CircRNAs and cancer: biomarkers and master regulators
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Esther Arnaiz, Carla Sole, Lorea Manterola, Leire Iparraguirre, David Otaegui, Charles H. LawrieAbstractCircular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of regulatory RNAs that despite being relatively abundant have only recently begun to be explored. There are many thousands of genes that appear capable of producing circRNAs, however the function of all but a handful remain to be determined. What is emerging about these highly conserved molecules is that they play important roles in biology and cancer biology in particular. The most ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 53Author(s): (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Special Issue “Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment”
Publication date: December 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 53Author(s): Ira Skvortsova (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Special issue: Current Vision on Target Enzymes for Cancer Therapy
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Anupam Bishayee, Mohammad Amjad Kamal (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The roles of sirtuins family in cell metabolism during tumor development
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Shunqin Zhu, Zhen Dong, Xiaoxue Ke, Jianbing Hou, Erhu Zhao, Kui Zhang, Feng Wang, Liqun Yang, Zhonghuai Xiang, Hongjuan CuiAbstractAltering energy metabolism to meet the uncontrolled proliferation and metastasis has emerged as one of the most significant hallmarks in tumors. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and regulatory actions underlying have not been fully elucidated. As a family of NAD+ dependent protein modifying enzymes, sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) have multiple catalytic functions such as deacetylase, desuccinylase...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

DNA replication licensing proteins: saints and sinners in cancer
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Muhammad Jameel Mughal, Ravikiran Mahadevappa, Hang Fai KwokAbstractDNA replication is all-or-none process in the cell, meaning, once the DNA replication begins it proceeds to completion. Hence, to achieve maximum control of DNA replication, eukaryotic cells employ a multi-subunit initiator protein complex known as “pre-replication complex or DNA replication licensing complex (DNA replication LC). This complex involves multiple proteins which are origin-recognition complex family proteins, cell division cycle–6, chro...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dietary phytochemicals in the regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and associated enzymes: A promising anticancer therapeutic approach
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Bornita Das, Sarkar Nivedita, Bishayee Anupam, Sinha DonaAbstractEpithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological phenomenon that plays a primordial role for initiation of metastasis. It renders cancer cells with increased self-renewal and tumor-initiating capabilities and exacerbated resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy. Hence, regulation of EMT stands out to be an important strategy in controlling the behavior of malignant cells. Despite the enormous amount of preclinical data on the implication of EMT in cancer ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Therapy resistance mediated by cancer stem cells
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Teresa Bernadette Steinbichler, József Dudás, Sergej Skvortsov, Ute Ganswindt, Herbert Riechelmann, Ira-Ida SkvortsovaAbstractCancer stem cells (CSC) possess abilities generally associated with embryonic or adult stem cells, especially self-renewal and differentiation. The CSC model assumes that this subpopulation of cells sustains malignant growth, which suggests a hierarchical organization of tumors in which CSCs are on top and responsible for the generation of intratumoral heterogeneity. Effective tumor therapy ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The lonely driver or the orchestra of mutations? How next generation sequencing datasets contradict the concept of single driver checkpoint mutations in solid tumours – NSCLC as a scholarly example
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Verena Schildgen, Oliver SchildgenAbstractDriver mutations are considered to be responsible for the majority of cancers and several of those mutations provide targets in order to set up personalized therapies. So far the generally accepted opinion had been that driver mutations occur as stand-alone factors, but novel sequencing technologies induced an essential rethink. Next generation sequencing approaches have shown that double, triple or multiple concurrent mutations could occur within the same tumour and may by interaction i...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

the Role of Sirtuins Family in Cell Metabolism during Tumor Development
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Shunqin Zhu, Zhen Dong, Xiaoxue Ke, Jianbing Hou, Erhu Zhao, Kui Zhang, Feng Wang, Liqun Yang, Zhonghuai Xiang, Hongjuan CuiAbstractAltering energy metabolism to meet the uncontrolled proliferation and metastasis has emerged as one of the most significant hallmarks in tumors. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and regulatory actions underlying has not been fully elucidated. As a family of NAD+ dependent protein modifying enzyme, sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) have multiple catalytic functions such as deacetylase, desuccinylase, ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Establishing a role for environmental toxicant exposure induced epigenetic remodeling in malignant transformation
