Is a Separate Clinical Pathway for First Seizures Justified? Appraisal of the First Seizure pathway at a Tertiary Neuroscience Centre
The assessment of a first ever seizure has long been a staple of neurological practice. The emergence of data showing that the risk of recurrence following a single unprovoked seizure was highest in the first 3-6 months1,2, prompted the publication in the United Kingdom of NICE guidelines3 (2012) in which a recommendation was made for a suspected first epileptic seizure or a new diagnosis of epilepsy to be seen by a neurologist or preferably a neurologist specialising in epilepsy within two weeks. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: A. Neligan, D. Heaney, S. Rajakulendran Source Type: research

Microstructural integrity of affective neurocircuitry in patients with dissociative seizures is associated with emotional task performance, illness severity and trauma history
Dissociative seizures (DS), also known as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, are episodes of impaired awareness and motor control that can superficially resemble epileptic seizures or syncope. They are, however, the result of complex neurocognitive dysfunction that remains to be elucidated [1]. In one of the first large treatise on the topic from 1859 (421 cases of "hysteria", 305 with seizures), Pierre Briquet identified emotional stressors such as domestic violence and child maltreatment as common predisposing factors [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Johannes Jungilligens, J örg Wellmer, Annika Kowoll, Uwe Schlegel, Nikolai Axmacher, Stoyan Popkirov Source Type: research

A Nationally Representative Study on Discharge against Medical Advice among those Living with Epilepsy
Poor management of epilepsy may result in repeated seizures and increased hospital admissions [1,2]. Around 3% epilepsy patients leave hospital against medical advice which is strongly related to higher 30-day readmissions [3]. Proper discharge planning is vital to reduce medication errors, repeated seizures, and other adverse health outcomes. Thus, it is prudent to examine the trends and factors associated with discharges against medical advice (DAMA) among those living with epilepsy to inform future interventions to reduce the occurrence of DAMA. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Parul Agarwal, Huaqing Xi, Nathalie Jette, Jung-yi Lin, Churl-Su Kwon, Mandip S. Dhamoon, Madhu Mazumdar Source Type: research

Beliefs and attitudes towards child epilepsy: a structural equation model
Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease in childhood, affecting roughly 5 to 10 children in every 1,000, with profound repercussions in the cognitive, psychological and social areas [1,2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Luanna Gomes da Silva, Izabel Cristina Santiago Lemos de Beltr ão, Gyllyandeson de Araujo Delmondes, Cícero Damon Carvalho de Alencar, Simone Soares Damasceno, Naildo Santos Silva, Álissan Karine Lima Martins, Rafaela Bertoldi, Marta Regina Kerntopf, P Source Type: research

Aberrant basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical network topology in juvenile absence epilepsy: A resting-state EEG-fMRI study
Juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) is characterized as frequent absence seizures onset in adolescence, often triggered by photic stimulation or hyperventilation [1]. Electroencephalography (EEG) typically shows generalized spike-wave discharges (GSWDs) at three times per second. JAE is a syndrome of genetic generalized epilepsy, also called idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Patients with JAE are thought to have high probability of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) occurrence [1]. Antiepileptic drugs are usually effective, but remission rates after drug withdrawal are relatively low [2,3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tianyu Zhang, Yingying Zhang, Jiechuan Ren, Cheng Yang, Huanyu Zhou, Lei Li, Du Lei, Qiyong Gong, Dong Zhou, Tianhua Yang Source Type: research

Respiratory viruses and febrile response in children with febrile seizures: A cohort study and embedded case-control study
Febrile seizures (FSs) occur during a febrile episode without evidence of a central nervous system infection [1]. FSs cause significant morbidity and economic burden. Overall, 3% –5% of children experience FSs before the age of 7 years. FSs recur in 20%–30% of patients during subsequent febrile episodes [2]. Patients with FSs are often hospitalized [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria Hautala, Jukka Arvila, Tytti Pokka, Kirsi Mikkonen, Ulla Koskela, Heli Helander, Virpi Glumoff, Heikki Rantala, Terhi Tapiainen Source Type: research

