Mechanisms of oncogenic cell competition - paths of victory
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Alejandro Gutiérrez-Martínez, Wei Qi Guinevere Sew, Maria Molano-Fernández, Maria Carretero-Junquera, Héctor HerranzAbstractCancer is a multistep process. In the early phases of this disease, mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressors are thought to promote clonal expansion. These mutations can increase cell competitiveness allowing tumor cells to grow within the tissue by eliminating wild type host cells. Recent studies have shown that cell competition can also function in later phases of cancer. Here, ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in ovarian cancer: Biological and therapeutic significance
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Meran Keshawa Ediriweera, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Sameera Ranganath SamarakoonAbstractOvarian cancer (OC) is a lethal gynecological cancer. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, growth, and proliferation. Irregularities in the major components of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway are common in human cancers. Despite the availability of strong pre-clinical and clinical data of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The antigenic link between thyroid autoimmunity and breast cancer
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ilaria Muller, Peter J Barrett-LeeAbstractThe association between breast cancer and benign thyroid disorders, in particular thyroid autoimmunity, has been debated for decades. Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase, the hallmark of thyroid autoimmunity, have a higher prevalence among patients with breast cancer compared with the general population. Furthermore a correlation between their positivity and a better prognosis of breast cancer was found in several independent small-scale studies, even if such observation was not confirmed in...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of AHR in the control of GBM-associated myeloid cells
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Galina Gabriely, Francisco J. QuintanaAbstractGlioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive and incurable brain tumor; its malignancy has been associated with the activity of tumor infiltrating myeloid cells. Myeloid cells play important roles in the tumor control by the immune response, but also in tumor progression. Indeed, GBM exploits multiple mechanisms to recruit and modulate myeloid cells. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is a ligand activated transcription factor implicated in the regulation of myeloid cells. In this review, we will...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Risk of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Vikas Kumar, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Firoz AnwarAbstractInflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic problems of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with poorly understood aetiology. Patients with any of the two common entities, Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UD) have significant increased risk of gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal malignancies. Particularly, the colorectal cancer (CRC) and lymphomas are the most frequently associated cancers with IBD. Although the incidence of CRC...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Single-cell approaches to cell competition: high-throughput imaging, machine learning and simulations
We describe how such metrics can be measured experimentally using a novel combination of high-throughput imaging and machine learning algorithms. We outline the experimental challenges to quantify cell fate dynamics with high-statistical precision, and describe the utility of computational modeling in testing hypotheses not easily accessible in experiments. In particular, cell-based modeling approaches that combine mechanical interaction of cells with decision-making rules for cell fate choices provide a powerful framework to understand and reverse-engineer the diverse rules of cell competition. (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Massimo Mallardo, Palmiro Poltronieri, Ammad A. Farooqi (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Transcriptional versus metabolic control of cell fitness during cell competition
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Katerina Lawlor, Salvador Pérez-Montero, Ana Lima, Tristan A. RodríguezAbstractThe maintenance of tissue homeostasis and health relies on the efficient removal of damaged or otherwise suboptimal cells. One way this is achieved is through cell competition, a fitness quality control mechanism that eliminates cells that are less fit than their neighbours. Through this process, cell competition has been shown to play diverse roles in development and in the adult, including in homeostasis and tumour suppression. However, ove...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Association of autoimmunity and cancer: An emphasis on proteolytic enzymes
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Shams Tabrez, Nasimudeen R. Jabir, Mohammad Imran Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Shazi Shakil, Ali Nasir Siddiqui, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed, Mohammad Amjad KamalAbstractCancer and autoimmune diseases are the two devastating conditions that together constitute a leading health problem worldwide. The rising burden of these disorders in the developing world demands a multifaceted approach to address the challenges it poses. Understanding the root causes and specific molecular mechanisms by which the progression of the diseases...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Exploring MYC relevance to cancer biology from the perspective of cell competition
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Simona Paglia, Manuela Sollazzo, Simone Di Giacomo, Silvia Strocchi, Daniela GrifoniAbstractCancer has long been regarded and treated as a foreign body appearing by mistake inside a living organism. However, now we know that cancer cells communicate with neighbours, thereby creating modified environments able to support their unusual need for nutrients and space. Understanding the molecular basis of these bi-directional interactions is thus mandatory to approach the complex nature of cancer. Since their discovery, MYC proteins have b...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Linking metabolism to epigenetics in stem cells and cancer stem cells
