Acute Kidney Injury in COVID-19: The Chinese Experience
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly worldwide. Here, we review recently published studies on COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in China. The pooled incidence of AKI in all reported COVID-19 patients was 6.5%, with a much higher rate in patients from the ICU (32.5%). AKI is associated with the severity of COVID-19 and the mortality rates, which is similar to other kidney abnormalities including proteinuria and hematuria. The renal tubule is the main site of injury in COVID-19 patients, and the etiology of renal impairment in COVID-19 patients is likely diverse and multifactorial. (Source: Se...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - September 3, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Xizi Zheng, Youlu Zhao, Li Yang Source Type: research

Nomenclature for Kidney Function and Disease: Executive Summary and Glossary From a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Consensus Conference
A primary obligation of medical journals is the responsible, professional, and expeditious delivery of knowledge from researchers and practitioners to the wider community.1 The task of journal editors, therefore, rests not merely in selecting what to publish, but in large measure judging how it can best be communicated. The challenge of improving descriptions of kidney function and disease in medical publishing was the impetus for a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Consensus Conference held in June 2019. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrew S. Levey, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Nijsje M. Dorman, Stacy L. Christiansen, Michael Cheung, Michel Jadoul, Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury in Active Wars and Other Man-Made Disasters
Summary: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent during wars and other man-made disasters, and contributes significantly to the overall death toll. War-related AKI may develop as a result of polytrauma, traumatic bleeding and hypovolemia, chemical and airborne toxin exposure, and crush syndrome. Thus, prerenal, intrinsic renal, or postrenal AKI may develop at the battlefield, in field hospitals, or tertiary care centers, resulting not only from traumatic, but also nontraumatic, etiologies. The prognosis usually is unfavorable because of systemic and polytrauma-related complications and suboptimal therapeutic interventions. (...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mehmet Sukru Sever, Raymond Vanholder, Norbert Lameire Source Type: research

Introduction: Conflict Nephrology Revisited
Unfortunately, armed conflicts continue to afflict the 21st century. According to the Uppsala Conflict Data Program, the number of war-related armed conflicts around the world has increased sharply in the past few years.1 Most of these conflicts tend to occur in developing countries already suffering from limited resources, weak infrastructure, poor industrial base, and low human development index. Examples of such armed conflicts are many; however, the deadliest over the past few years have transpired in Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Yemen. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sahar H. Koubar, Mohamed H. Sayegh Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

End-Stage Kidney Disease in Areas of Armed Conflicts: Challenges and Solutions
Summary: Violent and protracted conflicts are disastrous to civilian populations and their health care systems. The complex requirements of caring for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) dialysis patients in such contexts pose unique challenges. Dialysis is procedurally complex and resource-intensive. Delivering ESKD care in man-made conflict settings presents added challenges beyond what is required in natural disasters and resource-limited situations. In this article, we review the medical literature on, and document experience with, managing dialysis ESKD patients in conflict zones. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mohamed Sekkarie, Lina Murad, Akram Al-Makki, Fahd Al-Saghir, Oussama Rifai, Majd Isreb Source Type: research

Impact of Forced Human Migration on Management of End-Stage Kidney Disease in Host Countries
Summary: Forced human migration has affected many populations in the past few decades, the worst has been from Syria, Afghanistan, Kosovo and Venezuela. Neighbouring countries such as Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, Iran, Macedonia, Albania and Colombia have struggled to provide care to refugees with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This review describes and assesses the impact of forced human migration on host countries and the challenges they face when managing refugees with ESKD. Many lessons are learned, most importantly, the urging necessity of establishing health care systems ready to handle an unexpected influx of refugees...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mabel Aoun, Sahar H. Koubar Source Type: research

