Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in the Republic of North Macedonia: data from nationwide integrated health care platform
It is estimated that there were 45.9 million cases of active epilepsy in 2016 globally, and ໿despite the decrease in the disease burden in the last decades, epilepsy is an important cause of disability and mortality [1]. ໿ ໿A comprehensive synthesis of 222 published international studies ໿has revealed the point prevalence of active epilepsy of 6.38 per 1,000 persons ໿(95% CI 5.57 –7.30), and the annual cumulative incidence of epilepsy of 67.77 per 100,000 persons ໿(95% CI 56.69– 81.03) [2]. ໿ ໿Interestingly, secular trends in the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy were found to significantly d...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Marija Babunovska, Bojan Boskovski, Igor Kuzmanovski, Isjanovska Rozalinda, Gordana Kiteva Trencevska, Cvetkovska Emilija Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Multi-omics in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: clues into the underlying mechanisms leading to disease
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is believed to be the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults [1]. In the US, the estimated prevalence is 0.51-0.66 case per 1,000 people, and the incidence is 3.1-3.4 cases per 100,000 people/year [2]. However, most information regarding the prevalence of temporal lobe epilepsies is derived from few studies, most of which have been performed in referral centres dedicated to epilepsy surgery; thus, providing skewed estimates [3]. The most striking characteristic of MTLE is the presence of a histopathological lesion, namely hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which can be detected on magnet...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Estela M. Bruxel, Danielle C.F. Bruno, Amanda M. do Canto, Jaqueline C. Geraldis, Alexandre B Godoi, Mariana Martin, Iscia Lopes-Cendes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Machine Learning Models to Predict Electroencephalographic Seizures in Critically Ill Children
: Determine whether machine learning techniques would enhance our ability to incorporate key variables into a parsimonious model with optimized prediction performance for electroencephalographic seizure (ES) prediction in critically ill children. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - March 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jian Hu, France W. Fung, Marin Jacobwitz, Darshana S. Parikh, Lisa Vala, Maureen Donnelly, Alexis A. Topjian, Nicholas S. Abend, Rui Xiao Source Type: research

SPECT activation patterns in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy patients.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal events of miscellaneous presentation with a psychological origin. In daily clinical practice, differentiating these episodes from those of epileptic origin is often challenging, especially in the presence of subjective manifestations that cannot be verified by observation. Errors in diagnosis can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, while a timely diagnosis of PNES allows the early development of an appropriate medical and psychological approach, reducing the chronicity of the disorder and increasing the likelihood of a better prognosis. (Source: Seizure: Eur...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - March 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Andr és Damián, Mariana Legnani, Denisse Rada, Patricia Braga, Alejandro Scaramelli, Rodolfo Ferrando Source Type: research

Two decades of research towards a potential first anti-epileptic drug
Antiepileptogenesis, the process by which one would be able to prevent a “normal” brain from becoming epileptic, has been a Holy Grail in epileptology for more than 3 decades [1–3]. While the concept of epileptogenesis has been strongly influenced by using the kindling model [4,5], drugs capable of altering kindling rate (epileptogenesis) often failed when tested i n clinical settings [6,7]). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - March 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Simone Kastropil Benassi, Julieta Goncalves Silva Macedo Alves, Cristiane Gorgatti Guidoreni, Cristina Gon çalves Massant, Claudio M Queiroz, Emilio Garrido-Sanabria, Rafael Duarte de Souza Loduca, Maria Alice Susemihl, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Almir Ferr Source Type: research

Spike wave characteristics and temporal spike evolution on serial EEG in childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes
Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), previously named benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes or rolandic epilepsy, is the most frequently seen epilepsy syndrome in childhood [1]. CECTS is most common between the ages of 3 and 13 years. Spontaneous remission is expected until the age of 16 years and is observed in children with previously normal neurological development and cognitive status [1 –3]. Focal onset-aware motor seizures are the most frequent type of seizures. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - March 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hasan Tekgul, Seda Kanmaz, H. Mine Serin, Sanem Y ılmaz Source Type: research

