Co-Morbid Psychological Conditions in Pediatric Headaches
Children and adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDH) often have co-morbid psychological conditions, though their prevalence is unclear. Pediatric CDH patients may have higher rates of disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, some researchers have found that scores on depression and anxiety screening measures for pediatric migraine patients are within normal range. Barriers to identifying patients with psychiatric disorders have included limited validated screening tools and lack of available mental health resources. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hope O’Brien, Shalonda Slater Source Type: research

Complicated Migraines
Migraines are a common paroxysmal disorder that may present with a multitude of neurologic symptoms. Migraines have been re-categorized in the most recent edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD 3 beta). In this article, we review the literature on hemiplegic migraines, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, migraine with brainstem aura, retinal migraine, ophthalmoplegic migraine, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, and acute confusional migraine. We also discuss the principal clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and treatment options for these disorders. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Alyssa E. Blumenfeld, M. Cristina Victorio, Frank R. Berenson Source Type: research

Comorbid Psychological Conditions in Pediatric Headache
Children and adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDH) often have comorbid psychological conditions, though their prevalence is unclear. Pediatric patients with CDH may have higher rates of disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, some researchers have found that scores on depression and anxiety screening measures for pediatric patients with migraine are within reference range. Barriers to identify patients with psychiatric disorders have included limited validated screening tools and lack of available mental health resources. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hope L. O ’Brien, Shalonda K. Slater Source Type: research

Complicated Migraines
Migraines are a common paroxysmal disorder that may present with a multitude of neurologic symptoms. Migraines have been re-categorized in the most recent edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. In this article, we review the literature on hemiplegic migraines, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, migraine with brainstem aura, retinal migraine, ophthalmoplegic migraine, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, and acute confusional migraine. We also discuss the principal clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and treatment options for these disorders. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Alyssa E. Blumenfeld, M. Cristina Victorio, Frank R. Berenson Source Type: research

Comorbid Psychological Conditions in Pediatric Headache
Children and adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDH) often have comorbid psychological conditions, though their prevalence is unclear. Pediatric patients with CDH may have higher rates of disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, some researchers have found that scores on depression and anxiety screening measures for pediatric patients with migraine are within reference range. Barriers to identify patients with psychiatric disorders have included limited validated screening tools and lack of available mental health resources. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hope L. O’Brien, Shalonda K. Slater Source Type: research

Headache and Chiari I Malformation in Children and Adolescents
This article reviews the spectrum of headache in patients with CM I. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: M. Cristina Victorio, Chaouki K. Khoury Source Type: research

The Episodic Syndromes Associated with Migraine
The “childhood periodic syndromes” have been renamed “the episodic syndromes associated with migraines.” These syndromes were initially considered precursors of migraines, however recent literature suggests that the episodic syndromes can occur in adults, have been described in patients with known migraine and are not necessarily precursors. This review article discusses the recent literature regarding the episodic syndromes that often start in childhood, their association with migraine and potential treatments. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Diana Lebron, Elza Vasconcellos Source Type: research

Dizziness and Orthostatic Intolerance in the Pediatric Headache Patient
Children and adolescents with headaches commonly complain of dizziness, which creates significant distress among the patient and their families. Dizziness is largely due to either orthostatic intolerance or vertigo; this distinction is the initial step in the evaluation of a child with co-occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Vertiginous symptoms are most commonly due to vestibular migraine or benign positional vertigo. This review will focus its attention on the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of orthostatic intolerance, specifically postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: William Qubty, Sita Kedia Source Type: research

Migraine and Hormones
This article reviews the role that hormones play in adolescent girls and young women with headaches. They are very common in adolescent girls, in particular migraine in particular. In many cases, migraine onset may occur shortly around the time of menarche, prevalence of recurrent migraine in this population approaches 15%, and typically the symptoms will continue through adulthood. Hormonal changes associated with puberty and the menstrual cycle may significantly influence migraine in young women. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ann Pakalnis Source Type: research