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Fei Chen (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Proteoglycan signaling in tumor angiogenesis and endothelial cell autophagy
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Maria A. Gubbiotti, Simone Buraschi, Aastha Kapoor, Renato V. IozzoAbstractThe need for more effective cancer therapies is omnipresent as the ever-complex, and highly adaptive, mechanisms of tumor biology allow this disease to elude even the most stringent treatment options. The expanding field of proteoglycan signaling is enticing as a reservoir of potential drug targets and prospects for novel therapeutic strategies. The newest trend in proteoglycan biology is the interplay between extracellular signaling and autophagy fueled by the...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Solid stress, competition for space and cancer: the opposing roles of mechanical cell competition in tumour initiation and growth
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Romain LevayerAbstractThe regulation of cell growth, cell proliferation and cell death is at the basis of the homeostasis of tissues. While they can be regulated by intrinsic and genetic factors, their response to external signals emanating from the local environment is also essential for tissue homeostasis. Tumour initiation and progression is based on the misregulation of growth, proliferation and death mostly through the accumulation of genetic mutations. Yet, there is an increasing body of evidences showing that tumour microenviro...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Toll-like receptor-induced cytokines as immunotherapeutic targets in cancers and autoimmune diseases
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Mahesh Chandra Patra, Masaud Shah, Sangdun ChoiAbstractImmune cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to recognize pathogenic components or cellular debris and activate the immune system through the secretion of cytokines. Cytokines are signaling molecules that are structurally and functionally distinct from one another, although their secretion profiles and signaling cascades often overlap. This situation gives rise to pleotropic cell-to-cell communication pathways essential for protection from i...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epigenetic Targeting of Autophagy for Cancer Prevention and Treatment by Natural Compounds
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Chiara Vidoni, Alessandra Ferraresi, Eleonora Secomandi, Letizia Vallino, Danny N. Dhanasekaran, Ciro IsidoroAbstractDespite the undeniable progress made in the last decades, cancer continues to challenge the scientists engaged in searching for an effective treatment for its prevention and cure. One of the malignant hallmarks that characterize cancer cell biology is the altered metabolism of sugars and amino acids. Autophagy is a pathway allowing the macromolecular turnover via recycling of the substrates resulting from the lysosomal ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Signaling networks and the feasibility of computational analysis in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Pengchen Chen, Qingshui Wang, Jianwei Xie, Hang Fai KwokAbstractGastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare diseases with a prevalence that has been increasing over the past three decades. The unsatisfactory outcome of these diseases has encouraged a great amount of research attention and discussion. Currently, to the best of our knowledge, studies on transcriptome screening and molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of GEP-NETs are limited. In this review, we have summarized the signaling network of GEP-NETs an...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - May 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Androgen receptor in breast cancer: A wolf in sheep’s clothing? A lesson from prostate cancer.
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Samanta Salvi, Massimiliano Bonafè, Sara BravacciniAbstractThe possibility that a receptor for androgen is expressed in Breast Cancer (BC) is fascinating given that the tumor is predominantly estrogen-dependent.The androgen receptor (AR) is emerging as a new marker and a potential new therapeutic target in the treatment of BC patients. The recent availability of selective AR inhibitors (e.g. bicalutamide, enzalutamide, apalutamide) approved for the treatment of prostate cancer has opened up the possibility to use them in BC ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - April 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming in the arsenic-induced cancer stem cells
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Lingzhi Li, Zhuoyu Bi, Priya Wadgaonkar, Yongju Lu, Qian Zhang, Yao Fu, Chitra Thakur, Li Wang, Fei ChenAbstractAt present, the belief that genetic mutations control every aspect of tumorigenesis is still very popular. Even for the highly debated “bad luck” theory of cancers, it ascertained that random mutation of genes during the self-renewal of somatic stem cells is responsible for cancer initiation. Logically, most of the new therapeutic strategies so far, from molecular targeting to precision medicine or personalize...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - April 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Androgen receptor in breast cancer: a wolf in sheep's clothing? A lesson from prostate cancer
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Samanta Salvi, Massimiliano Bonafè, Sara BravacciniAbstractThe possibility that a receptor for androgen is expressed in Breast Cancer (BC) is fascinating given that the tumor is predominantly estrogen-dependent.The androgen receptor (AR) is emerging as a new marker and a potential new therapeutic target in the treatment of BC patients. The recent availability of selective AR inhibitors (e.g. bicalutamide, enzalutamide, apalutamide) approved for the treatment of prostate cancer has opened up the possibility to use them in BC ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Emerging role of PI3K/AKT in tumor-related epigenetic regulation
