Modeling seizures: from single neurons to networks
Epilepsies are defined by the occurrence of spontaneous and recurrent seizures [1]. Seizures are characterized by electrophysiological (field potential) signatures, varying from one patient to the next and even within a given patient [2]. Given such variability, it is important to rely on a taxonomy of seizures, not only for mechanistic studies (different seizures may be associated with different underlying mechanisms, hence to different pharmacotherapy) but also for diagnostic purposes (particularly for presurgical evaluation in the case of drug-resistant epilepsies). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Damien Depannemaecker, Alain Destexhe, Viktor Jirsa, Christophe Bernard Tags: Review Source Type: research

Processed EEG from depth of anaesthesia monitors and seizures: a scoping review
Electrographic monitoring is an important aspect of the management of epileptic seizures. This is particularly true in cases of status epilepticus, when continued seizure activity for more than five minutes, or recurrent events without recovery in between, are linked to a significant risk of cerebral damage [1,2], making the prevention of prolonged convulsion a priority. Those patients whose seizures are not terminated by initial therapies (benzodiazepines, rapid loading of anticonvulsant) require general anaesthesia and admission to critical care environment, and represent those most likely to suffer irreversible damage. ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Amy Gimson, Matthew Smith Source Type: research

DHDDS related epilepsy – report of familial cases and review of the literature
The DHDDS and NUS1 genes encode two subunits of cisPTase, an essential enzyme in the dolichol-dependent protein glycosylation pathway.(1) Variants in these genes are associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE)(2-4) and more recently progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME).(1) (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Katy Wood, Tara Montgomery, Anita M Devlin Source Type: research

Female Preponderance in Genetic Generalized Epilepsies
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 45.9 million individuals worldwide1. Sex is usually not considered a susceptibility factor for epilepsy, but differences in epilepsy incidence and prevalence between men and women have been reported2-6. It is slightly more prevalent in men (329.3 per 100.000 population) than in women (318.9 per 100.00 population)1. Men with epilepsy have higher disability-adjusted life-years rates (201.2 per 100.000 population) and higher mortality rates (2.09 per 100000) than women (163.6 per 100000 population and 1.4 per 100000, respectively)1. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Gon çalo Videira, Denis Gabriel, Joel Freitas, Raquel Samões, Rui Chorão, João Lopes, João Ramalheira, Carolina Lemos, Bárbara Leal, António Martins da Silva, João Chaves Source Type: research

Feasibility of using an automated analysis of formulation effort in patients ’ spoken seizure descriptions in the differential diagnosis of epileptic and nonepileptic seizures
Ongoing research is investigating the feasibility of using a clinical decision tool to standardise the collection and interpretation of a person's history of Transient Loss of Consciousness (Stiell and Bennett, 2007; Brignole et al., 2018; Wardrope, Newberry and Reuber, 2018). One such tool, a computer-analysed questionnaire including a series of yes/no questions about TLOC manifestations, questions about a person's medical history, and some additional questions to observers (Reuber et al., 2016; Chen et al. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nathan Pevy, Heidi Christensen, Traci Walker, Markus Reuber Source Type: research

Distinct changes of brain cortical thickness relate to post-treatment outcomes in children with epilepsy
Neuroimaging provides an alternative for the visualisation of brain changes in patients with epilepsy in vivo [1, 2], but the neurobiological heterogeneity of the illness precludes clinical translations and genetic research of neuroimaging findings. In addition, treatments with medications, substance abuse, and varying illness durations may cause inconsistency across studies and limit the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data as biomarkers for individual identification and outcome prediction. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wenjing Zhang, Tao Yu, Yi Liao, Sai Liu, Mengyuan Xu, Chengmin Yang, Su Lui, Gang Ning, Haibo Qu Source Type: research

Age-related Evolution of EEG in Dravet Syndrome: Meta-Analysis of 155 Patients
Dravet syndrome (DS) is an infantile-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by febrile seizures in the first year of life, followed by the appearance of afebrile seizures of varying semiologies which are almost always drug-resistant.1 Approximately 80-90% of patients have SCN1A pathogenic variants.2 EEG is typically normal at the time of first presentation, but various abnormalities may be seen later, including generalized or focal slowing, generalized spike-wave, and focal or multifocal spikes or spike-wave discharges. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Erica Minato, Kenneth A. Myers Tags: Focused Review Source Type: research

