Neuropsychological findings related to the presence of pre-surgical comorbid depression in Latin-American patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a common pathological cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) [1,2], which is usually drug-resistant [3] and amenable to surgical treatment [4]. The role of neuropsychological evaluation in the routine care of people with epilepsy (PWE), especially in the pre-surgical evaluation, is to provide a comprehensive and objective assessment of cognitive functions [5]. Moreover, the side of HS seems to play a role in the neuropsychological profile of patients with MTLE [6]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nath ália Stela Visoná de Figueiredo, Maryane Mendes Cavalcanti, Larissa Botelho Gaça, Maria Helena da Silva Noffs, Arthur Victor Menezes Sousa, Neide Barreira Alonso, Lenon Mazetto, Gerardo Maria de Araújo Filho, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian, Laura M Source Type: research

The Possible Role of Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Dysfunction in Epileptic Spasms
Epileptic spasms (ESs) have been identified as a distinct form of seizure by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) [1]. These spasms have characteristic brief axial and rhizomelic contractions, and the ictal electroencephalography (EEG) is characterized by a slow, transient wave after undergoing a period of attenuation [2]. These characteristics are most frequently related with West syndrome (WS) [3]. WS is a specific electroclinical epilepsy syndrome with onset in infancy with a characteristic electrographic pattern, hypsarrhythmia, and developmental delays. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bing-Wei Peng, Xiao-Jing Li, Wen-Xiao Wu, Yi-Ru Zeng, Yin-Ting Liao, Chi Hou, Hui-Ci Liang, Wen Zhang, Xiu-Ying Wang, Wen-Xiong Chen Source Type: research

Forced normalization: case series from a spanish epilepsy unit
The concept of forced normalization was coined in 1950 by Heinrich Landolt [1,2]. He described a clinical setting that conjoined epilepsy and psychosis: patients showed behavioural and psychiatric symptoms coinciding with a reduction or termination of seizures, as well as a total or partial normalization of electroencephalogram. It is still a matter of interest because the physiopathology, triggering factors, predicting and clinical variables are still not fully understood. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lina Carazo Barrios, Guillermina Garc ía Martín, Jorge Romero Godoy, Manuel Romero Acebal, María Isabel Chamorro Muñoz Source Type: research

Parasomnias, sleep-related movement disorders and physiological sleep variants in focal epilepsy: a polysomnographic study
Sleep and epilepsy are two bidirectionally interconnected phenomena [1]. The close link existing between epilepsy and sleep is well known since the times of Hippocrates [2]; and the activating function of sleep on epilepsy has been widely recognized, as well as the effect of epilepsy on sleep [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Loretta Giuliano, Greta Mainieri, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Giulia Battaglia, Antonella Guccione, Salvatore Salomone, Filippo Drago, Alessandra Nicoletti, Vito Sofia, Mario Zappia Source Type: research

Self-efficacy in seizure management differentially correlated with quality of life in persons with epilepsy depending on seizure recurrence and felt stigma
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized primarily by recurrent and unpredictable seizures. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is significantly impacted in persons with epilepsy, not only by recurrent seizures, but also due to impaired psychosocial functioning [1,2]. As management of recurrent seizures improves, impaired psychosocial functioning may become the greater concern for HRQoL in persons with epilepsy [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sang-Ahm Lee, Soo Jeong Kim, The Korean QoL in Epilepsy Study Group Source Type: research

skin conductance response and EMOTIONAL REspoNse in WOMEN WITH PSYCHOGENIC NON-EPILEPTIC SEIZURES
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal repetitive episodes which may superficially resemble epileptic seizures, in relation to unconscious psychogenic processes and without excessive neuronal discharge. [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hugo Herrero, Alexis Tarrada, Emmanuel Haffen, Thibault Mignot, Charlotte Sense, Raymund Schwan, Wissam EL-Hage, Louis Maillard, Coraline hingray Source Type: research