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Qi Yang, Wei Jiang, Peng HouAbstractEpigenetic alterations, along with genetic alterations, have long been regarded as the most important mechanism participating in carcinogenesis. DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated regulation are involved in many cellular processes that are essential to cancer initiation and progression. A plethora of chromatin-associated proteins and modifying proteins take control of these processes and they are under the modulation of signaling pathways. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (P...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - April 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Receptor tyrosine kinases in PI3K signaling: the therapeutic targets in cancer
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Wei Jiang, Meiju JiAbstractThe phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, one of the most commonly activated signaling pathways in human cancers, plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. This pathway is usually activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whose constitutive and aberrant activation is via gain-of-function mutations, chromosomal rearrangement, gene amplification and autocrine. Blockage of PI3K pathway by targeted therapy on RTKs with tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TK...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - April 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Autophagy proteins influence endocytosis for MHC restricted antigen presentation
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Christian MünzAbstractT cells of the adaptive immune system monitor protein degradation products via their presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to recognize infected cells. Both macroautophagy and endocytosis target intra- and extracellular constituents, respectively, for lysosomal degradation. This results in antigen processing for MHC presentation and influences the trafficking of MHC molecules. This review will discuss recent evidence that the molecular machinery of macroautophagy regulates also ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Aberrations in DNA repair pathways in cancer and therapeutic significances
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Akira Motegi, Mitsuko Masutani, Ken-ichi Yoshioka, Tadayoshi BesshoAbstractCancer cells show various types of mutations and aberrant expression in genes involved in DNA repair responses. These alterations induce genome instability and promote carcinogenesis steps and cancer progression processes. These defects in DNA repair have also been considered as suitable targets for cancer therapies; a most effective target so far clinically demonstrated is “homologous recombination repair defect” such as BRCA1/2 mutations, that ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phosphoinositide Phosphatases in Cancer Cell Dynamics—Beyond PI3K and PTEN
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Takeshi IjuinAbstractPhosphoinositides are a group of lipids that regulate intracellular signaling and subcellular biological events. The signaling by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and Akt mediates the action of growth factors that are essential for cell proliferation, gene transcription, cell migration, and polarity. The hyperactivation of this signaling has been identified in different cancer cells; and, it has been implicated in oncogenic transformation and cancer cell malignancy. Recent studies have argued the role o...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of sox family members in solid tumours and metastasis
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Daniela Grimm, Johann Bauer, Petra Wise, Marcus Krüger, Ulf Simonsen, Markus Wehland, Manfred Infanger, Thomas J. CorydonAbstractCancer is a heavy burden for humans across the world with high morbidity and mortality. Transcription factors including sex determining region Y (SRY)-related high-mobility group (HMG) box (SOX) proteins are thought to be involved in the regulation of specific biological processes. The deregulation of gene expression programs can lead to cancer development. Here, we review the role of the SOX family ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 55Author(s): (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MAPK signalling pathway in cancers: Olive products as cancer preventive and therapeutic agents
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ilaria Peluso, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Roberto Ambra, Gianni Pastore, George PerryAbstractThe mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are fundamental in inflammation and cancer control, through the crosstalk between the redox regulated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-kB (NFκB) gene expression. MAPKs regulate various cellular activities involved in cancer progression, including proliferation, apoptosis and immune escape and blockade of upstream kinases is a current therapeutic strategy. Howeve...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting receptor tyrosine kinase EphB4 in cancer therapy
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Yinnan Chen, Hongmei Zhang, Yanmin ZhangAbstractEph receptors and their Eph receptor-interacting (ephrin) ligands together form an important cell communication system with diverse roles. Experimental evidence demonstrated Eph receptor bidirectional signaling with both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting activities in cancer cells. The tyrosine kinase EphB4, a member of the Eph receptor family, has been associated with tumor angiogenesis, growth and metastasis, thus making it a valuable and attractive target for drug design for t...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Implications of farnesyltransferase and its inhibitors as a promising strategy for cancer therapy
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Sergey G. Klochkov, Margarita E. Neganova, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Madhukiran Parvathaneni, Bechan Sharma, Vadim V. Tarasov, George Barreto, Sergey O. Bachurin, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Gjumrakch AlievAbstractRas proteins have been reported to play key role in oncologic diseases. Ras proteins are associated with cellular membranes for its carcinogenic activities through post-translational modifications, including farnesylation. Farnesyltransferase is responsible for a type of Ras membrane targeting, which leads to cancer origin and progr...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ferroptosis Is a Type of Autophagy-Dependent Cell Death
