3D MRI of the Ankle: A Concise State-of-the-Art Review
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 514-526 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731332Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality for visualizing a wide range of ankle disorders that affect ligaments, tendons, and articular cartilage. Standard two-dimensional (2D) fast spin-echo (FSE) and turbo spin-echo (TSE) pulse sequences offer high signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, but slice thickness limitations create partial volume effects. Modern three-dimensional (3D) FSE/TSE pulse sequences with isotropic voxel dimensions can achieve higher spatial resolution and similar contrast resolutions in ≤ 5 mi...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Fritz, Benjamin Fritz, Jan Sutter, Reto Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI of the Hand and Wrist: Technical Considerations and Clinical Applications
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 501-513 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731652In the last few years, major developments have been observed in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advances in both scanner hardware and software technologies have witnessed great leaps, enhancing the diagnostic quality and, therefore, the value of MRI. In musculoskeletal radiology, three-dimensional (3D) MRI has become an integral component of the diagnostic pathway at our institutions. This technique is particularly relevant in patients with hand and wrist symptoms, due to the intricate nature of the anatomical structures and the wide ran...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Dalili, Danoob Fritz, Jan Isaac, Amanda Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI of the Hip Joint: Technical Considerations, Advantages, Applications, and Current Perspectives
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 488-500 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730910Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a common choice among various imaging modalities for the evaluation of hip conditions. Conventional MRI with two-dimensional acquisitions requires a significant amount of time and is limited by partial-volume artifacts and suboptimal fluid-to-cartilage contrast. Recent hardware and software advances have resulted in development of novel isotropic three-dimensional (3D) single-acquisition protocols that cover the volume of the entire hip and can be reconstructed in arbitrary planes for submillimeter assessment of bony...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ashikyan, Oganes Wells, Joel Chhabra, Avneesh Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI of the Shoulder
This article briefly describes techniques used in 3D imaging of the shoulder and discusses applications of these techniques including measuring glenoid bone loss in anterior glenohumeral instability. We also review the literature on routine 3D imaging for the evaluation of common shoulder abnormalities as 3D imaging will likely become more common as imaging software continues to improve. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Daniels, Steven P. Gyftopoulos, Soterios Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI in Osteoarthritis
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 468-479 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730911Osteoarthritis (OA) is among the top 10 burdensome diseases, with the knee the most affected joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows whole-knee assessment, making it ideally suited for imaging OA, considered a multitissue disease. Three-dimensional (3D) MRI enables the comprehensive assessment of OA, including quantitative morphometry of various joint tissues. Manual tissue segmentation on 3D MRI is challenging but may be overcome by advanced automated image analysis methods including artificial intelligence (AI). This review presents examples o...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Oei, Edwin H.G. van Zadelhoff, Tijmen A. Eijgenraam, Susanne M. Klein, Stefan Hirvasniemi, Jukka van der Heijden, Rianne A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI of the Knee
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 455-467 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730400Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee is widely used in musculoskeletal (MSK) imaging. Currently, 3D sequences are most commonly used for morphological imaging. Isotropic 3D MRI provides higher out-of-plane resolution than standard two-dimensional (2D) MRI, leading to reduced partial volume averaging artifacts and allowing for multiplanar reconstructions in any plane with any thickness from a single high-resolution isotropic acquisition. Specifically, isotropic 3D fast spin-echo imaging, with options for tissue weighting s...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Altahawi, Faysal Pierce, Jason Aslan, Mercan Li, Xiaojuan Winalski, Carl S. Subhas, Naveen Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D Whole-Body MRI of the Musculoskeletal System
This article illustrates the basic principles, advantages, and limitations of the 3D approach in WB-MRI examinations and provides a short review of the literature. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Pasoglou, Vassiliki Van Nieuwenhove, Sandy Peeters, Frank Duch êne, Gaetan Kirchgesner, Thomas Lecouvet, Frederic E. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI of the Spine
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 433-440 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731060Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging of the spine is now clinically feasible due to technological advancements. Its advantages over two-dimensional imaging include higher in-plane spatial resolution and the ability for reformation in any plane that enables time savings in image acquisition and aids more accurate interpretation. Multispectral 3D techniques for imaging around metal are sometimes useful for evaluating anatomy adjacent to spinal fixation hardware. 3D gradient-recalled echo sequences, including ultrashort or zero time to echo s...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sahr, Meghan Tan, Ek Tsoon Sneag, Darryl B. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI of the Rheumatic Diseases