Peritoneal Dialysis during Active War
Summary: Armed conflict jeopardizes patient care through shortages in vital medical supplies. When health care resources are both scarce and not secure, ethically justified principles of action are required to continue the treatment of patients. Although literature exists on the allocation and treatment decisions for military health care workers and warfighters, scarce literature exist for the use of available resources for civilians living within war zones. Chronic or acute kidney disease patients requiring replacement therapies are among the most vulnerable patient population in this regard. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Chad Gorbatkin, Fredric O. Finkelstein, Rumeyza Turan Kazancioglu Source Type: research

Renal Transplantation in Areas of Armed Conflict
Summary: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. KT recipients are considered a vulnerable patient population because of their dependence on expensive immunosuppression drugs from the time of transplantation until graft failure. Management of KT recipients is complex, and therefore requires a sustainable infrastructure that is equipped to provide reliable medical care and continued access to immunosuppressive drugs. This structure, especially in third-world countries, relies on elements that may be easily disrupted during times of armed conflict. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sami Alasfar, Majd Isreb, Saleh Kaysi, Kamel Hatahet Source Type: research

Role of the International and National Renal Organizations in Natural Disasters: Strategies for Renal Rescue
Summary: Besides loss of life and property, natural disasters result in a number of renal challenges, either by the creation of rhabdomyolysis and crush-induced acute kidney injury or by the destruction of existing dialysis facilities, leaving chronic dialysis patients and kidney transplanted patients without access to their regular dialysis, medications, or medical care. This review describes the organization and the many international interventions of the International Society of Nephrology Renal Disaster Relief Task Force over the past 2 decades. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Norbert Lameire, Mehmet Sukru Sever, Wim Van Biesen, Raymond Vanholder Source Type: research

Renal Crisis in Children during Armed Conflict
Summary: Armed conflicts continue to occur in some regions of the globe, mostly in developing countries. These man-made disasters affect all segments of the population; however, some groups are more vulnerable and suffer more seriously from the unfavorable consequences of such conflicts. Among these, the pediatric population deserves special attention because they cannot protect themselves, and hence carry a higher threat of injuries and probability of death during conflicts. In addition, children who do survive the disaster are more prone to exploitation. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lale Sever, Ayse Balat Source Type: research

Bioethical Dilemmas in Conflict Zones: An Ethicist's Perspective Based on Lessons Learned from Gaza
Summary: Health care practitioners practicing in conflict zones, more often than not, face ethical conundrums that are more urgent and extreme than those faced by their colleagues working in regular medical settings.  Indeed, field physicians can attest to the fact that, oftentimes, medical ethics in war time is quite different, and that indeed they ought to be different. This strain is sensed only by those who have witnessed wars and practiced health care in times of conflict. Undeniably, physicians might reco urse to what I call contrived medical ethics, which allows their medicine as well as moral compass to remain...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thalia Arawi Source Type: research

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Editorial Board
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Table of Contents
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - June 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

To Tweet or Not to Tweet, That Is the Question
Summary: In the past 20 years, a variety of social media platforms have significantly changed how we interact, communicate, learn, and engage. Social media use by physicians and physicians in training has expanded dramatically and evolved in recent years. Here, we focus on the use of Twitter by medical professionals (#medtwitter) and analyze Twitter's role as a new tool for learning, teaching, networking, professional development, mentorship/sponsorship, and advocacy within medicine. We discuss principles of adult learning theory to support the effectiveness of the use of Twitter as an educational tool, and share best prac...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Avital Y. O'Glasser, Rebecca C. Jaffe, Michelle Brooks Source Type: research

Twitter-Based Journal Clubs: Bringing Critical Appraisal to the Social Table
Summary: Journal clubs have existed since William Osler started them in the 19th century, and serve as an important avenue for critical appraisal of medical research in academia. In the past decade, particularly the past 5 years, there has been a proliferation of online journal clubs on Twitter (Twitter Inc, San Francisco, CA). These Twitter-based journal clubs have used the conversational nature of the medium and the focus allowed by specifying a hashtag to bring critical appraisal to the wider community. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sinead Stoneman, Swapnil Hiremath Source Type: research