The nature, frequency and value of stimulation induced seizures during extraoperative cortical stimulation for functional mapping
Direct electrical cortical stimulation (CS) is used for mapping of eloquent cortex in patients with refractory focal epilepsy undergoing intracranial electroencephalography (icEEG) as part of their presurgical evaluation. CS can be performed with subdural grids, strips and depth electrodes (or combinations of these) after craniotomy or with stereotactically-inserted depth electrodes (stereo electroencephalography, SEEG)[1,2]. CS remains the gold standard for functional mapping of language, motor and sensory areas in relation to the epileptogenic zone (EZ) prior to epilepsy surgery[1,2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Martha Spilioti, Joel S. Winston, Maria Centeno, Catherine Scott, Fahmida Chowdhury, Beate Diehl Source Type: research

Reliability and validity of the Taiwanese version of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (Tw-NDDI-E)
In patients with epilepsy (PWE), medical or psychiatric co-morbidities are common[1 –4]. The risk of psychiatric co-morbidities in PWE is approximately 2-3-fold higher than that in the general population[5]. Depression is the most commonly seen psychiatric co-morbidity of epilepsy. The prevalence of depression in PWE was higher than that in a matched population of healthy control s, ranging from 20 to 55% in patients with active epilepsy[6,7]. Depression in PWE has adverse effects on seizure control, quality of life, and health care costs[8]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yen-Cheng Shih, Chien-Chen Chou, Yi-Jiun Lu, Yuan-Hwa Chou, Hsiang-Yu Yu Source Type: research

Application of the APE2-CHN and RITE2-CHN scores for autoimmune seizures and epilepsy in Chinese patients: A retrospective study
Epilepsy is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized by seizures. Structural, metabolic, genetic or infectious factors are often identified as the cause of epilepsy, but in a substantial number of patients the etiology is unclear [1]. In the past few years, emerging data have revealed an autoimmune cause in patients with previous epilepsy with unknown etiology [2 –6], and in the 2017 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification, autoimmune epilepsy was recognized as a distinct etiological subgroup of epilepsy [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wei-ping Liu, Mian Wang, Chen Zhang, Charlie W. Zhao, Bo Xiao, Chang Zeng Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus
Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening medical emergency, even if appropriate treatment is initiated, the mortality within 30 days ranges from 10 % to 30 % [1]. The mortality rates of convulsive SE are even higher - up to 39 % in population-based studies [2]. The data regarding the outcome for nonconvulsive SE (NCSE) are sparse [3]. The clinical and EEG definitions of NCSE have changed over time, but they have been updated recently in the Salzburg consensus criteria for NCSE with an approach to clinical application [4 –6]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Micha ł Sobstyl, Angelika Stapińska-Syniec, Marcin Rylski Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rasmussen's encephalitis: from immune pathogenesis towards targeted-therapy
First described by Theodore Rasmussen in 1958 [1], Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is defined as “a chronic, progressive encephalopathy with unilateral involvement and featured by intractable focal seizures, Epilepsia Partialis Continua (EPC), hemiparesis and progressive cognitive decline” [2]. the annual incidence is estimated to be about 2.4 cases/107 people under 18 years [3]. Authors do not describe any sex or ethnic predominance [4]. The mean age at presentation is between 6 and 8 years, and the neurologic development at the onset is usually normal [5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: A. Orsini, T. Foiadelli, N. Carli, G. Costagliola, B. Masini, A. Bonuccelli, S. Savasta, D. Peroni, R. Consolini, P. Striano Tags: Review Source Type: research

Seizures and epilepsy of autoimmune origin: A long-term prospective study
Acute symptomatic seizures (ASS) are defined as clinical seizures occurring at the time of a systemic or brain insult. Seizures occurring in the context of an autoimmune disease, such as an autoimmune encephalitis, are considered autoimmune acute symptomatic seizures if signs or symptoms of immune activation are noted [1] The current International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) terminology considers seizures in the context of autoimmune encephalitis at initial or relapsing presentations as acute symptomatic. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Merc è Falip, Sònia Jaraba, Laura Rodriguez-Bel, Sara Castañer, Jaume Mora, Pablo Arroyo, Júlia Miro, Jacint Sala-Padró, Sergio Martinez-Yélamos, Carlos Casasnovas, Jordi Gascon-Bayarri, Eva Real, Francisco Moranderia, Noemí Vidal, Misericòrdia Ve Source Type: research

