Immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory marine compounds against cancer
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Cristina Florean, Mario Dicato, Marc DiederichAbstractThe recent advances in cancer immunotherapy confirm the crucial role of the immune system in cancer progression and treatment. Chronic inflammation and reduced immune surveillance are both features of the tumor microenvironment. Strategies aimed at reverting pro-tumor inflammation and stimulating the antitumor immune components are being actively searched, and the anticancer effects of many candidate drugs have been linked to their ability to modulate the immune system. Marin...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Plant lectins and their usage in preparing targeted nanovaccines for cancer immunotherapy
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Bhavika Gupta, Daizy Sadaria, Vaishnavi U. Warrier, Anuradha Kirtonia, Ravi Kant, Amit Awasthi, Prakash Baligar, Jayanta K. Pal, Eiji Yuba, Gautam Sethi, Manoj Garg, Rajesh Kumar GuptaAbstractPlant lectins, a natural source of glycans with a therapeutic potential may lead to the discovery of new targeted therapies. Glycans extracted from plant lectins are known to act as ligands for C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) that are primarily present on immune cells. Plant-derived glycosylated lectins offer diversity in their N-linked olig...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

PROTACs: a novel strategy for cancer therapy
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Jing Liu, Jia Ma, Yi Liu, Jun Xia, Yuyun Li, Z Peter Wang, Wenyi WeiAbstractChemotherapeutic strategy has been widely used for treating malignance by targeting irregular expressed or mutant proteins with small molecular inhibitors (SMIs) or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, most intracellular proteins lack of active sites or antigens where SMIs or mAbs bind with, and are called as non-druggable targets for a long time. From the first year of this century, PROteolysis-TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) has emerged to be a promisin...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 12, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone: from Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition to Breast Osteoblast-Like Cells
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Manuel Scimeca, Donata Trivigno, Rita Bonfiglio, Sara Ciuffa, Nicoletta Urbano, Orazio Schillaci, Elena BonannoAbstractIn this review we highlighted the newest aspects concerning the physiopathology of breast cancer metastatization into the bone including: a) in situ biomarkers of breast cancer metastatic diseases, b) biological processes related to the origin of metastatic cells (epithelial to mesenchymal transition), c) the nature and the possible role of Breast Osteoblast-Like Cells in the formation of bone lesions and d) the ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Turning liabilities into opportunities: Off-target based drug repurposing in cancer
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Vinayak Palve, Yi Liao, Lily L. Remsing Rix, Uwe RixAbstractTargeted drugs and precision medicine have transformed the landscape of cancer therapy and significantly improved patient outcomes in many cases. However, as therapies are becoming more and more tailored to smaller patient populations and acquired resistance is limiting the duration of clinical responses, there is an ever increasing demand for new drugs, which is not easily met considering steadily rising drug attrition rates and development costs. Considering these chal...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms linking environmental toxicants to cancer development: Significance for protective interventions with polyphenols
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ricardo Lagoa, Dorinda Marques-da-Silva, Mário Diniz, Maria Daglia, Anupam BishayeeABSTRACTHuman exposure to environmental toxicants with diverse mechanisms of action is a growing concern. In addition to well-recognized carcinogens, various chemicals in environmental and occupational settings have been suggested to impact health, increasing susceptibility to cancer by inducing genetic and epigenetic changes. Accordingly, in this review, we have discussed recent insights into the pathological mechanisms of these chemicals, ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Drug repurposing for targeting cyclic nucleotide transporters in acute leukemias - a missed opportunity
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Dominique R. Perez, Larry A. Sklar, Alexandre Chigaev, Ksenia Matlawska-WasowskaAbstractWhile current treatment regimens for acute leukemia can dramatically improve patient survival, there remains room for improvement. Due to its roles in cell differentiation, cell survival, and apoptotic signaling, modulation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway has provided a meaningful target in hematological malignancies. Several studies have demonstrated that gene expression profiles associated with increased pro-survival cAMP activity or downre...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Structure-based Drug repositioning: Potential and Limits
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Melissa F. Adasme, Daniele Parisi, Anastasia Sveshnikova, Michael SchroederAbstractDrug repositioning, the assignment of new therapeutic purposes to known drugs, is an established strategy with many repurposed drugs on the market and many more at experimental stage. We review three use cases, a herpes drug with benefits in cancer, a cancer drug with potential in autoimmune disease, and a selective and an unspecific drug binding the same target (GPCR). We explore these use cases from a structural point of view focusing on a deep u...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of the COP1 protein in cancer development and therapy