EPM2A in-frame deletion slows neurological decline in Lafora Disease
Lafora Disease is an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy with onset in teen age and death within 10 years. By age 20, patients are commonly debilitated with near-constant myoclonus associated with atypical absences interrupting every thought and spoken sentence, have significant cognitive decline and are wheelchair bound. The disease is caused by mutations in either the EPM2A gene encoding the laforin glycogen phosphatase or the EPM2B gene coding for the malin ubiquitin E3 ligase [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lysa Boiss é Lomax, Brandy Verhalen, Berge A. Minassian Source Type: research

Looks can be deceptive: A primary generalized epilepsy mimicking a lesional focal-reflex epilepsy
Seizure semiology, the clinical phenomenon which occur during seizures, is the most effective way to identify the type of seizure in patients with epilepsy. Identifying the epilepsy type based on semiology and EEG abnormalities is crucial in diagnosing and choosing the appropriate therapy. Although epilepsies are traditionally divided into "focal" and "generalized ”, epilepsy is conceptualized as a network disorder.1 Recent publications have reported focal features among patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) in the domains of semiology, electroencephalography, neuropsychology, neuropathology...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Christopher Cheng, Joseph I. Sirven, Daniel J. Ryan, Anteneh M. Feyissa Source Type: research

Identification and Successful Management of Near-Lethal Ventricular Tachycardia in 2q24 Deletion-Associated Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy
2q24 deletion syndrome is characterized by severe epilepsy phenotypes, seizure onset during infancy, and developmental delays (1)(see supplementary reading list). It also includes head, facial, limb, and whole-body dysmorphic features, as well as cardiac structural abnormalities (e.g., hypoplastic left heart& atrial septal defects). Chromosome 2q24 encodes many proteins of the sodium channel family. 2q24 deletion syndrome has some overlap with Dravet Syndrome (DS), which is another severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE), in which the majority are due to mutations in the sodium channel gene, SCN1A. (Source:...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Joseph Toth, Adam Waickman, Jackson Jost, Laurie Seltzer, Jeffrey M. Vinocur, David S Auerbach Source Type: research

The Use of Computational Models in the Management and Prognosis of Refractory Epilepsy: A Critical Evaluation
Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system affecting approximately one percent of people worldwide [1] in which periods of abnormal brain activity generate seizures and a wide array of somatic and perceptual disturbances [2]. Antiepileptic drugs are the first-line treatment for patients with seizures. However, approximately 30% of patients experience drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) [3], defined as the failure of two (or more) trials of appropriately selected, tolerated, and administered anti-epileptic medications [4,5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Grant Rigney, Matthew Lennon, Peter Holderrieth Source Type: research

The effect of ketogenic diet on serum lipid concentrations in children with drug resistant epilepsy
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, adequate protein, and low-carbohydrate diet, is one of the most effective alternative treatment options for children with medication-resistant epilepsy.1 Fat content of the diet provides up to 90% of calories. Thus, KD is not a simple dietary regulation, but a form of medical therapy that causes major changes in energy metabolism and therefore can cause many side effects such as constipation, kidney stones and dyslipidemia.2 Previous short-term studies reporting elevated blood lipids and adverse effects on the cardiovascular system raise concerns about dyslipidemia and potential cardiov...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ünsal Yılmaz, Selvinaz Edizer, Melis Köse, Zeynep Akışin, Yiğithan Güzin, Serdar Pekuz, Hatice Hilal Kırkgöz, Merve Yavuz, Aycan Ünalp Source Type: research

Reply to Braun et al. “Novel bathing epilepsy in a patient with 2q22.3q23.2 deletion”
Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific motor, sensory or cognitive stimulation and are associated with different genetic and acquired aetiologies (1). In particular, the genetic background of reflex seizures and epilepsies is largely heterogeneous and mostly unknown with no major gene identified in humans (2). The two forms of reflex epilepsy related to bathing, namely, hot water epilepsy (HWE) and bathing epilepsy (BE), share some semiology and epidemiological features and have a strong but different genetic background. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Andrea Accogli, Federico Zara, Pasqule Striano Source Type: research

Antiepileptic drugs and serotonin syndrome- A systematic review of case series and case reports
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is an iatrogenic drug ‑induced clinical syndrome characterized by a combination of altered mental activity, neuromuscular abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances. Serotonin syndrome typically results from the increased intrasynaptic concentration of serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). There are seven types of 5- HT receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with several subtypes. The 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A are the two main receptors implicated in the pathophysiology of SS [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanjay Prakash, Chaturbhuj Rathore, Kaushik Rana, Harsh Patel Source Type: research

