulloblastoma should be used as a model for future studies. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ayman Samkari, Jason C. White, Roger J. Packer Source Type: research

Medulloblastoma: Toward Biologically-based management
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and, as such, has been the focus of tremendous efforts to genomically characterize it. What was once thought to be a single disease has been divided into multiple, molecularly unique subgroups through gene expression profiling. Each sub-group is not only unique in its origin and pathogenesis, but also the prognosis and potential therapeutic options. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ayman Samkari, Jason C. White, Roger J. Packer Source Type: research

Introduction
This is the Tenth anniversary of the first Seminars in Pediatric Neurology devoted to Pediatric Neurocritical Care 1 and Pediatric Neurocritical Care has come a long way in this time. Only two dedicated pediatric neurocritical care teams were in place ten years ago but now, dedicated neurocritical care services have been implemented in many of the largest Children’s Hospitals in the US and Canada. There are now several training programs in Pediatric Neurocritical Care and educational guidelines for training in Pediatric Neurocritical Care have been devised 2,3. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: James J. Riviello Source Type: research

Evaluation and Treatment of Autoimmune Neurologic Disorders in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
Autoimmunity is being increasingly recognized as a cause of neurologic presentations both inside and outside the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Pediatric autoimmune neurologic diseases likely to be seen in the ICU include autoimmune encephalitidies such as N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, central nervous system vasculitis, demyelinating disorders, and neurologic involvement of systemic autoimmune disorders. In addition, there are conditions of suspected autoimmune etiology such as febrile infection–related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) and rapid-onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfuncti...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Leslie A. Benson, Heather Olson, Mark P. Gorman Source Type: research

Evaluation and treatment of autoimmune neurologic Disorders in the pediatric ICU
Autoimmunity is increasingly recognized as a cause of neurologic presentations both inside and outside of the ICU setting. Pediatric autoimmune neurologic diseases likely to be seen in the ICU include autoimmune encephalitidies such as NMDA receptor encephalitis, central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, demyelinating disorders and neurologic involvement of systemic autoimmune disorders. In addition, there are conditions of suspected autoimmune etiology such as febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) and rapid onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome ...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Leslie A Benson, Heather Olson, Mark P Gorman Source Type: research

Approaches Toward Improving the Prognosis of Pediatric Patients With Glioma: Pursuing Mutant Drug Targets With Emerging Small Molecules
Gliomas represent approximately 70% of all pediatric brain tumors, and most of these are of astrocytic lineage; furthermore, malignant or high-grade astrocytomas account for approximately 20% of pediatric astrocytoma. Treatment options for pediatric patients with glioma are limited. Although low-grade astrocytomas are relatively slow-growing tumors that can often be cured through surgical resection, a significant proportion of cases recur, as such, new treatments are desperately needed. This review covers the various approaches that are currently being made toward improving the prognosis of pediatric patients with glioma b...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Timothy J. Snape, Tracy Warr Source Type: research

Approaches Towards improving the prognosis of paediatric glioma Patients: Pursuing mutant drug Targets with emerging small molecules
Gliomas represent approximately 70% of all paediatric brain tumours and the majority of these will be of astrocytic lineage. Low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) comprise predominantly pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) and, less commonly, diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II). Malignant or high-grade astrocytoma (HGA) include anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grades III and IV, respectively) and account for approximately 20% of paediatric astrocytoma.1 Treatment options for paediatric glioma patients are limited. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Timothy J. Snape, Tracy Warr Source Type: research

The Practice of Pediatric Neurocritical Care by the Child Neurologist
This article reviews the current practice of pediatric NCC by child neurologists: where it is practiced, how it is practiced, the disorders encountered (that differ from adult NCC), the training required to care for these disorders, and what is needed for the future of pediatric NCC. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: James J. Riviello, Cherylee Chang Source Type: research

The practice of pediatric neurocritical care by the child neurologist.
Pediatric neurocritical care has emerged as a defined subspecialty in child neurology and requires a collaborative effort among the child neurologist, pediatric critical care medicine specialist and the pediatric neurosurgeon. Pediatric neurocritical care has evolved differently in children than in adults and its delivery depends upon the local resources available for pediatric care. This paper reviews the current practice of pediatric neurocritical care by the child neurologist: where it is practiced, how it is practiced, the disorders encountered (that differ from adult neurocritical care), the training required to care ...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: James J. Riviello, Cherylee Chang Source Type: research