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Yizuo Song, Yi Liu, Shuya Pan, Shangdan Xie, Zhi-wei Wang, Xueqiong ZhuAbstractCOP1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been demonstrated to play a vital role in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair. Accumulated evidence has revealed that COP1 is involved in carcinogenesis via targeting its substrates, including p53, c-Jun, ETS, β-catenin, STAT3, MTA1, p27, 14-3-3σ, and C/EBPα, for ubiquitination and degradation. COP1 can play tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles in human malignancies, urging ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of frankincense: Targets, treatments and toxicities
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Thomas Efferth, Franz OeschAbstractThe oleogum resins of Boswellia species known as frankincense have been used for ages in traditional medicine in India, China and the Arabian world independent of its use for cultural and religious rituals in Europe. During the past two decades, scientific investigations provided mounting evidence for the therapeutic potential of frankincense. We conducted a systematic review on the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Boswellia species and their chemical ingredients (e.g. 3-O-acetyl-...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Special issue: Resistance mechanisms to cancer immunotherapy
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Eyad Elkord (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting cancer cells with nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics: Current status and future perspectives
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Eunus S. Ali, Shazid Md. Sharker, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Ishaq N. Khan, Subrata Shaw, Md. Atiqur Rahman, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Manik Chandra Shill, Shahnawaz Rehman, Niranjan Das, Saheem Ahmad, Jamil A. Shilpi, Swati Tripathi, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, Mohammad S. MubarakAbstractNanotechnology is reshaping health care strategies and is expected to exert a tremendous impact in the coming years offering better healthcare facilities. It has led to not only therapeutic drug delivery feasibility but also to diagnostics. Materials in the...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Skp2 Pathway: A Critical Target for Cancer Therapy
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Zhen Cai, Asad Moten, Danni Peng, Che-Chia Hsu, Bo-Syong Pan, Rajesh Kumar Manne, Hong-yu Li, Hui-Kuan LinAbstractStrictly regulated protein degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is essential for various cellular processes whose dysregulation is linked to serious diseases including cancer. Skp2, a well characterized component of Skp2-SCF E3 ligase complex, is able to conjugate both K48-linked ubiquitin chains and K63-linked ubiquitin chains on its diverse substrates, inducing proteasome mediated proteolysis or modulati...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cyclin D Degradation by E3 Ligases in Cancer Progression and Treatment
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Shuo Qie, J. Alan DiehlAbstractD cyclins include three isoforms: D1, D2, and D3. D cyclins heterodimerize with cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) to form kinase complexes that can phosphorylate and inactivate Rb. Inactivation of Rb triggers the activation of E2F transcription factors, which in turn regulate expression of genes whose products drive cell cycle progression. Because D-type cyclins function as mitogenic sensors that link growth factor signaling directly with G1 phase progression, it is not surprising that D cyclin a...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Molecular Therapeutics for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Nikita Pozdeyev, Madison M. Rose, Daniel W. Bowles, Rebecca E. SchweppeAbstractAnaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) represents one of the most lethal human cancers and although this tumor type is rare, ATC accounts for the majority of deaths from thyroid cancer. Due to the rarity of ATC, a comprehensive genomic characterization of this tumor type has been challenging, and thus the development of new therapies has been lacking. To date, there is only one mutation-driven targeted therapy for BRAF-mutant ATC. Recent genomic studies have ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumor hypermetabolism confers resistance to immunotherapy
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Arthur Liu, Michael A. CurranAbstractAdvances in our understanding of tumor immune biology and development of cancer immunotherapies have led to improved outcomes for patients that suffer from aggressive cancers such as metastatic melanoma. Despite these advances, a significant proportion of patients still fail to benefit, and as a result, attention has shifted to understanding how cancer cells escape immune destruction. Of particular interest is the metabolic landscape of the tumor microenvironment, as recent studies have demons...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

99mTC-Sestamibi Breast Imaging: Current Status, New ideas and Future Perspectives
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Nicoletta Urbano, Manuel Scimeca, Virginia Tancredi, Elena Bonanno, Orazio SchillaciAbstractHere we proposed the most recent innovations in the use of Breast Specific Gamma Imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi for the management of breast cancer patients. To this end, we reported the recent discoveries concerning: a) the implementation of both instrumental devices and software, b) the biological mechanisms involved in the 99mTc-sestamibi uptake in breast cancer cells, c) the evaluation of Breast Specific Gamma Imaging with 99mTc-sestamib...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Repurposing Drugs in Oncology: From candidate selection to clinical adoption