Preventing seizure occurrence following spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis of seizure prophylaxis
Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality [1]. One common complication following ICH is seizures, which occur in up to 30 % of patients [2]. Seizures following ICH have been associated with worsening intracranial midline shift and worse functional outcomes [3]. Therefore, it is reasonable that clinicians encountering patients with ICH —such as emergency physicians and critical care clinicians—would want to prevent seizure occurrence. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Quincy K. Tran, Vera Bzhilyanskaya, Leenah Z. Afridi, Mahmood Ahmad, Jamie Palmer, Mehboob A. Rehan, Alison Raffman, Asma Rashid, Ashley Menne, Ali Pourmand Tags: Review Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thinning in genetic generalized epilepsy” [Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy 71 (2019) 201–206]
The authors would like to draw your attention to the fact that the name of the second author was incorrectly listed as Maripaz Guerrero-Molina in their published article. The corrected name, Maria Paz Guerrero-Molina, is given above. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jes ús González de la Aleja, Maria Paz Guerrero-Molina, Rosa Ana Saíz-Díaz, Francisco López-Muñoz, Isidoro Raga-Martínez, Jesús Hernández-Gallego, Patricia Navarrete-Chamorro, Francisco Javier Povedano-Montero Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Delineation of epileptic and neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with variants in STX1B
Monogenic epilepsies represent a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. While initial gene discoveries mainly implicated ion channel dysfunction, the advent of genomic screening led to the identification of additional mechanisms, including molecular defects of synaptic transmission [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Martin Krenn, Monika Schloegl, Ekaterina Pataraia, Ellen Gelpi, Sebastian Schr öder, Christian Rauscher, Johannes A. Mayr, Dieter Kotzot, Fritz Zimprich, Thomas Meitinger, Matias Wagner Source Type: research

Epilepsy with eyelid myoclonias (Jeavons syndrome): an electro-clinical study of 40 patients from childhood to adulthood
Epilepsy with eyelid myoclonias (EM) with or without absences or Jeavons syndrome (JS) was first described by Jeavons in 1977 [1]. JS is a form of reflex epilepsy classically related to the spectrum of genetic (idiopathic) generalized epilepsy (GGE) [2]. Even though the definition of EM as a seizure type has been widely accepted, JS has not been recognized yet by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) as a distinctive nosological entity. Various epileptic disorders share some of its features [3], with possible overlap with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) [4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Annacarmen Nilo, Arielle Crespel, Pierre Genton, Greta Macorig, Gian Luigi Gigli, Philippe Gelisse Source Type: research

Clinical variables that help in predicting the presence of autoantibodies in patients with acute encephalitis
Autoimmune encephalitis is defined as a group of inflammatory diseases characterized by prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms and associated with antibodies against neuronal surface proteins, ion channels, or receptors [1]. Epileptic seizures are a common manifestation of encephalitis due to immune causes [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ang élica Lizcano-Meneses, Nancy Watanabe, Felipe von Glehn, Renata Barbosa, Milena de Albuquerque, Clarissa Yassuda, Adriel S. Moraes, José Wiliam Martínez, Leonilda M.B. Santos, Fernando Cendes Source Type: research

Comprehensive Genetic, Clinical and Electrophysiological Studies of Familial Cortical Myoclonic Tremor with Epilepsy 1 Highlight the Role of Gene Configurations
Familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy (FCMTE) was first described in the 1990s in Japan [1,2] and is characterized by hereditary distal tremor-like myoclonus and infrequent generalized epileptic seizures. Autosomal dominant FCMTEs have been linked to 8q24 in Japanese and Chinese (FCMTE1,OMIM 601068), [3 –5] 2q11.2 in Italian (FCMTE2 OMIM 607876) [6–9], 5p15.31-p15 in French and Dutch (FCMTE3 OMIM 613608) [10], and 3q26.32-3q28 in the Thai pedigree (FCMTE4 OMIM 615127) [11]. An autosomal recessive FCMTE family in Egypt has been mapped to 1q31.3-q32.2 (FCMTE5 OMIM 615400) [12]. (Source: Seizure: Europe...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sipei Pan, Xuying Li, Liping Li, Hua Lin, Dequan Wang, Xiating Zhang, Xin Zhao, Jing Ye, Zhaoyang Huang, Yicong Lin, Yiran Duan, Rui Ma, Lehong Gao, Chaodong Wang, Yuping Wang Source Type: research