Headache and Chiari I Malformation in Children and Adolescents
This article reviews the spectrum of headache in patients with CM I. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: M. Cristina Victorio, Chaouki K. Khoury Source Type: research

The Episodic Syndromes That Maybe Associated with Migraines
The “childhood periodic syndromes” have been renamed “the episodic syndromes that maybe associated with migraines”. These syndromes were initially considered precursors of migraines that only occurred in childhood; however recent literature suggests that the episodic syndromes can occur in adult s with known migraine and does not necessarily present as a precursor. This review article discusses the recent literature regarding the episodic syndromes and potential treatments. These disorders are seen by multiple subspecialists, therefore it is important to recognize and use the same definitio ns, crit...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Diana Lebron, Elza Vasconcellos Source Type: research

Dizziness and Orthostatic Intolerance In Pediatric Headache Patients
Children and adolescents with headaches commonly complain of dizziness that creates significant distress among the patients and their families. Dizziness is largely due to either orthostatic intolerance or vertigo; this distinction is the initial step in the evaluation of a child with co-occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Vertiginous symptoms are most commonly due to vestibular migraine or benign positional vertigo. This review would focus its attention on the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of orthostatic intolerance, specifically postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: William Qubty, Sita Kedia Source Type: research

Migraine and Hormones
This article discusses the role that hormones play in adolescent girls and young women with headaches, which are very common in adolescent girls, in particular, migraine. In many cases, migraine onset may occur shortly around the time of menarche, prevalence of recurrent migraine in this population approaches 15%, and typically the symptoms continue through adulthood. Hormonal changes associated with puberty and the menstrual cycle may significantly influence migraine in young women. This article reviews the following topics: management of menstrually related headaches, changes in ovarian hormones and their relationship to...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ann Pakalnis Source Type: research

The Episodic Syndromes That Maybe Associated with Migraines
The “childhood periodic syndromes” have been renamed “the episodic syndromes that maybe associated with migraines”. These syndromes were initially considered precursors of migraines that only occurred in childhood; however recent literature suggests that the episodic syndromes can occur in adults with known migraine and does not necessarily present as a precursor. This review article discusses the recent literature regarding the episodic syndromes and potential treatments. These disorders are seen by multiple subspecialists, therefore it is important to recognize and use the same definitions, criter...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Diana Lebron, Elza Vasconcellos Source Type: research

Dizziness and Orthostatic Intolerance In Pediatric Headache Patients
Children and adolescents with headaches commonly complain of dizziness that creates significant distress among the patients and their families. Dizziness is largely due to either orthostatic intolerance or vertigo; this distinction is the initial step in the evaluation of a child with co-occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Vertiginous symptoms are most commonly due to vestibular migraine or benign positional vertigo. This review would focus its attention on the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of orthostatic intolerance, specifically postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: William Qubty, Sita Kedia Source Type: research

Mosaic Neurocutaneous Disorders and Their Causes
Neurocutaneous disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions (mainly) affecting the skin [with pigmentary abnormalities and/or cutaneous tumours] and the central and peripheral nervous systems [with congenital abnormalities and/or tumours]. Other-than-skin and nervous system involvement is frequently encountered mostly affecting eye, bone, heart/vessels, lung, kidney and gut. The spectrum of neurological anomalies is broad including cognitive and motor defects, epilepsy and behavioural abnormalities. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Martino Ruggieri, PraticoAndrea D. Praticò, Rudolf Happle Source Type: research

Current Therapeutic Options in Sturge-Weber Syndrome
Sturge-Weber syndrome is a vascular malformation syndrome consisting of a facial port-wine birthmark associated with malformed leptomeningeal blood vessels and a choroid “angioma” of the eye. It is a rare neurocutaneous disorder that occurs sporadically, is not inherited, and is caused by a somatic mosaic mutation in GNAQ. In patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome, brain involvement typically presents in infancy with seizures, strokes, and stroke-like episodes, and a range of neurologic impairments. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Anne Comi Source Type: research