Centromedian thalamic nucleus with or without anterior thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for epilepsy in children and adults: A retrospective case series
There are over 45.9 million people living with epilepsy worldwide [1]. Around 30 % of patients with epilepsy are drug-resistant [2]. Decreased quality of life, medication side effects, psychiatric comorbidities, and increased health-care utilization are burdens of living with epilepsy [3,4]. Individuals with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) are at higher risk of epilepsy-related morbidity and mortality [5,6]. Epilepsy surgery remains the cornerstone of DRE management, but treatment options are limited for patients whose seizures have difficult to localize onset zones, when epilepsy surgery has failed to control seizures, or w...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Juan Luis Alcala-Zermeno, Nicholas M. Gregg, Elaine C. Wirrell, Matt Stead, Greg Worrell, Jamie J. Van Gompel, Brian Nils Lundstrom Source Type: research

High genetic burden in 163 Chinese children with status epilepticus
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency with an annual incidence between 17 and 23 per 100,000 children (1). In 2015, the revised guideline recommended by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined SE as continuous seizures or a seizure lasting> 5  minutes without consciousness recovery (2,3). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tianqi Wang, Ji Wang, Yu Ma, Hao Zhou, Ding Ding, Chunpei Li, Xiaonan Du, Yong-Hui Jiang, Yi Wang, Shasha Long, Shuang Li, Guoping Lu, Weiming Chen, Yuanfeng Zhou, Shuizhen Zhou, Yi Wang Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Absence seizure provocation during routine EEG: Does position of the child during hyperventilation affect diagnostic yield?” [Seizure 79 (2020) 86–89]
The authors would like to inform you that in the statistical analysis section of their paper, which appears on page 87, the Chi-square test is mentioned in place of the be Fishers' exact test. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tal Rozenblat, Dror Kraus, Muhammad Mahajnah, Hadassah Goldberg-Stern, Nathan Watemberg Source Type: research

Severe cortical damage associated with COVID-19 case report
During the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, which began in December 2019, reported symptoms of; COVID-19 are primarily associated with respiratory or gastrointestinal issues. Studies also show that; a significant proportion of patients develop neurological symptoms; up to 36 %. Several case reports describe new onset seizures in COVID-19, especially in severe forms of the infection (1). However, the majority report brief, self-limiting seizures the impact of which seems to have been limited; in contrast we report the case of a 17-year-old female who sustained significant cortical injury during the course of COVID-19 associated mult...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Luca Zombori, Melody Bacon, Hannah Wood, Fiona Chatterjee, Ramesh Venkateswaran, Simona Lampariello, Michael Yoong Source Type: research

Using sEMG to Identify Seizure Semiology of Motor Seizures
An American Academy of Neurology subcommittee on quality measures in epilepsy identified documenting seizure type and current seizure frequency in medical records as one of eight quality measurements [1]. Current standard practice for capturing this information is limited to patient and caregiver-reported outcomes, which may include active means like seizure diaries. Unfortunately, because patients only recognize half of seizures that occur, patient reports of seizure activity and motor manifestations are unreliable [2 –4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Christoph Baumgartner, Luke E. Whitmire, Shannon R. Voyles, Damon P. Cardenas Source Type: research

Unanticipated improvement in seizure control in drug-resistant epilepsy- real world observations
Ultimately, more than one third of patients with epilepsy have seizures refractory to anti-seizure medications (ASMs), and the likelihood of treatment response diminishes exponentially with sequential unsuccessful medication trials. [1 –3] These outcomes remain unchanged, despite the introduction of more than a dozen new ASMs in the past twenty years.3] Accordingly, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) as ‘failure of adequate trials of two tolerated and appropriately chosen and used ASM schedules (whether as monotherapies or in combination) to achieve sustained ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Patrick B. Moloney, Daniel J. Costello Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a truncating de novo variant of IRF2BPL
Many studies have recently found that the interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like (IRF2BPL, MIM: 611720) gene with de novo truncating mutations is responsible for neurodevelopmental disorders [1 –8]. Additionally, the mutations in IRF2BPL cause variable neurological phenotypes, such as neurodevelopmental regression, cerebellar ataxia, loss of motor skills, and intractable epilepsy. The pathogenic mechanism of the IRF2BPL gene mutation, however, has not been clarified thus far. IRF2BPL is also known as enhanced at puberty 1 (EAP1) and was first identified by Rampazzo et al. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiao-hang Qian, Xiao-ying Liu, Ze-yu Zhu, Shi-ge Wang, Xiao-xuan Song, Guang Chen, Jing-ying Wu, Hui-dong Tang, Li Cao Source Type: research