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 425-432 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731058Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to evaluate musculoskeletal pathologies due to its high spatial resolution and excellent tissue contrast. The diagnosis of rheumatic diseases can often be challenging. Investigation with conventional two-dimensional MRI is helpful for diagnosis and monitoring treatment. In the past few years, three-dimensional (3D) MRI has been more commonly used to assess joint pathologies including inflammatory and rheumatic diseases. This review discusses the techniques and protocols of 3D MRI and its diagnostic yiel...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ezzati, Fatemeh Chalian, Majid Pezeshk, Parham Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI in Musculoskeletal Oncology
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 418-424 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730399Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology now enable the feasible three-dimensional (3D) acquisition of images. With respect to the imaging of musculoskeletal (MSK) tumors, literature is beginning to accumulate on the use of 3D MRI acquisition for tumor detection and characterization. The benefits of 3D MRI, including general advantages, such as decreased acquisition time, isotropic resolution, and increased image quality, are not only inherently useful for tumor imaging, but they also contribute to the feasibility of more specialized tum...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Jones, Blake C. Ahlawat, Shivani Fayad, Laura M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MR Neurography
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 409-417 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730909High-resolution isotropic volumetric three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) techniques enable multiplanar depiction of peripheral nerves. In addition, 3D MRN provides anatomical and functional tissue characterization of different disease conditions affecting the peripheral nerves. In this review article, we summarize clinically relevant technical considerations of 3D MRN image acquisition and review clinical applications of 3D MRN to assess peripheral nerve diseases, such as entrapments, trauma, inflammatory or infectious neuropath...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Khalilzadeh, Omid Fayad, Laura M. Ahlawat, Shivani Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI of Articular Cartilage
This article reviews the different 3D imaging techniques available for evaluating cartilage morphology, illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of 3D approaches compared with 2D-FSE approaches for cartilage imaging, and summarizes the diagnostic performance of 2D-FSE and 3D sequences for detecting cartilage lesions within the knee and hip joints. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kijowski, Richard Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI Models of the Musculoskeletal System
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 388-396 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730912Computed tomography (CT) is most commonly used to produce three-dimensional (3D) models for evaluating bone and joint morphology in clinical practice. However, 3D models created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can be equally effective for comprehensive and accurate assessment of osseous and soft tissue structure morphology and pathology. The quality of 3D MRI models has steadily increased over time, with growing potential to replace 3D CT models in various musculoskeletal (MSK) applications. In practice, a single MRI examination for two-dime...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Samim, Mohammad Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

3D MRI: Technical Considerations and Practical Integration
This article provides an overview of general technical considerations of 3D FSE and TSE sequences in musculoskeletal MRI. It also describes how these sequences achieve efficient data acquisition and reviews the main advantages and challenges for their introduction to clinical practice. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Del Grande, Filippo Hinterholzer, Natalie Nanz, Daniel Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal 3D MRI: A Decade of Developments and Innovations Coming to Fruition
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 379-380 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1733946 Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Fritz, Jan Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Hand and Wrist Neuropathies: High-resolution Ultrasonography and MR Neurography
This article outlines the technical considerations of US and MRN and discusses normal and abnormal imaging appearances of hand and wrist nerves from etiologies such as entrapment, injury, tumor, and proximal and diffuse neuropathy, with specific case illustrations. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Chhabra, Avneesh Ratakonda, Raghu Zaottini, Federico Picasso, Riccardo Martinoli, Carlo Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Thumb Injuries and Instabilities. Part 2: Spectrum of Lesions
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 355-365 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730414The motor function of the thumb and its alignment with regard to the hand make it particularly vulnerable to trauma. Pathology encountered in this joint is varied, and imaging techniques play a crucial role in the diagnosis and characterization of injury. Despite advances in imaging technology, acute thumb injuries remain a challenge for radiologists. Currently, standard radiography and ultrasonography are frequently used first-line imaging techniques. Computed tomography is most often indicated for complex fractures and dislocations. Magnetic resonanc...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Blum, Alain G. van Holsbeeck, Marnix T. Bianchi, Stefano Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Thumb Injuries and Instabilities. Part 1: Anatomy, Kinesiology, and Imaging Techniques of the Thumb