From Tweetstorm to Tweetorials: Threaded Tweets as a Tool for Medical Education and Knowledge Dissemination
Summary: Tweetorials are a form of threaded tweets that have emerged as a tool for medical education and knowledge dissemination. Making use of features not available in traditional formats, tweetorials offer novel opportunities for educators of all levels to engage with a potential audience of millions. Despite their increased use, questions remain about how best to create, post, and track the impact of individual tweetorials. In addition, uncertainties about how tweetorials fit into the portfolio of medical educators remain unanswered. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anthony C. Breu Source Type: research

Podcasting: A Roadmap to the Future of Medical Education
Summary: Podcasts, portable digital audio files that usually are listened to on a smartphone or MP3 player, have become a potent medium for medical education. Medical podcasting has become more sophisticated over the past decade as the producers of this material experiment and adapt the format. At the same time, production of podcasting has shifted from being a part of traditional medical educational venues such as journals and medical school curricula to organic digital education, individuals operating outside of, or parallel to, the traditional medical educational system. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Adam Rodman, Shreya Trivedi Source Type: research

Newsletters in Medical Education
Summary: Medical online newsletters are an important component of communication between learners and educators. The ease of creation and distribution has broadened the appeal and growth of online formats. This manuscript details the history of the modern newsletter as it relates to the nephrology community. From historical listservs to content-rich emails and blogs, the creative newsletter formats are changing to meet the demands of readers. With continued expansion of online education and access, this communication format can continue to meet the needs of virtually focused world. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gates B. Colbert Source Type: research

Visual Abstracts: Redesigning the Landscape of Research Dissemination
Summary: A visual abstract is a graphic summary of a study designed to enable readers to process key methods, findings, and conclusions rapidly. This allows readers to preview the article and decide if it is worth pursuing further. Similar to the text abstract, it is not a substitute for reading the full article. Its succinct format and attractive design make a visual abstract ideal for sharing on social media, thereby allowing journals and authors to promote published articles, and to facilitate discussion through tweets, blog posts, journal clubs, and scientific meetings. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Everly Ramos, Beatrice P. Concepcion Source Type: research

Picking Up the Slack: Collaboration Tools to Build Community and Increase Productivity in Nephrology
Summary: With a growing need to recruit the future nephrology workforce, medical educators and members of the nephrology community are turning to innovative approaches to improve communication and stimulate dialogue in the field. One feasible strategy is the use of electronic collaboration tools such as Slack (Slack Technologies, San Francisco, CA), which facilitates real-time conversational communication in a private or semiprivate virtual workspace. The potential uses of Slack for nephrology education, research collaboration, and community building are outlined in this overview. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jennie Lin Source Type: research

Use of Semiprivate Smartphone Communication Applications in Nephrology Education
Summary: Advances in information technology have changed human interactions. These changes have had considerable implications for nonmedical and medical educational practices. The use of semi-private applications such as WhatsApp (Mountain View, CA), Slack (Canada), Viber (Israel), and Google Hangouts (Mountain View, CA) has not been well studied in nephrology education. In this narrative review, we review the literature on the use of these communication applications in medicine and nephrology education. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aadi Pandya, Mohamed E. Elrggal, Kenar D. Jhaveri Source Type: research

Quality Appraisal and Assurance Techniques for Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) Resources: A Rapid Review
Summary: Free open access medical education (FOAM) has disrupted traditional modes of knowledge translation and dissemination. These are popular resources with a wide educational reach. Nephrology has been a leader in FOAM, but many skeptics still question the accuracy and reliability of this content. Recently, quality-assurance techniques have been developed to address these concerns. These techniques may be helpful for readers to appraise the online literature and for institutions to reward the production of high-quality open educational resources. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Daniel K. Ting, Patrick Boreskie, S. Luckett-Gatopoulos, Lisa Gysel, Matthew B. Lanktree, Teresa M. Chan Source Type: research