Epilepsy after congenital zika virus infection: EEG and neuroimaging features
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Magda L. Nunes, Nathalia B. Esper, Alexandre R. Franco, Graciane Radaelli, Ricardo B. Soder, Rodrigo Bomfim, Felipe Kalil Neto, Fernando T. Gameleira, Mirna W. Portuguez, Jaderson C. da Costa Source Type: research

A qualitative awake EEG score for the diagnosis of continuous spike and waves during sleep (CSWS) syndrome in self-limited focal epilepsy (SFE): a case-control study
Epileptic encephalopathy (EE) with continuous spike and waves during sleep (CSWS) including Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a focal epilepsy syndrome of childhood characterised by the combination of regression in cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric functioning and a characteristic electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern, i.e. focal interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) that are activated in NREM sleep stages and tend to spread over the whole scalp [1]. Some cases are related to a specific aetiology (structural cerebral lesion or genetic mutation), but in most cases the aetiology is unknown. (Source: Seizure: European...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Alec Aeby, Roberto Santalucia, Audrey Van Hecke, Andrea Nebbioso, Justine Vermeiren, Nicolas Deconinck, Xavier De Ti ège, Patrick Van Bogaert Source Type: research

Detection of high-frequency oscillations in electroencephalography: A scoping review and an adaptable open-source framework
High frequency oscillations (HFOs) recorded through electroencephalography (EEG) have recently emerged as putative biomarkers of epileptogenicity [1]. HFOs are transient events that likely reflect synchronized activity of neuronal populations [2]. These phenomena are subdivided according to their spectral range into “ripples” (approximately 80-250 Hz) and “fast ripples” (FRs, approximately 250-500 Hz) [3]. HFOs can be both pathological or physiological, contributing to epileptogenesis or eloquent cognitive functions [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Simeon M. Wong, Olivia N. Arski, Adriana M. Workewych, Elizabeth Donner, Ayako Ochi, Hiroshi Otsubo, O. Carter Snead, George M. Ibrahim Source Type: research

Quality of life, fatigue and seizure severity in people living with epilepsy in a selected Nigerian population
Epilepsy, a chronic seizure disorder requiring long term health care contact, is one of the most non-infectious neurological disease in developing countries with serious physical, psychological, social and economic consequences for affected persons, families and society in general [1 –3]. It affects about 50 million people worldwide with majority living in developing countries like Nigeria that has a prevalence ranges from 5.3 to 37 per one thousand persons [3,4]. The burden of epilepsy can be overwhelming for many individuals and their families, and can severely affect the qu ality of life of its sufferers [2,5&ndas...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Christopher Olusanjo Akosile, John Uche Anomneze, Emmanuel Chiebuka Okoye, Babatunde Olusola Adeleke Adegoke, Richard Uwakwe, Emeka Okeke Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Development and validation of a predictive model for the diagnosis of neural antibody-mediated epilepsy/seizure in patients with new-onset seizure or established epilepsy” [Seizure: Eur. J. Epilepsy 83 (2020) 5–12]
The authors would like to inform you that the names of the last two authors were inverted in error in their published article. The authors ’ names are given in the correct order above. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wenlin Zhang, Hui Bu, Yi Li, Xuefang Han, Junying He, Weiping Wang, Lijing Jia Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Affordability, availability and tolerability of anti-seizure medications are better predictors of adherence than beliefs: Changing paradigms from a low resource setting
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders estimated to affect around 70 million people worldwide [1]. Anti-seizure medications (ASM) form the mainstay of treatment and help in achieving good seizure control in 70 % of patients with epilepsy (PWE). Medication non-adherence magnifies the morbidity and causes a threefold increase in mortality [2,3]. Medication adherence is defined as "the extent to which a person ’s behaviour including taking medication, following a diet, and/or executing lifestyle changes, corresponds with agreed recommendations from a health care provider". (Source: Seizure: ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Anita Ann Sunny, Rajesh Shankar Iyer, Soumya Gopalan Kumaran, Nadiya Grace Bunshaw, Karthikeyan Shanmugham, Uma Govindaraj Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “The medial pulvinar as a subcortical relay in temporal lobe status epilepticus” [Seizure: Eur J Epilep 81 (2020) 276–279]
The authors note that the version of figure 2 that was published in their article is of poor quality and provide a higher quality version of the figure below. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Francesco Capecchi, Ian Mothersill, Lukas L. Imbach Source Type: research

