Introduction
Recent years have witnessed an explosion of knowledge about genetic causes of infantile epileptic encephalopathies. Many of these syndromes were previously considered symptomatic of unknown etiology or, simply, cryptogenic. These discoveries are providing insights into the underlying pathophysiology of these epileptic syndromes as well as novel opportunities for better diagnosis, prognostication, genetic counseling, and even precision therapies. With the ever accelerating pace of research and discovery in this field, there is, thus, an increasingly widening gap in the knowledge of clinicians of the full range of recent dis...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

Introduction
Recent years have witnessed an explosion of knowledge about genetic causes of infantile epileptic encephalopathies. Many of these syndromes were previously considered symptomatic of unknown etiology or, simply, cryptogenic. These discoveries are providing insights into the underlying pathophysiology of these epileptic syndromes as well as novel opportunities for better diagnosis, prognostication, genetic counseling and even precision therapies. With the ever accelerating pace of research and discovery in this field, there is, thus, an increasingly widening gap in the knowledge of clinicians of the full range of recent disc...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

Focal Cortical Dysplasia in Childhood Epilepsy
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) comprise a spectrum of brain abnormalities caused by defects in brain development, failing to elaborate a functional laminated cortex. Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are a subgroup of MCD characterized by aberrant cortical architecture in a localized area of the brain, and have been reported as the most frequent structural brain lesion encountered in children submitted to surgery for medication resistant epilepsy.1,2 Increasing efforts have been made in the last decade to better define the different types of FCD and understand their pathophysiology, hoping this could help identi...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Tarek Shaker, Anne Bernier, Lionel Carmant Source Type: research

Amenable Treatable Severe Pediatric Epilepsies
Vitamin-dependent epilepsies and multiple metabolic epilepsies are amenable to treatment that markedly improves the disease course. Knowledge of these amenably treatable severe pediatric epilepsies allows for early identification, testing, and treatment. These disorders present with various phenotypes, including early onset epileptic encephalopathy (refractory neonatal seizures, early myoclonic encephalopathy, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), infantile spasms, or mixed generalized seizure types in infancy, childhood, or even adolescence and adulthood. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Phillip L. Pearl Source Type: research

Amenably Treatable Pediatric Severe Epilepsies
Vitamin-dependent epilepsies and multiple metabolic epilepsies are amenable to treatment that markedly improves the disease course. Knowledge of these amenably treatable severe pediatric epilepsies allows for early identification, testing and treatment. These disorders present with various phenotypes, including early onset epileptic encephalopathy (including refractory neonatal seizures, early myoclonic encephalopathy, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), infantile spasms, or mixed generalized seizure types in infancy, childhood, or even adolescence and adulthood. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Phillip L. Pearl Source Type: research

Emerging Antiepileptic Drugs for Severe Pediatric Epilepsies
This article reports the clinical trial data and personal experience in treating the severe epilepsies of childhood with the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved new antiepileptic drugs (vigabatrin, rufinamide, perampanel, and clobazam) and those in clinical trials (cannabidiol, stiripentol, and fenfluramine). (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Sarah Weatherspoon, James W. Wheless Source Type: research

Emerging Anti-Epileptic Drugs for Severe Pediatric Epilepsies
The medical management of the epilepsy syndromes of early childhood (eg., infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, etc.) is challenging; and requires careful evaluation, classification and treatment. Pharmacological treatment continues to be the mainstay of therapy for these children, and as such it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the role of new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). This review reports the clinical trial data and personal experience in treating the severe epilepsies of childhood with the recently FDA approved AEDs (vigabatrin, rufinamide, perampanel, clobazam) and those in cli...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Sarah Weatherspoon, James W. Wheless Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Therapies of Severe Epileptic Encephalopathies
In this article, we review the treatment options for the pediatric epileptic encephalopathies and provide an update on the new and emerging therapies targeted at the underlying pathophysiology of many of these syndromes. We illustrate how the identification of the specific genetic and autoimmune causes has made possible the evaluation and development of novel, better targeted therapies, as and at times, avoidance of potentially offending agents. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Abeer J. Hani, Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