Training the Public Physician: The Nephrology Social Media Collective Internship
This article describes the Nephrology Social Media Collective internship, a 12-month, mentored training program during which selected interns participate in a curriculum of lectures, activities, and projects that aim to increase their knowledge, proficiency, and confidence in the use of social media. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Madhuri Ramakrishnan, Matthew A. Sparks, Samira S. Farouk Source Type: research

Masthead
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Editorial Board
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Table of Contents
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Erratum Regarding “Pathophysiology of AKI to CKD Progression” (Semin Nephrol. 2020;40:206-215)
In the article entitled “Pathophysiology of AKI to CKD Progression” that appeared in the March 2020 issue of Seminars in Nephrology (Sato et al, volume 40, issue 2, pages 206-215), there were reference errors regarding the reprint information in the Figure 2 and Figure 4 legends. The reprint information for each refere nce should have read as follows: (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Introduction: Social Media and Medical Education Come of Age
On January 9, 2007, Steve Jobs reached into his pocket and pulled out the future.1 The day he introduced the iPhone he ignited a revolution that is still changing everything. Putting a computer connected to everyone and the entirety of the world's knowledge in every pocket has permanently and irrevocably changed humankind. 2 The ability to easily and efficiently connect with people across time zones, geographic borders, institutional silos, and disciplines has resulted in new relationships. Social groups are forming around ideas without the friction of geography. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 23, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Joel M. Topf Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Introduction
On January 9, 2007 Steve Jobs reached into his pocket and pulled out the future.1 The day he introduced the iPhone he ignited a revolution that is still changing everything. Putting a computer connected to everyone and the entirety of the world's knowledge in every pocket has permanently and irrevocably changed humankind. 2 The ability to easily and efficiently connect with people across time zones, geographical borders, institutional silos, and disciplines has resulted in new relationships. Social groups are forming around ideas without the friction of geography. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - April 23, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Joel M. Topf Source Type: research

Introduction: The 2019 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Acute Kidney Injury From Bench to Bedside Conference
The focus of the 2019 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Acute Kidney Injury From Bench to Bedside Conference was to bridge the divide between preclinical and clinical research in the field of acute kidney injury (AKI). By inviting leading investigators and trainees in basic, clinical, and translational research on AKI, the goal of the meeting was to develop a shared understanding of the progress and challenges that each of these disciplines faces in developing effective therapies for patients with AKI. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mark P. de Caestecker, Edward D Siew, Raymond C. Harris, Neil A. Hukriede Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Metabolism in Acute Kidney Injury
Summary: The kidney is a highly metabolic organ that requires substantial adenosine triphosphate for the active transport required to maintain water and solute reabsorption. Aberrations in energy availability and energy utilization can lead to cellular dysfunction and death. Mitochondria are essential for efficient energy production. The pathogenesis of acute kidney injury is complex and varies with different types of injury. However, multiple distinct acute kidney injury syndromes share a common dysregulation of energy metabolism. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Amanda J. Clark, Samir M. Parikh Source Type: research

T Lymphocytes in Acute Kidney Injury and Repair
Summary: Innate and adaptive immune systems participate in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Considerable data from different research teams have shown the importance of T lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of AKI and, more recently, prevention and repair. T cells can generate or resolve inflammation by secreting specific cytokines and growth factors as well as interact with other immune and stromal cells to induce kidney injury or promote tissue repair. There also are emerging data on the role of T cells in the progression of AKI to chronic kidney disease and organ cross-talk in AKI. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Somayeh Gharaie Fathabad, Johanna T. Kurzhagen, Mohanraj Sadasivam, Sanjeev Noel, Errol Bush, Abdel R.A. Hamad, Hamid Rabb Source Type: research

