Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Signaling in Diabetic Kidney Disease: Oxidative Stress and Beyond
Summary: The kidneys are highly metabolic organs that produce vast quantities of adenosine triphosphate via oxidative phosphorylation and, as such, contain many mitochondria. Although mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are involved in many physiological processes in the kidneys, there is a plethora of evidence to suggest that excessive production may be a pathologic mediator of many chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic kidney disease. Despite this, results from clinical testing of antioxidant therapies have been generally underwhelming. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nicole Bernadette Flemming, Linda Alba Gallo, Josephine Maree Forbes Source Type: research

The Warburg Effect in Diabetic Kidney Disease
Summary: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Defining risk factors for DKD using a reductionist approach has proven challenging. Integrative omics-based systems biology tools have shed new insights in our understanding of DKD and have provided several key breakthroughs for identifying novel predictive and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we highlight the role of the Warburg effect in DKD and potential regulating factors such as sphingomyelin, fumarate, and pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 in shifting glucose flux from complete oxidation in mitochondria ...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Guanshi Zhang, Manjula Darshi, Kumar Sharma Source Type: research

The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in Kidney Disease
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Several recent studies have evaluated the role of PGC-1α in various renal cell types in healthy and disease conditions. Renal tubule cells mostly depend on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation fo r energy generation. A decrease in PGC-1α expression and fatty acid oxidation is commonly observed in patient samples and mouse models with acute and chronic kidney disease. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Szu-Yuan Li, Katalin Susztak Source Type: research

Lipidomics and Biomarker Discovery in Kidney Disease
Summary: Technological advances in mass spectrometry –based lipidomic platforms have provided the opportunity for comprehensive profiling of lipids in biological samples and shown alterations in the lipidome that occur in metabolic disorders. A lipidomic approach serves as a powerful tool for biomarker discovery and gaining insight to molecular mech anisms of disease, especially when integrated with other -omics platforms (ie, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) in the context of systems biology. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Farsad Afshinnia, Thekkelnaycke M. Rajendiran, Stefanie Wernisch, Tanu Soni, Adil Jadoon, Alla Karnovsky, George Michailidis, Subramaniam Pennathur Source Type: research

A Systems-Level View of Renal Metabolomics
This article reviews three themes pertinent to this goal. Each is rooted in long-established principles of human physiology, with recent updates enabled by metabolomics and other tools. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Eugene P. Rhee Source Type: research

Metabolomics and Metabolic Reprogramming in Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer, or renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is a disease of increasing incidence that commonly is seen in the general practice of nephrology. Despite this state of affairs, this fascinating and highly morbid disease frequently is under-represented, or even absent, from the curriculum of nephrologists in training and generally is underemphasized in national nephrology meetings, both scientific as well as clinical. Although classic concepts in cancer research in general had led to the concept that cancer is a disease resulting from mutations in the control of growth-regulating pathways, reinforced by the discovery of oncog...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Robert H. Weiss Source Type: research

Targeting Glucosylceramide Synthesis in the Treatment of Rare and Common Renal Disease
Summary: Sphingolipids, including ceramides, glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, have been recognized as important molecules that regulate critical cellular functions. Although originally studied in the context of lysosomal storage diseases, the roles of these compounds in more common disorders involving metabolism, vascular disease, and aberrant growth has been the focus of recent studies, including in disorders that affect the kidneys. These efforts have led to new insights into Fabry disease, a classic disorder of lysosomal function that results in renal failure as well as in more common rena...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: James A. Shayman Source Type: research

Contributory Role of Gut Microbiota and Their Metabolites Toward Cardiovascular Complications in Chronic Kidney Disease
Summary: The gut microbiome recently has emerged as a novel risk factor that impacts health and disease. Our gut microbiota can function as an endocrine organ through its unique ability to metabolize various dietary precursors, and can fuel the systemic inflammation observed in chronic disease. This is especially important in the setting of chronic kidney disease, in which microbial metabolism can contribute directly to accumulation of circulating toxins that then can alter and shift the balance of microbiota composition and downstream functions. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Daniel Y. Li, W.H. Wilson Tang Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Metabolite Concentrations (mGWAS): Relevance for Nephrology
Metabolites are small molecules that are intermediates or products of metabolism, many of which are freely filtered by the kidneys. In addition, the kidneys have a central role in metabolite anabolism and catabolism, as well as in active metabolite reabsorption and/or secretion during tubular passage. This review article illustrates how the coupling of genomics and metabolomics in genome-wide association analyses of metabolites can be used to illuminate mechanisms underlying human metabolism, with a special focus on insights relevant to nephrology. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anna K öttgen, Johannes Raffler, Peggy Sekula, Gabi Kastenmüller Source Type: research