The Chapeau de Gendarme Sign Can be Evoked by Lateral Prefrontal Epileptic Seizures
We report three cases in which the CDG sign featured in habitual seizures. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hongjuan Lu, Wei Zhang, Sinclair Liu, Wei Sun Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Adults with Dravet Syndrome
Dravet Syndrome (DS), previously known as “severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI)”, was first described by Charlotte Dravet in 1978. [1] DS is a rare, early-onset, treatment-resistant, epileptic encephalopathy that presents in the first or second year of life [2]. The reported incidence is between 1 in 15,000 to 1 in 41,000 [3–5] . In the late 1980s and early 1990s, variability was noticed amongst the myoclonic seizures, where they were absent in some patients. These patients were classified as having borderline SMEI, known as SMEIB. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Arunan Selvarajah, Quratulain Zulfiqar Ali, Paula Marques, Marlene Rong, Danielle M. Andrade Source Type: research

Comb-like EEG pattern in maple syrup urine disease: a case report
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with neonatal-onset feeding difficulties, movement disorder, encephalopathy and seizures. If not treated in a timely manner, fatal progressive neurological deterioration and respiratory failure ensue [1,2]. This serious condition is caused by various degrees of deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase leading to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine and their toxic by-products in the brain. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Fatima Jaafar, Laith Haddad, Dima Habanjar, Lama Charafeddine, Khalid Yunis, Pascale E Karam, Makram Obeid Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

New understanding about the relationship among neurocysticercosis, seizures, and epilepsy
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders of the brain, and it is a major public health issue because it has neurological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences, and contributes substantially to the world ’s burden of disease, disability, and mortality [1,2]. Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a neglected parasitic disease of major public health importance because of its unacceptably high morbidity and mortality in endemic developing countries, where the sanitary infrastructure is deficient, as well as in non-endemic developed countries where it is associated with immigration from and travel to en...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Arturo Carpio, Matthew L. Romo, W. Allen Hauser, Elizabeth A. Kelvin Source Type: research

Pre-ictal heart rate variability alterations in focal onset seizures and response to vagus nerve stimulation
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) (VNS Therapy Systems, Livanova, Houston, Texas, USA) is indicated for the treatment of drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) patients who are unsuitable candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. Since 1997, more than 120.000 patients have been implanted worldwide including 30.000 children. The chances of a ≥ 50% seizure reduction range from 25-55% with a tendency for increased seizure control with longer treatment time (1,2). Yet one third of VNS patients do not respond to the treatment and the ongoing search for predictive biomarkers that could differentiate VNS responders from VNS non-responders...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Stephanie H ödl, Elisabeth Olbert, Christoph Mahringer, Walter Struhal, Evelien Carrette, Alfred Meurs, Stefanie Gadeyne, Ine Dauwe, Lut Goossens, Robrecht Raedt, Paul Boon, Kristl Vonck Source Type: research

The efficacy and tolerability of the auto-stimulation-VNS in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
The first vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) was approved in the United States in 1997 for patients with drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). DRE is defined by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) as persistent seizures within a 12-month period during which time an individual with epilepsy is treated with at least two properly chosen, properly dosed and well-tolerated anti-seizure medications (ASM) [1]. VNS therapy was reviewed by the American Academy of Neurology in 1997 [2], 1999 [3], and 2013 [4] and found to be both safe and effective in the treatment of epilepsy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sherouk A. Abdelmoity, Ayman A. Abdelmoity, Sean M. Riordan, Christian Kaufman, Jean-Baptiste Le Pichon, Ahmed Abdelmoity Source Type: research