Wnt/ β-Catenin in Acute Kidney Injury and Progression to Chronic Kidney Disease
Summary: Acute kidney injury (AKI) portends a poor clinical prognosis and increases the risk for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, there are no therapies to treat AKI or prevent its progression to CKD. Wnt/ β-catenin is a critical regulator of kidney development that is up-regulated after injury. Most of the literature support a beneficial role for Wnt/β-catenin in AKI, but suggest that this pathway promotes the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the hallmark of CKD progression. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tessa Huffstater, W. David Merryman, Leslie S. Gewin Source Type: research

Histone Deacetylases in Kidney Physiology and Acute Kidney Injury
Summary: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are part of the epigenetic machinery that regulates transcriptional processes. The current paradigm is that HDACs silence gene expression via regulation of histone protein lysine deacetylation, or by forming corepressor complexes with transcription factors. However, HDACs are more than just nuclear proteins, and they can interact and deacetylate a growing number of nonhistone proteins to regulate cellular function. Cancer-field studies have shown that deranged HDAC activity results in uncontrolled proliferation, inflammation, and fibrosis; all pathologies that also may occur in kidney ...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kelly A. Hyndman Source Type: research

The Role of Circulating Cell-Free Hemoglobin in Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury
Summary: Sepsis is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that is complicated commonly by acute kidney injury (sepsis-AKI). Currently, no approved pharmacologic therapies exist to either prevent sepsis-AKI or to treat sepsis-AKI once it occurs. A growing body of evidence supports a connection between red blood cell biology and sepsis-AKI. Increased levels of circulating cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) released from red blood cells during hemolysis are common during sepsis and can contribute to sepsis-AKI through several mechanisms including tubular obstruction, nitric oxide depletion, oxidative injury, and proinflammatory signaling....
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: V. Eric Kerchberger, Lorraine B. Ware Source Type: research

Ferritins in Kidney Disease
Summary: Ferritins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that regulate cellular iron metabolism. It is the only intracellular protein that is capable of storing large quantities of iron. Although the ratio of different subunits determines the iron content of each ferritin molecule, the exact mechanism that dictates organization of these subunits still is unclear. In this review, we address renal ferritin expression and its implication in kidney disease. Specifically, we address the role of ferritin subunits in preventing kidney injury and also promoting tolerance against infection-associated kidney injury. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kayla McCullough, Subhashini Bolisetty Source Type: research

Perioperative Clinical Trials in AKI
Summary: To characterize current evidence and current foci of perioperative clinical trials, we systematically reviewed Medline and identified perioperative trials involving 100 or more adult patients undergoing surgery and reporting renal end points that were published in high-impact journals since 2004. We categorized the 101 trials identified based on the nature of the intervention and summarized major trial findings from the five categories most applicable to perioperative management of patients. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David R. McIlroy, Marcos G. Lopez, Frederic T. Billings Source Type: research

The Utility of Human Kidney Organoids in Modeling Kidney Disease
Summary: The formation of three-dimensional kidney tissue (organoids) from human pluripotent stem cell lines provides a valuable tool to examine kidney function in an in vitro model and could be used for regenerative medicine approaches. Kidney organoids have the potential to model kidney diseases and congenital defects, be used for drug development, and to further our understanding of acute kidney injury, fibrosis, and chronic kidney disease. In this review, we examine the current stage of pluripotent stem cell –derived kidney organoid technology, challenges, shortcomings, and regenerative potential of kidney organo...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aneta Przepiorski, Amanda E. Crunk, Eugenel B. Espiritu, Neil A. Hukriede, Alan J. Davidson Source Type: research