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Kristen M. Humphrey, Sumali Pandey, Jeffery Martin, Tamara Hagoel, Anne Grand’Maison, Joyce E. OhmAbstractHumans are exposed to a wide variety of environmental exposures throughout their lifespan. These include both naturally occurring toxins and chemical toxicants like pesticides, herbicides, and industrial chemicals, many of which have been implicated as possible contributors to human disease susceptibility [[1], [2], [3]]. We, and others, have hypothesized that environmental exposures may cause adaptive epigenetic chang...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The multiverse nature of epithelial to mesenchymal transition
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Pasquale Simeone, Marco Trerotola, Julien Franck, Cardon Tristan, Marco Marchisio, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet, Michele Maffia, Daniele VergaraAbstractThe epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) program is defined as a cellular transition from an epithelial to a mesenchymal state. This process occurs to provide the cell with new phenotypic assets and new skills to perform complex processes. EMT is regulated at multilayer levels, including transcriptional control of gene expression, regulation of RNA splicing, and translatio...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

KDM5B is a master regulator of the H3K4-methylome in stem cells, development and cancer
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Besa Xhabija, Benjamin L. KidderAbstractEpigenetic regulation of chromatin plays a critical role in controlling stem cell function and tumorigenesis. The histone lysine demethylase, KDM5B, which catalyzes the demethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4), is important for embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, and is a critical regulator of the H3K4-methylome during early mouse embryonic pre-implantation stage development. KDM5B is also overexpressed, amplified, or mutated in many cancer types. In cancer cells, KDM5B regulates e...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - November 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumour Microenvironment and Metabolic Plasticity in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: Perspectives on Metabolic and Immune Regulatory Signatures in Chemoresistant Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Nuzhat Ahmed, Ruth Escalona, Dilys Leung, Emily Chan, George KannourakisAbstractCancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of tumour cells, which are responsible to drive tumour growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. It has recently been proposed that enhanced glucose metabolism and immune evasion by tumour cells are linked, and are modulated by the changing tumour microenvironment (TME) that creates a competition for nutrient consumption between tumour and different sub-types of cells attracted to the TME. To facilitate e...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Human Endogenous Retroviruses role in cancer cell stemness
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Claudia Matteucci, Emanuela Balestrieri, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Paola Sinibaldi-VallebonaAbstractCancer incidence and mortality, metastasis, drug resistance and recurrence are still the critical issues of oncological diseases. In this scenario, increasing scientific evidences demonstrate that the activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is involved in the aggressiveness of tumors such as melanoma, breast, germ cell, renal, ovarian, liver and haematological cancers. In their dynamic regulation, HERVs have also proved to b...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pancreatic cancer—Trials and troubles
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Bhaskar Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya Lakkakula, Batoul Farran, Saikrishna Lakkakula, Sujatha Peela, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Pallaval Veera Bramhachari, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Madhu Sudhana Saddala, Ganji Purnachandra NagarajuAbstractPancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive carcinoma and the fourth cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. Although surgery is the most effective therapeutic option for PC, the management of unresectable, locally advanced disease is highly challenging. Our improved understanding of pancreatic tumor b...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of cancer stem cells in the modulation of anti-tumor immune responses
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Cristina Maccalli, Kakil Ibrahim Rasul, Mamoun Elawad, Soldano FerroneAbstractTumor lesions comprise multiple subpopulations of cells including those endowed with “stemness” properties. The latter cells are responsible of tumor initiation, metastasis formation, resistance to conventional therapies and disease recurrence. These relatively rare cells denominated cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer initiating cells (CICs) are defined based on self-renewing, multipotency and tumorigenicity. These cells through their immu...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of cancer stem cells in the modulation of anti-tumor immune responses”
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Cristina Maccalli, Kakil Ibrahim Rasul, Mamoun Elawad, Soldano FerroneAbstractTumor lesions comprise multiple subpopulations of cells including those endowed with “stemness” properties. The latter cells are responsible of tumor initiation, metastasis formation, resistance to conventional therapies and disease recurrence. These relatively rare cells denominated cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer initiating cells (CICs) are defined based on self-renewing, multipotency and tumorigenicity. These cells through their immu...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Deciphering the metabolic role of AMPK in cancer multi-drug resistance