Emerging Interplay of Genetics and Epigenetics in Gliomas: A New Hope for Targeted Therapy
Diffusely infiltrating gliomas are inherently heterogeneous tumors, and there are ongoing efforts to establish a classification scheme that incorporates new molecular and traditional histologic features. In less than a decade, high-throughput sequencing of gliomas has transformed the field, uncovering several pivotal, highly prevalent genetic alterations that stratify patients into different prognostic and treatment-response categories. We highlight the genetic aberrations recently discovered in isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked, death-domain–associated protein, histone ...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Raymund L. Yong, Nadejda M. Tsankova Source Type: research

Targeting Tumor Necrosis Factor–Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL): A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Gliomas
Tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been increasingly studied for the treatment of gliomas. TRAIL has the ability to specifically target cancer cells, without any harmful effects on normal cells, and induces apoptosis by interacting with specific receptors. Nevertheless, resistance mechanisms to TRAIL may occur at different points in the signaling pathways of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Various approaches have been developed to overcome TRAIL resistance. Here, we have reviewed the known molecular pathways by which TRAIL exerts anticancer activity, possible resistance mechanisms, ways to s...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: George A. Alexiou, Konstantinos I. Tsamis, Athanasios P. Kyritsis Source Type: research

Status Epilepticus and Refractory Status Epilepticus Management
Status epilepticus (SE) describes persistent or recurring seizures without a return to baseline mental status, and is a common neurologic emergency. SE can occur in the context of epilepsy or may be symptomatic of a wide range of underlying etiologies. The clinician’s aim is to rapidly institute care that simultaneously stabilizes the patient medically, identifies and manages any precipitant conditions, and terminates seizures. Seizure management involves “emergent” treatment with benzodiazepines followed by “urgent” therapy with other anti-seizure medications. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Nicholas S Abend, David Bearden, Ingo Helbig, Jennifer McGuire, Sona Narula, Jessica A. Panzer, Alexis Topjian, Dennis J Dlugos Source Type: research

Therapeutic Targets in pilocytic astrocytoma based on genetic analysis
Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common astrocytic neoplasm of childhood. Patients have an extremely favorable prognosis after surgical resection, qualifying tumors for a grade I designation by the Word Health Organization. The molecular data on pilocytic astrocytoma supports a key role for BRAF in the pathogenesis of these tumors, with the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion being the most common alteration identified in sporadic cases, particularly those occurring in the posterior fossa. Constitutive activation of the BRAF oncogene leads to downstream activation of the MEK/MAPK/ERK/p16 pathway, which interestingly is also used by cell...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Gerald F. Reis, Tarik Tihan Source Type: research

Targeting Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL): A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Gliomas
Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) has been increasingly studied for glioma treatment. TRAIL has the ability to specifically target cancer cells, without any harmful effects on normal cells and induces apoptosis by interacting with specific receptors. Nevertheless, resistance mechanisms to TRAIL may occur at different points in the signaling pathways of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Various approaches have been developed to overcome TRAIL resistance. Here, we have reviewed the known molecular pathways by which TRAIL exerts anticancer activity, possible resistance mechanisms, and ways to sensiti...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: George A. Alexiou, Konstantinos I. Tsamis, Athanasios P. Kyritsis Source Type: research

Emerging Interplay of Genetics and Epigenetics in Gliomas – A New Hope for Targeted Therapy
Diffusely infiltrating gliomas are inherently heterogeneous tumors and there are ongoing efforts to establish a classification scheme using molecular, rather than histological, features. In less than a decade, high-throughput sequencing of gliomas has transformed the field, uncovering several pivotal, highly prevalent genetic alterations that stratify patients into different prognostic and treatment-response categories. We highlight the genetic aberrations recently discovered in isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked, death-domain associated protein, histone H3.3, and telomerase re...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Raymund L. Yong, Nadejda M. Tsankova Source Type: research

