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Osteochondroses
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22: 118-124 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1627094The osteochondroses are a group of disorders that affect the epiphysis or epiphyseal equivalent segments of the immature skeleton. These disorders are believed to be primarily the result of traumatic or vascular pathology, often in the setting of overuse, and are usually self-limited. Their imaging findings are based on the time of the study within the natural course of the disease process. Early findings may best be demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging or may be recognized radiographically as sclerosis of the involved segment. Later disease demo...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Danger, Franklin Wasyliw, Christopher Varich, Laura Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Ankle and Foot Injuries in the Young Athlete
We describe common and unique foot and ankle injuries in the young athlete. Throughout the article we focus not only on imaging findings but also on the mechanism of injury. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Chauvin, Nancy A. Jaimes, Camilo Khwaja, Asef Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Primary Physis
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22: 095-103 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608002The primary physis is responsible for long bone growth in children and adolescents. Injury and physiologic or metabolic stress to the primary physis present unique radiologic findings that are important for radiologists to recognize and diagnose. Appreciation of the anatomy and histology of the primary physis forms the basis for understanding the imaging findings associated with pathologic conditions affecting the primary physis. Salter-Harris injuries, physeal bars, growth arrest lines, rickets, and focal periphyseal edema zones are common conditions ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Brian, James M. Choi, David H. Moore, Michael M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Pediatric Patella: Normal Development, Anatomical Variants and Malformations, Stability, Imaging, and Injury Patterns
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22: 081-094 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608004We discuss the pediatric patella, with an emphasis on diagnostic imaging. Topics include normal patellar development, anatomical variants and their physiologic significance, genetic syndromes that alter the appearance of the patella, physiology of patellar tracking and stability, patellofemoral instability, and injury patterns and classification. Recognition of appropriate development on imaging prevents diagnostic error and unnecessary evaluation. Knowledge of the pertinent features of syndromes associated with morphological patellar abnormalities can...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Maloney, Ezekiel Stanescu, A. Luana Ngo, Anh-Vu Parisi, Marguerite T. Iyer, Ramesh S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Skeletal Dysplasias: Radiologic Approach with Common and Notable Entities
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22: 066-080 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608005Skeletal dysplasia is a heterogeneous group of abnormalities affecting growth and development of bone and cartilage characterized by disproportionate shortening of the limbs and/or spine. A systematic radiographic approach combined with pertinent clinical details can help guide specific genetic testing and treatment. We provide a discussion and examples of a few common and notable skeletal dysplasias to help familiarize general, pediatric, and musculoskeletal radiologists who do not commonly encounter children with these entities in their daily practic...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ngo, Anh-Vu Thapa, Mahesh Otjen, Jeffrey Kamps, Shawn E. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Pediatric Osteochondral Lesions
We describe the typical imaging appearance of osteochondral lesions with a focus on radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Assessment of the stability of these lesions is of paramount importance in directing management. As such, we describe staging schemes as well as imaging features differentiating stable from unstable lesions. Finally, we briefly discuss management strategies as they correlate to imaging findings. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Semina...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Abdullah, Selwan B. Iyer, Ramesh S. Shet, Narendra S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Acutely Limping Preschool and School-Age Child: An Imaging Perspective
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22: 046-056 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608001Acute limp in a child presents a diagnostic conundrum and can result from a variety of causes. The underlying etiology is often referable to the hip, but the spine, abdomen, pelvis, or knee can be alternatively implicated. An adequate clinical history and satisfactory physical examination are often difficult in younger children. Consequently, there is disproportionate reliance on imaging to arrive at the correct diagnosis. The potential for rapid clinical deterioration and long-term sequelae is a risk with some of the conditions presenting with acute h...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Chaturvedi, Apeksha Cain, Usa Rupasov, Andrey Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Nuclear Medicine Applications in Pediatric Musculoskeletal Diseases: The Added Value of Hybrid Imaging
This article discusses the utility of standard nuclear medicine procedures as they apply to children with musculoskeletal disorders, focusing on the added value of and indications for SPECT/CT. Subsequently, we discuss the expanding role of positron-emitting agents in infection, trauma, and for the diagnosis, staging, and therapeutic response monitoring of children with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors. Differences between disease processes encountered in children as compared with adults are discussed; developmental variants that can, but should not, be confused with disease are illustrated. The need for pediatric-spe...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Parisi, Marguerite T. Iyer, Ramesh S. Stanescu, A. Luana Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Orthopaedic Fixation Devices Used in Children: A Radiologist's Guide