Explanatory Factors of Quality of Life in Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are experiences of paroxysmal episodes with varying combinations of motor, sensory, emotional signs and impairment of consciousness [1]. This semiology looks very close to an epileptic seizure [2]. The PNES diagnosis is confirmed by the absence of an ictal cerebral electrical activity on video-EEG, which is the gold-standard examination [1]. This is a chronic disorder relatively unfamiliar to the medical community [3]. Psychological origin is suspected and PNES are classified into conversive disorders as convulsions in functional neurological symptoms according to the DSM-5 (Diagno...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Marion Gagny, Louise Grenevald, Wissam El-Hage, Jan Chrusciel, St éphane Sanchez, Raymund Schwan, Irina Klemina, Julien Biberon, Bertrand de Toffol, Anne Thiriaux, Jean François Visseaux, Martine Lemeles Martin, Mylène Meyer, Louis Maillard, Coraline H Source Type: research

Is the anticonvulsant activity of levetiracetam dose-dependent?
Levetiracetam (LEV) was introduced as an antiseizure medication (ASM) in Germany in the year of 2000 [1,2]. Meanwhile it is well established and recommended as first-line ASM in focal epilepsy in Germany [3]. Its beneficial effect on seizures is proven for a huge variety of epilepsy syndromes [4 –7]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Valerija Lamouret, Christoph Kurth, Tassanai Intravooth, Bernhard J. Steinhoff Source Type: research

A Case of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis with Peculiar Gyratory events that Reignites the Epilepsy versus Movement Disorders Debate
We present a case of anti-NMDARE with peculiar gyratory events and a lengthy past history of undiagnosed afebrile encephalopathy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Akash Chheda, Karan M. Desai, Rishikesh Joshi, Mayur Thakkar, Rajit Pillai, Priyanka Walzade, Sangeeta H. Ravat, Dr.Neeraj Jain Source Type: research

Intracranial Calcifications Associated with Epilepsy: A Case Report of Lipoid Proteinosis
Lipoid proteinosis (LP) was first described by Urbach and Wiethe in 1929 under the name “hyalinosis cutis et mucosae.” LP is a very rare disease with approximately 400 cases reported in the literature. It affects males and females equally and is present worldwide [1]. It is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by multisystem involvement due to intracellular deposition of am orphous hyaline material. The disease results from a mutation in the extracellular matrix of the protein 1 gene (ECM1) gene, located on chromosome 1q21.2 [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Paula Martinez Agredano, Carlota Mendez del Barrio, Manuel Caballero Martinez, Carmen Arenas Cabrera Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Seizures in autoimmune encephalitis: Findings from an EEG pooled analysis
Autoimmune encephalitis (AEs) encompasses a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations pointing to a widespread brain involvement, well beyond the limbic system alone [1]. Besides mental status alterations, cognitive deficits and behavioral/psychiatric disorders, seizures are part of the clinical core of AE [2], and often represent the most alarming and impressive sign at the disease onset, leading the patients to seek medical advice. The subacute onset of seizures, especially in elderly subjects, urges the need to investigate (and eventually rule out) numerous possible etiologies or mimics, ranging from vascular acciden...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Alessandra Morano, Martina Fanella, Emanuele Cerulli Irelli, Francesca A. Barone, Giacomo Fisco, Biagio Orlando, Mariarita Albini, Jinane Fattouch, Mario Manfredi, Sara Casciato, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Carlo Di Bonaventura Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and clinical effectiveness of perampanel in combination therapy for epilepsy with epilepsy
The novel antiepileptic drug (AED) perampanel is used in monotherapy and as an adjunctive treatment for focal, focal to bilateral, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy. Perampanel has a high protein-binding ratio (> 95 %) and long half-life ( ∼105 h) and is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 [1]. Thus, it is highly susceptible to interactions with CYP-inducing AEDs (inducers), such as phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), and phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, stiripentol is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, which can elevate perampanel concentration. (Source: Seizure: Europe...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Yuka Shiratani, Shoko Asai, Naotaka Usui, Takuji Nishida, Katsumi Imai, Yoshiyuki Kagawa, Yukitoshi Takahashi Source Type: research