The Expanding Clinical Spectrum of Genetic Pediatric Epileptic Encephalopathies
Pediatric epileptic encephalopathies represent a clinically challenging and often devastating group of disorders that affect children at different stages of infancy and childhood. With the advances in genetic testing and neuroimaging, the etiologies of these epileptic syndromes are now better defined. The various encephalopathies that are reviewed in this article include the following: early infantile epileptic encephalopathy or Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic encephalopathy, epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, West syndrome, severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (Dravet syndrome), Landau-Kleffner syndrome...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Rolla Shbarou, Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Therapies of Severe Epileptic Encephalopathies
Recent advances in genetics have markedly impacted our understanding of multiple epilepsy syndromes and is expanding our therapeutic options. Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) comprise a group of clinical entities each with a specific disease course and with electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities that cause progressive disturbances of cerebral functions.1 Failure to appropriately recognize an EE in question results in ongoing cognitive and behavioral impairments. EEs are often resistant to conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), hence the interest in new and emerging therapies. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Abeer J. Hani, Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

The Expanding Clinical Spectrum of Genetic Pediatric Epileptic Encephalopathies
Pediatric epileptic encephalopathies represent a clinically challenging and often devastating group of disorders that affect children at different stages of infancy and childhood. With the advances in genetic testing and neuroimaging, the etiologies of these epileptic syndromes are now better defined. The various encephalopathies that are reviewed in this article include the following: Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (EIEE) or Ohtahara Syndrome, Early Myoclonic Encephalopathy (EME), Epilepsy of Infancy with Migrating Focal Seizures, West Syndrome, Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy in Infancy (Dravet Syndrome), Landau-Klef...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Rolla Shbarou, Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Surgical Therapies for Severe Pediatric Epilepsies
The use of epilepsy surgery in various medically-resistant epilepsies is well-established. For patients with intractable pediatric epilepsy, the role of intracranial electrodes, resective surgery, hemispherectomy, corpus callosotomy, neurostimulation, and multiple subpial transections continues to be very effective in select cases. Newer treatment and diagnostic methods include laser thermal ablation, minimally invasive surgeries, stereo electroencephalogram (EEG), changes in electrocorticography, and other emerging techniques. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Carrie R. Muh Source Type: research

Should We Treat Electroencephalographic Discharges in the Clinic or in the Intensive Care Unit, and if So When and How?
The important question that often emerges in the clinic is how aggressive the therapy for nonconvulsive status epilepticus and electrical status epilepticus in sleep ought to be and how continuous the discharges in each of these 2 entities should be before therapy is aimed at them. Additionally, as the use of electroencephalographic monitoring continues to expand to include the clinic and intensive care unit populations, it is important to identify epileptiform patterns that warrant identification and treatment. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: James J. Riviello Source Type: research

Effect of Seizures on the Developing Brain and Cognition
Epilepsy is a complex disorder, which involves much more than seizures, encompassing a range of associated comorbid health conditions that can have significant health and quality-of-life implications. Of these comorbidities, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and distressing aspects of epilepsy. Clinical studies have demonstrated that refractory seizures, resistant to antiepileptic drugs, and occurring early in life have significant adverse effects on cognitive function. Much of what has been learned about the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive impairment following early-life seizures has come from anim...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research

Pediatric Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy: What Have we Learned from Animal and Human Studies, and Can we Prevent it?
Several factors, such as epilepsy syndrome, poor compliance, and increased seizure frequency increase the risks of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Animal models have revealed that the mechanisms of SUDEP involve initially a primary event, often a seizure of sufficient type and severity, that occurs in a brain, which is vulnerable to SUDEP due to either genetic or antecedent factors. This primary event initiates a cascade of secondary events starting, as some models indicate, with cortical spreading depolarization that propagates to the brainstem where it results in autonomic dysfunction. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca L. Holt, Eric Arehart, Arsen Hunanyan, Nina A. Fainberg, Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

Should we Treat EEG Discharges in the Clinic or in the ICU, and if so when and how?
The important question that often emerges in the clinic is how aggressive the therapy of non-convulsive status epilepticus and electrical status epilepticus in sleep ought to be and how continuous the discharges in each of these two entities should be before therapy is aimed at them. Additionally, as the use of EEG monitoring continues to expand to include the clinic and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) populations, it is important to identify epileptiform patterns that warrant identification and treatment. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: James J. Riviello Source Type: research

Pediatric Epileptic Encephalopathies: Pathophysiology and Animal Models
Epileptic encephalopathies are syndromes in which seizures or interictal epileptiform activity contribute to or exacerbate brain function, beyond that caused by the underlying pathology. These severe epilepsies begin early in life, are associated with poor lifelong outcome, and are resistant to most treatments. Therefore, they represent an immense challenge for families and the medical care system. Furthermore, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the epileptic encephalopathies are poorly understood, hampering attempts to devise novel treatments. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Li-Rong Shao, Carl E. Stafstrom Source Type: research