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Wen Tan, Zhangfeng Zhong, Randy P. Carney, Yongfan Men, Jiannan Li, Tingrui Pan, Yitao WangAbstractMulti-drug resistance (MDR) is a curious bottleneck in cancer research and chemotherapy, whereby some cells rapidly adapt to the tumor microenvironment via a myriad of heterogeneous metabolic activities. Despite being a major impediment to treatment, there is a silver lining: control over metabolic regulation could be an effective approach to overcome or correct resistance pathways. In this critical review, we comprehensively and ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of glioblastoma malignancy: implications in resistance and therapeutic strategies
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Joana Balça-Silva, Diana Matias, Anália do Carmo, Ana Bela Sarmento-Ribeiro, Maria Celeste Lopes, Vivaldo Moura-NetoAbstractGlioblastoma (GBM) is the more frequent and malignant brain tumour. In spite of all efforts, the median overall survival of GBM patients remains approximately 15 months under therapy.The molecular biology underlying GBM is complex, which highlight the need of specific treatment strategies. In fact, the deregulation of several molecular signalling pathways, the existence of the blood-brain bar...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The special stemness functions of Tbx3 in stem cells and cancer development
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Liang Dong, Xiaoming Lyu, Oluwasijibomi Damola Faleti, Ming-Liang HeAbstractThe T-box factors belong to an ancient protein family, which comprises a cluster of evolutionarily-conserved transcription factors that regulate gene expression and that are crucial to embryonic development. T-box transcription factor 3 (Tbx3) is a member of this family, is expressed in some tissues, and is a key regulator in many critical organs, including the heart, mammary gland, and limbs. Overexpression of Tbx3 is associated with a number of cancer...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Parallels between artificial reprogramming and the biogenesis of cancer stem cells: involvement of lncRNAs
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Theodore P. RasmussenAbstractCellular identity is established and maintained by the interplay of cell type-specific transcription factors and epigenetic regulation of the genome. During development in vivo and differentiation in vitro, transitions from one cell type to the next are triggered by cell signaling events culminating in modifications of chromatin that render genes accessible or inaccessible to the transcriptional apparatus. In recent years it has become apparent that cellular identity is plastic, and technological re...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Metabolism and Epigenetics of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): M. Perusina Lanfranca, J.K. Thompson, F. Bednar, C. Halbrook, C. Lyssiotis, B. Levi, T.L. Frankel (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial Board & Publication Information
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 1Author(s): (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phosphatidylserine: A cancer cell targeting biomarker
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 1Author(s): Bhupender Sharma, Shamsher S. KanwarAbstractCancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Many prominent cancer-associated molecules have been identified over the recent years which include EGFR, CD44, TGFbRII, HER2, miR-497, NMP22, BTA, Fibrin/FDP etc. These biomarkers are often used for screening, detection, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction and monitoring of cancer development. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an essential component in all human cells which is present on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. The oxi...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Optomechanical devices for deep plasma cancer proteomics
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 1Author(s): Priscila M. Kosaka, Montserrat Calleja, Javier TamayoAbstractMost of the cancer deaths could be avoided by early detection of the tumor when it is confined to its primary site and it has not metastasized. To this aim, one of the most promising strategies is the discovery and detection of protein biomarkers shed by the young tumor to the bloodstream. Proteomic technologies, mainly mass spectrometry and multiplexed immunoassays, have rapidly developed during last years with improved limits of detection and multiplexing capability. U...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer: Past, present and future
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 1Author(s): Andrea Nicolini, Paola Ferrari, Michael J. DuffyAbstractFollowing a diagnosis of breast cancer, the most immediate challenges in patient management are the determination of prognosis and identification of the most appropriate adjuvant systemic therapy. Determining prognosis can best be addressed with a combination of traditional clinicopathological prognostic factors, biomarkers such as HER2/neu and specific multigene genes tests. Amongst the best validated prognostic multigene tests are uPA/PAI1, Oncotype DX and MammaPrint. Oncot...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

FoxM1: Repurposing an oncogene as a biomarker