Electrographic pattern recognition: A simple tool to predict clinical outcome in children with lissencephaly
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Prashant Jauhari, Rajni Farmania, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Atin Kumar, Sheffali Gulati Source Type: research

Seizure burden and neurodevelopmental outcome in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia: A single center observational study
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) occurs in 1 –8 newborns per 1000 live births and it is the most common cause of seizures in term neonates. [1] Many studies in asphyxiated neonates before the advent of therapeutic hypothermia [TH] have shown a relationship between clinical and/or electrographic seizures, especially status epilepticus, and ab normal outcome. [2] Due to the overlapping between the ischemic hypoxic damage and the injury resulting from seizures activity, it is still difficult to establish the impact of seizures in the exacerbation of brain damage and in the worsening outcome of asphyxiated newborns ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Claudia Basti, Eugenia Maranella, Nicola Cimini, Alessia Catalucci, Simona Ciccarelli, Marianna Del Torto, Luisa Di Luca, Cecilia Di Natale, Arianna Mareri, Valentina Nardi, Veronica Pannone, Sandra Di Fabio Source Type: research

Towards an evidence-based treatment of pediatric status epilepticus: still a mountain to climb
The recently published study “Clinical characteristics and prognosis in a large paediatric cohort with status epilepticus” provided an impressive amount of data about the real-world features of paediatric status epilepticus [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mario Mastrangelo Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Cognitive disorders in epilepsy II: Clinical targets, indications and selection of test instruments
The intellectual function of patients with epilepsy has been a subject of interest for centuries [1,2]. It was long thought that all patients with epilepsy have poor cognition and progressively worsening memory. This belief started to change in 1985 with the results of a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study done by Mattson et al. through the Veteran ’s Administration [3]. Six hundred twenty-two patients were enrolled, followed over one to six years, and given extensive neuropsychological tests before initiation of antiseizure medications and then throughout the study. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: C. Helmstaedter, Z. Sadat-Hossieny, A.M. Kanner, K.J. Meador Tags: Review Source Type: research

Erratum to “Emotional and cognitive empathy in patients with non-epileptic seizures” [Seizure: Eur. J. Epilepsy 81 (2020) 280–286]
The Publisher regrets that due to a typesetting error the following text was included in the footnote for Table 3: (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: F. Irorutola, C. Gerhardt, K. Hamouda, M. Rose, K. Hinkelmann, P. Senf-Beckenbach Source Type: research

Cognitive Disorders in Epilepsy – Part II: Clinical Targets, Indications and Selection of Test Instruments
The intellectual function of patients with epilepsy has been a subject of interest for centuries [1,2]. It was long thought that all patients with epilepsy have poor cognition and progressively worsening memory. This belief started to change in 1985 with the results of a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study done by Mattson et al through the Veteran ’s Administration [3]. Six hundred twenty-two patients were enrolled, followed over one to six years, and given extensive neuropsychological tests before initiation of antiseizure medications and then throughout the study. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: C. Helmstaedter, Z. Sadat-Hossieny, A.M. Kanner, K.J. Meador Tags: Review Source Type: research

Epilepsy with eyelid myoclonias and Sotos syndrome features in a patient with compound heterozygous missense variants in APC2 gene
Epilepsy with eyelid myoclonias, originally depicted by Jeavons in 1977, is a reflex epilepsy characterized by jerking of the eyelids with or without absences precipitated by eye closure or by light (eyelid myoclonia, EM), eye closure-induced EEG paroxysms and photosensitivity. Childhood-onset, female predominance and a normal development are typical features, though a mild intellectual disability has been reported. Sotos syndrome is a disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, learning disability and overgrowth in childhood with macrocephaly, caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants or deletions in NSD1 ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vincenzo Mastrangelo, Raffaella Minardi, Maria Chiara Baroni, Giulia Severi, Enrico Ambrosini, Francesco Toni, Lara Alvisi, Laura Licchetta, Francesca Bisulli, Paolo Tinuper, Barbara Mostacci Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