Pediatric Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy: What Have we Learned From Animal and Human Studies, and Can we Prevent it?
Several factors, such as epilepsy syndrome, poor compliance, and increased seizure frequency increase the risks of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Animal models have revealed that the mechanisms of SUDEP involve initially a primary event, often a seizure of sufficient type and severity, which occurs in a brain, which is vulnerable to SUDEP due to either genetic or antecedent factors. This primary event initiates a cascade of secondary events starting, as some models indicate, with cortical spreading depolarization that propagates to the brainstem where it results in autonomic dysfunction. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca L. Holt, Eric Arehart, Arsen Hunanyan, Nina A. Fainberg, Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

Effect of Seizures on the Developing Brain and Cognition
Epilepsy is a complex disorder, which involves much more than seizures, encompassing a range of associated comorbid health conditions that can have significant health and quality-of-life implications. Of these comorbidities, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and distressing aspects of epilepsy. Clinical studies have demonstrated that refractory seizures, resistant to antiepileptic drugs, occurring early in life have significant adverse effects on cognitive function. Much of what has been learned about the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive impairment following early-life seizures has come from animal m...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research

Pediatric SUDEP: What Have we Learned from Animal and Human Studies and Can we Prevent it?
Several factors, such as epilepsy syndrome, poor compliance and increased seizure frequency increase the risks of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Animal models have revealed that the mechanisms of SUDEP involve initially a primary event, often a seizure of sufficient type and severity, which occurs in a brain which is vulnerable to SUDEP due to either genetic or antecedent factors. This primary event initiates a cascade of secondary events starting, as some models indicate, with cortical spreading depolarization which propagates to the brainstem where it results in autonomic dysfunction. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Rebecca L. Holt, Eric Arehart, Arsen Hunanyan, Nina A. Fainberg, Mohamad A. Mikati Source Type: research

Should we Treat EEG Discharges in the Clinic or in the ICU, and if so when and how?
The important question that often emerges in the clinic is how aggressive the therapy of non-convulsive status epilepticus and electrical status epilepticus in sleep ought to be and how continuous the discharges in each of these two entities should be before therapy is aimed at them. Additionally, as the use of EEG monitoring continues to expand to include the clinic and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) populations, it is important to identify epileptiform patterns that warrant identification and treatment. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: James J. Riviello Source Type: research

Pediatric Epileptic Encephalopathies: Pathophysiology and Animal Models
Epileptic encephalopathies are syndromes in which seizures or interictal epileptiform activity contributes to or exacerbates brain function, beyond that caused by the underlying pathology. These severe epilepsies begin early in life, are associated with poor lifelong outcome, and are resistant to most treatments. Therefore, they represent an immense challenge for families and the medical care system. Furthermore, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the epileptic encephalopathies are poorly understood, hampering attempts to devise novel treatments. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - May 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Li-Rong Shao, Carl E. Stafstrom Source Type: research

Endocrinological Abnormalities in Autism
A number of chemical messengers, such as various hormones and hormone-like substances, along with neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, are directly or indirectly linked with the encoding of social behavior via their action at the amygdala, hippocampus, and other related brain structures known to be involved in different aspects of social development. It is thought that any imbalance in the secretion and action of these chemicals may lead to defective or abnormal social behaviors that are the hallmarks of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Francesco De Luca Source Type: research

Endocrinological Abnormalities in Autism
A number of chemical messengers, such as various hormones and hormone-like substances, along with neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, are directly or indirectly linked with the encoding of social behavior via their action at the amygdala, hippocampus, and other related brain structures known to be involved in different aspects of social development. It is thought that any imbalance in the secretion/action of these chemicals may lead to defective or abnormal social behaviors that are the hallmarks of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - April 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Francesco De Luca Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Steven LeRoy Linder, MD (1945–2015)
I had the honor of knowing Steven LeRoy Linder, for 38 years; I had the pleasure of working with him for 30 years. My friend, partner, and colleague passed away on June 10, 2015 after a 15-month battle with lymphoma. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Roy D. Elterman Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Steven LeRoy Linder, MD (1945 –2015)
I had the honor of knowing Steven LeRoy Linder, for 38 years; I had the pleasure of working with him for 30 years. My friend, partner, and colleague passed away on June 10, 2015 after a 15-month battle with lymphoma. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - March 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Roy D. Elterman Source Type: research