Introduction: Systems Biology of Kidney Disease
The progression from linear hypothesis testing to a broad, unbiased view of biological disturbances is fast upon us. Nephrology has been somewhat slow to move from a strict physiology- and hemodynamic-based discipline to the molecular age and has lagged behind with respect to novel therapeutics and diagnostics. However, in the past few years, nephrology has been moving forward rapidly to embrace Big Data and multi-omic tools. Moving toward a systems biology perspective is a major step forward. In September 2016, the ISN presented a Forefronts Program entitled "The Metabolome and Microbiome in Kidney Disease" in S...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - March 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kumar Sharma, Katalin Susztak, Subramaniam Pennathur Source Type: research

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Expanding the Role for Kidney Biopsies in Acute Kidney Injury
Summary: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a highly heterogeneous, common, and potentially devastating condition associated with markedly increased hospital length of stay, cost, mortality, and morbidity. Expanding the role for kidney biopsies in AKI may offer fresh insights into disease heterogeneity, molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic targets. A number of challenges face investigators and clinicians considering research biopsies in AKI: ensuring patient safety, ensuring the ethical conduct of research studies, and maximizing the scientific yield of the kidney tissue obtained. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sushrut S. Waikar, Gearoid M. McMahon Source Type: research

Phenotyping of Acute Kidney Injury: Beyond Serum Creatinine
Summary: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients and is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. AKI is diagnosed by serum creatinine (SCr)-based consensus definitions that capture an abrupt decrease in glomerular filtration rate associated with AKI. However, SCr-based AKI definitions lack sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing structural kidney injury. Moreover, AKI is a heterogeneous condition consisting of distinct phenotypes based on its etiology, prognosis, and molecular pathways, and that may potentially require different therapies. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dennis G. Moledina, Chirag R. Parikh Source Type: research

Pathologic Perspectives on Acute Tubular Injury Assessment in the Kidney Biopsy
The molecular mechanisms in acute tubular injury (ATI) are complex and enigmatic. Moreover, we currently lack validated tissue injury markers that can be integrated into the kidney biopsy analysis to guide nephrologists in their patient ’s management of AKI. Although recognizing the ATI lesion by light microscopy is fairly straightforward, the staging of tubular lesions in the context of clinical time course and etiologic mechanism currently is not adapted to the renal pathology practice. To the clinician, the exact time point wh en an ischemic or toxic injury has occurred often is not known and cannot be discerned f...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gilbert W. Moeckel Source Type: research

Advances in Renal Cell Imaging
A great variety of cell imaging technologies are used routinely every day for the investigation of kidney cell types in applications ranging from basic science research to drug development and pharmacology, clinical nephrology, and pathology. Quantitative visualization of the identity, density, and fate of both resident and nonresident cells in the kidney, and imaging-based analysis of their altered function, (patho)biology, metabolism, and signaling in disease conditions, can help to better define pathomechanism-based disease subgroups, identify critical cells and structures that play a role in the pathogenesis, criticall...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Georgina Gyarmati, Hiroyuki Kadoya, Ju-Young Moon, James L. Burford, Nariman Ahmadi, Inderbir S. Gill, Young-Kwon Hong, B álint Dér, János Peti-Peterdi Source Type: research

Bringing Renal Biopsy Interpretation Into the Molecular Age With Single-Cell RNA Sequencing
Summary: The renal biopsy provides critical diagnostic and prognostic information to clinicians including cases of acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and allograft dysfunction. Today, biopsy specimens are read using a combination of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and indirect immunofluorescence, with a limited number of antibodies. These techniques all were perfected decades ago with only incremental changes since then. By contrast, recent advances in single-cell genomics are transforming scientists' ability to characterize cells. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrew F. Malone, Haojia Wu, Benjamin D. Humphreys Source Type: research