The presenting symptoms of lafora disease: an electroclinical and genetic study in five apulian (southern italy) families
Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM# 254780) is a progressive myoclonic epilepsy inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, due to rare mutations in either the EPM2A or the NHLRC1 genes, encoding for the laforin glycogen phosphatase on chromosome 6q24 and the malin ubiquitin E3 ligase on chromosome 6p22.3 [1], respectively. The absence of either of the two proteins results in Lafora bodies, which contain polyglucosan, a poorly branched form of glycogen, in neurons, muscle and other tissues, and main drivers of neurodegeneration [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Giuseppe d ’Orsi, Alessandra Lalla, Orazio Palumbo, Maria Teresa Di Claudio, Annarita Valenzano, Annarita Sabetta, Angela Lopopolo, Ester Di Muro, Pietro Palumbo, Massimiliano Copetti, Massimo Carella, Carlo Avolio Source Type: research

Clinical letter: Brand substitution with generics – A potential mine field
The treatment of people with epilepsy exposes clinicians to potential liability should seizures result in catastrophic consequences, in the absence of adequate advice being proffered. The period during a change of an anti-seizure medication (ASM) regimen heightens this risk with inherent anxiety for both prescribers and patients. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: David Manser, Roy G. Beran Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

The effects of the Fordyce ’s 14 Fundamentals for Happiness Program on happiness and caregiver burden among the family caregivers of patients with epilepsy: a randomized controlled trial
Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder in the world (1,2). It affects all age, gender, racial, and socioeconomic groups. Epilepsy induces transient and recurrent electrical dysfunction in the brain due to abnormal electrical discharge in the brain (2,3). Estimates show that there are 65 million patients with epilepsy in the world (4). Around 75% of these patients live in developing countries (5). The prevalence of epilepsy in Iran is 5% (6). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Leili Rabiei, Masoud Lotfizadeh, Zahra Karimi, Reza Masoudi Source Type: research

Systematic review of EEG findings in 617 patients diagnosed with COVID-19
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Arun Antony, Zulfi Haneef Source Type: research

A prospective cohort study to assess the frequency and risk factors for calcification in single lesion parenchymal neurocysticercosis
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent helminthic infection of the nervous system. It occurs when humans become intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs. The disease is transmitted from tapeworm carriers to healthy individuals through unhygienic food handling or by direct contact with human faeces [1]. NCC is the most common acquired cause of epilepsy in developing countries [2 –4]. Classically, neurocysticercosis evolves through four stages: vesicular, colloidal, granular nodular and calcified [5,6]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Renu Suthar, Jitendra K Sahu, Chirag K Ahuja, Niranjan Khandelwal, Rakesh Sehgal, Pratibha Singhi Source Type: research

Catastrophising and repetitive negative thinking tendencies in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures or epilepsy
Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES) are characterised by episodic disturbances of normal brain functions superficially resembling epileptic seizures. However, rather than being related to epileptic activity in the brain, PNES are considered to result from activation of an established ‘seizure scaffold’ and as a dissociative response to aversive internal or external stimuli [1]. The aetiology of PNES is heterogeneous and a combination of aetiological factors is likely to be relevant in most cases [2,3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Andrew Whitfield, Sean Walsh, Liat Levita, Markus Reuber Source Type: research

Redefining the role of Magnetoencephalography in refractory epilepsy
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) possesses a number of features, including excellent spatiotemporal resolution, that lend itself to the functional imaging of epileptic activity. However its current use is restricted to specific scenarios, namely in the diagnosis refractory focal epilepsies where electroencephalography (EEG) has been inconclusive. This review highlights the recent progress of MEG within epilepsy, including advances in the technique itself such as simultaneous EEG/MEG and intracranial EEG/MEG recording and room temperature MEG recording using optically pumped magnetometers, as well as improved post processing of...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Umesh Vivekananda Tags: Review Source Type: research

Teleneuropsychology in the time of COVID-19: the experience of the Australian Epilepsy Project
The emergence of COVID-19 has resulted in significant changes in the day-to-day functioning of society the world over. Social distancing policies have had profound effects on people ’s day-to-day movements and interpersonal interactions [1] with enormous implications for workplaces, organisations, institutions and social activities. In the health sector this has meant that, wherever possible, clinical consultations have moved from face-to-face to a virtual environment (e.g. t elephone, videoconferencing). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chris Tailby, Alana J. Collins, David N. Vaughan, David F. Abbott, Marie O ’Shea, Christoph Helmstaedter, Graeme D. Jackson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Child and parent experiences of childhood epilepsy surgery and adjustment to life following surgery: A qualitative study
Individuals with epilepsy report high levels of perceived stigma, which is associated with poorer psychosocial functioning, increased risk of mental health problems and reduced participation in social activities [2]. Surgical treatment may be considered due to the detrimental impact of repeated seizure activity on neurological development. Earlier surgery in children may provide a longer period of neurological plasticity and improved cognitive outcomes [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jennifer O ’Brien, Victoria Gray, Kerry Woolfall Source Type: research