Medication burden in epilepsy: exploring the impact of non-epilepsy concomitant drugs load
Epilepsy is a serious chronic neurological disorder associated with an increased risk of psychiatric comorbidity and premature mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that somatic comorbidity is markedly increased in people with epilepsy compared to the general population. [1 –6] These comorbidities have a substantial detrimental effect on the quality of life in people with epilepsy [7–11]. The precise determinants for the comorbidities are yet unknown, but may include the use of medications for epilepsy or other indications [12,13]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Johanna W Bunschoten, Job van der Palen, Josemir W Sander, Roland D Thijs Source Type: research

Exosomal microRNA expression profiles of cerebrospinal fluid in febrile seizure patients
Febrile seizures (FS), the most common seizures observed in pediatric patients, affect 2-5% of children below 5 years of age [1,2]. These are characterized by fever episodes without any history of neurological insults or spontaneous seizures [3]. Many studies on family and twins have demonstrated that genetic factors play an important role in FS [4,5]. Approximately one-third of children with FS show a positive family history [4]. Possible modes of inheritance for genetic predisposition to FS are autosomal dominance with reduced penetrance and polygenic or multifactorial inheritance [6,7]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Seh Hyun Kim, Sin-Weon Yun, Hye Ryoun Kim, Soo Ahn Chae Source Type: research

Epilepsy, anti-seizure medication, intellectual disability and challenging behaviour – Everyone’s business, no one’s priority
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterised by an enduring predisposition to recurrent seizures, with social, biological and psychological consequences [1]. Epilepsy is more prevalent in persons with intellectual disability (ID) [2], compared to the general population [3]. In a cross-sectional study of 14,751 patients with ID, 18.5% had epilepsy compared to 0.7% of controls (Prevalence ratio 25) [4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: M.O. Kinney, V. Chester, S. Tromans, R.T Alexander, H. Angus-Leppan, M. Bagary, H. Cock, J. Devapriam, A. Hassiotis, M. Mula, M. Reuber, H. Ring, A. Roy, M. Scheepers, R. Shankar Source Type: research

Efficacy of the ketogenic diet in patients with Dravet syndrome: A meta-analysis
Dravet syndrome (DS), otherwise known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a severe and rare drug-resistant seizure disorder with an incidence of 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 40,000 [1 –2]. Between 70% and 80% of patients with DS carry sodium channel α1 subunit gene (SCN1A) abnormalities [3]. The characteristics of DS include early onset (before 1 year of age). Infants with DS often present with prolonged, hemiconvulsive seizures triggered by fever; other seizure types, inclu ding focal with impaired awareness, absence, and myoclonic seizures, develop between 1 and 4 years. (Source: Seizure: Europea...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yan-qiu Wang, Zhi-Xu Fang, Yi-wei Zhang, Ling-Ling Xie, Li Jiang Source Type: research

Feasibility and effectiveness of teleconsultation in children with epilepsy amidst the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in a resource-limited country
The COVID-19 pandemic, which has currently engulfed most countries, has taught mankind unexpected lessons and forced to develop innovative ways to deal with this unprecedented havoc[1]. Only a few living persons have limited experience of dealing with such a huge pandemic, spreading like wildfire as the last worldwide influenza pandemic occurred nearly 100 years back. The SARS CoV-2 predominantly causes a respiratory illness, which culminates in severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cytokine storm response and death in 5-10% of affected patients[2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Prateek Kumar Panda, Lesa Dawman, Pragnya Panda, Indar Kumar Sharawat Source Type: research

Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting as new onset refractory status epilepticus in COVID-19
During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinicians are increasingly involved in the observation of possible neurological complications due to the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [1]. Among neurologic emergencies, new onset seizures and status epilepticus in non-epileptic patients are up to now, infrequently reported [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Giulia Monti, Giada Giovannini, Andrea Marudi, Roberta Bedin, Alessandra Melegari, Anna Maria Simone, Mario Santangelo, Alessandro Pignatti, Elisabetta Bertellini, Tommaso Trenti, Stefano Meletti Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

The value of rapid eye movement sleep in the localization of epileptogenic foci for patients with focal epilepsy
Epilepsy is one of the common neurological diseases, characterized by abnormally synchronized discharges of brain neurons [1]. There are more than 50 million epileptic patients worldwide, 30% of whom are refractory [2], and the poor therapeutic effects contribute heavy psychological and economic burdens on patients and their own families. Epileptic surgery can sometimes have seizure free or reduce the frequency of seizures, of which the premise is to accurately localize the epileptogenic foci. Currently, the localization of epileptogenic foci involves comprehensive preoperative evaluation mainly including semiology, electr...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiao Yuan, Meizhen Sun Source Type: research

Chrysostomos (Tomis) P. Panayiotopoulos
I was privileged to meet Tomis when I was a registrar at St Thomas ’ Hospital in 1992, fresh from early training at the National Hospital for Neurology, Queen Square. Tomis’ enthusiasm for his specialities, clinical neurophysiology and epileptology, was infectious. His personal charm was immediately apparent, which together with his smile and charming Greek acc ent gave him an air of approachability. He was invariably polite in the face of ignorance, and encouraged all around him by the strategy of talking as if they were much more knowledgeable that they were. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Richard A. Gr ünewald Source Type: research

Sirolimus for seizure control in children with Tuberous sclerosis: Is it really a wonder drug?
We read with great interest the recently published article titled “Sirolimus improves seizure control in pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis: A prospective cohort study” by Wen He et al, which concludes sirolimus can be used as a first-line antiepileptic drug in children with tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and can cause significant gain in development milesto nes [1]. However, we wish to add a few comments. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Prateek Kumar Panda, Indar Kumar Sharawat Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

History of violence/maltreatment and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal alterations of behavior that resemble epileptic seizures but lack a neurobiological origin and are not associated with electrophysiological ictal abnormalities [1]. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th revision (DSM-5) [2], PNES are spread in the realm of conversion disorders, referring to patients who experience neurological symptoms in the absence of neurological disease, and in the category of dissociative identity disorders. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Massimiliano Beghi, Le Zhang, Ettore Beghi, Giorgia Giussani, Giuseppe Erba, Elisa Longinetti, Brian M. D'Onofrio, Elisa Bianchi, Fang Fang, Torbjorn Tomson, Zheng Chang Source Type: research

Ictal Blinking in Focal Seizures: insights from SEEG recordings
Ictal blinking is an oculomotor sign occurring in various types of epilepsies [1]. A blink consists of tonic closure of upper and lower eyelid, co-occurring with downward movement of the eyes (contraction of orbicularis oculi and levator palpebrae superiorus muscles) [2], distinct from eyelid myoclonia observed in generalized epilepsy (associated with upward movement of eyes and extension of the h ead) or eyelid clonia observed in facial motor focal seizures (associated with other facial muscles contraction). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Stanislas Lagarde, Maya Dirani, Agn ès Trebuchon, Anne Lepine, Nathalie Villeneuve, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Aileen McGonigal, Fabrice Bartolomei Source Type: research

Response to the letter “Sirolimus for seizure control in children with tuberous sclerosis: Is it really a wonder drug(SEIZURE-D-20-00436)?”
We read the letter from Professor Prateek Kumar Panda with great interest. We think that the letter also provides us a chance for an in-depth discussion on the efficacy of sirolimus. Below are our responses. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wen He, Yang-Yang Wang, Li-Ping Zou Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Response to the letter "Sirolimus for seizure control in children with Tuberous sclerosis: Is it really a wonder drug(SEIZURE-D-20-00436)?"
We read the letter from Professor Prateek Kumar Panda with great interest. We think that the letter also provides us a chance for an in-depth discussion on the efficacy of sirolimus. Below are our responses. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wen He, Yang-Yang Wang, Li-Ping Zou Source Type: research