Precision Medicine for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): Redefining AKI by Agnostic Kidney Tissue Interrogation and Genetics
Summary: Acute kidney injury (AKI) currently is diagnosed by a temporal trend of a single blood analyte: serum creatinine. This measurement is neither sensitive nor specific to kidney injury or its protean forms. Newer biomarkers, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, Lipocalin 2, Siderocalin), or kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1), accelerate the diagnosis of AKI as well as prospectively distinguish rapidly reversible from prolonged causes of serum creatinine increase. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Krzysztof Kiryluk, Andrew S. Bomback, Yim-Ling Cheng, Katherine Xu, Pablo G. Camara, Raul Rabadan, Peter A. Sims, Jonathan Barasch Source Type: research

Proteomics and Metabolomics for AKI Diagnosis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe and frequent condition in hospitalized patients. Currently, no efficient therapy of AKI is available. Therefore, efforts focus on early prevention and potentially early initiation of renal replacement therapy to improve the outcome in AKI. The detection of AKI in hospitalized patients implies the need for early, accurate, robust, and easily accessible biomarkers of AKI evolution and outcome prediction because only a narrow window exists to implement the earlier-described measures. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David Marx, Jochen Metzger, Martin Pejchinovski, Ryan Bruce Gil, Maria Frantzi, Agnieszka Latosinska, Iwona Belczacka, Silke Sophie Heinzmann, Holger Husi, Jerome Zoidakis, Matthias Klingele, Stefan Herget-Rosenthal Source Type: research

Translating Knowledge Into Therapy for Acute Kidney Injury
Summary: No therapies have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with AKI this represents an important unmet medical need. A common feature of all of the therapeutic development efforts for AKI is that none were driven by target selection or preclinical modeling that was based primarily on human data. This is important when considering a heterogeneous and dynamic condition such as AKI, in which in the absence of more accurate molecular classifications, clinical cohorts are likely to include patients with different types of injury at diff...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mark de Caestecker, Raymond Harris Source Type: research

Introduction: Understanding Human AKI
A deep frustration for many who care for patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) is the lack of development of new therapies that directly limit kidney damage and/or enhance subsequent functional repair. For many years we have been telling patients with AKI that we can use modalities such as dialysis to keep them alive while we wait for the kidneys to undergo repair and regeneration. Unfortunately, in too many cases, that innate repair process is either slow to occur, resulting in prolonged hospital stays, or inadequate to restore kidney function, leading to the need for chronic dialysis. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lloyd G. Cantley Source Type: research

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Introduction: APOL1-Associated Kidney Disease
African Americans develop kidney failure at rates four to five times higher than European Americans. Although older reports have hinted at this disparity for some time, it was neither widely appreciated nor reliably quantified until relatively recently. It is hard to overstate the importance of this difference in kidney disease risk. Almost 40% of dialysis patients in the United States are African American. If this disparity could be reduced, there would be an enormous increase in health and decrease in heath care expenditures (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Martin R. Pollak Source Type: research

APOL1 Nephropathy: A Population Genetics and Evolutionary Medicine Detective Story
Summary: Common DNA sequence variants rarely have a high-risk association with a common disease. When such associations do occur, evolutionary forces must be sought, such as in the association of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene risk variants with nondiabetic kidney diseases in populations of African ancestry. The variants originated in West Africa and provided pathogenic resistance in the heterozygous state that led to high allele frequencies owing to an adaptive evolutionary selective sweep. However, the homozygous state is disadvantageous and is associated with a markedly increased risk of a spectrum of kidney diseases en...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Etty Kruzel-Davila, Walter G. Wasser, Karl Skorecki Source Type: research

A Brief History of APOL1: A Gene Evolving
Summary: APOL1 kidney risk variants lead to high rates of kidney disease in people of recent African ancestry. These risk variants are very common and confer a large increase in risk of kidney disease. This unusual combination of high frequency and large effect size occurs because the risk variants also appear to have beneficial properties. The risk variants show enhanced protective effects against certain pathogens, particularly the trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness. Here, we consider the origins and evolution of the primate-only APOL1 gene. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David J. Friedman Source Type: research

APOL1 Renal Risk Variants: Fertile Soil for HIV-Associated Nephropathy
Summary: Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are potent risk factors for glomerular disease, but one or more additional factors are required for expression of glomerular disease. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the most potent susceptibility factor for APOL1 nephropathy that has been identified to date. APOL1 variants are associated with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a podocyte disease, but not with HIV-immune complex disease, primarily a disease of the mesangium. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeffrey B. Kopp, Jurgen Heymann, Cheryl A. Winkler Source Type: research

