Arterial Spin Labeling perfusion in neonates
Abnormal brain perfusion is a key mechanism underlying neonatal brain injury. Understanding the mechanisms leading to brain perfusion changes in high-risk neonates and how these alterations may influence brain development is key to improve therapeutic strategies preventing brain injury and the neurodevelopmental outcome of these infants. To date, several studies demonstrated that Arterial Spin Labeling is a reliable tool to accurately and non-invasively analyze brain perfusion, facilitating the understanding of normal and pathological mechanisms underlying neonatal brain maturation and injury. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - June 21, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Andrea Rossi Source Type: research

Medico-Legal Implications of the Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Babies who sustain long term neurologic injury and disability are frequent subjects in medical malpractice litigation. In the United States, the tort system enables adjudication of claims through a proscribed system. This paper will review salient elements of the tort system-duty, breach, causation, and damages- and how they apply to encephalopathic infants whose injuries are believed to be the result of fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) and/or hypoxic-ischemic damage. FIRS may confound the diagnosis of neonatal encephalopathy but may be a credible explanation for it as well. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - June 13, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Jonathan M. Fanaroff, Steven M. Donn Source Type: research

Introduction
3; 5; 12. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - June 8, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Neil Marlow, Samantha Johnson Source Type: research

Outcomes from the other side
Parents and individuals who were born preterm rarely contribute to research study design in order to ensure that outcomes are reported that are of relevance to them. In this article we explore aspects of the measures we use and the lived experiences of three individuals with experience of having a very preterm birth or being very preterm themselves. Their experiences tell us that follow up needs to be more than 2 years, that prematurity needs to be more widely acknowledged in education and that adult services need to consider the consequences of being born early. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - June 8, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Neil Marlow, Sarra Hoy, Alexandra Peacock, Juli ëtte Kamphuis Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - June 1, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research

Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Cerebral, Cardiac, and Gut Hemodynamics in Premature Neonates
Patent ductus arteriosus is associated with multiple comorbidities in premature infants, however a causal link or strategy to decrease these morbidities has not been found. The association between the PDA and morbidities has biologic plausibility as, like any cardiac mixing lesion, a significant systemic to pulmonic shunt may lead to pulmonary over-circulation and systemic hypoperfusion. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of associated morbidities in the setting of a patent ductus arteriosus may aid in risk stratifying infants and offer a patient targeted approach to infants with a pathological ductal shunt. (Sou...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - June 1, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: J.L. Ruoss, C. Bazacliu, Regan E. Giesinger, P.J. McNamara Source Type: research

Prevention of Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia is an obstetric disorder that affects 3-8% of pregnant women and remains a leading cause of short- and long-term neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Professional societies recommend the use of low dose aspirin to prevent preeclampsia in high-risk women. However, interest in prevention of this disease and better understanding of its pathophysiology have led to growing research on other agents. This review focuses on the main therapeutic agents evaluated or in use for preeclampsia prevention. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - June 1, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Marwan MA ’AYEH, Maged M. COSTANTINE Source Type: research

Management of Neonatal Hypotension and Shock
The current standard approach to manage circulatory insufficiency is inappropriately simple and clear: respond to low blood pressure to achieve higher values. However, the evidence for this is limited affecting all steps within the process: assessment, decision making, therapeutic options, and treatment effects. We have to overcome the ‘one size fits all’ approach and respect the dynamic physiologic transition from fetal to neonatal life in the context of complex underlying conditions. Caregivers need to individualize their approaches to individual circumstances. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Christoph E. Schwarz, Eugene M. Dempsey Source Type: research

Superior Vena Cava Flow: Role, Assessment and Controversies in the Management of Perinatal Perfusion
The superior vena cava (SVC) is a large vein responsible for the venous return of blood from structures located superior to the diaphragm. The flow in the SVC can be assessed with Doppler ultrasound and can be used as a proxy for cerebral perfusion. Early clinical research studies showed that low SVC flow, particularly if for a prolonged period, was associated with short term morbidity such as intraventricular haemorrhage, mortality, and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, these findings have not been consistently reported in more recent studies, and the role of SVC flow in early management and as a predictor of p...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - May 20, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Koert de Waal, Martin Kluckow Source Type: research