Seizures in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A scoping review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by a fluctuating course (1). Worldwide, incidence and prevalence vary substantially in attribution to ethnicity and geographic exposure to diverse environmental factors. Updated estimates reported an annual incidence of 0.3-31.5 and prevalence of 3.2-517.5 cases per 100,000 individuals, with the highest numbers observed in childbearing years women, predominantly those of African-American, Asian, Hispanic and Aboriginal ancestry (2). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Adrian Rodriguez-Hernandez, Javier Ortiz-Orendain, Lucia E. Alvarez-Palazuelos, Laura Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge Ivan Gamez-Nava, Maria G. Zavala-Cerna Tags: Review Source Type: research

Descriptive epidemiology and health resource utilization for status epilepticus in the emergency department in the United States of America
Seizures represent approximately 1% of emergency department (ED) visits and, among those, approximately 6% are convulsive status epilepticus (SE) [1]. SE is one of the most common neurological emergencies, affecting 17-23/100,000 children per year [2 –4] and 10-17/100,000 adults per year [3–5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Iv án Sánchez Fernández, Marta Amengual-Gual, Cristina Barcia Aguilar, Marina Gaínza-Lein Source Type: research

Disconnection of hand and language dominance explains alien-hand syndrome after corpus callosotomy
Many clinical neuroscientists are familiar with the character of Dr. Strangelove in the iconic Stanley Kubrick movie of 1964. During his audition in the war room of the US government Strangelove ’s right arm jumps up repeatedly for the “Hitlergruss”, while his left hand can hardly cope to prevent these seemingly purposeful but involuntary movements. Later, this was coined to signify the presence of an alien hand syndrome (AHS) in Dr. Strangelove by the referring literature [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Christoph Helmstaedter, L ázló Solymosi, Martin Kurthen, Shahan Momjian, Karl Schaller Source Type: research

Angiocentric glioma-associated seizures: The possible role of EATT2, pyruvate carboxylase and glutamine synthetase
Angiocentric glioma is a rare low-grade glioma [1]. The initial reports date back to 2005, when two independent research groups described 18 tumors exhibiting clinical-pathological similarities [2,3]. Angiocentric glioma was included in the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and classified as grade I [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Anna Maria Buccoliero, Chiara Caporalini, Mirko Scagnet, Federico Mussa, Flavio Giordano, Iacopo Sardi, Irene Migliastro, Selene Moscardi, Valerio Conti, Carmen Barba, Manila Antonelli, Francesca Gianno, Sabrina Rossi, Francesca Diomedi-Camassei, Marco Ge Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Comparative contribution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pre-operative localization for epilepsy surgery: A prospective blinded study
Epilepsy surgery is the treatment of choice in patients with drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) which is defined as having continued seizures on maximum tolerated doses of two or more appropriately chosen antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).(1) Accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone is imperative for postoperative seizure freedom. Preoperative planning for epilepsy surgery involves analyzing seizure history, semiology, electrophysiological and neuroimaging findings. MRI reveals structural abnormalities, while single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) detects regional cerebral perfusion during an ictal event (2). (Sourc...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kirandeep Kaur, Ajay Garg, Madhavi Tripathi, Sarat P Chandra, Gaurav Singh, Vibhin Viswanathan, Kamal Bharti, Vivek Singh, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Chandra Sekhar Bal, Mehar Chand Sharma, Ravindra Pandey, Deepti Vibha, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Pravat Mandal, Manjar Source Type: research

