Update on Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder in Cardiovascular Disease
Summary: Chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder (MBD) encompasses changes in mineral ion and vitamin D metabolism that are widespread in the setting of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. MBD components associate with cardiovascular disease in many epidemiologic studies. Through impacts on hypertension, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, vascular calcification, endothelial function, and cardiac remodeling and conduction, MBD may be a direct and targetable cause of cardiovascular disease. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Joseph Lunyera, Julia J. Scialla Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Kidney Disease
Summary: The lifespan of children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), although improved over the past 2 decades, remains low compared with the general pediatric population. Similar to adults with CKD, cardiovascular disease accounts for a majority of deaths in children with CKD because these patients have a high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular alterations that cause these terminal events begin early in pediatric CKD. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Donald J. Weaver, Mark Mitsnefes Source Type: research

Dialysis Prescription and Sudden Death
Summary: In the United States, end-stage renal disease patients receiving hemodialysis have an exceedingly high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), accounting for 29% of death events, likely relating to their uremic milieu, recurring exposure to fluid and electrolyte fluxes, and underlying cardiovascular pathology. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies have shown that SCD events, as well as mortality and hospitalizations, occur most frequently on the first dialysis day after the long interdialytic gap, suggesting that abrupt fluctuations in the accumulation and removal of electrolytes, fluid, and uremic toxins over the dialys...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Connie M. Rhee, Jason A. Chou, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh Source Type: research

Risk Stratification and Treatment of Coronary Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Kidney Disease
Summary: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease have an enormous burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but, paradoxically, their representation in randomized trials for the evaluation and management of coronary artery disease has been limited. Clinicians therefore are faced with the conundrum of synergizing evidence from observational studies, expert opinion, and extrapolation from the general population to provide care to this complex and clinically distinct patient population. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gautam R. Shroff, Tara I. Chang Source Type: research

Heart Failure in End-Stage Kidney Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Strategies
Summary: Heart failure (HF) is a major comorbidity in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The pathogenesis of HF in patients on renal replacement therapy represents the confluence of several traditional and nontraditional vascular risk factors, unique to the milieu of chronic kidney disease and the dialysis modality. The diagnosis of HF with ESKD is complicated by the background of frequent inevitable fluid shifts superimposed on underlying myocardial pump abnormalities and dialysis-induced myocardial stunning. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Janani Rangaswami, Peter A. McCullough Source Type: research

Oral Anticoagulation in Patients With End-Stage Kidney Disease on Dialysis and Atrial Fibrillation
Summary: Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have an elevated incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and are at increased risk for thromboembolic events. However, these patients are also at increased risk for bleeding and it is unclear whether they benefit from an oral anticoagulant. Point prevalent on July 1, 2015, only ~28% of dialysis patients with AF were on oral anticoagulation. Warfarin was the most commonly used oral anticoagulant, followed by apixaban, while dabigatran and rivaroxaban were rarely used. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Austin Hu, Jingbo Niu, Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer Source Type: research

Causal Connections From Chronic Kidney Disease to Cardiac Fibrosis
Summary: Cardiovascular disease and heart failure are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Because impairment of kidney function correlates with heart failure and cardiac fibrosis, a kidney –heart axis is suspected. Although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms still is evolving, the possibility that kidney–heart messengers could be intercepted offers ample reason to focus on this clinically highly relevant problem. Here, we review the current knowledge of how kidney inju ry causes heart failure and fibrosis. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Melanie S. Hulshoff, Sandip K. Rath, Xingbo Xu, Michael Zeisberg, Elisabeth M. Zeisberg Source Type: research

Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease
Since Linder's seminal observation of an apparent acceleration of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients,1 it has become increasingly clear that individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) suffer from an extraordinarily high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and a rate of cardiovascular mortality that increases as kidney function declines and is many-fold higher in individuals with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) than in those with preserved kidney function. More than 40 years have passed since Lindner's initial report, however, despite the high prevalence of CKD and outsized proportion of Medicare spending dedicated to...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David M. Charytan Source Type: research

Masthead
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - November 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Masthead
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of IgA Nephropathy: A Global Perspective
Summary: IgA nephropathy (IgAN), or Berger's disease, is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide, but varies largely in its geographic distribution. A systematic review of 1,619 publications from the five continental regions of the world was performed to assess the prevalence of IgAN in different worldwide regions and analyze factors responsible for geographic differences. All observational studies that described the prevalence and incidence data on glomerulonephritis were considered. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Francesco Paolo Schena, Ionut Nistor Source Type: research