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22: 012-024 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1609013Fractures are common in children with some requiring surgical reduction and fixation to maintain anatomical alignment. Although various surgical techniques and principles are shared between children and adults, certain unique considerations in children can influence the surgical approach and device selection. In particular, for skeletally immature children, it is of utmost importance to protect certain critical open growth plates because permanent injury can produce severe growth disturbances. The often robust healing response and potential limited pat...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Allen, Hailey Davis, Kirkland W. Noonan, Kenneth Endo, Yoshimi Nguyen, Jie C. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Percutaneous Image-Guided Treatment of Benign Musculoskeletal Tumors in Children
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22: 003-011 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608003Percutaneous ablation of benign musculoskeletal tumors in children has become an area of significant clinical growth over the last decade. With growing research interest, the technologies available and techniques used are becoming increasingly safe and effective. We review some of the more common ablation technologies and their utility in several common benign bone and soft tissue tumors that occur in children and young adults. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents&nbs...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: O'Dell, Matthew Cody Gill, Anne Hawkins, C. Matthew Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Imaging in Children: Prologue
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22: 001-002 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608007 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - February 6, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: O'Dell, Matthew Cody Iyer, Ramesh S. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Erratum: Emergency and Trauma of the Elbow
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 649-650 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606338 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Bazzocchi, Alberto Aparisi G ómez, Maria Pilar Bartoloni, Alessandra Guglielmi, Giuseppe Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Erratum: Advanced MRI Techniques for Muscle Imaging
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 648-648 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606344 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Kalia, Vivek Leung, Doris G. Sneag, Darryl B. Del Grande, Filippo Carrino, John A. Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

ESSR Consensus Document for Detection, Characterization, and Referral Pathway for Tumors and Tumorlike Lesions of Bone
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 630-647 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606130Benign bone tumors are rare but are more common than primary malignant bone tumors. The early accurate diagnosis and reliable differentiation of these rare benign tumors and tumor mimickers from the even rarer malignant tumors with subsequent appropriate treatment or watchful waiting is crucial for the clinical outcome. Bone tumors are often a source of diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainty. Thus this European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology consensus document is intended to help radiologists in their decision making and support discussion among ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Lalam, Radhesh Bloem, Johan L. Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M. W örtler, Klaus Tagliafico, Alberto Vanhoenacker, Filip Nikodinovska, Violeta Vasilevska Sanal, Hatice Tuba Woude, Henk-Jan van der Papakonstantinou, Olympia Åström, Gunnar Davies, Mark Isaac, Am Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Advanced MR Imaging after Total Hip Arthroplasty: The Clinical Impact
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 616-629 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606137Recent metal artifact reduction techniques in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have sparked a new aera in visualization of the peri-implant region and assessment of failing orthopaedic hardware. Modes of failure after total hip arthroplasty can be classified into four broad categories: osseous abnormalities, implant instability and dislocation, implant-associated synovitis, and soft tissue abnormalities. Although MRI is complementary to plain radiography and computed tomography to diagnose the first two categories, it is paramount to investigate the co...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Khodarahmi, Iman Fritz, Jan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Leaps in Technology: Advanced MR Imaging after Total Hip Arthroplasty
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 604-615 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606135The vast majority of the metal-related artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arise from B0 inhomogeneity. These artifacts include failed fat suppression, signal loss, signal pileup, and image distortions. Metal artifact reduction sequence MRI has been used to mitigate these artifacts via optimization of the scan parameters and exploiting new techniques such as fully phase-encoded imaging and multispectral imaging including multi-acquisition variable-resonance image combination and slice encoding for metal artifact correction. Applicability of M...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Khodarahmi, Iman Nittka, Mathias Fritz, Jan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Inflammatory Conditions of the Hip
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 589-603 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606138Most cases of adult hip pain are related to osteoarthritis, so inflammatory causes are often not considered. This review article describes the different entities of hip inflammation and provides an approach on how to differentiate rheumatologic disorders from degenerative changes, synovial tumors, and infection. Indications for imaging, the correct choice of imaging modality, and scanning protocols are also discussed. The differential diagnosis of inflammatory lesions of the hips is addressed in the context of image interpretation. [...] Thieme Medical...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia Teh, James Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Ultrasound of the Hip Joint, Soft Tissues, and Nerves