Subcortical band heterotopia in a patient with phenylketonuria: co-existence or consequence?
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Tyrosine is further converted into catecholamines, melanin and thyroid hormones. Without dietary restriction, PHE accumulates in blood and tissue and causes secondary deficit of the above-mentioned metabolites, commonly leading to cerebral white matter (WM) abnormalities, microcephaly, neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral problems, and epilepsy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nino Epitashvili, Yulia Novitskaya, Dirk-Matthias Altenm üller, Horst Urbach, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Factors associated with delay to video-EEG in dissociative seizures
Dissociative seizures (DS), also known as functional or psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, can be disabling for patients [1 –3]. Patients with undiagnosed DS often receive inappropriate treatment for their seizures. This could be because, most frequently, DS are signs and symptoms of a functional neurological disorder (FND) where patients may have alteration in the function but not necessarily structure of the brain wh ere psychological stress may be expressed through physical neurological symptoms [4,5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wesley T. Kerr, Xingruo Zhang, Chloe E. Hill, Emily A. Janio, Andrea M. Chau, Chelsea T. Braesch, Justine M. Le, Jessica M. Hori, Akash B. Patel, Corinne H. Allas, Amir H. Karimi, Ishita Dubey, Siddhika S. Sreenivasan, Norma L. Gallardo, Janar Bauirjan, E Source Type: research

Long-term seizure outcome and antiseizure medication use in autoimmune encephalitis
Epileptic seizures are a common symptom in the acute stage of autoimmune encephalitis (AE), conceptually these are regarded as acute-symptomatic seizures [1]. In a few cases only, beyond the acute phase of AE, autoimmune-associated epilepsy (AAE) with recurrent unprovoked seizures develops. AAE may occur more frequently in patients with antibodies targeting glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) [2,3], with onconeural protein antibodies (e.g., Hu, Ma2, collapsing response mediator protein 5/CV2) [4], and with Rasmussen encephalitis [5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria Ilyas-Feldmann, Harald Pr üß, Martin Holtkamp Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes in gray and white matter microstructure during epileptogenesis in pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has provided a noninvasive insight into the microstructural characteristics of tissue and anatomical connectivity without exogenous contrast agents. In particular, the tensor model [1] has been extensively used in the field of epilepsy for assessing hippocampal cell death, gliosis, and even axonal plasticity in humans [2,3] and experimental animals [4 –8]. One of the most commonly derived diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures is fractional anisotropy (FA), which may be interpreted as a marker to identify subtly disturbed white matter microstructure. (Source: Seizu...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiram Luna-Munguia, Luis Marquez-Bravo, Luis Concha Source Type: research

Surgical Treatment of Nonlesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Epilepsy surgery is an effective therapeutic option for patients with focal seizures who do not respond to appropriate treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) [1]. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are the most common surgical candidates. Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), which removes the anterior portion of temporal lobe along with the hippocampus and amygdala, has been the standard surgical technique when MRI indicates the mesial temporal area as being the only epileptogenic area [2 –4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dong Wook Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung, Kon Chu, Chun Kee Chung Source Type: research

Longitudinal analysis of interictal electroencephalograms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy in adults [1]. One of the main causes of TLE is hippocampal sclerosis (HS) [2]. TLE has a constellation of signs and symptoms, but the main criterion for diagnosis is the presence of characteristic seizure semiology [3]. The clinical definition of TLE with HS (TLE-HS) is based on electroencephalograms (EEGs), video EEGs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and neuropsychological tests [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mariana R. Brito, Thiago S. Prado, Marina K.M. Alvim, Lucas S.R. Santos, Marcia Morita-Sherman, Clarissa L. Yasuda, Fernando Cendes Source Type: research

Brain functional connectivity patterns in focal cortical dysplasia related epilepsy
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), often caused by abnormal neuronal growth, is strongly associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders [1,2]. Drug-resistant epilepsy is a common characteristic in FCD [3]. Local lesions have been clearly linked to seizure onset, and anomalies in gray matter structure and interhemispheric connections are often observed beyond the primary lesion [4,5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wenyu Liu, Mintao Lin, Qiang Yue, Qiyong Gong, Dong Zhou, Xintong Wu Source Type: research