Current Therapeutic Options in Sturge Weber Syndrome
Sturge-Weber syndrome is a vascular malformation syndrome consisting of a facial port-wine birthmark associated with malformed leptomeningeal blood vessels and a choroid “angioma” of the eye. It is a rare neurocutaneous disorder that occurs sporadically, is not inherited, and is caused by a somatic mosaic mutation in GNAQ. Patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome brain involvement typically present in infancy with seizures, strokes and stroke-like episodes, and a range of neurological impairments. Standard treatment includes laser therapy for the birthmark, control of glaucoma through eye drops or surgery, and the u...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Anne Comi Source Type: research

Diagnosis, Management, and New Therapeutic Options in Childhood Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Related Forms
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2; MIM # 101000) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of vestibular schwannomas (VSs); schwannomas of other cranial, spinal, and cutaneous nerves; cranial and spinal meningiomas or other central nervous system tumors (eg, ependymomas and astrocytomas) or both. Additional features include eye (eg, early onset cataracts, optic nerve sheath meningiomas, retinal or pigment epithelial hamartomas or both, and epithelial retinal membranes) and skin abnormalities (eg, flat dermal [NF2 plaques] or spherical subcutaneous nodular schwannomas or both, and few, atypical caf&eacu...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Martino Ruggieri, Andrea Domenico Praticò, Dafydd Gareth Evans Source Type: research

Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors and Life-Threatening Conditions in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disease associated with an overall reduction in life expectancy due to the possible occurrence of different life-threatening conditions. Subjects affected by TSC are, in fact, at risk of hydrocephalus secondary to the growth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, or of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Other nonneurological life-threatening conditions include abdominal bleeding owing to renal angiomyolipomas rupture, renal insufficiency due to progressive parenchymal destruction by multiple cysts, pulmonary complications due to lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and cardiac fai...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Romina Moavero, Gloria Romagnoli, Federica Graziola, Paolo Curatolo Source Type: research

mTOR Inhibitors and Life-Threatening Conditions in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disease associated with an overall reduction in life expectancy due to the possible occurrence of different life-threatening conditions. Subjects affected by TSC are in fact at risk of hydrocephalus secondary to the growth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA), or of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Other non-neurological life-threatening conditions include abdominal bleeding due to renal angiomyolipomas (AML) rupture, renal insufficiency due to progressive parenchymal destruction by multiple cysts, pulmonary complications due to lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM),...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Romina Moavero, Gloria Romagnoli, Federica Graziola, Paolo Curatolo Source Type: research

Advances in Molecular Diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous and tumor predisposing genetic disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. NF1 is solely caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, and disease-causing mutations can be found in more than 95% of individuals with a clinical diagnosis. While NF1 has a distinctive clinical phenotype, it has a highly variable expression, even among individuals from the same family. Identifying the specific mutation does not usually assist in determining disease course and severity, and relatively few genotype-phenotype correlations have thus far been found. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Ben Shofty, Shlomi Constantini, Shay Ben-Shachar Source Type: research

Diagnosis, Management and New Therapeutic Options in Childhood Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Related Forms
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2; MIM # 101000) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of vestibular schwannomas (VSs), schwannomas of other cranial, spinal and cutaneous nerves, cranial and spinal meningiomas and/or other central nervous system (CNS) tumors (e.g., ependymomas, astrocytomas). Additional clinical features involve eye (e.g., early onset cataracts, optic nerve sheath meningiomas, retinal and/or pigment epithelial hamartomas and epithelial retinal membranes) and skin (e.g., flat dermal NF2-plaques, and/or spherical subcutaneous nodular schwannomas and few, atypical café-au-lait ...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: M. Ruggieri, A.D. Praticò, D.G.R. Evans Source Type: research