This article provides a brief overview of the US scanning technique of the hip and presents some common and less common conditions in which US of the hip is usually performed in adult patients. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Tagliafico, Alberto Bignotti, Bianca Rossi, Federica Sconfienza, Luca Maria Messina, Carmelo Martinoli, Carlo Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Update on Pediatric Hip Imaging
This article provides an overview of common hip pathologies in children including congenital and developmental pathologies, trauma, infectious processes, inflammatory disease, and neoplasm. The age of the child, history, and clinical examination are essential to narrow down the differential diagnosis and subsequent selection of the appropriate imaging modality. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Herregods, Nele Vanhoenacker, Filip M. Jaremko, Jacob L. Jans, Lennart Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Current Concepts in Extra-articular Impingement of the Hip: Clinical Diagnosis, Imaging, and Treatment
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 547-560 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606140Hip impingement syndromes, particularly femoroacetabular impingement syndrome, have attracted tremendous attention in the past decade. We address some of the less common hip impingement syndromes, mainly the extra-articular hip impingement syndromes. The clinical presentation, imaging, and treatment of anterior, posterior, and lateral hip impingement syndromes are discussed. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Koles, Sarah L. Salat, Peter Veljkovic, Andrea Mar ín-Peña, Óliver Kassarjian, Ara Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Abductors, External Rotators
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 539-546 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606139Chronic pain and tenderness at the greater trochanter characterizes trochanteric pain syndrome. For a long time, trochanteric bursitis was thought to be the only underlying pathology; however, investigations have shown that tendinopathy of the abductors is the main cause, followed by iliotibial band thickening and, to a lesser extent, abductor tendon tears. Trochanteric bursitis can be associated with it. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), peritrochanteric T2 abnormalities are evident in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. However, this is also frequ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Hirschmann, Anna Falkowski, Anna L. Kovacs, Balazs Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Postoperative Imaging after Impingement Surgery
We present an overview of current evidence in postoperative imaging after impingement surgery. Undercorrection of the underlying osseous FAI configuration is the most frequent indication for revision surgery within the first 2 years after index FAI surgery. Femoral neck fractures, iatrogenic chondral injuries, early conversion to total hip arthroplasty, loose bodies, and heterotopic ossifications are rare but typical early complications after surgical treatment of FAI. Abnormal MRI findings after FAI surgery such as intra-articular adhesions, labral tears, cartilage defects, and anterior capsular defects are common finding...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Dietrich, Tobias Johannes Grob, Karl Kim, Chan-Hi Olaf Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Update on Femoroacetabular Impingement: What Is New, and How Should We Assess It?
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 518-528 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606141It is almost 20 years since the concept of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) was introduced, and by now a large number of orthopaedic surgeons, sports physicians, and radiologists have implemented this concept in clinical practice, as is evident in the steady rise in the number of patients diagnosed and treated for FAI. However, this trend has been accompanied by some criticism and concerns about overdiagnosing FAI. Imaging continues to play a crucial part in the evaluation of patients with suspected FAI. This review looks at the current state of FAI:...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Sutter, Reto Pfirrmann, Christian W. A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Hip Imaging: Normal Variants and Asymptomatic Findings
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 507-517 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606136With the increasing use of imaging as a diagnostic tool for hip pain, more and more anatomical variants are detected, and more findings are seen in asymptomatic populations, especially in older individuals. The radiologist must be aware of these variants and asymptomatic findings to avoid interpretative errors and overdiagnosis. In this review, we cover frequently encountered anatomical variants and asymptomatic findings that can be found in the bony structures of the hip, the joint itself, as well as in the surrounding soft tissues. [...] Thieme Medic...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Omoumi, Patrick Vande Berg, Bruno Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Intra-articular Lesions: Imaging and Surgical Correlation
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 487-506 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606133The past 2 decades have seen a substantial increase in hip joint preserving procedures, primarily secondary to not only hip dysplasia, but the recognition and description of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), and its association with chondral lesions, as a potentially pre-arthritic condition. Morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an essential role in the preoperative assessment of osseous deformities and in particular of the resulting joint degeneration. An accurate descriptive report of chondrolabral lesions is warranted describing the...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Schmaranzer, Florian Todorski, Inga Almut Senta Lerch, Till Dominic Schwab, Joseph Cullmann-Bastian, Jennifer Tannast, Moritz Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Hip Imaging