The Expanding Role of APOL1 Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease
Variants of the APOL1 gene, found primarily in individuals of African descent, are associated with various forms of kidney disease and kidney disease progression. Recent studies evaluating the association of APOL1 with cardiovascular disease have yielded conflicting results, and the potential role in cardiovascular disease remains unclear. In this review, we summarize the observational studies linking the APOL1 risk variants with chronic kidney and cardiovascular disease among persons of African descent. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Michelle M. Estrella, Rulan S. Parekh Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein L1 Gene Effects on Kidney Transplantation
The pathogenesis of many common etiologies of nephropathy has been informed by recent molecular genetic breakthroughs. It now is apparent that the ethnic disparity in the risk for nondiabetic chronic kidney disease between African Americans and European Americans is explained largely by variation in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1). The presence of two APOL1 renal risk variants markedly increases an individual ’s risk for kidney disease. In transplantation, kidneys from deceased African Americans with two APOL1 renal risk variants have shorter survival intervals after engraftment, regardless of the ethnicity of the...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Barry I. Freedman, Jayme E. Locke, Amber M. Reeves-Daniel, Bruce A. Julian Source Type: research

The Cell Biology of APOL1
Summary: The association of variants in the APOL1 gene, which encodes apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), with progressive nondiabetic kidney diseases in African Americans has prompted intense investigation into the function(s) of APOL1. APOL1 is an innate immune effector that protects human beings from infection by some trypanosomal parasites. We review the data characterizing APOL1 trypanolytic function, which has been a basis for studies of APOL1 function in mammalian cells. Subsequently, we discuss the studies that use animal models, mammalian cell culture models, and kidney biopsy tissue to discover the mechanisms of variant A...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: John F. O ’Toole, Leslie A. Bruggeman, Sethu Madhavan, John R. Sedor Source Type: research

APOL1 Nephrotoxicity: What Does Ion Transport Have to Do With It?
Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) protein is the human serum factor that protect human beings against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the cause of trypanosomiasis. Subspecies of T b brucei that cause human sleeping sickness —T b gambiense and T b rhodesiense evolved molecular mechanisms that enabled them to evade killing by APOL1. Sequence changes (termed G1 and G2) in the APOL1 gene that restored its ability to kill T b rhodesiense also increase the risk of developing glomerular diseases and accelerate progression t o end-stage kidney disease. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Opeyemi A. Olabisi, John F. Heneghan Source Type: research

Clinical Genetic Testing for APOL1: Are we There Yet?
Summary: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) disproportionately affects African Americans, who are two to four times more likely than European Americans to develop ESRD. Two independent variants of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene, G1 and G2, have been associated with a 7- to 10-fold greater risk of developing nondiabetic ESRD in African Americans. Those who inherit two risk variants (G1/G1, G2/G2, or G1/G2) are also more likely to develop ESRD at a younger age and to have progression of chronic kidney disease. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - October 27, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bessie A. Young, Stephanie Malia Fullerton, James G. Wilson, Kerri Cavanaugh, Erika Blacksher, Clarence Spigner, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Wylie Burke Source Type: research

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Introduction: Translational Immunology in Kidney Disease
In April 2016, the International Society of Nephrology held a Nexus meeting in Berlin, Germany, on translational aspects of immune-mediated kidney diseases. It was believed that such a meeting was needed to discuss the hurdles blocking therapeutic advances in the field. During a time when other medical disciplines are expanding treatment options for important diseases rapidly, the kidney field still awaits major breakthroughs in therapy. It was believed that hurdles exist at several levels including inadequate animal models, methods to identify patients by central pathomechanisms rather than by histopathologic lesions, the...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - August 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hans-Joachim Anders, David Jayne, Brad Rovin Source Type: research

ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: Pathogenesis, Models, and Preclinical Testing
Summary: Our understanding of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis has developed greatly since the discovery of ANCA, directed against neutrophil components, in 1982. Observations in human disease, and increasingly sophisticated studies in vitro and in rodent models in vivo, have allowed a nuanced understanding of many aspects of the immunopathogenesis of disease, including the significance of ANCA as a diagnostic and monitoring tool as well as a mediator of microvascular injury. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - August 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Holly L. Hutton, Stephen R. Holdsworth, A. Richard Kitching Source Type: research