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 1Author(s): Deeptashree Nandi, Pradeep Singh Cheema, Neha Jaiswal, Alo NagAbstractThe past few decades have witnessed a tremendous progress in understanding the biology of cancer, which has led to more comprehensive approaches for global gene expression profiling and genome-wide analysis. This has helped to determine more sophisticated prognostic and predictive signature markers for the prompt diagnosis and precise screening of cancer patients. In the search for novel biomarkers, there has been increased interest in FoxM1, an extensively stud...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current and emerging biomarkers in tumors of the central nervous system: Possible diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 1Author(s): Ishaq N. Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Deema Hussein, Kulvinder S. SainiAbstractRecent investments in research associated with the discovery of specific tumor biomarkers important for efficient diagnosis and prognosis are beginning to bear fruit. Key biomarkers could potentially outweigh traditional radiological or pathological methods by enabling specificity of early detection, when coupled with tumor molecular profiling and clinical associations. Only few biomarkers are approved by regulatory authorities for Central Nervous System Tumors ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial Board & Publication Information
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 2Author(s): (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Biomarkers Task Force recommendations review
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 2Author(s): Lisa H. ButterfieldAbstractThe clinical successes in cancer immunotherapy have led to a critical need for biomarkers in cancer immunotherapy. It is of the utmost importance to know who is most likely to benefit from these therapies (predictive biomarkers) but also who is starting to respond (prognostic biomarkers) and how the therapy functions in order to make rational combination choices (mechanism of action biomarkers). The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) Biomarkers Task Force addressed the state of the art and made a...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Update on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer, including recommendations to assess TILs in residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy and in carcinoma in situ: A report of the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group on Breast Cancer
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 2Author(s): Maria Vittoria Dieci, Nina Radosevic-Robin, Susan Fineberg, Gert van den Eynden, Nils Ternes, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Giancarlo Pruneri, Timothy M. D’Alfonso, Sandra Demaria, Carlos Castaneda, Joselyn Sanchez, Sunil Badve, Stefan Michiels, Veerle Bossuyt, Federico Rojo, Baljit Singh, Torsten Nielsen, Giuseppe Viale, Seong-Rim Kim, Stephen HewittAbstractMorphological evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer is gaining momentum as evidence strengthens the clinical relevance of this immunological ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Emerging targets in cancer immunotherapy
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 2Author(s): Samantha Burugu, Amanda R. Dancsok, Torsten O. NielsenAbstractThe first generation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1) targeted natural immune homeostasis pathways, co-opted by cancers, to drive anti-tumor immune responses. These agents led to unprecedented results in patients with previously incurable metastatic disease and may become first-line therapies for some advanced cancers. However, these agents are efficacious in only a minority of patients. Newer strategies are becoming available that targe...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Breast cancer genomics and immuno-oncological markers to guide immune therapies
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 2Author(s): D. Hammerl, M. Smid, A.M. Timmermans, S. Sleijfer, J.W.M. Martens, R. DebetsAbstractThere is an increasing awareness of the importance of tumor – immune cell interactions to the evolution and therapy responses of breast cancer (BC). Not surprisingly, numerous studies are currently assessing the clinical value of immune modulation for BC patients. However, till now durable clinical responses are only rarely observed. It is important to realize that BC is a heterogeneous disease comprising several histological and molecular su...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Emerging biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy in melanoma
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 2Author(s): Margaret L. Axelrod, Douglas B. Johnson, Justin M. BalkoAbstractThe treatment and prognosis of metastatic melanoma has changed substantially since the advent of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), agents that enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Despite the success of these agents, clinically actionable biomarkers to aid patient and regimen selection are lacking. Herein, we summarize and review the evidence for candidate biomarkers of response to ICIs in melanoma. Many of these candidates can be examined as parts of a kno...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Genito-urinary genomics and emerging biomarkers for immunomodulatory cancer treatment