Improving surgical outcome with electric source imaging and high field magnetic resonance imaging
Epilepsy is a disease that affects more than 50 million people in the world, with a higher prevalence in low-income countries [1]. Although several anti-seizure medicines are available for treatment [2], more than one-third of the patients with epilepsy present recurrent, drug-resistant seizures [3,4]. These uncontrollable seizures promote significant damage to life quality [5] and increase the chance of sudden unexpected death [6]. Surgery is the most effective and definitive treatment available for focal drug-resistant epilepsy [7]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ricardo Lutzky Saute, Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Tonicarlo R. Velasco, Joao Pereira Leite Source Type: research

Improving surgical outcome with electric source imaging and high field magnetic ressonance imaging
Epilepsy is a disease that affects more than 50 million people in the world, with a higher prevalence in low-income countries [1]. Although several anti-seizure medicines are available for treatment [2], more than one-third of the patients with epilepsy present recurrent, drug-resistant seizures [3,4]. These uncontrollable seizures promote significant damage to life quality [5] and increase the chance of sudden unexpected death [6]. Surgery is the most effective and definitive treatment available for focal drug-resistant epilepsy [7]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ricardo Lutzky Saute, Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Tonicarlo R. Velasco, Joao Pereira Leite Source Type: research

Non-epileptic paroxysmal events in paediatric patients: a single tertiary centre study in Egypt
Paroxysmal events are considered fairly common medical emergencies, accounting for at least 4% of all emergency calls worldwide, especially in the paediatric population [1]. Paroxysmal events called “seizures” are defined as episodes with suddenly occurring symptoms that alternate with symptom-free periods. They often last for a short period of time and manifest as alterations in consciousness, motor, sensory, autonomic, and/or cognitive symptoms or signs [2]. Paroxysmal events can be class ified into 3 major categories; namely epileptic seizures, non-epileptic seizures (NES), and psychogenic non-epileptic seiz...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohamed N. Thabit, Abdelrahim A. Sadek, Eman S. Motawe, Rasha Abd Elhameed Ali, Montaser M. Mohamed Source Type: research

Optimized SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation in the treatment of pediatric hypothalamic hamartomas
Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are rare congenital malformations [1] that typically manifest as refractory epilepsys [2] with or without central precocious puberty and are located in the region of the tuber cinereum and third ventricles [1]. HHs are non-neoplastic heterotopias that consist of normal neuronal tissues [3]. The estimated incidence of HH is one per 100,000-1,000,000 in the population [4 –5]. In contrast to the hypothesis that epileptogenesis is strictly a cortical phenomenon, depth electrode recordings demonstrated that intrinsic subcortical epileptogenesis may occur within hamartomas before spreading to ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Min Wang, Yi Zhang, Ping Xue, Yuanfeng Zhou, Wei Shi, Shuizhen Zhou, Yi Wang, Hao Li, Rui Zhao Source Type: research

Epilepsy, dissociative seizures, and mixed: associations with time to video-EEG
Video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEM) is critical to the evaluation and treatment of patients with medication resistant epilepsy, defined by failure of two adequate trials of tolerated, appropriately-chosen antiseizure medications (ASM) at appropriate doses [1,2]. While some studies demonstrated that early surgical therapy for epilepsy may be more effective, the time from first seizure to VEM (TVEM) remains around 20 years and VEM remains underutilized [3 –20]. For comparison, it typically takes 9 years to meet the definition of medication resistant epilepsy [13]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wesley T. Kerr, Xingruo Zhang, Chloe E. Hill, Emily A. Janio, Andrea M. Chau, Chelsea T. Braesch, Justine M. Le, Jessica M. Hori, Akash B. Patel, Corinne H. Allas, Amir H. Karimi, Ishita Dubey, Siddhika S. Sreenivasan, Norma L. Gallardo, Janar Bauirjan, E Source Type: research