Natural History and Current Treatment Options for Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a benign brain tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Since there were some discrepancies in SEGA classification, in 2012, a consensus statement defined SEGA as a lesion at the caudothalamic groove with either a size of more than 1cm in any direction or a subependymal lesion at any location that has shown serial growth on consecutive imaging regardless of size. This pointed that the documented tumor growing is an important diagnostic feature. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Sergiusz Jóźwiak, Marek Mandera, Wojciech Młynarski Source Type: research

Abdominal migraine
is one of the episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine, which often has its initial presentation in childhood. Recognition of these two conditions in the pediatric population is paramount to establish an appropriate diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-3 beta for abdominal, and discuss the differential diagnosis, and current suggested management. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Paul Winner Source Type: research

Genotype/Phenotype Correlations in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of widespread hamartomatous lesions in various organs including brain, skin, kidneys, heart and eyes. Central nervous system is almost invariably involved, with up to 85% of patients presenting with epilepsy, and at least half of patients presenting intellectual disability and/or other neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorder. TSC is caused by the mutation in one of the two genes TSC1, at 9q34, and TSC2, at 16p13.3. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Paolo Curatolo, Romina Moavero, Denis Roberto, Federica Graziola Source Type: research

Natural History and Current Treatment Options for Sega in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a benign brain tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Since there were some discrepancies in SEGA classification, in 2012 a consensus statement defined SEGA as a lesion at the caudothalamic groove with either a size of more than 1 cm in any direction or a subependymal lesion at any location that has shown serial growth on consecutive imaging regardless of size. This pointed that the documented tumor growing is an important diagnostic feature. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Sergiusz Jóźwiak, Marek Mandera, Wojciech Młynarski Source Type: research

Introduction
At the beginning of the 20th century, Van der Hoeve highlighted that the common ectodermic origin of skin and nervous system might be the cause of neurocutaneous syndromes or phakomatoses.1 However, it was soon pointed out that mesodermal and endodermal tissues were involved too.2 Furthermore, with the advent of molecular genetics, the traditional concept of three germ layers has been challenged because the expression of many developmental genes is not restricted to one germinal layer. At the present moment, there are many clinical and molecular clues supporting the new concept that an abnormality in the formation, migrati...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 21, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Paolo Curatolo Source Type: research

Abdominal Migraine
Abdominal migraine is one of the episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine, which often has its initial presentation in childhood. Recognition of these 2 conditions in the pediatric population is paramount to establish an appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The aim of this article is to review the most recent International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 beta for abdominal migraine, and discuss the differential diagnosis and current suggested management. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 20, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Paul Winner Source Type: research

Nevus Sebaceous and Its Association With Neurologic Involvement
Several terms are widely used to define cutaneous lesions affecting the epidermis in association with extracutaneous lesions. Recently, based on the wide spectrum of cutaneous epidermal lesions, the various underlying molecular mechanisms and patterns of associated features have led to improved definitions of these disorders. Nevus sebaceous syndrome has been placed under the umbrella term of epidermal nevus syndrome, in which the nevus sebaceous, a congenital hamartomatous lesion of the epidermis, is associated with anomalies involving the brain, eyes, and bones. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Renata Rizzo, Piero Pavone Source Type: research

Nevus Sebaceous and its Association with Neurological Involvement
Several terms are widely used to define cutaneous lesions affecting the epidermis in association with extracutaneous lesions. Recently on the basis of the wide spectrum of cutaneous epidermal lesions, the various underlying molecular mechanisms, and patterns of associated features have led to improved definitions of these disorders. Nevus sebaceous syndrome has been placed under the umbrella term of epidermal nevus syndrome in which the nevus sebaceous, a congenital hamartomatous lesion of the epidermis, is associated with anomalies involving brain, eyes and bones. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Renata Rizzo, Piero Pavone Source Type: research