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Pan Pantziarka, Ciska Verbaanderd, Isabelle Huys, Gauthier Bouche, Lydie Meheus (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Emergence in protein derived nanomedicine as anticancer therapeutics: More than a tour de force
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Zhenchang Wang, Kangkang Zhi, Zhongyang Ding, Yi Sun, Shuang Li, Manyuan Li, Kefeng Pu, Jun ZouAbstractCancer has thwarted as a major health problem affecting the global population. With an alarming increase in the patient population suffering from diverse varieties of cancers, the global demographic data predicts sharp escalation in the number of cancer patients. This can be expected to reach 420 million cases by 2025. Among the diverse types of cancers, the most frequently diagnosed cancers are the breast, colorectal, prostate ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Nanoparticles guided drug delivery and imaging in gastric cancer
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju, Gowru Srivani, Begum Dariya, Gayathri Chalikonda, Batoul Farran, Santosh Kumar Behera, Afroz Alam, Mohammad Amjad KamalAbstractGastric cancer represents a deadly malignancy worldwide, yet current therapeutic regimens remain ineffective. Nanoparticle (NP) -based solutions could allow the design of novel therapeutic methods to eliminate this fatal disease. NPs typically carry out a significant role in multifunctional, multimodal imaging, and drug delivery carriers. In the recent decade, they have emerge...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Overcoming immunotherapeutic resistance by targeting the cancer inflammation cycle
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Max M. Wattenberg, Gregory L. BeattyAbstractInflammation is a hallmark of cancer and supports tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis, but also inhibits T cell immunosurveillance and the efficacy of immunotherapy. The biology of cancer inflammation is defined by a cycle of distinct immunological steps that begins during disease conception with the release of inflammatory soluble factors. These factors communicate with host organs to trigger bone marrow mobilization of myeloid cells, trafficking of myeloid cells to the tumor, ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

SR-BI as a target of natural products and its significance in cancer
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Dongdong Wang, Jiansheng Huang, Ting Gui, Yaxin Yang, Tingting Feng, Nikolay T. Tzvetkov, Tao Xu, Zhibo Gai, Ying Zhou, Jingjie Zhang, Atanas G. AtanasovAbstractScavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) protein is an integral membrane glycoprotein. SR-BI is emerging as a multifunctional protein, which regulates autophagy, efferocytosis, cell survival and inflammation. It is well known that SR-BI plays a critical role in lipoprotein metabolism by mediating cholesteryl esters selective uptake and the bi-directional flux of free cho...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 12, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Integrating tumor hypoxic stress in novel and more adaptable strategies for cancer immunotherapy
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Raefa Abou Khouzam, Hassan Venkatesh Goutham, Rania Faouzi Zaarour, Ali N Chamseddine, Amirtharaj Francis, Stéphanie Buart, Stéphane Terry, Salem ChouaibAbstractImmunotherapy is poised to become an increasingly utilized therapy in the treatment of cancer. However, several abnormalities in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that can thwart the efficacy of immunotherapies have been established. Microenvironmental hypoxia is a determining factor in shaping aggressiveness, metastatic potential and treatment resistance of s...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oncogenic signaling pathways associated with immune evasion and resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Yoshie Kobayashi, Seung-Oe Lim, Hirohito YamaguchiAbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are novel class of anti-cancer drugs that exhibit significant therapeutic effects even in patients with advanced-stage cancer. However, the efficacy of ICIs is limited due to resistance. Therefore, appropriate biomarkers to select patients who are likely to respond to these drugs as well as combination therapy to overcome the resistance are urgently necessary. Cancer is caused by various genetic alterations that lead to abnormalities in...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Translational Genomics of Malignant Rhabdoid Tumours: Current Impact and Future Possibilities
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Martina A Finetti, Yura Grabovska, Simon Bailey, Daniel WilliamsonAbstractMalignant Rhabdoid Tumours (MRT) are the quintessential example of an epigenetic cancer. Mutation of a single gene, SMARCB1 or more rarely SMARCA4, is capable of causing one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers of early childhood and infancy. SMARCB1 encodes a core subunit of the SWI/SNF complex and its mutation evokes genome-wide downstream effects which may be counteracted therapeutically. Here we review and discuss the use of translational genomics i...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Roles of microbiota in response to cancer immunotherapy