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 485-486 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606142 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - October 12, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Pfirrmann, Christian W. A. Sutter, Reto Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Musculotendinous Injuries: Sonographic-guided Interventions
This article describes the relevant anatomy and pathology of the musculotendinous unit and explains the decision-making process regarding percutaneous interventions. Through case examples, we discuss practical aspects of interventional techniques, sonographic approaches, and injectable materials including anti-inflammatory medications and platelet-rich plasma. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Wood, Jeffrey P. Beaulieu, Christopher F. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Advanced MRI Techniques for Muscle Imaging
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 459-469 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604007Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can evaluate a wide array of muscle pathologies including acute or chronic muscle injury, musculotendinous response to injury, intramuscular collections and soft tissue masses, and others. In recent years, MRI has played a more important role in muscle disease diagnosis and monitoring. MRI provides excellent spatial and contrast resolution and helps direct optimal sites for muscle biopsy. Whole-body MRI now helps identify signature patterns of muscular involvement in large anatomical regions with rel...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Kalia, Vivek Leung, Doris G. Sneag, Darryl B. Grande, Filippo Del Carrino, John A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Muscle: Ischemia, Infarction, and Compartment Syndrome
This article reviews the most common clinical scenarios in which they are seen including compartment syndrome, diabetic myonecrosis, and rhabdomyolysis, focusing on the imaging findings and differential diagnosis for each disease process. Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly useful in differentiating myonecrosis from muscle ischemia and myositis, and it is highly accurate in diagnosing the most common type of compartment syndrome. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Broski, Stephen M. Tiegs Heiden, Christin A. Ringler, Michael D. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Musculotendinous Disorders in the Lower Leg
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 433-442 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604002Musculotendinous injury in the lower leg is associated with a variety of athletic activities. Myotendinous strain is typically localized to the posterior calf muscles, with involvement of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle most common. Nontraumatic soft tissue injuries of the lower leg, including muscle herniation, are less frequently imaged. Ruptured popliteal cysts and deep vein thrombosis are important differential considerations in the patient presenting with acute calf pain and swelling. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Newman, Joel S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Imaging of Acute Hamstring Muscle Strain Injuries
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 415-432 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604005Acute athletic hamstring muscle strain injuries are common and a cause of significant time off sport. An understanding of the anatomy of the hamstring muscle-tendon units is a prerequisite for interpreting the spectrum of structural abnormalities on imaging. The site of injury may range from proximal tendon, proximal myotendinous junction, with or without tendon injury, muscle, myofascial junction, distal myotendinous junction to distal tendon. Imaging findings in muscle injury range from intrafascicular and interfascicular muscle edema, blurring of fa...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Dimmick, Simon Linklater, James M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Musculotendinous Disorders of the Abdomen and Pelvis
This article focuses on the MRI appearance of normal anatomy and spectrum of musculotendinous disorders in the abdomen and pelvis including muscle strains and tears, avulsions and apophysitis, muscular contusions, athletic groin pain, and gluteal aponeurotic/proximal iliotibial band injuries. Normal biomechanics and injury mechanisms are discussed. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Kheterpal, Arvin B. Palmer, William E. Bredella, Miriam A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

MRI of the Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 392-402 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604006This review article reviews muscle function and anatomy, describes normal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging anatomy, and shows a spectrum of abnormal imaging findings. It covers the lumbrical, interosseous, and thenar and hypothenar muscles. The described spectrum of abnormalities includes anatomical variants, exercise-induced MR signal changes, denervation syndromes, and myositis, as well as tumors. Advanced imaging techniques are discussed at the end to provide a look at future hand muscle imaging. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, Ne...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Andreisek, Gustav Kislinger, Benedikt Dessouky, Riham Chhabra, Avneesh Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Musculotendinous Disorders in the Upper Extremity: Part 2. MRI of the Elbow, Forearm, Wrist, and Hand
This article reviews our experience with muscle and tendon injury as well as denervation of muscles. We focus on abnormalities of the biceps and the triceps tendons about the elbow as well as abnormalities of the flexor and extensor tendons about the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. We also discuss and illustrate our experience with lacerations, crush injuries, and muscle hernias in the forearm. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Fritz, Russell C. Boutin, Robert D. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Musculotendinous Disorders in the Upper Extremity: Part 1. MRI of the Shoulder and Upper Arm
This article reviews our experience with abnormalities of the rotator cuff tendons and muscles as well as the deltoid muscle in the shoulder. We discuss and illustrate abnormalities of the upper arm such as strain injuries of the pectoralis major, strain injuries of the teres major and latissimus dorsi, and contusion and crush injuries of the biceps and brachialis muscles in the upper arm. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Fritz, Russell C. Boutin, Robert D. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Muscle Imaging: Beyond the Basics