Evolution of Surgical Management for Intractable Epileptic Spasms
The understanding and management of epileptic spasms has considerably evolved since the mid 19th century. The realization that epileptic spasms can be generated from a focal brain lesion played a pivotal role in the development of neurosurgical management for intractable forms of this epilepsy. During pre-surgical planning, the addition of functional FDG PET imaging has further refined the electroencephalographic localization of epileptogenic lesions. In some cases, neurosurgical resection of a focus that is co-localized by the FDG PET scan and electroencephalography can lead to partial or complete reversal of developmenta...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Salman Rashid, Harry T. Chugani Source Type: research

Evolution of Surgical Management for Intractable Epileptic Spasms
The author will have to provide one. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Salman Rashid, Harry T Chugani Source Type: research

Medical Comorbidities in Pediatric Headache
Comorbid conditions frequently occur in pediatric headaches and may significantly affect their management. Comorbidities that have been associated with pediatric headaches include attention-deficit or hyperactivity disorder, autism, developmental disabilities, depression, anxiety, epilepsy, obesity, infantile colic, atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The goal of this article is to elucidate common comorbidities associated with pediatric headache, thereby empowering child neurologists to identify common triggers and tailor management strategies that address headache and associated co...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Howard Jacobs, Samata Singhi, Jack Gladstein Source Type: research

Medical co-morbidities in pediatric headache
Co-morbid conditions frequently occur in pediatric headaches and may significantly affect their management. Co-morbidities that have been associated with pediatric headaches include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, developmental disabilities, depression, anxiety, epilepsy, obesity, infantile colic, atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. The goal of this review is to elucidate common comorbidities associated with pediatric headache, thereby empowering child neurologists to identify common triggers and tailor management strategies that address headache and associated comor...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Howard Jacobs, Samata Singhi, Jack Gladstein Source Type: research

Medical Comorbidities in Pediatric Headache
Comorbid conditions frequently occur in pediatric headaches and may significantly affect their management. Comorbidities that have been associated with pediatric headaches include attention-deficit or hyperactivity disorder, autism, developmental disabilities, depression, anxiety, epilepsy, obesity, infantile colic, atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The goal of this article is to review these comorbidities associated with pediatric headache, thereby empowering child neurologists to identify common triggers and tailor management strategies that address headache and its comorbidities...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Howard Jacobs, Samata Singhi, Jack Gladstein Source Type: research

The Comorbidity of Migraine and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents
Migraine and epilepsy share a number of clinical attributes, including pathophysiology and clinical expression. Both are paroxysmal in nature and thus constitute episodic disorders, yet either may be chronic and recurrent. Epileptic seizures and migraine headaches may be mistaken one for the other and may even overlap. In particular, occipital lobe seizures may be misdiagnosed as migraine auras. In this article we review the relationship between migraine and epilepsy, including the known genetic contributions to both conditions, prodromal, ictal and postictal headache and shared pathophysiology and treatment options betwee...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Michael K. Sowell, Paul E. Youssef Source Type: research

The Comorbidity of Migraine and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents
Migraine and epilepsy share a number of clinical attributes, including pathophysiology and clinical expression. Both are paroxysmal in nature and thus constitute episodic disorders, yet either may be chronic and/or recurrent. Epileptic seizures and migraine headaches may be mistaken one for the other and may even overlap. In particular, occipital lobe seizures may be misdiagnosed as migraine auras. In this article, we review the relationship between migraine and epilepsy, including the known genetic contributions to both conditions, prodromal, ictal, and postictal headache and shared pathophysiology and treatment options. ...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Michael K. Sowell, Paul E. Youssef Source Type: research

Migraine and Puberty: Potential Susceptible Brain Sites
Puberty is a sensitive and critical period for brain development. The relationship between developmental processes in the brain during puberty and the onset of migraine disease in relation to the potential sites of susceptibility in the brain remains largely unknown. There are little data on how such processes interact with each other in influencing the migraine onset during puberty or even later in adulthood. Focusing on the migraine brain during pubertal development may provide us with a “window of opportunity” to both better understand the mechanisms of the disease and also more importantly to effectively in...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Nasim Maleki, Carolyn Bernstein, Vitaly Napadow, Alison Field Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Donald W. Lewis, MD (1951 –2012)
In this issue, we bring together many headache experts to review specialty topics in pediatric headache. In addition, this gives us a particular opportunity to remember a beloved leader in this field, Dr Don Lewis. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Andrew D. Hershey, Jack Gladstein, Kenneth J. Mack Source Type: research