Cognitive Disorders in Epilepsy I: Clinical Experience, Real-World Evidence and Recommendations
A revised definition of epilepsy suggests that "epilepsy is a disease of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive, psychologic, and social consequences of this condition." Based on this definition, the aim of treatment of patients with epilepsy (PWE) should not be limited to the achievement of seizure remission but must incorporate the treatment of cognitive and psychological comorbidities [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Andres M. Kanner, Christoph Helmstaedter, Zahra Sadat-Hossieny, Kimford Meador Source Type: research

Statin use and the risk of post-stroke seizures: A meta-analysis
As a prevalent neurologic disorder, stroke has been well established as one of the most leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide [1]. Stroke is a main cause of acute symptomatic seizures and epilepsy in patients older than 65 years old [2]. Due to a large prevalence of stroke in the ageing population, post-stroke seizures (PSS) are affecting a significant proportion of elderly patients[3]. Increasing evidence has suggested that PSS are associated with increased mortality and disability in stroke patients[4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tao Xu, You Wang, Jinxian Yuan, Yangmei Chen, Haiyan Luo Tags: Review Source Type: research

EEG findings and clinical prognostic factors associated with mortality in a prospective cohort of inpatients with COVID-19
Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mortality is associated with risk factors such as older age, male gender, cancer, pulmonary and cardiovascular comorbidities [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ilona Skorin, Rogelio Carrillo, Carmen P. Perez, Natalie Sanchez, Jorge Parra, Patricia Troncoso, Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martin Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Rasmussen ’s encephalitis and central precocious puberty. Neuroendocrinological characterization of three cases
Rasmussen ’s encephalitis (RE) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the cerebral cortex, mainly unilateral, that leads to drug-resistant epilepsy and progressive neurological impairment. Central Precocious Puberty (CPP) is uncommon, albeit increased in frequency in patients wi th neurological conditions and the physiopathological bases of these associations remains unclear in most cases. Epilepsy has been proposed to play a role, as well as the accumulation of substances produced as a result of metabolism or tissue degeneration in some neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: Seizure: Europ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ver ónica Cantarín-Extremera, María Jiménez-Legido, Álvaro Martín-Rivada, María Güemes, José Luis Peña-Segura, Marta Martínez-González, Jesús Argente, María Luz Ruiz-Falcó-Rojas Source Type: research

Learnings from 30 years of reported Efficacy and Safety of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Epilepsy Treatment: A critical review
Since its first reported use in humans in 1988 and more than 100,000 subsequent implantations, VNS has generated growing interest in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) [1]. These represent around 30% of all epilepsy cases [2]. The average prevalence of epilepsy in the world is estimated at around 7.60 cases/1,000 inhabitants, with an average annual incidence of 67.77 cases/100,000 inhabitants [3]. The functional prognosis and survival associated with this condition are influenced by major trauma and psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: D ènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Lahoud Touma, Tahir EL Meskine, Alain Bouthillier, Dang Khoa Nguyen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Impulsiveness, personality traits and executive functioning in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Andr é Peres Gama, Mariângela Taura, Neide Barreira Alonso, Artur Menezes Sousa, Maria Helena da Silva Noffs, Elza Márcia Yacubian, Laura Maria Guilhoto Source Type: research

Correlates of health-related quality of life in youth with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) can have debilitating effects on people ’s lives, in part due to medical appointments, missed school or work, stigma, and financial stress. In adults, research indicates that individuals with PNES consistently report poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than adults with epilepsy [37], possibly due to higher levels of comorbid p sychopathology [2,25], somatization (Dempsey- [42]), elevated state, trait, and anger scores [23], emotional regulation difficulties [38], illness perceptions [29], and perceived stigma [32]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kassie D. Flewelling, Angelina Koehler, Jonathan Shaffer, Edward J. Dill Source Type: research