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Kentaro InamuraAbstractImmunotherapy, which shows great promise for treating patients with metastatic malignancies, has dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of cancer, particularly subsequent to the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, the responses to immunotherapy are heterogeneous and often transient. More problematic is that a high proportion of patients with cancer are resistant to such therapy. Much effort has been expended to identify reliable biomarkers that accurately predict clinical responses to...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Exposing Hidden Targets: Combining epigenetic and immunotherapy to overcome cancer resistance
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Kelly Olino, Tristen Park, Ntia AhujaAbstractAdvances in immunotherapy, most notably antibodies targeting the inhibitory immune receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4/CD152), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1/CD279) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1/B7H1/CD274) have become effective standard therapies in advanced malignancies including melanoma,1–4 merkel cell carcinoma5, urological cancers6–8, non-small cell lung cancer9–11, mis-match repair (MMR) deficient tumors12, and Hodgkin lymphoma...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The functions and regulation of Smurfs in cancers
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Lin Fu, Chun-Ping Cui, Xueli Zhang, Lingqiang ZhangAbstractSmad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) and Smurf2 are HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases, and both Smurfs were initially identified to regulate Smad protein stability in the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway. In recent years, Smurfs have exhibited E3 ligase-dependent and -independent activities in various kinds of cells. Smurfs act as either potent tumor promoters or tumor suppressors in different tumors by regulating biological processes, including metastasis, apop...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Machine and Deep Learning Approaches for Cancer Drug Repurposing
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Naiem T. Issa, Vasileios Stathias, Stephan Schürer, Sivanesan DakshanamurthyAbstractKnowledge of the underpinnings of cancer initiation, progression and metastasis has increased exponentially in recent years. Advanced “omics” coupled with machine learning and artificial intelligence (deep learning) methods have helped elucidate targets and pathways critical to those processes that may be amenable to pharmacologic modulation. However, the current anti-cancer therapeutic armamentarium continues to lag behind. As the...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Antibody–drug conjugates for lung cancer in the era of personalized oncology
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Biagio Ricciuti, Giuseppe Lamberti, Elisa Andrini, Carlo Genova, Andrea De Giglio, Vanessa Bianconi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Rita Chiari, Matteo PirroAbstractWith 9.6 million deaths in 2018, cancer represents one of the most common causes of death, both in men and women. Despite recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in cancer development and progression, treatment options are still limited. Limitations of traditional chemotherapy include the lack of selectivity and the unfavorable safety profile. Th...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The functions and regulations of Smurfs in cancers
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Lin Fu, Chun-Ping Cui, Xueli Zhang, Lingqiang ZhangAbstractSmad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) and Smurf2 are HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases, and both Smurfs were initially identified to regulate Smad protein stability in the TGF-β/BMP signaling pathway. In recent years, Smurfs have exhibited E3 ligase-dependent and -independent activities in various kinds of cells. Smurfs act as either potent tumor promoters or tumor suppressors in different tumors by regulating biological processes, including metastasis, apop...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Nanotechnology, in silico and endocrine-based strategy for delivering paclitaxel and miRNA: Prospects for the therapeutic management of breast cancer
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Mohammad Azam Ansari, Muthu Thiruvengadam, Zeba Farooqui, Govindaswamy Rajakumar, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Mohammad A. Alzohairy, Ahmad Almatroudi, Mohammad N. Alomary, Ill-Min Chung, Ebtesam Abdullah Al-SuhaimiAbstractBreast cancer is one of the most prevalent and reoccurring cancers and the second most common reason of death in women. Despite advancements in therapeutic strategies for breast cancer, early tumor recurrence and metastasis in patients indicate resistance to chemotherapeutic medicines, such as paclitaxel due to ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Somatic copy number aberrations in metastatic patients: The promise of liquid biopsies
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Shawn Baldacchino, Godfrey GrechAbstractCancer metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The metastatic process involves measurable cellular changes that confer migratory potential, proliferative advantage and the ability to colonise a distinct microenvironment. Accumulation of aberrations and clonal evolution add complexity to patient management and the assessment of the therapeutic sensitivity profile of malignancies. Liquid biopsy presents a repeatable and minimally invasive assessment tool to detect early ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Roles of autophagy in breast cancer treatment: target, bystander or benefactor
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Liliya Tyutyunyk-Massey, David A. GewirtzAbstractDespite the availability of largely effective treatments for breast cancer, such as the combination of aromatase inhibitors or anti-estrogens with cdk4/6 inhibitors for estrogen receptor positive/Her 2 negative breast cancer, breast cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This is due, in large part, to a very limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the failure of conventional therapies and disease recurrence after tumor dormancy.One cellular proce...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The tumor organismal environment: role in tumor development and cancer immunotherapy