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 357-358 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604182 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 3, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Boutin, Robert D. Fritz, Russell C. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Percutaneous Treatment of Vertebral Fractures
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 349-356 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602407The thoracolumbar junction and lumbosacral segment are the portions of the spinal column most prone to acute traumatic fractures. Multiple classifications and injury severity score systems have been published to standardize the management of patients, establishing stable/unstable and surgical/nonsurgical fractures. In the past, patients could be treated only by surgical stabilization or conservative methods. The latter implied bed rest, long immobilization periods, prolonged drugs therapies, and, at worst, the evolution of kyphosis. Percutaneous mini-i...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Muto, Mario Giurazza, Francesco Guarnieri, Gianluigi Miele, Vittorio Marcia, Stefano Masala, Salvatore Guglielmi, Giuseppe Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Imaging of Vascular Injuries of the Extremities
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 336-348 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602410Multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) of the upper and lower extremities is the standard of care in the assessment of trauma patients with vascular trauma of the upper and lower extremities. A MDCTA of the extremities is typically integrated into multiphasic whole-body computed tomography trauma protocols in patients with suspected vascular injury. MDCTA has replaced catheter-directed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the modality of choice for the initial detection and characterization of vascular injuries because it is readily ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Nicola, Refky Kawakyu-O'Connor, Don Scalgione, Mariano Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Nontraumatic Emergency of the Spine
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 315-335 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602412Nontraumatic spinal emergencies can have many different causes. Clinical symptoms may be nonspecific, and therefore radiology plays a key role in diagnosing and managing these patients. There is considerable time pressure in these situations because the development of irreversible myelopathy depends not only on the cause but also on the time elapsed between the start of compression and the decompression. To avoid structural cord damage, decompression should be done within 6 to 8 hours after the start of the compression. If patients still walk when the ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: LLopis, Eva Belloch, Elena Gallegos, Paulina Higueras, Victoria Taberner, Esther Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Imaging Assessment of Thoracic Cage Injuries
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 303-314 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602413Thoracic injuries are the third most common traumatic injury. Approximately two thirds of thoracic injuries are due to motor vehicle collisions. They are associated with up to a 20% mortality rate. This is primarily due to the presence of several complex anatomical structures within the thoracic cage such as the heart, great vessels, esophagus, airways, lungs, mediastinum, bones, muscles, diaphragm, and pleura. A chest radiograph is the initial imaging modality in the evaluation of the chest. However, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) with intra...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Iacobellis, Francesca Iadevito, Isabella Ierardi, Anna Maria Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Perillo, Federica Nicola, Refky Scaglione, Mariano Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Cone Beam CT of Trauma of Small Bones and Joints
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 290-302 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602405Evaluation of trauma of small bones or joints is traditionally done by conventional radiographs (CRs). Although multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has a better sensitivity than CR in fracture detection and evaluation of complex fractures, high doses of radiation prevent systematic use of MDCT in fracture evaluation. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) combines a high spatial resolution and relatively low radiation dose and is therefore a very valuable technique to evaluate trauma of small bones and joints in patients with negative or doubtful ra...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Vanhoenacker, Filip M. Desimpel, Julie Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Emergency and Trauma of the Ankle
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 282-289 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602408Ankle injuries are very common among patients presenting to emergency departments, affecting patients of both sexes at any age. Management of ankle injuries can be challenging for orthopedic surgeons, given the large range of osteochondral, tendinous, and capsuloligamentous injuries that can occur. An accurate imaging evaluation is therefore of paramount importance to identify the degree and type of injury correctly and to direct the patient to the correct therapeutic management. Radiologic evaluation is the most appropriate initial imaging modality. C...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Barile, Antonio Bruno, Federico Arrigoni, Francesco Splendiani, Alessandra Di Cesare, Ernesto Zappia, Marcello Guglielmi, Giuseppe Masciocchi, Carlo Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Emergency and Trauma of the Elbow