Long-term motor outcomes of very preterm and/or very low birth weight individuals without cerebral palsy: A review of the current evidence
We reviewed literature on long-term motor outcomes of individuals aged five years or older born very preterm (VP: ≤32 weeks of gestation) or with very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤1500g), without cerebral palsy (CP). PubMed produced 2827 articles, whereof 38 were eligible. Assessed by standardised and norm-based motor tests, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children being the most widely used, VP/VLBW indivi duals showed poorer motor skills compared with term-born controls with differences of approximately 1 SD in magnitude. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - May 19, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Kari Anne I. Evensen, Tordis Ustad, Marjaana Tikanm äki, Peija Haaramo, Eero Kajantie Source Type: research

Late Adolescent & Young Adult Functioning and Participation Outcomes after Prematurity
There has been an increased emphasis on optimizing health, developmental, and behavioral outcomes over the life course after prematurity. An important framework for examining adolescent and young adult outcomes is the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health Children (ICF) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2001 and expanded to children and youth (ICF-CY) under age 19 years in 2007. The ICF and the ICF-CY can be used as a statistical tool in population studies, a research tool to measure outcomes, quality of life, and environmental factors, a clinical tool for outcomes of rehabilit...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - May 15, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Mary C. Sullivan, Emma Lynch, Michael E. Msall Source Type: research

Have outcomes following extremely preterm birth improved over time?
Increased survival of infants born preterm, especially those born extremely preterm ( (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - May 14, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Jeanie LY. Cheong, Alicia J. Spittle, Alice C. Burnett, Peter J. Anderson, Lex W. Doyle Source Type: research

Genetic and Epigenetic Factors and Early Life Inflammation as Predictors of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes
Among individuals born very preterm, perinatal inflammation, particularly if sustained or recurring, is highly likely a contributor to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, including cerebral white matter damage, cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. Antecedents and correlates of perinatal inflammation include socioeconomic disadvantage, maternal obesity, maternal infections, fetal growth restriction, neonatal sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and prolonged mechanical ventilation. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - May 14, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Kirsi S. Oldenburg, T. Michael O ’Shea, Rebecca C. Fry Source Type: research

The neurobiological correlates of cognitive outcomes in adolescence and adulthood following very preterm birth
Very preterm birth ( (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - May 14, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Laila Hadaya, Chiara Nosarti Source Type: research

Early developmental interventions for infants born very preterm – what works?
Interventions are needed to enhance early development and minimise long-term impairments for children born very preterm (VP, (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - May 14, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Peter J. Anderson, Karli Treyvaud, Alicia J. Spittle Source Type: research

Mental Health Outcomes of Adults Born Very Preterm or with Very Low Birth Weight: A systematic review
Preterm birth research is poised to explore the mental health of adults born very preterm(VP; (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 28, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Rachel Robinson, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Daniel Schnitzlein, Falk Voit, Polina Girchenko, Dieter Wolke, Sakari Lemola, Eero Kajantie, Kati Heinonen Source Type: research

Therapeutic Interventions for Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome (FIRS)
Fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) is a condition defined by systemic inflammation in the fetus, a rapid increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the fetal circulation (including interleukin-1 and interleukin-6), as well as a cellular response (such as increased neutrophils, monocyte/macrophages, and T cells) and the presence of funisitis. FIRS can lead to death and multisystem organ damage in the fetus and newborn. Brain injuries and subsequent risk of cerebral palsy and cognitive impairments are the most threatening long-term complications. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 11, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Xiong Ying, Pia Wintermark Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Brain Injury in Newborn Infants Associated with the Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome
The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) is characterized by umbilical cord inflammation and elevated fetal pro-inflammatory cytokines. Surviving neonates, especially very preterm infants, have increased rates of neonatal morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment. The mechanism of brain injury in FIRS is complex and may involve “multiple hits.” Exposure to in utero inflammation initiates a cascade of the fetal immune response, where pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause direct injury to oligodendrocytes and neurons. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 9, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Vivien Yap, Jeffrey M. Perlman Source Type: research