Caregiver burden in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) semiologically mimic epileptic seizures (ES) but lack their neurobiological and neurophysiological basis.[1] PNES represent 10-30% of referrals to epilepsy specialists,[2,3] and their prevalence in the general population is estimated at 2 to 33 per 100,000.[3] They constitute a significant public health issue with an estimated lifetime cost per patient cohort year in the US ranging from $110-920 million.[4] (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ioannis Karakis, Matthew L Morton, Nicholas J Janocko, Olivia Groover, Diane L Teagarden, Hannah K Villarreal, David W Loring, Daniel L Drane Source Type: research

Epileptogenesis-Induced Changes of Hippocampal-Piriform Connectivity
Human experience [1,2] and many animal models [3,4] of epilepsy follow a classic scenario of an inciting epileptogenic event followed by a latency phase before emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). There is evidence that tissue remodeling occurs during the latency period, which facilitates the initiation and propagation of epileptic seizures [5 –7]. Biomarkers of such remodeling can be of value for diagnosis and assessment of response to therapeutic interventions. Cerebro-cerebral evoked potentials (CCEPs) recorded in the seizure network in response to low frequency stimulation (LFS) are measurable signa...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mark D. Skopin, Arezou Bayat, Lalitha Kurada, Mithilesh Siddu, Sweta Joshi, Christina M. Zelano, Mohamad Z. Koubeissi Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Effectiveness of cannabidiol in a prospective cohort of children with drug resistant epileptic encephalopathy in Argentina” [Seizure 80 (2020) 75–80]
The authors regret that there is an error in the ratio given in the first sentence on page 76 of the published article, which appears in the first sentence of section 2.2. Intervention and outcomes. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Roberto Caraballo, Graciela Demirdjian, Gabriela Reyes, Marina Huaman, Robinson Gutierrez Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Response to: Deng L, Ma A, Wood N, Ardern-Holmes S. Vaccination management in an asymptomatic child with a novel SCN1A variant and family history of status epilepticus following vaccination: A case report on a potential new direction in personalised medicine.  Seizure. 2020;78:49-52
I read this brief case report by Deng et al. with great interest. I believe that it is very important, and has significant implications on the future treatment of infants with genetic epilepsies and genetic epileptic encephalopathies. An important aspect of the case is the fact that the treatment started on this presymptomatic female infant not only prevented the disastrous consequence of immunization suffered by her brother, but also prevented the appearance of seizures which, if I understand the case report well, caused her mother, who carries us the same mutation, to have recurrent seizures since infancy not fully contr...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuval Shafrir Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

COVID-19 & Antiepileptic Drugs: Should We Pay Attention?
People with novel coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV2) may have hypoxia, multi-organ failure, meningitis, encephalitis, and severe metabolic and electrolyte imbalance. Therefore, these patients are expected to have clinical or subclinical acute symptomatic seizures, especially during the intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. It was determined that 25% of COVID-19 patients had central nervous system (CNS) manifestations and 2% of them had at least one seizure during treatment process. [1] Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with high clinical significance between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and anti-COVID-19 therapies (antiviral and im...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Oguzhan Firat, Nadir Yal çın, Kutay Demirkan Source Type: research

Neonatal neuroimaging and neurophysiology predict infantile onset epilepsy after perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) due to perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 2,5 per 1000 live full-term births [1], and is one of the leading causes of neonatal deaths and severe developmental and neurological compromise [2]. HIE is also one of the most common causes of infantile spasms syndrome (IS) [3] accounting for 8-10% of all IS cases [4,5]. HIE is currently treated with therapeutic hypothermia, which despite its favorable effect on the overall outcome, does not affect the rate of postneonatal epilepsy [6 –8] or IS [9]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: P äivi Nevalainen, Marjo Metsäranta, Sanna Toiviainen-Salo, Viviana Marchi, Kirsi Mikkonen, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Leena Lauronen Source Type: research