Roles and potential clinical Applications of intermediate filament Proteins in brain tumors
Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are cytoplasmic and nuclear cytoskeletal proteins. Of the ~70 IF proteins, nearly 12 are found in the nervous system, where their expression is largely cell type specific. Astrocytes express GFAP while different neuron types contain either neurofilament proteins or α-internexin or peripherin. These proteins are often downregulated in brain cancer. In addition, brain cancer cells may also contain vimentin, nestin and synemin, which are the IF proteins found in neural progenitor cells. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Quincy Quick, Madhumita Paul, Omar Skalli Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Assessment of Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Emergent Neurocritical Care
This article reviews pediatric-specific diagnosis, management, and medical decision making related to the neurocritical care of severe traumatic brain injury. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Angela Lumba-Brown, Jose Pineda Source Type: research

Evidence Based Assessment of Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Acute Neurocritical Care
This article will review pediatric specific diagnosis, management, and medical decision making related to the neurocritical care of severe traumatic brain injury. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Angela Lumba-Brown, Jose Pineda Tags: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology Source Type: research

Building a Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Clinical Practice and Education from the ICU to the Outpatient Clinic
We describe our 10-year experience developing the Ruth D. & Ken M. Davee Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The neurocritical care team includes intensivists and neurologists and an advanced practice nurse who have expertise in critical care neurology, and who continue care in long-term follow up of ICU patients in a dedicated neurocritical care outpatient clinic. Brain-directed critical care requires collaboration between intensivists and neurologists with specific expertise in neurocritical care, using protocol-directed consistent care, and physiologic measure...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 31, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Mark S. Wainwright, Michele Grimason, Joshua Goldstein, Craig M. Smith, Catherine Amlie-Lefond, Gadi Revivo, Zehava L. Noah, Zena L. Harris, Leon G. Epstein Source Type: research

Multimodal Monitoring in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: New Modalities and Informatics Challenges
We review several newer modalities to monitor the brain in children with acute neurologic disease in the pediatric intensive care unit, such as partial brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2), jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), thermal diffusion measurement of cerebral blood flow, cerebral microdialysis, and EEG. We then discuss the informatics challenges to acquire, consolidate, analyze, and display the data. Acquisition includes multiple data types: discrete, waveform, and continuous. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 30, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Zachary M. Grinspan, Steven Pon, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Sameer Malhotra, Barry E. Kosofsky Source Type: research

Multimodal monitoring in the pediatric ICU: New Modalities and informatics challenges
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Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 30, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Zachary M Grinspan, Steven Pon, Jeffrey P Greenfield, Sameer Malhotra, Barry E Kosofsky Source Type: research

Intracranial Pressure and Cerebrovascular Autoregulation in Pediatric Critical Illness
Protecting the brain in vulnerable infants and children with acute, critical illness involving the brain is a central aspect of pediatric intensive care and neurocritical care. Collectively, illness-induced derangements in intracranial pressure, circulatory homeostasis, and pressure autoregulation are all fundamental in informing bedside management. Therefore this review provides an understanding of these entities and a physiologic approach to bedside care and monitoring. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 29, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Robert C. Tasker Source Type: research

Interdisciplinary Approach to Neurocritical Care in the Intensive Care Nursery
Neurocritical care is a multidisciplinary subspecialty that combines expertise in critical care medicine, neurology, and neurosurgery, and has led to improved outcomes in adults who suffer critical illnesses. Advances in resuscitation and critical care have led to high rates of survival among neonates with life-threatening conditions such as perinatal asphyxia, extreme prematurity, and congenital malformations. Sequelae of neurological conditions arising in the neonatal period include lifelong disabilities such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy, as well as intellectual and behavioral disabilities. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Hannah C. Glass, Elizabeth E. Rogers, Susan Peloquin, Sonia L. Bonifacio Source Type: research

Introduction
Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder affecting between 1% and 3% of the population with peak incidence in the extremes of life.1 While many structural, metabolic, and genetic causes of epilepsy have been identified, a subset of cases without known or demonstrable cause is classified as idiopathic.2,3 As the knowledge of underpinning genetic mechanisms and central nervous system (CNS) immune dysfunction in epilepsies is constantly evolving, the group of cases currently diagnosed as “idiopathic epilepsy” is becoming increasingly smaller. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ignacio Valencia, Divya S. Khurana Source Type: research