Prevalence, healthcare resource utilization and mortality of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: retrospective linkage cohort study
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a rare childhood-onset epileptic encephalopathy (1 –10% of childhood epilepsy cases depending on age),1 typically diagnosed in children under 8 years of age.2 It is one of the most severe and difficult epileptic disorders to identify and manage2,3 because of its highly variable presentation1–3 and evolving features over time.2,3 In addition, a n umber of seizure types may present at the onset of LGS,2 often resistant to treatment,2 resulting in variable outcomes following treatment. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Richard F.M. Chin, W. Owen Pickrell, Florent Guelfucci, Monique Martin, Rowena Holland Source Type: research

No evidence that SCN9A variants are associated with epilepsy
Voltage gated sodium channels play a vital part in neuronal signalling pathways throughout the nervous system. The main brain expressed sodium channels are SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN8A. Pathogenic variants in these genes lead to well-defined epilepsy syndromes including early onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathies as well as milder phenotypes [1]. In contrast SCN9A, SCN10A and SCN11A are primarily expressed in dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons of the peripheral nervous system playing an important role in peripheral pain-signalling pathways [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: A. Brunklaus Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Febrile seizure: what information can caregivers access through YouTube?
Febrile seizures are the most common seizures accompanying fever that occur in children (1). The age of onset is under 5 years of age in 95% of cases, and the onset is associated with neurological immaturity, not acute brain lesions. Febrile seizures are classified into simple febrile seizures and complex febrile seizures, and simple febrile seizures represent 65 to 90% of all febrile seizures (2). Although simple febrile seizure is a benign event, and in most cases, the patient recovers without any sequelae (1), the general public or laypeople feel extreme fear and anxiety when they observe a child experiencing a febrile ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - June 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Juyeon Oh, Sun Young You Source Type: research

Granule cell dispersion is associated with hippocampal neuronal cell loss, initial precipitating injury, and other clinical features in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequently diagnosed focal epilepsy syndrome in adults [1], in whom it is also the most common pharmacoresistant epilepsy [2]. TLE can be subdivided according to the seizure origin and semiology into mesial or lateral subtypes. Those arising in the mesial portion (including the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus) constitute a specific subtype, considering ictal semiology, electroencephalographic patterns, neuroimaging findings, and the anatomical substrate [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 31, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Anaclara Prada Jardim, Jeana Torres corso Duarte, Carmen L úcia Penteado Lancellotti, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, Carla Alessandra Scorza, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, Mirian Salvadori Bittar Guaranha, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian Source Type: research

Computed tomography and emergency department frequency in homeless patients with seizures
Seizures are a common presentation to emergency departments in homeless patients. Seizures and epilepsy are often poorly managed in homeless patients.In this retrospective study, conducted in a large urban university hospital; we compared the number emergency department presentations and associated head computed tomography studies in a cohort of 88 homeless patients with seizures to an age and gender-matched housed cohort of patients over a five-year period.We found that homeless patients had a significantly increased number of presentations to the emergency department and a significantly higher number of head computed tom...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 31, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Raluca M Stanila, Laura A Healy, Sinead FM Hynes, Colin P Doherty, Elisabeth M Doran Source Type: research

Differential Activation of Neuroinflammatory Pathways in Children with Seizures: A Cross-Sectional Study
Approximately 50 million people worldwide are affected by epilepsy [1]. Approximately one-third of them are considered pharmaco-resistant [2] and experience seizures despite complex therapeutic regimens, often burdened by significant side-effects. Current antiseizure medications (ASM) target seizures symptomatically but not underlying pathophysiological mechanisms [3]. Experimental and clinical findings suggest a crucial role of inflammation in epileptogenesis [4]. New therapeutic strategies are necessary to improve seizure control and quality of life for people with epilepsy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Luca Bartolini, Michael P. Moran, Gina Norato, Bobbe Thomas, Alexander D. Dick, Elizabeth Wells, William Suslovic, Adrian Bumbut, James M. Chamberlain, William H. Theodore, William D. Gaillard, Steven Jacobson Source Type: research