Genetic Determinants of IgA Nephropathy: Western Perspective
Summary: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) represents a genetically complex multifactorial trait. Its prevalence and clinical features vary geographically, and the disease has a range of clinical presentations that suggest multiple subtypes. Although familial aggregation of IgAN has been reported and prior linkage studies have highlighted significant locus heterogeneity, specific genetic variants underlying familial IgAN have not yet been defined. Population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered nearly 20 IgAN risk loci, providing novel insights into disease epidemiology and molecular mechanisms, shifting old p...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Y. Dana Neugut, Krzysztof Kiryluk Source Type: research

Genetic Determinants of IgA Nephropathy: Eastern Perspective
This article summarizes the recent achievements in the genetic studies of IgAN, focusing mainly on studies performed in East Asia, from the early association studies of candidate genes and family based designs, to the recent genome-wide association studies. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ming Li, Xue-Qing Yu Source Type: research

Aberrant Glycosylation of the IgA1 Molecule in IgA Nephropathy
Summary: IgA nephropathy, the most common primary glomerulonephritis in the world and a frequent cause of end-stage renal disease, is characterized by typical mesangial deposits of IgA1, as described by Berger and Hinglaise in 1968. Since then, it has been discovered that aberrant IgA1 O-glycosylation is involved in disease pathogenesis. Progress in glycomic, genomic, clinical, analytical, and biochemical studies has shown autoimmune features of IgA nephropathy. The autoimmune character of the disease is explained by a multihit pathogenesis model, wherein overproduction of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1, galactose-deficient ...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jan Novak, Jonathan Barratt, Bruce A. Julian, Matthew B. Renfrow Source Type: research

Histologic Classification of IgA Nephropathy: Past, Present, and Future
We present a historical panorama of histologic classifications of IgAN and discuss the most recent developments, updates, and future challenges of the Oxford Classification of IgAN. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maria F.S. Soares, Ian S.D. Roberts Source Type: research

Role of Mesangial-Podocytic-Tubular Cross-Talk in IgA Nephropathy
Summary: IgA nephropathy (IgAN), a common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, is associated with a substantial risk of progression to end-stage renal failure. The disease runs a highly variable clinical course with frequent involvement of tubulointerstitial damage. A subgroup of IgAN with proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) and tubulointerstitial damage often is associated with rapid progression to end-stage renal failure. Human mesangial cell –derived mediators lead to podocyte and tubulointerstitial injury via mesangial-podocytic-tubular cross-talk. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Joseph C.K. Leung, Kar Neng Lai, Sydney C.W. Tang Source Type: research

Role of the Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Pathway in Driving Inflammation in IgA Nephropathy
Summary: IgA nephropathy is the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. At least 25% of patients may progress to kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplantation. Treatment of IgA nephropathy using generalized immunosuppression is controversial, with concerns regarding the balance of safety and efficacy in a nonspecific approach. This review describes the recent scientific evidence, and a current clinical trial, investigating whether spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) may be a novel and selective therapeutic target for IgA nephropathy. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Stephen McAdoo, Frederick W.K. Tam Source Type: research

The Gut-Renal Connection in IgA Nephropathy
Summary: The connection between a dysregulated gut-associated lymphoid tissue and IgA nephropathy (IgAN) was supposed decades ago after the observation of increased association of IgAN with celiac disease. Pivotal studies have shown a role for alimentary antigens, particularly gliadin in developing IgAN in BALB/c mice, and a reduction in IgA antigliadin antibodies and proteinuria was reported after gluten free-diet in patients with IgAN. Recently a genome-wide association study showed that most loci associated with IgAN also are associated with immune-mediated inflammatory bowel diseases, maintenance of the intestinal barr...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rosanna Coppo Source Type: research

Murine Models of Human IgA Nephropathy
Summary: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. IgAN is characterized by mesangial deposits of IgA1-containing immune complexes. IgA1 usually co-deposits with complement C3 and variable IgG and/or IgM. Exactly 50 years have passed since IgAN was described, however, the pathogenesis of disease onset and progression have not been fully clarified. Animal models can re-create the complex immunologic microenvironments that foster human autoimmunity and nephritis and provide access to tissue compartments not readily examined in patients. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hitoshi Suzuki, Yusuke Suzuki Source Type: research