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 346-354 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730397The unique anatomical characteristics of the thumb offer a broad range of motion and the ability to oppose thumb and finger, an essential function for grasping. The motor function of the thumb and its orientation make it particularly vulnerable to trauma. Pathologic lesions encountered in this joint are varied, and imaging techniques play a crucial role in injury detection and characterization. Despite advances in diagnostic accuracy, acute thumb injuries pose a challenge for the radiologist. The complex and delicate anatomy requires meticulous and tec...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Blum, Alain G. van Holsbeeck, Marnix T. Bianchi, Stefano Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Postoperative Imaging of Ulnar Wrist Pain
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 329-345 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731331Ulnar wrist pain, caused by a broad spectrum of bone and soft tissue injuries, is the most common clinical condition of the wrist. Multiple surgical techniques and their variants in the treatment of these injuries are constantly evolving. Postoperative evaluation of the wrist for many surgeons is limited to serial clinical and radiographic monitoring. However, imaging methods such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and arthrographic techniques (arthrographic CT and arthrographic MRI) play a fundamental role ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Cerezal, Luis Llopis, Eva Canga, Ana Pi ñal, Francisco Del Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Ligaments of the Wrist
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 311-328 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731653Carpal stability depends on the integrity of both intra-articular and intracapsular carpal ligaments. In this review, the role of the radial-sided and ulnar-sided extrinsic and intrinsic ligaments is described, as well as their advanced imaging using magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-dimensional (3D) scapholunate complex sequences and thin slices. In the last decade, the new concept of a so-called “scapholunate complex” has emerged among hand surgeons, just as the triangu...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Shahabpour, Maryam Abid, Wiem Van Overstraeten, Luc Van Royen, Kjell De Maeseneer, Michel Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Carpal Instability: II. Imaging
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 304-310 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730398Beyond clinical examination, the various forms of carpal instability are assessed with radiologic methods and arthroscopy. For this purpose, the imaging demand for spatial and contrast resolution is particularly high because of the small ligamentous structures involved. The entities of carpal instability are classified into degrees of severity. Early (dynamic) forms of instability can either be indirectly detected with X-ray stress views and cineradiography or by direct visualization of ruptured ligaments in high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imag...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Hesse, Nina Schmitt, Rainer Luitjens, Johanna Grunz, Jan-Peter Haas-L ützenberger, Elisabeth Maria Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis of the Wrist: Pathology, Radiology, and Treatment
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 294-303 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730948Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that can manifest in any synovial joint under certain conditions. It leads to destruction of articular cartilage and adjacent bone, as well as formation of osteophytes at the edges of afflicted joint surfaces. Regarding the wrist, typical degenerative arthritis affects particular joints at a specific patient age, due to asymmetric load distribution and repetitive microtrauma. However, in the presence of instability or systemic diseases, early-onset degeneration can also impair the range of motion and grip s...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Grunz, Jan-Peter Gietzen, Carsten Herbert Christopoulos, Georgios van Schoonhoven, J örg Goehtz, Florian Schmitt, Rainer Hesse, Nina Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Acute Bony Injuries of Hand and Wrist
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 277-293 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1729151Acute bony injuries to the hand and wrist are very common after a fall on an outstretched hand. In the wrist, distal radius fractures are the most common; isolated distal ulna fractures are uncommon. More serious injuries to the wrist include complicated fracture-dislocation injuries such as perilunate dislocations. At the carpal level, scaphoid fractures are the most common followed by fractures of the dorsal side of the triquetrum. The metacarpals often fracture, most commonly the base of the thumb and the subcapital region of the fifth metacarpal. I...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - August 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: De Jonge, Milko C. Assink, Joeri Vanhoenacker, Filip M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

History Page: Leaders in MSK Radiology
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 274-276 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727094Robert Kienböck (1871–1953) may be regarded as one of the first musculoskeletal radiologists who began his clinical and scientific work 2 years after the discovery of X-rays. He lent his name to Kienböck's disease, a traumatic malacia and osteonecrosis of the lunate, and to several other eponyms of diseases, devices, and parameters in radiology and radiation oncology. With his meticulous analysis of radiographic images of the highest quality, he anticipated many theories that were proposed in later decades. [...] Thieme Medical Publishe...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kainberger, Franz Hahn, Daniela Tags: History Pages Source Type: research

History Page: Leaders in MSK Radiology, Maria Curie-Sk łodowska (1867–1934)