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Borong Zhou, Jiao Liu, Rui Kang, Daniel J. Klionsky, Guido Kroemer, Daolin TangAbstractMacroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) involves an intracellular degradation and recycling system that, in a context-dependent manner, can either promote cell survival or accelerate cellular demise. Ferroptosis was originally defined in 2012 as an iron-dependent form of cancer cell death different from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. However, this latter assumption came into question because, in response to ferroptosis activators...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current insights into functions of phospholipase A2 receptor in normal and cancer cells: More questions than answers
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Olga Sukocheva, Mario Menschikowski, Albert Hagelgans, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Gabriele Siegert, Pallu Reddanna, Anupam BishayeeAbstractLipid signaling network was proposed as a potential target for cancer prevention and treatment. Several recent studies revealed that phospholipid metabolising enzyme, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), is a critical regulator of cancer accelerating pathologies and apoptosis in several types of cancers. In addition to functioning as an enzyme, PLA2 can activate a phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) in plasma ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Retraction notice to “Regulatory roles of epigenetic modulators, modifiers and mediators in lung cancer” [Seminars in Cancer Biology Volume 42, February 2017, Pages 4-12]
Publication date: February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 54Author(s): Lin Shi, Minghuan Zheng, Jiayuan Hou, Bijun Zhu, Xiangdong Wang (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 54Author(s): (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

KRAS, YAP, and obesity in pancreatic cancer: A signaling network with multiple loops
Publication date: February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 54Author(s): Guido Eibl, Enrique RozengurtAbstractPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be a lethal disease with no efficacious treatment modalities. The incidence of PDAC is expected to increase, at least partially because of the obesity epidemic. Increased efforts to prevent or intercept this disease are clearly needed. Mutations in KRAS are initiating events in pancreatic carcinogenesis supported by genetically engineered mouse models of the disease. However, oncogenic KRAS is not entirely sufficient for the development of fully inv...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer genomics: from benchtop to bedside
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Sunny H. Wong, William K.K. Wu (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Targeting cancer stem cells and their niche: Perspectives for future therapeutic targets and strategies” [Semin. Cancer Biol. (2018) (August) pii: S1044-579X(18)30045-2, 139–155]
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Yue Zhao, Qiongzhu Dong, Jiahui Li, Kaili Zhang, Jie Qin, Jiangang Zhao, Qiye Sun, Zhefang Wang, Thomas Wartmann, Karl Walter Jauch, Peter J. Nelson, LunXiu Qin, Christiane Bruns (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - March 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ras and exosome signaling
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Rachel Sexton, Gabriel Mpilla, Steve Kim, Philip A. Philip, Asfar S. AzmiAbstractRas gene (HRAS, NRAS, and KRAS) has been observed to be mutated and hyper-activated in a significant proportion of cancers. However, mutant Ras remains a challenging therapeutic target. Similarly, inhibition of targets upstream and downstream of Ras has shown limited clinical utility. There have been attempts to develop and deliver mutant K-Ras silencing RNAs either through their encapsulation in liposomes or nanoparticles. However, these approaches...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

PIK3CA in cancer: the past 30 years
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Rand Arafeh, Yardena SamuelsAbstractAlmost thirty years ago, PI3K was discovered as a lipid kinase associated with certain oncoproteins. The first decade of research on PI3K saw the identification, purification and cloning of PI3Kα. The second decade of research was noted for the identification of some of PI3K’s activators and effectors. This was accompanied by the discovery that PI3K acts as a retroviral oncogene. The third decade was known for the establishment of the direct involvement of PI3K in cancer, demonstra...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Interplay between epigenetic abnormalities and deregulated expression of microRNAs in cancer
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Sundas Fayyaz, Priyank Raj, Matthew Goblirsch, Palmiro Poltronieri, George A. CalinAbstractEpigenetic abnormalities and aberrant expression of non-coding RNAs are two emerging features of cancer cells, both of which are responsible for deregulated gene expression. In this review, we describe the interplay between the two. Specific themes include epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor miRNAs, epigenetic activation of oncogenic miRNAs, epigenetic aberrations caused by miRNAs, and natur...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of PTEN loss in cancer: it’s all about diversity
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Virginia Álvarez-Garcia, Yasmine Tawil, Helen M. Wise, Nicholas R. LeslieABSTRACTPTEN is a phosphatase which metabolises PIP3, the lipid product of PI 3-Kinase, directly opposing the activation of the oncogenic PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling network. Accordingly, loss of function of the PTEN tumour suppressor is one of the most common events observed in many types of cancer. Although the mechanisms by which PTEN function is disrupted are diverse, the most frequently observed events are deletion of a single gene copy of PTEN and ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MicroRNA Regulation of TRAIL Mediated Signaling in Different Cancers: Control of Micro Steering Wheels during the Journey from Bench-Top to the Bedside