Biomarkers and Precision Medicine in IgA Nephropathy
Summary: The field of biomarker research in IgA nephropathy has experienced a major boost in recent years with the publication of a large number of scientific reports. Candidate biomarkers from blood, urine, and renal tissue obtained through the use of clinical chemistry, molecular biology, and omics have been proposed for translation in clinical practice. Nevertheless, individual biomarkers often lack sensitivity and specificity with the consequent impairment of disease specificity. This review, moving on from the analysis of the four-hit hypothesis, illustrates the biomarkers linked to the abnormal glycosylation process ...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Francesco Paolo Schena, Sharon Natasha Cox Source Type: research

Treatment of IgA Nephropathy: Evolution Over Half a Century
Summary: Fifty years into the original description of IgA nephropathy, there is still no specific therapy for this condition and general measures including blood pressure control with blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and salt restriction remain the cornerstone to slow disease progression. Although the paucity in treatment advances could be related to the disease's complex pathogenesis, which requires multiple hits, heterogeneity as reflected by diverse ethnic differences, and genetic predisposition and histopathologic variations, many nonspecific and immunomodulatory agents have been tested with variabl...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jonathan Barratt, Sydney C.W. Tang Source Type: research

An Overview of IgA Nephropathy: 50 Years On
When my mentor Professor Kar Neng Lai, a prolific guru in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) research, first asked me to write a review on IgAN for a local medical journal1 in Hong Kong back in 1998, I was still a nephrology trainee and certainly would not have imagined that 2 decades down the road I would be invited by Professor Joseph Bonventre, Editor-in-Chief of Seminars in Nephrology and Professor of Medicine and Chief of the Renal Division at Harvard Medical School, to be Guest Editor for an entire issue of the journal Seminars in Nephrology dedicated to IgAN. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sydney C.W. Tang Source Type: research

Introduction: Precision Medicine in End-Stage Kidney Disease and Personalized Renal Replacement Therapy: Challenges and Unmet Need
The prevalence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) continues to increase in the United States, with recent estimates indicating a growth rate of 3% to 4% annually.1 Furthermore, the incidence and prevalence of ESKD is increasing globally given that the high burden of the risk factors for chronic kidney disease including diabetes and hypertension also are increasing worldwide.2 The social, health care, and economic costs of ESKD are immense, as indicated by the fact that although patients with ESKD make up less than 1% of Medicare patients, the cost of their care accounts for more than 5% of the Medicare total budget. (Sourc...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hamid Moradi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh Source Type: research

Genetics, Genomics, and Precision Medicine in End-Stage Kidney Disease
Summary: Recent advances in genetics of renal disease have deepened our understanding of progressive kidney disease. Here, we review genetic variants that are of particular importance to progressive glomerular disease that result in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Some of the most striking findings relate to APOL1 genetic variants, seen exclusively in individuals of sub-Saharan African descent, that create a predisposition to particular renal disorders, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and arterionephrosclerosis. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeffrey B. Kopp, Cheryl A. Winkler Source Type: research

Precision Medicine in the Transition to Dialysis and Personalized Renal Replacement Therapy
Summary: Launched in 2016, the overarching goal of the Precision Medicine Initiative is to promote a personalized approach to disease management that takes into account an individual's unique underlying biology and genetics, lifestyle, and environment, in lieu of a one-size-fits-all model. The concept of precision medicine is pervasive across many areas of nephrology and has been particularly relevant to the care of advanced chronic kidney disease patients transitioning to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Connie M. Rhee, Yoshitsugu Obi, Anna T. Mathew, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh Source Type: research

Personalized Approach and Precision Medicine in Supportive and End-of-Life Care for Patients With Advanced and End-Stage Kidney Disease
Kidney supportive care requires a highly personalized approach to care. Precision medicine holds promise for a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of symptoms and related syndromes and more precise individualization of prognosis and treatment estimates, therefore providing valuable opportunities for greater personalization of supportive care. However, the major drivers of quality of life are psychosocial, economic, lifestyle, and preference-based, and consideration of these factors and skilled communication are integral to the provision of excellent and personalized kidney supportive care. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sara N. Davison Source Type: research

Precision Medicine and Personalized Approach to Renal Transplantation
Summary: Successful renal transplantation is a highly effective endeavor that improves and prolongs the lives of patients with chronic kidney disease. Transplant surgery and immunosuppression carries risk and the demand for donor kidneys outstrips supply by far. These realities mandate thoughtful allocation and utilization of this limited resource to select candidates. As the criteria for candidates and donor grafts continue to expand, the field must adapt and seek new approaches. The complex process —from evaluation of candidates, transplant surgery, immunosuppression, and follow-up care after transplantation—...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Donald C. Dafoe, Ekamol Tantisattamo, Uttam Reddy Source Type: research