Publication date: October 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 52, Part 2Author(s): Thomas Gevaert, Rodolfo Montironi, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Geert Van Leenders, Yves Allory, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Claessens, Mark Kockx, Murat Akand, Steven Joniau, George Netto, Louis LibbrechtAbstractImmunotherapy is gradually becoming a key factor in the therapeutic algorithm for patients with genito-urinary (GU) cancers at different stages of disease. Robust and reliable biomarkers are crucial for an appropriate inclusion of patients in clinical trials and for a reliable patient selection for treatments with immunomodulatory dr...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

An epigenetic perspective on tumorigenesis: Loss of cell identity, enhancer switching, and NamiRNA network
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ying Liang, Peng Xu, Qingping Zou, Huaibing Luo, Wenqiang YuAbstractVarious tumorigenic theories have been proposed in the past century, which contribute to the prevention and treatment of cancer clinically. However, the underlying mechanisms of the initiation of cancer, drug resistance, neoplasm relapse, and metastasis are still challenging to be panoramically addressed. Based on the abundant evidence provided by others and us, we postulate that Tumor Initiated by Loss of Cell Identity (LOCI), which is an inevitable initiating ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

An epigenetic perspective on tumorigenesis: Loss of cell identity, enhancer switching, and NamiRNA network
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ying Liang, Peng Xu, Qingping Zou, Huaibing Luo, Wenqiang YuAbstractVarious tumorigenic theories have been proposed in the past century, which contribute to the prevention and treatment of cancer clinically. However, the underlying mechanisms of the initiation of cancer, drug resistance, neoplasm relapse, and metastasis are still challenging to be panoramically addressed. Based on the abundant evidence provided by others and us, we postulate that Tumor Initiated by Loss of Cell Identity (LOCI), which is an inevitable initiating...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

New Developments in Mechanisms of Prostate Cancer Progression
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Nicholas Howard, Marco Clementino, Donghern Kim, Lei Wang, Angela Verma, Xianglin Shi, Zhuo Zhang, Robert S. DiPaolaAbstractProstate cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in men. The etiology of prostate cancer development and the mechanisms underlying androgen-independent progression remains to be further investigated. There are many known targets for prostate cancer therapy including the androgen receptor (AR) axis, but resistance eventually develops in advanced disease suggesting the need to better understand mechanism...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epigenetic Modulation of Metabolism in Glioblastoma
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Zhen Dong, Hongjuan CuiAbstractEpigenetic and metabolic alterations in cancer cells are highly associated. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a complicated pathological process with dysregulated methylation and histone modifications. Metabolic modulation of epigenetics in gliomas was previously summarized. However, epigenetic modulation is also important in metabolic decision. Recently, there has been a tremendous increase in understanding of DNA methylation, chromatin modulation, and non-coding RNAs in the regulation of cell meta...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting the Paracrine Hormone-Dependent Guanylate cyclase/cGMP/Phosphodiesterases Signaling Pathway for Colorectal Cancer Prevention
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): N.S. Yarla, H. Gali, G. Pathuri, S. Smriti, V. Madka, J. Panneerselvam, G. Kumar, M Farooqui, C.V. RaoAbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related-deaths. The risk of development of CRC is complex and multifactorial, and includes disruption of homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial layer mediated though dysregulations of tumor suppressing/promoting signaling pathways. Guanylate cyclase 2C (GUCY2C), a membrane-bound guanylate cyclase receptor, is present in the apical membranes of intestinal ep...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - September 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer-testis antigens: unique cancer stem cell biomarkers and targets for cancer therapy
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Olga GordeevaAbstractCancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are considered as unique and promising cancer biomarkers and targets for cancer therapy. CTAs are multifunctional protein group with specific expression patterns in normal embryonic and adult cells and various types of cancer cells. CTAs are involved in regulating of the basic cellular processes during development, stem cell differentiation and carcinogenesis though the biological roles and cell functions of CTA families remain largely unclear. Analysis of CTA expression patterns ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oxidative stress-modulating drugs have preferential anticancer effects - involving the regulation of apoptosis, DNA damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, metabolism, and migration
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Jen-Yang Tang, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Fu Ou-Yang, Ming-Feng Hou, Hurng-Wern Huang, Hui-Ru Wang, Kun-Tzu Li, Sundas Fayyaz, Chih-Wen Shu, Hsueh-Wei ChangAbstractTo achieve preferential effects against cancer cells but less damage to normal cells is one of the main challenges of cancer research. In this review, we explore the roles and relationships of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis, DNA damage, ER stress, autophagy, metabolism, and migration of ROS-modulating anticancer drugs. Understanding preferential anticancer effects in mor...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells: A State or an Entity?