Seizure Control and Anxiety: Which Factor Plays a Major Role in Social Adjustment in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy?
Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) is the most common generalized genetically determined epilepsy syndrome in adults and accounts for 5 –10% of all epilepsy cases (1). The syndrome is characterized by the presence of myoclonic seizures (100%), generalized-tonic-clonic seizures (GTC) (80 - 90%), and typical absence seizures (30%). The treatment consists of a balance between the avoidance of precipitating factors and antiseizure med ication (ASM) (2,3). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria Luisa Paiva, Ellen Marise Lima, Isabelle Bimbatti Siqueira, Patricia Rzezak, Camila Koike, Sylvie P. Moschetta, Silvia Vincentiis, Rud á Alessi, Tatiana Cohab Khafif, Melanie Mendoza, Kette D. Valente Source Type: research

Slow Wave Activity during NREM Sleep in Patients with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep
We share our research findings regarding slow-wave activity (SWA) evaluation in patients with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep (ESES) compared to sex-matched controls. Slow-wave sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation and learning processes1,2. Many patients with ESES present with neurocognitive and learning difficulties3. Impaired SWA in sleep, in particular downscaling of slow wave activity during the course of the night, may therefore in part be related to neurocognitive difficulties in patients with ESES3. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmet Tanritanir, Xiaofan Wang, Tobias Loddenkemper Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

The role of chronobiology in drug-resistance epilepsy: The potential use of a variability and chronotherapy-based individualized platform for improving the response to anti-seizure drugs
Epilepsy is the most severe neurological condition that affects individuals of all ages [1,2]. An estimated 50 million people have been diagnosed with epilepsy worldwide, and the incidence is 16 –51 new cases per 100,000/year. Despite the increased use of anti-seizure drugs (ASD), drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) remains uncontrolled in a third of patients. DRE often persists even after treatment with two or more drugs [3]. DRE is associated with a poor quality of life, and a high risk of su dden, unexplained death [4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Assaf Potruch, Salim T. Khoury, Yaron Ilan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Neuropsychological outcomes after pediatric epilepsy surgery: Role of electrical stimulation language mapping
Although epilepsy surgery is focused on achieving seizure freedom, optimal neuropsychological outcomes are equally important for successful social and vocational rehabilitation of the patients [1]. Therefore, evaluation of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) includes ascertaining the functional significance of cortex within and adjacent to the seizure-onset zone (SOZ). Many such DRE patients require intracranial EEG, where electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) is considered the gold-standard for localization of speech/language cortical areas [2,3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kullasate Sakpichaisakul, Anna W. Byars, Paul S. Horn, Gewalin Aungaroon, Hansel M. Greiner, Francesco T. Mangano, Katherine D. Holland, Ravindra Arya Source Type: research

Cardiogenic cerebral infarction in the parietal lobe predicts the development of post-stroke epilepsy
Seizures are a common neurological disorder in older people with the cumulative incidence of epilepsy through age 74 years was 3.0% [1]. Particularly traumatic brain injuries and abnormal cerebral lesions are associated with an increased risk for developing epileptic seizures. Currently, such symptomatic etiologies account for 30% –49% of all unprovoked seizures and epilepsy [1,2]. Additionally, stroke is a predominant epileptogenic condition and the main cause of seizures in the elderly. Seizures after stroke can be divided into two broad categories: early-onset seizures occurring within 2 weeks and late-onset seizu...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kei-ichiro Takase Source Type: research

Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in epileptic encephalopathies in childhood
In 2015 the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined status epilepticus (SE) as a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures, with long-term consequences, including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures. This is a proposed conceptual definition of SE, based on two operational time dimensions (t1 and t2), recognizing the variable urgency in treating SE depending on seizure type, with distinction betwe...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: A.P. Hamad, T. Ferrari-Marinho, L.O. Caboclo, U. Thom é, R.M.F. Fernandes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Recurrent cardiac arrest in a medical doctor: Role of history taking in today ’s era of technology
Sudden loss of consciousness has a variety of differential diagnoses varying from a seizure to a cardiac syncope. The diagnosis may be difficult and at times even the investigations can be non-contributory. An inquiry into the chronology of symptoms can be helpful. We herewith present a medical doctor patient with episodic loss of consciousness with self-witnessed bradycardia and pauses in his pulse prior to passing out. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hazique P. Koul, Khalil Kanjwal Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Neonatal seizures: when semiology points to etiology
Seizures are the most frequent manifestation of neurological disturbance in neonatal period. [1] Video-Electroencephalogram (Video-EEG) remains the gold standard for their diagnosis and classification, in order to properly identify electrographic discharges and recognize non-epileptic events [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Marta Elena Santarone, Nicola Pietrafusa, Lucia Fusco Source Type: research

Self-induced psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. A case report
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNESs) are paroxysmal, time-limited alterations in motor, sensory, autonomic or cognitive signs and symptoms that are not accompanied by ictal epileptiform activity [1]. Video-EEG recording of an episode, either spontaneously (e.g.: during prolonged video-EEG monitoring) or by means of induction techniques, is crucial for the confirmation of PNES diagnosis [1]. Self-induction may occur in patients with peculiar types of reflex seizures [2] or syncopes but, to our knowledge, it has never been reported as a trigger of PNES. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Edoardo Ferlazzo, Michele Ascoli, Vittoria Cianci, Sara Gasparini, Valentina Bova, Clemente Cedro, Giovanbattista Gaspare Tripodi, Consuelo Paleologo, Umberto Aguglia Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Risk factors for the recurrence of convulsions with mild gastroenteritis in children
Convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) was first proposed by the Japanese scholar Morooka in 1982 [1], and was then gradually recognized and received attention from Asia and Europe. CwG affects infants and young children usually between 6 months and 3 years of age, and typically occurs in previously healthy children. CwG is a unique condition where patients experience seizures during gastroenteritis [1]. It is characterized by afebrile, brief seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis without dehydration, electrolytic derangement, or hypoglycemia, and without signs of meningitis, encephalitis, or encephalopathy. (S...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaili Shi, Jiehui Yang, Yunhong Wu, Hong Han, Junxiu Guo, Wenxiong Chen Source Type: research

Early-onset rapidly progressive myoclonic epilepsy associated with G392R likely pathogenic variant in SERPINI1
We report a 10-year-old boy who had de novo, heterozygous G392R likely pathogenic variant in the SERPINI1 with early-onset rapidly progressive myoclonic epilepsy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: B ülent Kara, Cansu Eğilmez Sarıkaya, Yunus Emre Bayrak, Ayfer Sakarya Güneş, Mesut Güngör, Gözde Yeşil Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Benign epilepsy with Centro temporal spikes: is there a thalamocortical network dysfunction present? Adding supporting evidence from SPECT imaging
I have read with great interest the article entitled "Benign epilepsy with Centro temporal spikes: is there a thalamocortical network dysfunction present?" published by Burc ̧in Sanlıdağ et al in Seizure: european Journal of Epilepsy 79 (2020) 44–48 [1]. The article emphasizes the network problem involving the thalamus and thalamocortical pathways in patients with BECTS. In order to get that conclusions, the authors compare the electroencephalographic sleep findin gs in a group of 30 children with Rolandic epilepsy with 20 age-matched healthy as control group. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ren é Andrade-Machado Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Post-traumatic stress spectrum symptoms in parents of children affected by epilepsy: gender differences
There is agreement that women have a two to three times higher risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) compared to men [1]; in particular, for what concern the lifetime prevalence of this disorder, it results to be about 10 –12% in women and 5–6% in men [2,3]. Women's increased rates of PTSD are not fully explained by differential patterns of trauma experiences [2] and studies have been focused on possible psychosocial and biological differences [4,5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: C. Carmassi, M. Corsi, C.A. Bertelloni, V. Pedrinelli, G. Massimetti, D. Peroni, A. Bonuccelli, A. Orsini, L. Dell ’Osso Source Type: research