Neuropathology of the 21th century for the Latin American epilepsy community
In 1825, Camille Bouchet and Jean-Baptiste Cazauvieilh published gross neuroanatomy-pathological findings from postmortem studies of several epilepsy cases [1,2]. Some years later, Wilhelm Sommer focused on histopathology findings of the human hippocampus in a series of 90 patients with epilepsy. He thoroughly described the common pattern of pyramidal neuronal cell loss in CA1 with concomitant gliosis as a structural correlate of the tissue hardening (sclerosis) [3]. Shortly after, hippocampal sclerosis was associated with different neuronal cell loss patterns throughout all hippocampal sectors, including CA4 [4], init ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Ingmar Blumcke Tags: Review Source Type: research

Primary Leptomeningeal Melanomatosis Manifesting as New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus a Case Report – Where Do You Get the Best Cerebrospinal Fluid Sample?
New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is an increasingly recognized syndrome requiring aggressive antiepileptic management. A wide range of etiologies are associated with NORSE, including atypical infections and antibody mediated disorders [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: James Eaton, Sean Lee, Deborah L.G. Kerrigan Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Brains, Complex Systems and Therapeutic Opportunities in Epilepsy
The notion of epilepsy as a network disease is rapidly gaining traction, particularly in the domains of whole brain networks as measured with MRI, MEG and EEG[1]. This concept is illustrated by the growing recognition that lesional focal epilepsies are disorders that widely disrupt neural systems that are outside of the lesion, but which are part of a brain network that have capacity to generate seizures[2]. However, the network concept can be applied far more broadly than the level of the whole brain networks. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rod C. Scott Source Type: research

Focal status epilepticus in dural arteriovenous fistula detected after a two-step clinical course: a case report
We describe a case of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVFs) in left parieto-insulo-occipital regions and left cerebellum presenting with acute myelopathy followed by focal status epilepticus in a two-step clinical course. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Loreta Quaranta, Roberto De Simone, Francesca Tavanti, Francesco Biraschi, Cesare Iani Source Type: research

Breaking the Spell: Narrative Medicine Applications for Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures (PNES)
Narrative Medicine (NM) is a communication therapy that engages the patient ’s story of illness or injury and treatment in the context of their identity, values, fears, and hopes. The NM practitioner invites the patient to put significant experiences into words and share in a dialogue where unstated concerns can be given voice and new insights can be discovered. Patients may also respond to prompts for journal writing that may be discussed with the NM provider and in workshop groups. NM sessions provide space for the patient to explore thoughts and feelings in a guided conversation with a collaborator who listens att...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Robert B. Slocum Source Type: research

Unique ictal signature: Delta brush as part of an ictal morphology in a patient with hypoglycemic neuronal injury
Our patient is a 2-year-old male with previously undiagnosed long chain 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD). He presented with neuronal injury secondary to hypoglycemia. Upon arrival to our medical center, he was unresponsive, sedated and intubated. Continuous EEG monitoring was begun to evaluate for presence of seizures and the patient was treated with levetiracetam for seizure prophylaxis and midazolam for sedation. He was not treated with a paralytic agent. Approximately 24  h following injury, EEG recording showed a subclinical seizure with left occipital delta brush morphology (see Fig. (Source: S...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mary Payne, Dipali Nemade, Ashar Farooqi Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Comparative 12-month retention rate, effectiveness and tolerability of perampanel when used as a first add-on or a late add-on treatment in patients with focal epilepsies: The COM-PER study
Perampanel (PER) is a first-in-class selective, non-competitive antagonist of the glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor that has demonstrated broad-spectrum anticonvulsant activity [1,2]. In Europe, once-daily PER is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of focal-onset seizures (FOS), including focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS), and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients over 12 years of age [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nuno Canas, Catarina F élix, Vanessa Silva, Ana Arraiolos, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the management of epilepsy: a systematic review
Epilepsy is a prevalent chronic neurologic disease that affects over 50 million people worldwide.[1] Mortality in epilepsy populations is three times higher compared to the general population and death causes are mainly epilepsy-related.[2] Moreover, the condition poses a high societal burden, ranking fifth amongst neurological disorders in disability-adjusted life years (DALY).[3] (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Pedro Sudbrack-Oliveira, Marina Zanichelli Barbosa, Sigride Thome-Souza, Lais Boralli Razza, Jose Gallucci-Neto, Leandro da Costa Lane Valiengo, Andre Russowsky Brunoni Tags: Review Source Type: research