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 272-273 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727096This history page in the series “Leaders in MSK radiology” is dedicated to the memory and achievements of the Polish researcher born in Warsaw and graduate of Sorbonne University, Maria Curie-Skłodowska, two-time Nobel Prize winner and the most well-known female scientist in the world, recognized as the pioneer of radiology. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Se...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sudo ł-Szopińska, Iwona Panas-Goworska, Marta Tags: History Pages Source Type: research

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities of the Hand and Wrist
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 260-271 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722613Identification of congenital skeletal abnormalities is complex because of the large variety of individual syndromes and dysplasias that are often difficult to remember. Although a correct diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical, radiologic, and genetic tests, imaging plays an important role in selecting those patients who should be referred for further genetic counseling and expensive genetic tests. In addition to information derived from radiologic analysis of other skeletal elements, radiographs of the hand and wrist may provide particular usef...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Vanhoenacker, Filip M. Simoni, Paolo Bosmans, Frederik Boutry, Nathalie Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Radiologic Imaging of Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders as They Affect the Hand and Wrist
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 246-259 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727192Metabolic and endocrine disorders have systemic effects on the musculoskeletal system, frequently producing characteristic changes in the hand and wrist. Radiographs historically played an instrumental role in the diagnostic pathway of many of these disorders, but the myriad of endocrinologic tests readily available to current clinicians may suggest their importance has lessened. We disagree. Recognition of these often subtle features can avoid the expense and psychological impact of an inappropriate diagnostic work-up, as well as expediting the diagno...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Scullion, Stephen Grainger, Andrew J. Greenspan, Adam Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Rheumatoid Hand and Other Hand-deforming Rheumatic Conditions
This article discusses typical imaging features of the hand and wrist in rheumatologic conditions including the advantages and limitations of the various methods. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sudo ł-Szopińska, Iwona Teh, James Cotten, Anne Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Hand Masses
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 216-231 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1724017Hand and wrist soft tissue masses may be classified as pseudotumors, benign neoplasms, or malignant neoplasms. The vast majority of hand lesions are benign. Consideration of the location of the lesion and its imaging characteristics often leads to a specific diagnosis. Pseudotumors discussed in this article are ganglion cysts, accessory muscles, and inflammatory lesions. True tumors are described according to their tissue type: nerve sheath tumors, adipocytic tumors, so-called fibrohistiocytic tumors, pericytic tumors, and vascular lesions. We also out...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Teh, James Shahabpour, Maryam Drape, Jean-Luc Feydy, Antoine Sudo ł-Szopińska, Iwona Vanhoenacker, Filip M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Pulley, Flexor, and Extensor Tendon Injuries of the Hand
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 203-215 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727196Tendon injuries represent the second most common injury of the hand (after fractures) and are a common scanning indication in radiology. Pulley injuries are very frequent in rock climbers with the A2 pulley the most commonly affected. Tendon and pulley injuries can be reliably evaluated using ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). US can be postulated as a first-line imaging modality, allowing dynamic examination. MRI is essential for cases with ongoing diagnostic doubt post-US and also for preoperative pulley reconstruction assessment. ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Rosskopf, Andrea B. Taljanovic, Mihra S. Sconfienza, Luca M. Gitto, Salvatore Martinoli, Carlo Picasso, Riccardo Klauser, Andrea Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Carpal Instability: I. Pathoanatomy
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 191-202 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1728711The pathoanatomy of carpal instability is multifactorial and usually complex. A thorough medical history and clinical examination are essential, as well as profound knowledge of the specific instability patterns. The stability of the wrist is ensured by the carpal joint surfaces, by intact intra-articular (particularly the scapholunate interosseous ligament) and intracapsular ligaments, and by crossing extensor and flexor tendons, the latter making the proximal carpal row an “intercalated segment.” An important classification feature is the...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Schmitt, Rainer Hesse, Nina Goehtz, Florian Prommersberger, Karl-Josef de Jonge, Milko Grunz, Jan-Peter Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Update on Hand and Wrist Imaging
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 189-190 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1729896 Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sudo ł-Szopińska, Iwona Shahabpour, Maryam Tags: Preface Source Type: research

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Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology 2021; S 01 Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Congress (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - June 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

History Page: Leaders in MSK Radiology Hans Jessen Panner, 1871 –1930
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 186-188 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730325This history page in the series “Leaders in MSK Radiology” is dedicated to the memory and achievements of the Danish radiologist Hans Jessen Panner, whose name is connected to the medical eponym Panner's disease. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Vanhoenacker, Filip M. Skjennald, Arnulf Tags: History Page Source Type: research