Translational Aspects of Primary Membranous Nephropathy
Membranous nephropathy (MN) in an autoimmune disease caused by binding of circulating antibodies to podocytic antigens. The search for the responsible target antigens has extended for more than 50 years and led to the identification of the major pathomechanisms leading to MN. The combination of clinical and morphologic observations, experimental work, and technical advancements has enabled us deep insights in the pathophysiology of this disease, simultaneously improving treatment of patients. MN represents a perfect example of how patient care may profit from the convergence of scientific and clinical achievements and the ...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - August 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Elion Hoxha, Rolf A.K. Stahl Source Type: research

Genetics of Immune-Mediated Glomerular Diseases: Focus on Complement
Summary: The spectrum of immune-mediated glomerular diseases is wide, ranging from rare diseases with well-recognized genetic origins to more common and multifactorial diseases. Immune-mediated glomerular injury is complex and involves both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. In the past 20 years a huge effort has been undertaken to unravel the genetic basis of immune-mediated glomerular diseases. The discovery of abnormalities in genes encoding proteins of the alternative pathway of complement in more than 50% of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), and in approximately 20% of patients with mem...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - August 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marina Noris, Giuseppe Remuzzi Source Type: research

Immunosuppression in IgA Nephropathy: Guideline Medicine Versus Personalized Medicine
The role of immunosuppression in IgAN remains controversial despite a growing evidence base of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In IgAN with nephrotic syndrome the role for corticosteroids is limited to cases with minimal change on light microscopy. In crescentic IgAN, the use of immunosuppression is supported only by anecdotal data, and outcome may be poor especially when glomerular filtration rate is impaired severely at presentation or there are pathologic features of chronic injury. In slowly progressive IgAN, prediction of outcome now is based both on clinical and pathologic features. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - August 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: John Feehally Source Type: research

Immunoadsorption in Autoimmune Diseases Affecting the Kidney
Autoantibodies play an important role in the pathophysiology of renal involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic vasculitis, and anti –glomerular basement membrane disease (or Goodpasture syndrome). Direct removal of autoantibodies therefore has been tried in various ways, first by plasma exchange. Today, immunoadsorption is the extracorporeal method that most effectively removes (pathogenic) immune complexes and antibodies. Alt hough past data have shown efficacy and biocompatibility of immunoadsorption in (renal) SLE, it is still an experimental and expensive p...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - August 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Georg Stummvoll, Martin Aringer, Ammon Handisurya, Kurt Derfler Source Type: research

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Erratum
In the article entitled “PD First Policy: Thailand’s Response to the Challenge of Meeting the Needs of Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease,” which appeared in the May 2017 issue of Seminars in Nephrology (Chuengsaman and Kasemsup, Volume 37, Issue 3, pages 287-295), there was an error in Figure 1. The colors of the incidence and prevalence bars were misidentified. The prevalence bars should have been identified as blue, and the incidence bars should have been identified as red. The corrected Figure 1 appears below. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - August 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Introduction: Women ’s Renal Health Across the Decades
Women with kidney disease are a particularly disadvantaged patient population that is affected adversely throughout their life cycle. Accordingly, this special issue of Seminars in Nephrology takes us through this life cycle, beginning with the risks of prematurity, progressing with the challenges of adolescence and the reproductive years, and ending with menopause. Preterm birth is a perpetuating phenomenon with women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) having preterm babies that in turn are more predisposed to CKD. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Michelle A. Hladunewich, Belinda Jim Source Type: research

Preterm Birth and its Impact on Renal Health
Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. Preterm infants have reduced nephron numbers at birth in proportion to gestational age, and are at increased risk of neonatal acute kidney injury as well as higher blood pressure, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease later in life. Rapid catch-up growth in preterm infants, especially if resulting in obesity, is a risk factor for end-stage kidney disease among children with proteinuric renal disease. Preterm birth, however, is a risk factor not only for the infant because mothers who deliver preterm have an increased risk of having subsequent preterm deli...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Valerie A. Luyckx Source Type: research

Female Adolescents with Chronic or End-Stage Kidney Disease and Strategies for their Care
Summary: The prevalence of chronic or end-stage kidney disease in pediatric girls is lower than in boys, however, girls have unique morbidities that can have great effect on their quality of life. For female adolescents, creatinine excretion peaks at approximately 14 years of age and is significantly less than males, owing to lower muscle mass. Females have higher nitric oxide activity, and estrogens may contribute to lower blood pressure. Females excrete less growth hormone during the prepubertal and pubertal years. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - July 1, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maria E. Diaz-Gonzalez De Ferris, Ana Catalina Alvarez-El ías, Michael Ted Ferris, Mara Medeiros Source Type: research