Convolutional neural networks to identify malformations of cortical development: a feasibility study
Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are a common cause of developmental delay [1-3] and refractory epilepsy [4, 5]. Although most MCDs can be detected by neuroradiologists using moderate-to-high quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [2], the process is time consuming and requires considerable expertise. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Iv án Sánchez Fernandez, Edward Yang, Marta Amengual-Gual, Cristina Barcia Aguilar, Paola Calvachi Prieto, Jurriaan M. Peters Source Type: research

Physician and patient satisfaction with the switch to remote outpatient encounters in epilepsy clinics during the Covid-19 pandemic
Purpose: Analyzing parents ’ and physicians’ opinions regarding phone-based encounters in emergency shifts of a French pediatric epilepsy center compared to traditional face-to-face encounters during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: T. Teng, D.E. Sareidaki, N. Chemaly, C. Bar, D. Coste-Zeitoun, M. Kuchenbuch, R. Nabbout Source Type: research

Randomized trial of high-dose pyridoxine in combination with standard hormonal therapy in West syndrome
West Syndrome (WS) is a distinct, age-dependent, developmental and epileptic encephalopathy of infancy with poor neurodevelopmental outcome. The first-line therapeutic options are hormonal therapy (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] or oral steroids), vigabatrin or a combination of the two as suggested by the high quality of clinical evidence [1,2]. The short-term efficacy of hormonal therapy to eliminate epileptic spasms is variable among studies ranging from 37% to 73% [3,4]. Hormonal therapy has also been observed to be superior to vigabatrin therapy (76% versus 54%) [5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Arundhati Banerjee, Jitendra Kumar Sahu, Naveen Sankhyan, Smita Pattanaik, Renu Suthar, Arushi Gahlot Saini, Lokesh Saini, Sandeep Negi, Prahbhjot Malhi, Pratibha Singhi Source Type: research

Total and partial posterior quadrant disconnection for medically refractory epilepsy: a systematic review
1.5T: 1.5 Tesla; 3T: 3 Tesla; ECoG: electrocorticography; EEG: electroencephalography; FCD: focal cortical dysplasia; fMRI: functional magnetic resonance imaging; icEEG: intracranial electroencephalography; ILAE: International League Against Epilepsy; MEG: magnetoencephalography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; PET: positron emission tomography; PQD: posterior quadrant disconnection; PRISMA-P: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols; PVNH: periventricular nodular heterotopia; SEEG: stereo-electroencephalography; SPECT: single-photon emission computed tomography; SWS: Sturge-Weber syndro...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Christopher Markosian, Vincent Dodson, Helen J. Zhang, Rajeshwari S. Mahalingam, Eric B. Geller, Luke D. Tomycz Source Type: research

The prognosis of epilepsy patients with CACNA1H missense variants: a longitudinal cohort study
The T-type calcium channels Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3 are encoded by CACNA1G, CACNA1H, and CACNA1I, respectively [1]. These are also referred to as low-threshold calcium channels [2]. Among them, Cav3.2 generates low-threshold spikes upon membrane hyperpolarization and directly leads to rebound burst firing of action potentials, which is responsible for the genesis of spike-wave discharges in genetic generalized epilepsy [3]. Rats with genetic absence epilepsy from Strasbourg exhibited an increase in CACNA1H expression in reticular thalamic neurons [4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Zihan Wei, Chao Liu, Zhenyu Wu, Mi Cao, Xiaozhi Qiao, Tenghui Han, Ying Zhang, Yonghong Liu, Yanchun Deng Source Type: research

Decisive evidence of direct effect of ACTH treatment in West syndrome: A case report
In patients with West syndrome, the administration of exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is considered a potent and effective treatment [1]. Exogenously administered ACTH hyperactivates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (Fig. 1A); however, the resulting hormonal changes cannot fully account for the therapeutic effect of ACTH. Indeed, the administration of corticosteroids to patients with West syndrome failed to provide an anti-epileptic effect comparable to that of ACTH [1]. Thus, the antiepileptic effect of ACTH in West syndrome has been postulated to involve a direct action of ACTH on the central nervous ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Marie Sasaki, Toshiki Takenouchi, Yuri Sakaguchi, Takao Takahashi Source Type: research

Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (t-VNS) and epilepsy: A systematic review of the literature
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder that affects more than 50 million people worldwide [1]. Due to the constant gaining of new knowledge concerning epilepsies and their underlying mechanism, International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) recently revised the classification schemes, proposing a multilevel classification of epilepsy. The first level is the identification of seizure type, according to which seizures are classified into focal, generalized, or unknown onset. The second step is to determine the type of epilepsy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Marios Lampros, Nikolaos Vlachos, Andreas Zigouris, Spyridon Voulgaris, George A Alexiou Source Type: research