Potential interactions between COVID-19 vaccines and antiepileptic drugs
F ırat et al. [1] discussed the potential drug-drug interactions between antiepileptic drugs and therapeutic drugs currently used in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This piece of discussion is relevant and indeed is of utmost importance given that clinicians specialized in the management of COVID-19 may not be familiar with the use of antiepileptic drugs and thus they may be of little knowledge how best to manage the potential drug-drug interactions involving antiepileptic drugs and the therapeutic drugs for COVID-19. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Chia Siang Kow, Syed Shahzad Hasan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Infantile spasms and early-onset progressive polycystic renal lesions associated with TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene deletion syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a well-known autosomal dominant multisystem disorder characterized by hamartomas in different organs.1 Mutations in TSC1 and TSC2 genes encoding hamartin and tuberin, respectively, suppress the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition leading to the disruption of the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation.1 The neurological complications of TSC, includes epilepsy, cognitive impairment, and autism, and about 75% of patients had pharmacoresistant epilepsy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - January 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoshie Matsubara, Satoshi Akamine, Pin Fee Chong, Saori Kawakami, Kenji Maehara, Yoshitsugu Kaku, Mari Kurokawa, Naoya Morisada, Kazumoto Iijima, Ryutaro Kira Source Type: research

Intravenous brivaracetam in status epilepticus: a multicentric retrospective study in Italy
Brivaracetam (BRV) is a high-affinity synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A ligand (SV2A) that is currently licensed as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for the treatment of focal-onset seizures in people with epilepsy aged ≥ 4 years [1]. After oral administration, BRV is rapidly and completely absorbed; it has low ( (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - January 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Niccol ò Orlandi, Emanuele Bartolini, Daniela Audenino, Mario Coletti Moja, Lidia Urso, Giuseppe d'Orsi, Giada Pauletto, Annacarmen Nilo, Lucia Zinno, Roberto Cappellani, Leila Zummo, Antonello Giordano, Filippo Dainese, Peiman Nazerian, Francesca Pescin Source Type: research

Orbitofrontal syndrome and “goosebumps”—A new manifestation of autoimmune epilepsy in anti-LGI1 encephalitis
We report a case of anti-LGI1 autoimmune encephalitis presenting as orbitofrontal syndrome with focal “goosebump” seizures. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - January 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Leonor Dias, Catarina Caldeiras, L ídia Branco, Madalena Pinto Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Design and validation of the ECAVINAE-LICCE scale to evaluate quality of life in children and adolescents with epilepsy
Quality of life (QOF) is a health aspect that has become more and more relevant in the world as people with chronic conditions present a higher survival rate [1]. Questionnaires and other useful tools have been designed for the assessment of quality of life in various pathologies worldwide, from which some of them are validated in Spanish [2 –5]. For children and adolescents with epilepsy, there are two scales in Spanish, one from Spain and one from Mexico, which are applied to patients between 4 and 10 years of age; and there is a translated one for adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age [6]. (Source: Seizure: E...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - January 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sandra Milena Ram írez-Rodríguez, Carlos Medina-Malo, Angélica María Uscátegui-Daccarett, Luis Alfonso Díaz-Martínez Source Type: research

Engaging The Next Generation of Epilepsy Professionals
The results of a brief literature search using PubMed including the years 1990 to 2018, and using the search terms next generation, training, and healthcare professionals or scientists, exemplify the importance of youth engagement. Every health-related area from human to veterinary medicine is devoting substantial attention to this topic. Almost 2000 articles are published in the last 30 years, with a marked increase in the last 2 decades. Science and healthcare occupy about a third of these publications [Fig. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - January 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Johann Sebastian Ortiz de la Rosa, Yamile Calle-L ópez, Samuel Wiebe Source Type: research