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Sundas Fayyaz, Zeeshan Javed, Rukset Attar, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Ilhan Yaylim, Aamir AhmadAbstractLarge-scale sequencing methodologies have helped us identify numerous genomic alterations and we have started to scratch the surface of many new targets for treatment of cancer and the associated predictive biomarkers. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a highly appreciated anti-cancer molecule because of its ability to selectively target cancer cells. However, confluence of information suggests that cancer cells develo...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer Immunotherapy with Check Point Inhibitor Can Cause Autoimmune Adverse Events Due to Loss of Treg homeostasis
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Prabhakaran Kumar, Shikha Saini, Bellur S. PrabhakarAbstractRegulatory T-cells (Tregs) can facilitate immune evasion by tumor cells by dampening anti-tumor immunity. Reduced Teff/Treg ratio and enhanced Treg functional activity have been observed in patients suffering from different types of cancers, and attenuated Treg numbers/functions can serve as prognostic indicators. Normally, Tregs play an essential role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and prevention of autoimmunity. The most common immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - February 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A regulatory circuitry locking pluripotent stemness to embryonic stem cell: interaction between threonine catabolism and histone methylation
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Guohua Chen, Jian WangAbstractMouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) is a prototype of pluripotent stem cell that undergoes endless self-renewal in culture without losing the pluripotency, the ability to differentiate to all somatic lineages. The self-renewal of ESC relies on a gene expression program, epigenetic state, and cellular metabolism specific to ESC. In this review, we will present the evidence to exemplify how gene regulation, chromatin methylation, and threonine catabolism are specialized to boost ESC self-renewal. It is evi...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Signal transduction pathways and resistance to targeted therapies in glioma
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Arata Tomiyama, Koichi IchimuraABSTRACTAlthough surgical techniques and adjuvant therapies have undergone progressive development for decades, the therapeutic outcomes for treating glioblastoma (GBM) remain poor. The main reasons for the poor prognosis of gliomas are that limited tumor tissue that can be resected (to preserve brain functions) and that residual tumors are often resistant to irradiation and chemotherapy. Therefore, overcoming the resistance of residual tumors against adjuvant therapy is urgently needed for glioma t...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The circulating transcriptome as a source of cancer liquid biopsy biomarkers
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Carla Sole, Esther Arnaiz, Lorea Manterola, David Otaegui, Charles H. LawrieAbstractNon-invasive biomarkers or liquid biopsies have the potential to revolutionise cancer patient management as repeated sampling allows real-time monitoring of disease progression and response to treatment. This allows for earlier intervention and dynamic treatment management; both cornerstones of personalised medicine. The circulating transcriptome represents a rich source of potential cancer biomarkers that includes many classes of RNA, both coding...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Metal carcinogen exposure induces cancer stem cell-like property through epigenetic reprograming: A novel mechanism of metal carcinogenesis
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Zhishan Wang, Chengfeng YangAbstractArsenic, cadmium, nickel and hexavalent chromium are among the most common environmental pollutants and potent carcinogens. Chronic exposure to these metals causes various types of cancer in humans, representing a significant environmental health issue. Although under active investigation, the mechanisms of metal carcinogenesis have not been clearly defined. One common feature of these metal carcinogens is that they are all able to cause various epigenetic dysregulations, which are believed to ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Overview of the Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Colorectal Cancer: Mechanistic Insights
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Marc De La Roche, Mustafa BA Djamgoz, Zahid H SiddikAbstractColorectal cancer is a multifaceted disease which is therapeutically challenging. Based on insights gleaned from almost a quarter century of research, it is obvious that deregulation of spatio-temporally controlled signaling pathways play instrumental role in development and progression of colorectal cancer. High-throughput technologies have helped to develop a sharper and broader understanding of the wide ranging signal transduction cascades which al...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - January 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

CircRNAs and cancer: biomarkers and master regulators
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Esther Arnaiz, Carla Sole, Lorea Manterola, Leire Iparraguirre, David Otaegui, Charles H. LawrieAbstractCircular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of regulatory RNAs that despite being relatively abundant have only recently begun to be explored. There are many thousands of genes that appear capable of producing circRNAs, however the function of all but a handful remain to be determined. What is emerging about these highly conserved molecules is that they play important roles in biology and cancer biology in particular. The most ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 53Author(s): (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Special Issue “Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment”
Publication date: December 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 53Author(s): Ira Skvortsova (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research