Migraine and Puberty: Potential Susceptible Brain Sites
Puberty is a sensitive and critical period for brain development. The relationship between developmental processes in the brain during puberty and the onset of migraine disease in relation to the potential sites of susceptibility in the brain remains largely unknown. There are few data on how such processes interact with each other in influencing the migraine onset during puberty or even later in adulthood. Focusing on the migraine brain during pubertal development may provide us with a “window of opportunity” both to better understand the mechanisms of the disease and, also more importantly, to effectively int...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Nasim Maleki, Carolyn Bernstein, Vitaly Napadow, Alison Field Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Donald W. Lewis, MD (1951 –2012)
In this issue, we bring together many headache experts to review specialty topics in pediatric headache. In addition, this gives us a particular opportunity to remember a beloved leader in this field, Dr Don Lewis. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Andrew D. Hershey, Jack Gladstein, Kenneth J. Mack Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Donald W. Lewis, MD (1951–2012)
In this issue, we bring together many headache experts to review specialty topics in pediatric headache. In addition, this gives us a particular opportunity to remember a beloved leader in this field, Dr Don Lewis. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Andrew D. Hershey, Jack Gladstein, Kenneth J. Mack Source Type: research

Complementary and Integrative Approaches for Pediatric Headache
In this article, the use of complementary and integrative medicine for the management of pediatric headache is reviewed. Despite limited numbers of studies for pediatric headaches, children and families seek these services. Integrative medicine focuses on treating the whole person, integrating conventional medicine with mind-body-spirit methods. Nutriceuticals include dietary supplements in the form of vitamins and minerals, and a review of magnesium, CoQ10, butterbur and melatonin in pediatric headache is presented here. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Sita Kedia Source Type: research

Complementary and Integrative Approaches for Pediatric Headache
In this article, the use of complementary and integrative medicine for the management of pediatric headache is reviewed. Despite limited numbers of studies for pediatric headaches, children and families seek these services. Integrative medicine focuses on treating the whole person, integrating conventional medicine with mind-body-spirit methods. Nutriceuticals include dietary supplements in the form of vitamins (vitamin D), minerals (magnesium), coenzyme Q, butterbur, and melatonin. Acupuncture, stimulation, physical therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulations (TENS) or Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) ...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Sita Kedia Source Type: research

Migrainous Aura, Visual Snow, and “Alice in Wonderland” Syndrome in Childhood
Migraine is a condition that is common in the pediatric and adolescent population. Among children with migraine, visual aura can consist of either negative or positive features or both. Reports of sensory auras can also be elicited with a careful history. The understanding of the types of aura, as well as their relation to the more typical features of migraine, are discussed. The similar phenomena of visual snow and Alice in Wonderland syndrome in children are also described in detail. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Reena Gogia Rastogi, Juliana VanderPluym, Kara Stuart Lewis Source Type: research

Introduction
For this headache volume of Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, we sought to expand the topics beyond the usual reviews of common primary headache syndromes. Our goal was to discuss more challenging and difficult topics, as the typical Seminars in Pediatric Neurology reader has both experience in this area, and a fundamental knowledge of common headache disorders. Authors from the Pediatric Section of the American Headache Society were recruited and contributed to this volume. These individuals represent a great deal of headache experience, and are some of the most prolific and insightful writers in the field of pediatric hea...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenneth J. Mack Source Type: research

Migrainous Aura, Visual Snow, and “Alice in Wonderland” Syndrome in Childhood
Migraine is a condition that is common in the pediatric and adolescent population. Among children with migraine, visual aura can consist of either negative or positive features or both. Reports of sensory auras can also be elicited with a careful history. The understanding of the types of aura, as well as their relation to the more typical features of migraine, are discussed. The similar phenomena of visual snow and Alice in Wonderland syndrome in children are also described in detail. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Reena Gogia Rastogi, Juliana VanderPluym, Kara Stuart Lewis Source Type: research

Introduction
For this headache volume of Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, we sought to expand the topics beyond the usual reviews of common primary headache syndromes. Our goal was to discuss more challenging and difficult topics, as the typical Seminars in Pediatric Neurology reader has both experience in this area, and a fundamental knowledge of common headache disorders. Authors from the Pediatric Section of the American Headache Society were recruited and contributed to this volume. These individuals represent a great deal of headache experience, and are some of the most prolific and insightful writers in the field of pediatric hea...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kenneth J. Mack Source Type: research