Neonatal white matter damage and the fetal inflammatory response
In 1962 a long-recognized pathologic abnormality in neonatal brains characterized by multiple telencephalic focal white matter necroses was renamed periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and the authors inappropriately asserted that their entity was caused by anoxia. They also failed to include three other white matter histologic abnormalities.In this essay, we identify the breadth of white matter pathology, especially in very preterm newborns, and show that none of the four histologic expressions of white matter damage, including focal necrosis, are associated with hypoxemia or correlates as hypotension, but are instead assoc...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 9, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: F.H. Gilles, A. Leviton Source Type: research

International comparisons of neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants born very preterm
We summarise rates of survival and neurodevelopmental impairment in very ( (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: H éloïse Torchin, Andreï S. Morgan, Pierre-Yves Ancel Source Type: research

Cerebral Palsy after very preterm birth - an imaging perspective
Neonatal brain imaging undoubtedly can provide the most accurate information on which to determine whether cerebral palsy is likely to affect an individual infant born preterm. The sensitivity and specificity of that information is different between cranial ultrasound and MRI, depending on what approaches and sequences are used and the timing of the examinations. In this chapter we highlight the changing incidence of different patterns of brain injury in the preterm newborn and present a comparison of cranial ultrasound and MRI for predicting cerebral palsy in preterm infants affected by the commoner intracranial pathologi...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 6, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Dawn Gano, Frances M. Cowan, Linda S. de Vries Source Type: research

“Health, Wealth and Achievements of Former Very Premature Infants in Adult Life”
Very preterm survivors born in the early neonatal intensive care era are now in their middle adulthood. The literature from cohort studies and population-linked registries indicate that extreme prematurity is associated with lower educational attainment and income, higher need for social assistance, and lower rates of marriage/partnership and reproduction. In addition, with increasing age, many general and system-specific adverse health outcomes, such as psychiatric problems, hypertension, and cardio-metabolic disorders have emerged, resulting in high cumulative health care costs across the life-span. (Source: Seminars in ...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 6, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Saroj Saigal, Katherine Morrison, Louis A. Schmidt Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental Origins of Social Competence in Very Preterm Children
Social problems are an important feature of the preterm behavioral phenotype but are diverse and multidimensional. A model of social competence comprised of the three interrelated components of social cognition, social interaction, and social adjustment is useful in conceptualizing these problems. Weaknesses in social cognition in very preterm (VPT) children, although rarely studied, are found on tasks involving interpretation of social cues. Difficulties in social interaction in VPT infants and young children are documented by structured observations of their interactions with adults. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 6, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: H. Gerry Taylor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - April 1, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Non-pharmacological pain management in the neonatal intensive care unit: Managing neonatal pain without drugs” [Semin Fetal Neonatal Med (2019) pii: S1744-165X(19)30047-2]
The authors regret that the following text ‘Reproduced from Oxford Textbook of Pediatric Pain, Second Edition edited by McGrath P., Stevens B., Hathway G., and Zempsky W. (Eds.) (Forthcoming). Fig. The Development of Infant Acute Pain Responding- Revised (DIAPR-R) from Chp. ‘Theoretical basis of pain’ by Goubert L., Pillai Riddell R., Simons L., and Borsook D. By permission of Oxford University Press.https://global.oup.com/academic.’ was not adjacent to the corresponding Figure in the original article. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - March 19, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: O. Bucsea, R. Pillai Riddell Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Screening for Metabolic Bone Disease of prematurity
Metabolic bone disease (MBD) of prematurity remains a significant comorbid condition in preterm, low birth weight infants. As the majority of in utero calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (Phos) accretion occurs during the third trimester, many of these children have inadequate mineral stores and are at risk for deficiencies of Ca and Phos. While fortification of formula has allowed for increased mineral delivery to premature infants, intestinal immaturity prevents optimal absorption. This is compounded by immobilization, delayed establishment of enteral feeds, long term parenteral nutrition and medications that may alter mineral l...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - February 18, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Arpana Rayannavar, Andrew C. Calabria Source Type: research

Optimizing oxygen therapy for preterm infants at birth: Are we there yet?
Premature infants undergo a complex postnatal adaptation at birth. For last two centuries, oxygen has been integral to respiratory support of preterm infants at birth. Excess oxygen can cause oxidative stress and tissue injury. Preterm infants due to lung immaturity may need oxygen for successful transition at birth. Although, considerable progress has been made in the last 3 decades, optimum oxygen therapy for preterm delivery room resuscitation remains unknown. In this review, we discuss the history and physiology behind oxygen therapy in the delivery room, evaluate current literature, provide practice points and point o...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - February 8, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Vishal Kapadia, Ju Lee Oei Source Type: research