Patient-Centered Approach for Hypertension Management in End-Stage Kidney Disease: Art or Science?
Summary: Hypertension is present in most patients with end-stage kidney disease initiating dialysis and management of hypertension is a routine but challenging task in everyday dialysis care. End-stage kidney disease patients are uniquely heterogeneous individuals with significant variations in demographic characteristics, functional capacity, and presence of concomitant comorbid conditions and their severity. Therefore, these patients require personalized approaches in addressing not only hypertension but related illnesses, while also accounting for overall prognosis and projected longevity. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Elvira O. Gosmanova, Csaba P. Kovesdy Source Type: research

Precision Medicine and Personalized Management of Lipoprotein and Lipid Disorders in Chronic and End-Stage Kidney Disease
Summary: Precision medicine is an emerging field that calls for individualization of treatment strategies based on characteristics unique to each patient. In lipid management, current guidelines are driven mainly by clinical trial results that presently indicate that patients with non –dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be treated with a β-hydroxy β-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, also known as statin therapy. For patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) being treated with hemodialysis, statin therapy has not been shown to successfully reduce poor outcomes in trials and ther...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Elani Streja, Dan A. Streja, Melissa Soohoo, Carola-Ellen Kleine, Jui-Ting Hsiung, Christina Park, Hamid Moradi Source Type: research

Precision Medicine for Nutritional Management in End-Stage Kidney Disease and Transition to Dialysis
Summary: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health burden. Dialysis is not only costly but may not be readily available in developing countries. Even in highly developed nations, many patients may prefer to defer or avoid dialysis. Thus, alternative options to dialysis therapy or to complement dialysis are needed urgently and are important objectives in CKD management that could have huge clinical and economic implications globally. The role of nutritional therapy as a strategy to slow CKD progression and uremia was discussed as early as the late 19th and early 20th century, but was only seriously explored in ...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Angela Yee-Moon Wang, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Denis Fouque, Pieter T. Wee, Csaba P. Kovesdy, S. Russ Price, Joel D. Kopple Source Type: research

Personalized Management of Bone and Mineral Disorders and Precision Medicine in End-Stage Kidney Disease
Summary: Chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is common in end-stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Mainstays of treatment include decreasing serum phosphorus level toward the normal range with dietary interventions and phosphate binders and treating increased parathyroid hormone levels with activated vitamin D and/or calcimimetics. There is significant variation in serum levels of mineral metabolism markers, intestinal absorption of phosphorus, and therapeutic response among individual patients and subgroups of patients with end-stage ren...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anna Jovanovich, Jessica Kendrick Source Type: research

Personalized Anemia Management and Precision Medicine in ESA and Iron Pharmacology in End-Stage Kidney Disease
Summary: Substantial progress has been made in the application of computer-driven methods to provide erythropoietic dosing information for patients with anemia resulting from chronic kidney disease. Initial solutions were simply computerized versions of traditional paper-based anemia management protocols. True personalization was achieved through the use of advanced modeling techniques such as artificial neural networks, physiologic models, and feedback control systems. The superiority of any one technique over another has not been determined, but all methods have shown an advantage in at least one area over the traditiona...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Michael E. Brier, Adam E. Gaweda, George R. Aronoff Source Type: research

Using Technology to Inform and Deliver Precise Personalized Care to Patients With End-Stage Kidney Disease
Summary: Consistent with the increase of precision medicine, the care of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) requiring maintenance dialysis therapy should evolve to become more personalized. Precise and personalized care is nuanced and informed by a number of factors including an individual's needs and preferences, disease progression, and response to and tolerance of treatments. Technology can support the delivery of more precise and personalized care through multiple mechanisms, including more accurate and real-time assessments of key care elements, enhanced treatment monitoring, and remote monitoring of home d...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Len Usvyat, Lorien S. Dalrymple, Franklin W. Maddux Source Type: research