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Lothar C. Dieterich, Andreas BikfalviAbstractTumor immunotherapy has resulted in dramatic effects in some cancer types, including curing of previously untreatable patients. However, the response rates are typically very heterogenous, with some patients showing dramatic responses whereas others do not or only barely respond. Consequently, there has been an ever-increasing research effort to better understand the factors that govern immunotherapy responsiveness and efficiency in order to identify predictive biomarkers and novel th...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phyotochemical candidates repurposing for cancer therapy and their molecular mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ji Hoon Jung, Jisung Hwang, Ju-Ha Kim, Deok Yong Shim, Eunji Im, Ji Eon Park, Woon Yi Park, Bum-Sang Shim, Bonglee Kim, Sung-Hoon KimAbstractThough limited success through chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery has been obtained for efficient cancer therapy for modern decades, cancers are still considered high burden to human health worldwide to date. Recently repurposing drugs are attractive with lower cost and shorter time compared to classical drug discovery, just as Metformin from Galega officinalis, originally approved for ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

PD-L1 status in breast cancer: Current view and perspectives
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Semir Vranic, Farhan S. Cyprian, Zoran Gatalica, Juan PalazzoAbstractBreast cancer was traditionally not considered a particularly immunogenic tumor. However, recent developments have shown that some aggressive triple-negative breast cancers are immunogenic, exhibit a resistance to chemotherapy and have a poor prognosis. These cancers have been shown to express molecules identified as targets for immunotherapy. Despite the advances, the challenges are many, and include identifying the patients that may benefit from immunotherapy...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Repurposing of plant alkaloids for cancer therapy: Pharmacology and toxicology
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Thomas Efferth, Franz OeschAbstractDrug repurposing (or repositioning) is an emerging concept to use old drugs for new treatment indications. Phytochemicals isolated from medicinal plants have been largely neglected in this context, although their pharmacological activities have been well investigated in the past, and they may have considerable potentials for repositioning. A grand number of plant alkaloids inhibit syngeneic or xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Molecular modes of action in cancer cells include induction of cell cy...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Nano-immunotherapy: Overcoming tumour immune evasion
Publication date: Available online 25 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Maria L Guevara, Francesca Persano, Stefano PersanoAbstractImmunotherapy is emerging as a groundbreaking cancer treatment, offering the unprecedented opportunity to effectively treat and in several cases, even cure previously untreatable malignancies. Anti-tumour immunotherapies designed to amplify T cell responses against defined tumour antigens have long been considered effective approaches for cancer treatment. Despite a clear rationale behind such immunotherapies, extensive past efforts were unsuccessful in mediating clinica...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumor intrinsic and extrinsic immune functions of CD155
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Jake. S. O’Donnell, Jason Madore, Xian-Yang Li, Mark J. SmythAbstractCD155 (PVR/necl5/Tage4), a member of the nectin-like family of adhesion molecules, is highly upregulated on tumor cells across multiple cancer types and has been associated with worse patient outcomes. In addition to well described cell-intrinsic roles promoting tumor progression and metastasis, CD155 has now been implicated in immune regulation. The role of CD155 as a potent immune ligand with diverse cell-extrinsic functions is now being defined. CD155 ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Repurposing old drugs as new inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for cancer treatment
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Huanjie Yang, Xin Chen, Kai Li, Hassan Cheaito, Qianqian Yang, Guojun Wu, Jinbao Liu, Q. Ping DouAbstractThe ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in the degradation of cellular proteins. Targeting protein degradation has been validated as an effective strategy for cancer therapy since 2003. Several components of the UPS have been validated as potential anticancer targets, including 20S proteasomes, 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s). 20S proteasome inhibitors (such as b...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Understanding genetic determinants of resistance to immune checkpoint blockers
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Sandrine Aspeslagh, Roman M. Chabanon, Stéphane Champiat, Sophie Postel-VinayAbstractThe advent of immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) has revolutionized patient outcome in many tumor types. However, only a minority of patients truly benefits from these therapies and displays a durable and robust anti-tumor response that translates into improved outcome. Thorough mechanistic preclinical studies and comprehensive investigations performed in tumor biopsies of patients treated with ICB have unveiled multiple resistance mechanis...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The balance between breast cancer and the immune system: challenges for prognosis and clinical benefit from immunotherapies