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 257-281 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602415The elbow is a joint composed of three different articulations all included in the same synovial capsule, with a complex anatomy that allows two kinds of motion: flexion-extension and pronation and supination. Stabilization of the elbow is provided by osseous and ligamentous structures.When assessing the elbow in the traumatic setting, the mechanism of injury determines the pattern of osseous and ligamentous lesion, with potential important implications on elbow instability. The role of the radiologist in the assessment of the traumatic elbow requires ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Bazzocchi, Alberto G ómez, Maria Pilar Aparisi Bartoloni, Alessandra Guglielmi, Giuseppe Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Emergency and Trauma of Hand and Wrist
This article provides an overview of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of the hand and wrist. Emphasis is placed on the most common traumatic injuries of the hand, wrist, and fingers, and the imaging modality of choice in evaluating these injuries. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Kraan, Rik B. Walstra, Frances E. Teunis, Teun Smithuis, Frank Van Dijke, Cornelis F. Maas, Mario Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Hip and Pelvis: MRI of Musculotendinous Trauma and Mimickers
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 218-239 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602411The spectrum of disorders in musculotendinous trauma (MTt) includes acute traumatic and subacute/chronic lesions caused by repetitive microtrauma. The imaging findings differ in the immature versus the mature skeleton in both categories. Sport-related MTt also depends on age, sex, and type of activity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for exploring most MTt injuries and is invaluable for assessing severity and for planning management and return to activity. In some circumstances such as minimally displaced avulsion injuries, M...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Tsifountoudis, Ioannis Kraniotis, Pantelis Karantanas, Apostolos H. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Emergency and Trauma of the Pelvic Ring
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 210-217 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602409Pelvic ring fractures are a common consequence of high-energy blunt trauma with a high rate of morbidity and mortality due to associated injuries, especially to the head, pelvic viscera, and vascular structures. The Young and Burgess classification system is the most widely utilized for categorizing pelvic ring injuries and assessing stability. The initial identification of these injuries often comes from an anteroposterior radiograph; however, computed tomography examination with three-dimensional volume-rendered reconstructions represents the referen...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Leone, Antonio Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N. P érez, Miguel Herrera Guglielmi, Giuseppe Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Emergency and Trauma Imaging of the Thoracolumbar Spine
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 199-209 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602406Spine trauma is a devastating event with high morbidity and mortality and many additional medical, psychological, social, and financial consequences for patients, their families, and society. The thoracolumbar spine represents the most common area fractured in the spine. Morphology, extent, and the location of fracture lines are important determinants of stability, which is the core issue in the assessment of vertebral injuries, dictating conservative or surgical treatment. After hospital admission and clinical stabilization, patients with potential sp...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Moutinho, Ricardo Tyrrell, Prudencia Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Trauma Imaging of the Acute Cervical Spine
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 184-198 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602713Among patients admitted in emergency departments for acute cervical spine trauma, only a few have a confirmed and significant injury requiring surgical intervention. Imaging plays a key role in screening for unstable lesions that can be responsible for devastating neurologic complications or death. The complex anatomy of the cervical spine is associated with a wide spectrum of osseous and ligamentous pathologies. This review focuses on the imaging features of the main cervical spine fractures that can be encountered in emergency radiology. [...] Thieme...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Berritto, Daniela Pinto, Antonio Michelin, Paul Demondion, Xavier Badr, Sammy Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Lower Limbs Trauma in Pediatrics
This article reviews acute and chronic lower extremity injuries in children, focusing mainly on those traumas typical of the pediatric population. The child is not just a small version of an adult, so physicians need a very detailed knowledge of the anatomy and physiologic changes occurring during growth to understand and evaluate the mechanism of trauma, and choose the most adequate management. In adolescents the most common lesion encountered affects the physes, which are still open. They predispose to injury as the weakest point in the kinetic chain, so those mechanisms responsible for ligamentous traumas in adults can ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Piccolo, Claudia Lucia Galluzzo, Michele Trinci, Margherita Ianniello, Stefania Tonerini, Michele Brunese, Luca Miele, Vittorio Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Upper Limbs Trauma in Pediatrics
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21: 167-174 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1602416A correct interpretation of musculoskeletal imaging studies of children requires an in-depth knowledge of normal skeletal growth and physiologic changes in growing bones. During childhood the growing bones are more prone to acute and chronic injuries because of the imbalance between osseous structures and tendons and ligaments, so physeal injuries are the most commonly encountered types of lesions. This review addresses acute and chronic injuries involving the upper extremities in the pediatric population. These injuries may be subtle to recognize or a...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 1, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Piccolo, Claudia Lucia Galluzzo, Michele Trinci, Margherita Ianniello, Stefania Tonerini, Michele Guglielmi, Giuseppe Miele, Vittorio Tags: Review Article Source Type: research