History Page: Leaders in MSK Radiology Karl Dussik, 1908 –1968: Pioneer of MSK Ultrasonography
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 184-185 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722207This history page in the series “Leaders in MSK Radiology” is dedicated to the memory and achievements of Karl Theodore Dussik, the Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist from the University of Vienna who is recognized as the pioneer of ultrasonography. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sudo ł-Szopińska, Iwona Martinoli, Carlo Panas-Goworska, Marta Tags: History Page Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Interventional Radiology in the Pediatric Population: State of the Art
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 176-183 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730326Interventional radiology procedures have been proven to be as effective as traditional surgery but usually are characterized by lower morbidity rates. In this article, the most diffuse IR treatments for pediatric lesions are reviewed with the aim of describing main advantages and drawbacks. Ablation procedures (in particular RFA and MRgFUS) are widely used for the management of osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma whereas intracystic injection of methylprednisolone acetate is performed for simple bone cysts. Sclerosing agents and where possible, selective...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Arrigoni, Francesco Izzo, Antonio Bruno, Federico Palumbo, Pierpaolo De Filippo, Massimo Zugaro, Luigi Masciocchi, Carlo Barile, Antonio Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Updates and Advances: Pediatric Musculoskeletal Infection Imaging Made Easier for Radiologists and Clinicians
This article reviews an up-to-date practical imaging techniques, the differences between pediatric and adult MSK infections, the spectrum of pediatric MSK infections, and mimics of pediatric MSK infections encountered in daily clinical practice by radiologists and clinicians. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Furman, Michael S. Restrepo, Ricardo Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika Laya, Bernard F. Plut, Domen Lee, Edward Y. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Preoperative and Postoperative Imaging in Idiopathic Scoliosis: What the Surgeon Wants to Know
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 155-166 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1724018The term idiopathic scoliosis covers a broad spectrum of spinal deformities in the pediatric population without an underlying congenital anomaly of the spine. Depending on the age of presentation, it has both characteristic clinical and imaging features and a different prognosis. The radiologist should provide the surgeon with critical information to assess the degree of deformity and eventually plan surgery. Thoracic deformities and lung volume must also be part of the preoperative assessment. Imaging has a critical role in postsurgical follow-up and ...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Guglielmi, Riccardo Di Chio, Teresa Kaleeta Maalu, Jean-Paul Aparisi G ómez, Maria Pilar De Leucio, Alessandro Simoni, Paolo Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Pediatric Spine
We report the main normal variants and pathologies of the pediatric spine, from the prenatal period to adolescence, focusing on a multimodality imaging approach. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Colafati, Giovanna Stefania Marrazzo, Antonio Cirillo, Marco d'Angelo, Paola Barbuti, Domenico Tanturri de Horatio, Laura Tom à, Paolo Bartoloni, Alessandra Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Imaging of Pediatric Lower Limb Sports Injuries
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 123-136 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1725076The importance of physical activity during childhood and adolescence has come to light, with an increase in sports-related acute traumatic and overuse injuries as a major disadvantage. A solid understanding of the physiology of the growing skeleton, together with knowledge about age- and sex-related differences in the occurrence of acute traumatic and overuse injuries is necessary. Every musculoskeletal radiologist should also be familiar with the appearances of these injuries on different imaging modalities. This review focuses on all these aspects co...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Weil, Nikki Hemke, Robert Reurink, Guus Maas, Mario Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Pediatric Musculoskeletal Trauma: Upper Limb
This article discusses normal skeletal development and the pathomechanics of skeletal injuries in pediatric patients. It also outlines a framework for imaging as it pertains to the pediatric upper extremity, with specific emphasis on acute and chronic injuries to the shoulder, elbow, forearm, and wrist. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Restrepo, Ricardo Cervantes, Luisa Fernanda Zahrah, David Schoenleber, Scott Lee, Edward Y. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Metabolic Bone Diseases in the Pediatric Population
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 094-104 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722566Bone plays an important role in regulating mineral balance in response to physiologic needs. In addition, bone is subject to a continuous remodeling process to maintain healthy bone mass and growth. Metabolic bone diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by abnormalities of bone mass, mineral structure homeostasis, bone turnover, or bone growth. In pediatrics, several significant advances have been made in recent years in the diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases (e.g., osteogenesis imperfecta, hyperparathyroidism, rickets, renal osteodystr...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Testini, Valentina Eusebi, Laura Tupputi, Umberto Carpagnano, Francesca Anna Bartelli, Francesco Guglielmi, Giuseppe Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

MR Imaging of Rheumatic Diseases Affecting the Pediatric Population