Oxygen metabolism and oxygenation of the newborn
The premature infant is to some extent protected from hypoxia, however defense against hyperoxia is poorly developed. The optimal assessment of oxygenation is to measure oxygen delivery and extraction. At the bedside PaO2 and SpO2 are approximations of oxygenation at the tissue level. After birth asphyxia it is crucial to know whether or not to give oxygen supplementation, when, how much, and for how long. Oxygen saturation targets in the delivery room have been studied, but the optimal targets might still be unknown because factors like gender and delayed cord clamping influence saturation levels. (Source: Seminars in Fet...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - February 6, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Jannicke H. Andresen, Ola Didrik Saugstad Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - February 1, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research

Hypoxia – Reoxygenation in neonatal cardiac arrest: Results from experimental models
In this review, we summarize the results of studies that investigated the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation in cardiac arrest, including the use of different fractions of inspired oxygen, in neonatal animals. The studies were heterogenous in terms of anaesthetic regimens, and definitions of cardiac arrest and circulatory recovery. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with 100% oxygen increased oxidative stress in maturing rats. Studies in fetal/neonatal lambs and post-transitional neonatal piglets indicate no consistent differences between ventilation with 21% vs. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 31, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: A.L. Solev åg, G.M. Schmölzer, P.-Y. Cheung Source Type: research

NIRS in the fetal to neonatal transition and immediate postnatal period
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers the non-invasive continuous monitoring of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion. Cerebral regional oxygen (crSO2) measured via NIRS represents a mixed tissue saturation value, thus enabling information on the balance of cerebral oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption. Cerebral oxygenation is influenced by pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2), hemoglobin content, and cerebral blood flow. Furthermore, cerebral oxygenation is dependent on metabolic parameters, cardio circulatory parameters, perinatal- and postnatal interventions. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 29, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Bruckner Marlies, Pichler Gerhard, Urlesberger Berndt Source Type: research

Oxygen in the neonatal period: Oxidative stress, oxygen load and epigenetic changes
Preterm infants frequently require positive pressure ventilation and oxygen supplementation in the first minutes after birth. It has been shown that the amount of oxygen provided during stabilization, the oxygen load, if excessive may cause hyperoxia, and oxidative damage to DNA. Epidemiologic studies have associated supplementation with pure oxygen in the first minutes after birth with childhood cancer. Recent studies have shown that the amount of oxygen supplemented to preterm infants after birth modifies the epigenome. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 24, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Sheila Lorente-Pozo, Anna Parra-Llorca, Inmaculada Lara-Cant ón, Alvaro Solaz, José Luis García-Jiménez, Federico V. Pallardó, Máximo Vento Source Type: research

Home oxygen therapy after hospital discharge
Home oxygen therapy is increasingly prescribed for various conditions in the neonatal period, particularly for infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Due to limited evidence on indication, minimal target oxygen saturation, monitoring, application and discontinuation of home oxygen therapy clinical practice varies widely throughout the world. International guidelines provide recommendations mostly on the basis of nonsystematic clinical observations. Most relevant points for the clinical management of home oxygen therapy include a minimal target oxygen saturation of equal to or greater than 93%, the provision of a home mon...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 24, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Sabine Pirr, Corinna Peter Source Type: research

Bone metabolic disorders in premature and full term neonates: current status and future directions
Bone metabolic disorders are a unique area of research in neonatology. In the latest decade there is a great interesting concerning the consequences of prematurity and bone metabolism. Premature infants seem to be a high risk group of newborns with a great incidence to develop bone metabolic disorders. Metabolic bone disease (MBD) of prematurity is a multifactorial disorder that is observed in very low birth weight newborns. MBD of prematurity has a greater incidence in those extremely low birth weight infants. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 24, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Charalampos Dokos Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