“Magnetic source imaging in presurgical evaluation of paediatric focal drug-resistant epilepsy and its predictive value of surgical outcome in lesional cases: A single-centre experience from South India”.
Approximately 10-20% of children with epilepsy develop drug resistance (DRE) [1]. Drug resistant epilepsy in a subset of children can lead to epileptic encephalopathy and resective surgery can potentially prevent this catastrophic complication [2]. Delineation of EZ [3] poses some difficulty in children. The presentation of focal epilepsy is often heterogeneous in childhood. Children with hemispheric or unilateral focal aetiologies can have generalized seizures, generalized and multifocal EEG patterns, and rapid evolution of electroclinical features. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bhargava Gautham, Asheeb Ahmed, Ravindranadh Chowdary Mundlamuri, Mariyappa Narayanan, Velmurugan Jayabal, Raghavendra Kenchaiah, Ajay Asranna, Bharath Rose Dawn, Saini Jitender, Chandana Nagaraj, Sandhya Mangalore, Kulanthaivelu Karthik, Nishanth Sadashi Source Type: research

Two-centre experience of cannabidiol use in adults with Dravet syndrome
We describe real-world experience with cannabidiol (CBD) in adults with Dravet Syndrome (DS) via GW Pharma early access programme at two UK neurology centres. Adults with genetically-confirmed DS had CBD added to existing therapy, titrated up to 20mg/kg, as tolerated. The primary outcome measure was percentage reduction in convulsive seizures. Secondary outcome measures included changes in myoclonic seizures, and in cognition and quality of life as assessed by the Caregiver Global Impression of Change (CGIC), and incidence of adverse events (AEs). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Katri Silvennoinen, Laura Mantoan Ritter, Lina Nashef, Kirsty Hudgell, Simona Balestrini, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Meneka K Sidhu Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid findings in patients with seizure in the setting of COVID-19: A review of the literature
Since the onset of the pandemic, there have been innumerable reports of neurologic manifestations of COVID-19, the most common of which are anosmia, ageusia, dizziness, encephalopathy, and headache [19-21]. Seizures have also been described in patients with COVID-19, but studies of patients with COVID-19 who had neurological events found that only 0.5-1.6% of patients had seizures [19,20]. However, given the magnitude of the pandemic and the number of people infected worldwide, this relatively rare neurologic manifestation has been reported a myriad of times. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Elizabeth Carroll, Kara R. Melmed, Jennifer Frontera, Dimitris G. Placantonakis, Steven Galetta, Laura Balcer, Ariane Lewis Source Type: research

Cosmetic adverse effects of antiseizure medications; A systematic review
The prevalence of epilepsy is about 7 per 1,000 persons and its incidence is 67 cases per 100,000 people per year worldwide [1]. The mainstay of treatment of epilepsy is drug therapy with antiseizure medications (ASMs) and most patients attain complete seizure freedom when prescribed an appropriate drug. There are currently about 30 ASMs in the market. However, ASMs are often associated with various adverse effects [2]. While, physicians may pay attention to some adverse effects of ASMs (e.g., cognitive, psychiatric, metabolic, etc.), there are significant adverse effects that are often overlooked even by the experts in th...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ali A. Asadi-Pooya, Marzieh Rostaminejad, Zahra Zeraatpisheh, Nafiseh Mirzaei Source Type: research

Animal Models of Post-Traumatic Epilepsy and their Neurobehavioral Comorbidities
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a disruption of brain functioning, or other brain pathology, caused by an external force [1]. The TBI is typically accompanied by one or more clinical signs immediately following the injury; including lost or altered consciousness, amnesia, neurologic deficit, intracranial lesion, and seizures [2]. Seizures produced by TBI can be classified as: (1) acute seizures, which occur less than 24 hours after injury; (2) early seizures, which occur less than 1 week after injury; and (3) late seizures, which occur more than a week after injury and are constituents of a post-traumatic epilep...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cesar Emmanuel Santana-Gomez, Jes ús Servando Medel-Matus, Brian Rundle Source Type: research