It Takes Two to Tango: The Role of Dysregulated Metabolism and Inflammation in Kidney Disease Development
Summary: Acute kidney injury is a major contributor of chronic kidney disease development. The pathogenesis of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease shows significant similarities. Both conditions are associated with a defect in cellular metabolism, such as fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in kidney tubule cells and a marked increase in infiltrating immune cells. Here, we discuss how inflammatory cytokines and macrophages contribute to epithelial injury and metabolic defects. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ghazal Z. Quinn, Poonam Dhillon, Katalin Susztak Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of AKI to CKD progression
Summary: Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as a rapid decrease in glomerular filtration rate, is a common and devastating pathologic condition. AKI is associated with significant morbidity and subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD) development. Regardless of the initial insult, CKD progression after AKI involves multiple types of cells, including proximal tubular cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. Although the mechanisms underlying this AKI to CKD progression have been investigated extensively over the past decade, therapeutic strategies still are lacking. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yuki Sato, Masahiro Takahashi, Motoko Yanagita Source Type: research

The Role of Tubule-Interstitial Crosstalk in Renal Injury and Recovery
Summary: Renal epithelial cells show remarkable regenerative capacity to recover from acute injury, which involves specific phenotypic changes, but also significant profibrotic tubule-interstitial crosstalk. Tubule-derived profibrotic stimuli and subsequent myofibroblast activation and extracellular matrix deposition have been linked closely with decline of renal function and nephron loss. However, recent data have questioned the view of purely detrimental effects of myofibroblast activation in the injured kidney and even suggested its beneficial role for epithelial regeneration. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ina Maria Schiessl Source Type: research

High-Density Lipoproteins and Acute Kidney Injury
Summary: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, best known for their anti-atherosclerotic effects, also may play a beneficial role during acute renal stress. HDL from healthy human beings also shows anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant capacities, promotes endothelial function and repair, and serves as a systemic signaling mechanism facilitating rapid interorgan communication during times of physiologic stress. Higher concentrations of HDL are associated with less acute kidney injury after sepsis, cardiac and vascular surgery, and contrast-exposure during percutaneous coronary interventions. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Loren E. Smith Source Type: research

Clinical Trials for AKI: Lessons Learned From the ARDS Network
Summary: The acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury are both heterogeneous disease syndromes. A large number of multicenter clinical trials have been conducted focused on the treatment and prevention of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we focus on potential lessons learned for acute kidney injury clinical trials. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kathleen D. Liu Source Type: research

Masthead
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Editorial Board
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Table of Contents
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Source: Seminars in Nephrology - February 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Introduction: Why Do We Need a Special Volume on Kidney Cancer?
Kidney cancer, or renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is a disease of increasing incidence and is the sixth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Even though it is seen commonly in the general practice of nephrology, until quite recently it has been under-recognized by the nephrology community such that its presence in curricula and research by nephrologists is lacking. The discipline of onconephrology as a subspecialty of nephrology recently has gained traction in the community, but the vast majority of issues covered in this discipline relate to the effects of cancer and chemotherapy on the kidney. (Source: Seminars in Nephrology)
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 31, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Robert H. Weiss Source Type: research

Reprogramming of Metabolism in Kidney Cancer
Summary: Metabolic reprogramming is one of the major steps that tumor cells take during cancer progression. This process allows the cells to survive in a nutrient- and oxygen-deprived environment, to become stress tolerant, and to metastasize to different sites. Recent studies have shown that reprogramming happens in stromal cells and involves the cross-talk of the cancer cell/tumor microenvironment. There are similarities between the metabolic reprogramming that occurs in both noncancerous kidney diseases and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), suggesting that such reprogramming is a means by which renal epithelial cells survive ...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 31, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hiromi I. Wettersten Source Type: research

Molecular Components of the RCC Grade
Summary: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a major cancer yet has long evaded extensive efforts to target it chemotherapeutically. Recent efforts to characterize its proteome and metabolome in a grade-defined manner has resulted in a global proteometabolomic reprogramming model yielding a number of potential drug targets, many of which are under the control of transcription factor and MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor. Furthermore, through the use of conventional technologies such as immunohistochemistry, protein moonlighting, a phenomenon wherein a single protein performs more than one distinct bioche...
Source: Seminars in Nephrology - December 31, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tatsuto Ishimaru Source Type: research