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Patrick C. Hermann, Bruno SainzAbstractPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common type of pancreatic cancer, has a median overall survival of 6-12 months and a 5-year survival of less than 7%. While PDAC currently represents the 4th most frequent cause of death due to cancer worldwide, it is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death by 2030. These alarming statistics are primarily due to the inherent chemoresistant and metastatic nature of this tumor, and the existence of a subpopulation of ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current understanding and clinical utility of miRNAs regulation of colon cancer stem cells
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Mariangela De Robertis, Maria Luana Poeta, Emanuela Signori, Vito Michele FazioAbstractCancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal tumorigenesis are suggested to be responsible for initiation, development and propagation of colorectal cancer (CRC) and have been extensively characterized by the expression of phenotypic determinants, such as surface or intracellular proteins.The generation of CSCs is likely due to a dysregulation of the signaling pathways that principally control self-renewal and pluripotency in normal intestinal stem ce...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer cell plasticity: Impact on tumor progression and therapy response
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Victoria da Silva-Diz, Laura Lorenzo-Sanz, Adrià Bernat-Peguera, Marta Lopez-Cerda, Purificación MuñozAbstractMost tumors exhibit intra-tumor heterogeneity, which is associated with disease progression and an impaired response to therapy. Cancer cell plasticity has been proposed as being an important mechanism that, along with genetic and epigenetic alterations, promotes cancer cell diversity and contributes to intra-tumor heterogeneity. Plasticity endows cancer cells with the capacity to shift dynamically bet...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Some Chinks in RAS Armor
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Asfar S. Azmi (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

In the beginning, there was chaos: A perspective on the development of immuno-oncological biomarkers
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Roberto Salgado, Lyndsay Harris, Ira Skvortsova, Carsten Denkert, Sherene Loi (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epigenetics in myelodysplastic syndromes
Publication date: August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 51Author(s): Michael Heuser, Haiyang Yun, Felicitas TholAbstractEpigenetic regulators are the largest group of genes mutated in MDS patients. Most mutated genes belong to one of three groups of genes with normal functions in DNA methylation, in H3K27 methylation/acetylation or in H3K4 methylation. Mutations in the majority of epigenetic regulators disrupt their normal function and induce a loss-of-function phenotype. The transcriptional consequences are often failure to repress differentiation programs and upregulation of self-renewal pathways. However...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Charting the dynamic epigenome during B-cell development
Publication date: August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 51Author(s): Jose I. Martin-Subero, Christopher C. OakesAbstractThe epigenetic landscape undergoes a widespread modulation during embryonic development and cell differentiation. Within the hematopoietic system, B cells are perhaps the cell lineage with a more dynamic DNA methylome during their maturation process, which involves approximately one third of all the CpG sites of the genome. Although each B-cell maturation step displays its own DNA methylation fingerprint, the DNA methylome is more extensively modified in particular maturation transitions. ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - August 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research