Dedication
(Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - September 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Management of Primary Headache in the Emergency Department and Inpatient Headache Unit
Migraine is a chronic disorder with debilitating exacerbations throughout the lifetime of migraineur patients. Children and adolescents are significantly affected. The prevalence of migraine in this age group is higher than predicted in the last decade. Fortunately, this chronic disease is getting more attention and recognition, and better treatments are now being offered to these patients. Different medications are available, mostly for the outpatient management of an attack and include the use of over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications as well as prescribed medications like the triptans group. (Source: Seminars in...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Marielle A. Kabbouche, Chaouki K. Khoury Source Type: research

Pediatric Posttraumatic Headache
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury are common injuries in pediatrics, and post-traumatic headache is the most common complaint following these injuries. While most children and teens recover from a simple, isolated concussion without incident within 1-2 weeks, some develop symptoms that can last for months. It is important to manage both acute and persistent post-traumatic headaches appropriately in order to speed recovery, minimize disability and maximize function. In this manuscript we will review the definitions, epidemiology and current recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of acute and persistent po...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Joanne Kacperski, Ryan Hung, Heidi K. Blume Source Type: research

Management of Primary Headache in the Emergency Department and Inpatient Headache Unit
Migraine is a chronic disorder with debilitating exacerbations throughout the lifetime of migraineurs. Children and adolescents are significantly affected. The prevalence of migraine in this age group is higher than predicted in the last decade. Fortunately, this chronic disease is getting more attention and recognition, and better treatments are now being offered to these patients. Different medications are available, mostly for the outpatient management of an attack and include the use of over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications as well as prescribed medications like the triptans group. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Marielle Kabbouche, Chaouki K. Khoury Source Type: research

Pediatric Posttraumatic Headache
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury are common injuries in pediatrics, and posttraumatic headache is the most common complaint following them. Although most children and teens recover from a simple, isolated concussion without incidents within 1-2 weeks, some develop symptoms that can last for months. It is important to manage both acute and persistent posttraumatic headaches appropriately to speed recovery, minimize disability, and maximize function. In this article, we review the definitions, epidemiology, and current recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of acute and persistent posttraumatic headaches....
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Joanne Kacperski, Ryan Hung, Heidi K. Blume Source Type: research

Infant Colic
This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5–19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. While infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Amy A. Gelfand Source Type: research

Infant Colic
This article reviews the evidence for an association between infant colic and migraine. Infant colic, or excessive crying in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant, affects approximately 5%-19% of infants. Multiple case-control studies, a cross-sectional study, and a prospective cohort study have all found an association between infant colic and migraine. Although infant colic is often assumed to have a gastrointestinal cause, several treatment trials aimed at gastrointestinal etiologies have been negative. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 16, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Amy A. Gelfand Source Type: research

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias in Children and Adolescents: Cluster Headache and Related Conditions
Cluster headache is a primary headache disorder that can occur in children and adolescents, and is a member of the broader diagnostic group of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. It is characterized by repeated attacks typically lasting between 15 and 180 minutes of severe unilateral side-locked headache with cranial autonomic features. Acute treatment of the cluster attack can include the use of triptans or high-flow oxygen. Preventive measures typically start with the use of verapamil. The other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, paroxysmal hemicrania, short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injec...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenneth J. Mack, Peter Goadsby Source Type: research

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias In Children And Adolescents Cluster Headache and Related Conditions
Cluster headache is a primary headache disorder that can occur in children and adolescents, and is a member of the broader diagnostic group of Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (TACs). It is characterized by repeated attacks typically lasting between 15-180 minutes of severe unilateral side-locked headache with cranial autonomic features. Acute treatment of the cluster attack can include the use of triptans or high flow oxygen. Preventive measures typically start with the use of verapamil. The other TACS, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT/SUNA, have also been reported in children, and should be considered when the clinical p...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenneth J. Mack, Peter Goadsby Source Type: research

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias in Children and Adolescents: Cluster Headache and Related Conditions
Cluster headache is a primary headache disorder that can occur in children and adolescents, and is a member of the broader diagnostic group of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. It is characterized by repeated attacks typically lasting between 15 and 180 minutes of severe unilateral side-locked headache with cranial autonomic features. Acute treatment of the cluster attack can include the use of triptans or high-flow oxygen. Preventive measures typically start with the use of verapamil. The other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, paroxysmal hemicrania, short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injec...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenneth J. Mack, Peter Goadsby Source Type: research