Dialysis Patient-Centeredness and Precision Medicine: Focus on Incremental Home Hemodialysis and Preserving Residual Kidney Function
Summary: An exponential interest in incremental transition to dialysis recently has emerged in lieu of outright three times/wk hemodialysis initiation as the standard of care. Incremental dialysis is consistent with precision medicine, given individualized dialysis dose adjustment based on patient's dynamic needs, leading to reduced patient suffering from longer or more frequent dialysis treatments and improved health-related quality of life. It includes twice-weekly or less frequent hemodialysis treatments with or without a low-protein diet on nondialysis days, or a shorter ( (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nieltje Gedney, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh Source Type: research

Masthead
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Risk Prediction in CKD
Cardiovascular disease is an important complication for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), warranting accurate risk prediction, but clinical guidelines are inconsistent regarding whether or how to use information on measures of CKD for predicting risk. Recent large meta-analyses have shown that key CKD measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria) improve cardiovascular risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors, especially when albuminuria is added to prediction models. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shoshana H. Ballew, Kunihiro Matsushita Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetic Kidney Disease
Summary: Diabetic kidney disease commonly is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are traditional common risk factors for both conditions including hypertension and poor glycemic control. However, it is likely that there are other pathophysiological mechanisms that explain the clinical phenomenon of increased cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients with chronic kidney and vice versa. Current management of both conditions includes aggressive glucose and blood pressure control. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Muhammad Maqbool, Mark E. Cooper, Karin A.M. Jandeleit-Dahm Source Type: research

Updates on the Mechanisms and the Care of Cardiovascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the progressive decrease in renal function leads to disturbances of mineral metabolism that generally cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The increase in serum parathyroid hormone is associated with reduced serum calcium and calcitriol levels and/or increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphate levels. The resulting CKD-associated disorder of mineral and bone metabolism is associated with various other metabolic dysregulations such as acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation, and accumulation of uremic toxins. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lucie H énaut, Jean-Marc Chillon, Saïd Kamel, Ziad A. Massy Source Type: research

Vitamin D and Calcimimetics in Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease has earned its place as one of the leading noncommunicable diseases that has become a modern-day global epidemic. The increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has added to this enormous burden, given that CKD is now recognized as an established risk factor for accelerated cardiovascular disease. In fact, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the CKD population, with significant prognostic implications. Alterations in vitamin D levels as renal function declines has been linked invariably to the development of cardiovascular disease beyond a mere epiphe...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kenneth Lim, Takayuki Hamano, Ravi Thadhani Source Type: research

HIF Activation Against CVD in CKD: Novel Treatment Opportunities
Cardiovascular disease is a common and serious complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). One of the fundamental functions of the cardiovascular system is oxygen delivery, therefore cardiovascular disease inherently is linked to insufficient tissue oxygenation. Advances in our knowledge of cellular oxygen sensing by a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) and their role in regulating hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) have led to the discovery of PHD inhibitors as HIF stabilizers. Several small-molecule PHD inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of anemia in CKD. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Kai-Uwe Eckardt Source Type: research

Clinical Studies of Interventions to Mitigate Cardiovascular Risk in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) population, affecting up to 60% of cohorts. CVD is the primary cause of death in up to 40% of PD patients in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Cardiovascular mortality rates are reported to be approximately 14 per 100 patient-years, which are 10- to 20-fold greater than those of age- and sex-matched controls. The excess risk of CVD is related to a combination of traditional risk factors (such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and insulin resistance), nontraditional (kidney disease –related...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dev Jegatheesan, Yeoungjee Cho, David W. Johnson Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease After Kidney Transplant
Renal transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, despite successful kidney transplantation, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the major causes of patient death and hence graft loss. The antecedents of this increased risk reside within the development of end-stage kidney disease and dialysis. Risk factors for the development of CVD include diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Other transplant-specific factors include the presence of a patent arteriovenous fistula and immunosuppressive therapy. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nitesh N. Rao, P. Toby Coates Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children With Kidney Disease
Summary: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in individuals diagnosed with kidney disease during childhood. Children with kidney disease often incur a significant cardiovascular burden that leads to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Evidence has shown that children with kidney disease, including chronic kidney disease, dialysis, kidney transplantation, and nephrotic syndrome, develop abnormalities in cardiovascular markers such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and aortic stiffness. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Christine B. Sethna, Kumail Merchant, Abigail Reyes Source Type: research

Introduction: Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, and CKD is associated with very high morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular disease in CKD is important because cardiovascular disease determines quality of life and the prognosis of CKD patients and can be either a cause or a consequence of CKD. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - May 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Masaomi Nangaku Source Type: research