“Oxygen in the neonatal period: oxidative stress, oxygen load and epigenetic changes.”
Preterm infants frequently require positive pressure ventilation and oxygen supplementation in the first minutes after birth. It has been shown that the amount of oxygen provided during stabilization, the oxygen load, if excessive may cause hyperoxia, and oxidative damage to DNA. Epidemiologic studies have associated supplementation with pure oxygen in the first minutes after birth with childhood cancer. Recent studies have shown that the amount of oxygen supplemented to preterm infants after birth modifies the epigenome. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 24, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Sheila Lorente-Pozo, Anna Parra-Llorca, Inmaculada Lara-Cant ón, Alvaro Solaz, José Luis García-Jiménez, Federico V. Pallardó, Máximo Vento Source Type: research

Oxygen and pulmonary vasodilation: The role of oxidative and nitrosative stress
Respiratory failure complicates up to 2% of live births and contributes significantly to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Under these conditions, supplemental oxygen is required to support oxygen delivery to the brain and other organs, and to prevent hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. However, therapeutic oxygen is also a source of reactive oxygen species that produce oxidative stress, along with multiple intracellular systems that contribute to the production of free radicals in pulmonary endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Robin H. Steinhorn, Satyan Lakshminrusimha Source Type: research

Small molecule biomarkers for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most deleterious conditions in the perinatal period and the access to small molecule biomarkers aiding accurate diagnosis and disease staging, progress monitoring, and early outcome prognosis could provide relevant advances towards the development of personalized therapies. The emergence of metabolomics, the “omics” technology enabling the holistic study of small molecules, for biomarker discovery employing different analytical platforms, animal models and study populations has drastically increased the number and diversity of small molecules proposed as candi...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ángel Sánchez-Illana, José David Piñeiro-Ramos, Julia Kuligowski Source Type: research

Introduction
Oxygen in neonates is both, friend and foe. It may be life-saving in case of (often immaturity-related) respiratory insufficiency, but at the same time may also have an extremely negative impact on critical metabolic pathways simply because the neonatal organism has not yet experienced the need to learn how to cope with the fact that oxygen levels outside the womb are more than 3 times higher than they were during fetal life. The antioxidant defense system matures only late in gestation, and hyperoxia is a metabolic situation that never happens in biology. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Maximo Vento, Christian F. Poets Source Type: research

OXIDATIVE stress biomarkers in the perinatal period: Diagnostic and prognostic VALUE
Perinatal oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the physiopathology of many pregnancy-related disorders and is largely responsible for cellular, tissue and organ damage that occur in the perinatal period especially in preterm infants, leading to the so-called “free-radicals related diseases of the newborn”. Reliable biomarkers of lipid, protein, DNA oxidation and antioxidant power in the perinatal period have been demonstrated to show specificity for the disease, to have prognostic power or to correlate with disease activity. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 22, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Serafina Perrone, Elisa Laschi, Giuseppe Buonocore Source Type: research

Oxygen saturation target ranges and alarm settings in the NICU: What have we learnt from the Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis (NeOProM)?
The Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis combined the individual participant data of 4965 extremely preterm infants. They had been randomly assigned in 5 trials to arterial oxygen saturations of 85% to 89% or 91% to 95% using modified oximeters to mask the treatment allocation. The primary outcome of death or disability did not differ significantly between the groups. Assignment to the higher target range reduced the risks of death and severe necrotizing enterocolitis but increased the risk of treated retinopathy. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 21, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Barbara Schmidt, Robin K. Whyte Source Type: research

History, epidemiology and prevalence of neonatal bone mineral metabolic disorders
The evolutionary patterns of human migration and historical pre/post-industrial revolution have changed the face of bone metabolic disease through past centuries. Cultural, religious, and lifestyle practices continue to alter nutritional recommendations for this expanding diagnosis. Likewise, modern advancements in the field of neonatology and, more specifically, aggressive nutritional management of premature infants have shaped the epidemiology of neonatal bone metabolism over the past two decades. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - January 14, 2020 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Elizabeth V. Schulz, Carol L. Wagner Source Type: research

Post-natal bone physiology
Post-natal bone development is characterized by substantial longitudinal bone growth and changes in skeletal size and shape. Bone is in a dynamic process of continuous remodeling which helps to regulate calcium homeostasis, repair micro-damage to bones from everyday stress, and to shape the skeleton during growth. Bone growth is regulated by systemic hormones and locally generated factors. Understanding their mechanisms of action enables us to obtain a better appreciation of the cellular and molecular basis of bone remodeling and could therefore be valuable in approaches to new therapies. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 27, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Rania Ali El-Farrash, Radwa Hassan Ali, Noha Mokhtar Barakat Source Type: research