Effects of perampanel on secondary bilateral synchrony and behavioral problems in adolescents with epilepsy showing insufficient response with levetiracetam
A relationship has been observed between epilepsy and impairment of neuropsychological functioning in children. For focal epilepsies, the relationships between seizures and interictal epileptiform discharges are controversial, but some interictal epileptiform activities show subtle clinical manifestations. Interictal epileptiform discharges on the electroencephalogram (EEG) are regarded as a correlate of persistent pathological neuronal discharges [1]. Cognitive and behavioral problems are common in children with atypical seizure semiology and/or atypical EEG features [2,3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hideaki Kanemura, Fumikazu Sano, Hiroki Hoshino, Kazuko Takayama, Masao Aihara Source Type: research

Autoimmune encephalitis as an increasingly recognised cause of non-convulsive status epilepticus: a retrospective, multicentre evaluation of patient characteristics and electroencephalography (EEG) results
Status epilepticus (SE) is a severe condition of unrelenting seizures requiring urgent identification and treatment. SE may be unprovoked, occurring in someone with epilepsy, or may be provoked by acute intracranial disease or metabolic derangement. Increasingly encephalitis, particularly autoimmune types, is reported to cause refractory seizures. Whilst convulsive SE is readily identified, non-convulsive SE (NCSE) can be difficult to identify clinically, and electroencephalography (EEG) is required. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: James William Mitchell, Sofia R. Valdoleiros, Samantha Jefferson, Brython Hywel, Tom Solomon, Anthony Guy Marson, Benedict Daniel Michael Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

The concept map of felt stigma in patient with epilepsy
The fundamental characteristic of epilepsy is the prolonged predisposition to generate epileptic seizures [1]. Epileptic seizures can be broadly divided into three categories, including focal onset seizures, generalized onset seizures and unknown onset seizures [2]. Although there are much differences between different seizure types, about 70% of the affected patients positively respond to the treatment and get seizure free [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zihan Wei, Lei Ren, Chao Liu, Mi Cao, Qun Yang, Yanchun Deng Source Type: research

Epilepsy care cascade, treatment gap and its determinants in rural South Africa
Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder that currently affects more than 50 million people globally with at least 80% of cases found in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) [1,2]. Whilst pharmacologic treatment results in seizure freedom in roughly 70% of patients with epilepsy [3], the number of individuals diagnosed with epilepsy and receiving and correctly taking anti-seizure medication (ASM) in LMICs remains low. A 2014 review found that 59% of people with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa do not receive any treatment and only 33% of patients who do receive treatment are managed appropriately [4]. (Source: Seizure: E...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryan G. Wagner, Chodziwadziwa W. Kabudula, Lars Forsgren, Fredrick Ibinda, Lars Lindholm, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Charles R. Newton Source Type: research

Progression of motor disability in cerebral palsy: The role of concomitant epilepsy
The earliest description of the syndrome of cerebral palsy (CP) is attributed to the orthopedic surgeon William Little in 1862 [1]. The International Executive Committee for the Definition of Cerebral Palsy proposed the following definition: “Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain” [2]. CP is an umbrella term covering a group of non-progres sive, but often changing, motor impairment syndromes secondary to lesions or an...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomoyuki Takano, Anri Hayashi, Yuki Harada Source Type: research

A case of COVID-19 infection presenting with a seizure following severe brain edema
The novel infection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in December 2019 in China and is now widely spread worldwide. COVID-19 commonly presents with respiratory symptoms including cough and dyspnea. However, the neuroinvasive propensity through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor [1], which is expressed in glial cells and neurons as well, and the cerebrovascular complication because of the hypercoagulable state are also reported as a feature of COVID-19 [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoshinori Kadono, Yusaku Nakamura, Yoshihiko Ogawa, Shota Yamamoto, Ryuichiro Kajikawa, Yoshikazu Nakajima, Masayasu Matsumoto, Haruhiko Kishima Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research