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Constantin N. Baxevanis, Sotirios P. Fortis, Sonia A. PerezAbstractCancer evolution is a complex process influenced by genetic factors and extracellular stimuli that trigger signaling pathways to coordinate the continuous and dynamic interaction between tumor cells and the elements of the immune system. For over 20 years now, the immune mechanisms controlling cancer progression have been the focus of intensive research. It is well established that the immune system conveys protective antitumor immunity by destroying immunogenic ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Repurposing amino-bisphosphonates by liposome formulation for a new role in cancer treatment
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ninh M. La-Beck, Xinli Liu, Hilary Shmeeda, Claire Shudde, Alberto A. GabizonAbstractAmino-bisphosphonates (N-BPs) have been commercially available for over four decades and are used for the treatment of osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, hypercalcemia of malignancy, and bone metastases derived from various cancer types. Zoledronate and alendronate, two of the most potent N-BPs, have demonstrated direct tumoricidal activity on tumor cells and immune modulatory effects on myeloid cells and T cells in vitro and in animal models ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Drug Repurposing for Cancer Therapy, Easier Said Than Done
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Aurora Gonzalez-Fierro, Alfonso Dueñas-GonzálezAbstractDrug repurposing for cancer therapy is currently a hot topic of research. Theoretically, in contrast to the known hurdles of developing new molecular entities, the approach of repurposing has several advantages. Mostly, it is said that it is faster, safer, easier, and cheaper. In the real world, however, there are only three repurposed drugs so far, that are listed in widely recognized cancer guidelines, but a large number of them are being studied. Among the m...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oncogenic signaling pathways associated with immune evasion and the resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Yoshie Kobayashi, Seung-Oe Lim, Hirohito YamaguchiAbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are novel class of anti-cancer drugs that exhibit significant therapeutic effects even in patients with advanced stage cancer. However, the efficacy of ICIs is limited due to resistance. Therefore, appropriate biomarkers to select patients who are likely to respond to these drugs as well as combination therapy to overcome the resistance are urgently necessary. Cancer is caused by various genetic alterations that lead to abnormalities in...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combining epigenetic and immune therapy to overcome cancer resistance
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Stephanie Gomez, Tomasz Tabernacki, Julie Kobyra, Paige Roberts, Katherine B. ChiappinelliAbstractCancer undergoes “immune editing” to evade destruction by cells of the host immune system including natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Current adoptive cellular immune therapies include CAR T cells and dendritic cell vaccines, strategies that have yet to show success for a wide range of tumors. Cancer resistance to immune therapy is driven by extrinsic factors and tumor cell intrinsic factors t...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 axis as a mechanism of immune resistance in gastrointestinal malignancies
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Sara K. Daniel, Y. Dave Seo, Venu G. PillarisettyAbstractSingle agent checkpoint inhibitor therapy has not been effective for most gastrointestinal solid tumors, but combination therapy with drugs targeting additional immunosuppressive pathways is being attempted. One such pathway, the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 chemokine axis, has attracted attention due to its effects on tumor cell survival and metastasis as well as immune cell migration. CXCL12 is a small protein that functions in normal hematopoietic stem cell homing in addition to ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Glyco-Nanoparticles: New drug delivery systems in cancer therapy
Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Haroon Khan, Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Atefeh Amiri, Esra Kupeli Akkol, Syed Muhammad Ashhad Haleemi, Hamed MirzaeiAbstractCancer is known as one of the most common diseases that are associated with high mobility and mortality in the world. Despite several efforts, current cancer treatment modalities often are highly toxic and lack efficacy and specificity. However, the application of nanotechnology has led to the development of effective nanosized drug delivery systems which are highly selective for tumors and allow a slow release of...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Nanomedicine in treatment of breast cancer – a challenge to conventional therapy
Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Muhammad Afzal, Ameed uzzafar, Khalid Saad Alharbi, Nabil K Alruwaili, Fahad A. Al-Abassi, Abdulrahman Al Labeed Al-Malki, Imran Kazmi, Vikas Kumar, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Muhammad Aslam, Firoz AnwarAbstractAmongst the various types of cancer, breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease and known as the leading cause of death among women globally. The extensive interdisciplinary investigation in nanotechnology and cancer biomedical research has been evolved over the years for its effective treatment. H...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research