Mineral and bone physiology in the foetus, preterm and full-term neonates
Mother is the major source of minerals in foetal life with placenta actively transporting against a concentration and electrochemical gradient. The foetal serum mineral concentration is thereby higher as compared to maternal values, which possibly help in its rapid accretion in developing bones and for counteracting postnatal fall in calcium levels at birth. Parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) play a major role in mineral physiology during foetal life with hormones like calcitriol, calcitonin, FGF-23 and sex steroids having minimal role. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Amanpreet Sethi, Mayank Priyadarshi, Ramesh Agarwal Source Type: research

Intermittent hypoxia and long-term neurological outcome: How are they related?
This review looks at data on potential associations between intermittent hypoxia (IH) and impaired neurodevelopment in infants and children. In extremely preterm infants ( (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Christian F. Poets Source Type: research

Current status in therapeutic interventions of neonatal bone mineral metabolic disorders
Neonatal care has significantly improved in the past decade with improved survival of preterm and sick neonates. Similarly, the field of bone and mineral disorders is continuing to accelerate with better understanding of pathophysiology and genetic basis of diseases, as well as availability of newer diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. In this extensive and rapidly expanding field, metabolic bone disease specialists are frequently called upon to translate progress into better care for neonates with bone and mineral disorders. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Amish Chinoy, M. Zulf Mughal, Raja Padidela Source Type: research

Risk factors of bone mineral metabolic disorders
Bone remodeling is a complex process which integrates different stimuli factors such as mechanical, nutritional and hormonal factors as well as cytokines and growth factors. Bone health depends on an adequate balance between all these factors. The typical bone pathology of the newborn is the metabolic bone disease of prematurity, favored by a lack of mineral accretion in the third trimester of gestation. The intrinsic defects of the bone tissue (primary osteoporosis) are usually of genetic or idiopathic origin and can affect both the term and the preterm newborn. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 19, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Alicia Montaner Ram ón Source Type: research

Intermittent hypoxia and bronchial hyperreactivity
The premature neonate is at high risk for childhood airway hyperreactivity and episodes of wheezing. Intermittent hypoxic events are frequently observed during the first weeks and months of life in these infants. Intermittent hypoxemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in extremely premature infants; including the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, reported wheezing, and use of prescription asthma medications. We review the incidence of intermittent hypoxia, their potential role in short and longer term respiratory morbidity, and the translational newborn models now being used to investigate common pathways b...
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 19, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Thomas M. Raffay, Richard J. Martin Source Type: research

Mineral and nutritional requirements of preterm infant
Preterm infants are at risk of growth failure and metabolic bone disease due to insufficient nutrient supply in postnatal life. An ample provision of protein, energy, calcium and phosphates through parenteral or/and enteral nutrition is crucial for bone growth and mineralization. Additional vitamin D supplementation improves bone mineralization and enhance intestinal absorption of minerals. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 13, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Czech-Kowalska Justyna Source Type: research

Oxygen for respiratory support of moderate and late preterm and term infants at birth: Is air best?
Oxygen has been used for newborn infant resuscitation for more than two centuries. In the last two decades, concerns about oxidative stress and injury have changed this practice. Air (FiO2 0.21) is now preferred as the starting point for respiratory support of infants 34 weeks gestation and above. These recommendations are derived from studies that were conducted on asphyxiated, term infants, recruited more than 10 years ago using strategies that are not commonly used today. The applicability of these recommendations to current practice, is uncertain. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 13, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Ju Lee Oei, Vishal Kapadia Source Type: research

Oxygen therapy in preterm infants with pulmonary hypertension
Premature neonates 30 –55 mm Hg promotes pulmonary vasodilation. Targeting saturations of 80–85% by 5 min, 85–95% by 10 min during resuscitation and 90–95% during the postnatal course are appropriate targets for routine management of preterm infants. (Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Praveen Chandrasekharan, Satyan Lakshminrusimha Source Type: research