Introduction
The March 2002 issue of Seminars was devoted to bioethics. As indicated by Dr. Shevell at that time, “ethics concerns itself with doing the “right thing””.1 And yet, identifying the “right thing” or the “right course of action” can, in many instances, be challenging if nothing else because morality is constantly evolving. This issue is especially germane to pediatrics for at least two reasons: a- patients are directly impacted by decisions made by adults, and b- by the nature of the discipline, we deal with a population that spans birth to adulthood. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - August 11, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Pedro Weisleder Source Type: research

The Philosophical Basis of Bioethics
In this paper I consider in what sense bioethics is philosophical. Philosophy includes both analysis and synthesis. Analysis focuses on central concepts in the domain; for example, informed consent, death, medical futility, and health. It is argued that analysis should avoid oversimplification. The synthesis or synoptic dimension prompts people to explain how their views have logical assumptions and implications. In addition to the conceptual elements are the evaluative and empirical dimensions. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 4, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Peter Horn Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Health Care Rationing in a Just Society: The Clinical Effectiveness Model
Representing 18% of gross domestic product, and projected to increase to 20% by 2022, health care costs in the United States are an unsustainable expense. The clinical effectiveness model of cost containment is an ethical and self-sustaining paradigm that can assist bending the health care-cost curve. As envisioned by Buyx et al, clinically effective care is aimed at making the practice of medicine more explicitly evidence based with the goals of improving clinical success, efficiency, and value. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Pedro Weisleder Source Type: research

Healthcare rationing in a just society: the clinical effectiveness model
Representing 18% of GDP, and projected to rise to 20% by 2022, healthcare costs in the United States are an unsustainable expense. The clinical effectiveness model of cost containment is an ethical and self-sustaining paradigm that can assist bending the healthcare-cost curve. As envisioned by Buyx et al., clinically effective care is aimed at making the practice of medicine more explicitly evidence-based with the goals of improving clinical success, efficiency, and value. Herein I provide a vision for applying the clinical effectiveness model to the American healthcare system. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Pedro Weisleder Source Type: research

Ethical Challenges in Early-Phase Pediatric Research for Life-Limiting Illness
Research with children is necessary to assure more effective treatments and potential cures of childhood illnesses. Ethical conduct of research requires minimizing the inherent risks of research, especially when it involves vulnerable populations like children. DMD is a progressive and fatal disease with no FDA-approved treatment. Clinical trials investigating so-called “gene therapies” are viewed by many in the DMD community with great promise. The goal of research is to secure generalizable knowledge and not directly benefit patients, yet many parents of boys with DMD hope, and even expect, that their sons wi...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoram Unguru Source Type: research

Cognitive enhancement: Treating or cheating?
In this article I provide an overview of the moral and medical questions surrounding the use of cognitive enhancers. The discussion will be framed in light of four key considerations (1) is there a difference between therapy and enhancement? (2) How safe are these interventions? (3) Is the use of nootropics cheating? (4) Will enhancers create a further divide of social inequality where only the very wealthy will have access to them? (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Leslie M. Whetstine Source Type: research

Ethical issues in neuroprognostication after severe pediatric brain injury
A 4 month old girl with no significant past medical history had a cardiac arrest at home. Her parents found her unresponsive, face down in her playpen, and not breathing. She was last seen 20minutes prior. Her father performed CPR for 5minutes and EMS continued CPR for an additional 2-3minutes. Spontaneous circulation returned after 1 dose of epinephrine. She was intubated and taken to the emergency room where she was noted to have seizure-like movements in her right arm and eye twitching. She received 2 doses of lorazepam and was started on dopamine prior to transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit, where she was pla...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Matthew P Kirschen, Jennifer K Walter Source Type: research