This article reviews the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to pediatric rheumatic diseases. MRI can detect early manifestations of arthritis, evaluate the extent of disease, and monitor disease activity and response to treatment.Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common pediatric rheumatic disorder, representing a diverse group of related diseases that share a definition of joint inflammation of unknown origin with onset before 16 years of age and lasting > 6 weeks. JIA may lead to significant functional impairment and is increasingly imaged with MRI to assess for active inflamma...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Schiettecatte, Eva Jans, Lennart Jaremko, Jacob Lester Chen, Min Vande Walle, Caroline Herregods, Nele Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Conventional Radiography and Ultrasound Imaging of Rheumatic Diseases Affecting the Pediatric Population
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 068-081 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1726014Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease in the pediatric population, followed by systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile scleroderma syndromes, juvenile dermatomyositis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, and juvenile vasculopathies. The imaging approach to inflammatory connective tissue diseases in childhood has not changed dramatically over the last decade, with radiographs still the leading method for bony pathology assessment, disease monitoring, and evaluation of growth disturbances. Ultrasonography is commonly...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Praco ń, Grzegorz Aparisi G ómez, Maria Pilar Simoni, Paolo Gietka, Piotr Sudo ł-Szopińska, Iwona Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Imaging of Pediatric Bone Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 057-067 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1723965Bone lesions are commonly seen when reporting pediatric skeletal imaging. Distinguishing aggressive from nonaggressive lesions is essential in making the diagnosis. Not all aggressive lesions are neoplastic; indeed, osteomyelitis frequently presents with aggressive appearances and is far more commonly seen in the pediatric population than neoplastic lesions. In this article, we discuss an approach for the diagnosis of pediatric bone tumors and tumor-like conditions. The most common pediatric benign and malignant bone tumors are discussed in more detail...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Al-Qassab, Sinan Lalam, Radhesh Botchu, Rajesh Bazzocchi, Alberto Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Imaging of Pediatric Soft Tissue Tumors and Tumor-like Conditions
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 039-056 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1723966Lumps and bumps are frequently seen in children, and the vast majority are a result of trauma, infection, or inflammation. True soft tissue neoplastic lesions are rare; however, their wide and complex classifications make these lesions challenging to manage. Imaging features are usually nonspecific, and a reasonable list of differential diagnoses can be generated following consideration of the clinical presentation, age, and anatomical location of the lesion. In this article, we offer a practical approach to diagnosing such lesions by discussing the mo...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Al-Qassab, Sinan Lalam, Radhesh Botchu, Rajesh Bazzocchi, Alberto Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Imaging of Congenital Skeletal Disorders
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 022-038 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1723964Osteochondrodysplasias are the result of the expression of gene mutations. The phenotypes in osteochondrodysplasias evolve through life, with the possibility that previously unaffected bones may be involved at later stages of growth. Due to the variable time of onset, the diagnosis may be made prenatally, at birth, or later. Certainty in the diagnosis is sometimes only achieved as the patient matures and the disease evolves. Radiographic evaluation is a fundamental part of the diagnostic work-up of congenital skeletal disorders and in most cases the fi...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Aparisi G ómez, Maria Pilar Trisolino, Giovanni Sangiorgi, Luca Guglielmi, Giuseppe Bazzocchi, Alberto Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Anatomical Considerations of Embryology and Development of the Musculoskeletal System: Basic Notions for Musculoskeletal Radiologists
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 003-021 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1723005The musculoskeletal (MSK) system begins to form in the third week of intrauterine development. Multiple genes are involved in the complex different processes to form the skeleton, muscles and joints. The embryonic period, from the third to the eighth week of development, is critical for normal development and therefore the time when most structural defects are induced. Many of these defects have a genetic origin, but environmental factors may also play a very important role. This review summarizes the embryology of the different components of the MSK s...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Aparisi G ómez, Maria Pilar Watkin, Sheryl Perry, David Simoni, Paolo Trisolino, Giovanni Bazzocchi, Alberto Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Imaging of Pediatric MSK Diseases
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25: 001-002 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1723967 Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Guglielmi, Giuseppe Bazzocchi, Alberto Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Erratum: Soft Tissue Sarcoma Follow-up Imaging: Strategies to Distinguish Post-treatment Changes from Recurrence
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2020; 24: e1-e1 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722295 Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology)
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-M Chaudhary, Snehansh R. Papakonstantinou, Olympia Panotopoulos, Joannis Weber, Marc-Andr é Lalam, Radhesh K. Albtoush, Omar M. Fueger, Barbara J. Szomolanyi, Pavol Grieser, Thomas Bloem, Johan L. Tags: Erratum Source Type: research