Novel bathing epilepsy in a patient with 2q22.3q23.2 deletion
Reflex seizures occur in response to a variety of stimuli from the common (e.g. light) to the rare (e.g. orgasms). Two forms of reflex epilepsy related to bathing are well described: 1. “hot water epilepsy” (HWE), where seizures are triggered by the act of immersing the head under hot water and 2. “bathing epilepsy” where seizures are provoked by body immersion in lukewarm water (Yalcin et al., 2006). Both have a characteristic semiology and epidemiology and are more common in males in India and Turkey, with a strong genetic susceptibility. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Marvin H Braun, Eric T Payne, Ashley Simpkins, Silvia Kozlik, Colleen Curtis Source Type: research

Seizures Risk Factors in Sickle Cell Disease. The Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disease with an abnormal polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (HbS), characterized by changes in red blood cell shape resulting in vascular and systemic complications [1, 2]. It is the most common hemoglobinopathy, and in fact, the most common inherited blood disease in humans [3]. Annually, around 300,000 children are born with SCD, most of them are in Africa and South Asia (India) [4, 5]. In the United States, more than 100,000 people are affected, with an annual cost of $811.4 million dollars for hospitalizations [6, 7]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohammed Nawaiseh, Ala Shaban, Mohammad Abualia, Rund Haddadin, Yara Nawaiseh, Saif Aldeen AlRyalat, Ahmed Yassin, Iyad Sultan Source Type: research

The times they are a-changin – don´t panic with a generic!
“And don't speak too soonFor the wheel's still in spinAnd there's no tellin' whoThat it's namin'For the loser nowWill be later to winFor the times they are a-changin'”Bob Dylan (1964) (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: G ünter Krämer, Bernhard J. Steinhoff Source Type: research

Effects of Perceived Stigma, Unemployment and Depression on Suicidal Risk in People with Epilepsy
Epilepsy, a common chronic brain disorder, has become a worldwide public health issue [1]. People with epilepsy (PWE) are known to have a higher risk for suicide compared with the general population. The standard mortality ratio for suicide in PWE is three times higher than in general population [2]. Prior research on PWE pointed out that there are many risk factors for suicide such as unemployment, low income, high seizure frequency, some AEDs, seizure-preceding auras, temporal epilepsy, and psychiatric disorders [3-5] Recently, it has been reported that perceived stigma produced by mental or physical disorders may repres...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuping Zhao, Xing Liu, Zheng Xiao Source Type: research

Uncommon epileptic syndromes in children: a review
Since Dr. William West [1] first described the classic components of West syndrome, which he found in his own child in 1841, the long and winding road of epileptic syndromes has been explored and documented by several generations of epileptologists. The exploration of epilepsy started with dedicated specialists from European neurology universities, followed by task forces that produced a sizeable volume of position papers and consensus statements, including the 1989 Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes, which is still in use [2-4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Josefina de la Jara, Carla V ásquez-Hernández, Elías Ramírez-Rojo, Juan Moya-Vilches Source Type: research

Risk factors for post-traumatic epilepsy
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as a common cause of acquired epilepsy since antiquity. A set of definitions have been adopted by many researchers in defining post-traumatic seizures (PTSs): (1) Immediate PTSs, which occur less than 24 hrs after injury; (2) Early PTSs, that occur less than one week after injury; and (3) Late PTSs, which occur more than a week after head injury and constitute the diagnosis of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) [1]. Epidemiological studies have shown a clear relationship between the severity of head injury and the likelihood of developing PTE [1,2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hosseinali Khalili, Nima Rahimi Kashkooli, Amin Niakan, Ali A. Asadi-Pooya Source Type: research

Efficacy of phenobarbital in treating elderly epilepsy patients in rural northeast China: a community-based intervention trial
In the latest study, there were approximately 45.9 million individuals with active epilepsy (at least one breakthrough seizure in the past 5 years) globally and approximately 3.26 million patients with epilepsy (PWE) in China [1]. Epilepsy is the third most common neurological disorder in the elderly population after stroke and dementia [2] and is comparatively more frequent in this population than in the young population [3]. The number of patients with late-onset epilepsy (LOE; recurrent unprovoked seizures starting at 60 years or older [4]) has increased significantly, representing up to 25% of new-onset epilepsies [5]....
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Nan Li, Jing Li, Danyang Zhao, Weihong Lin Source Type: research

Cognitive outcome in children with infantile spasms using a standardized treatment protocol. A five-year longitudinal study
Infantile spasms (IS) is the most common severe infantile epilepsy, characterized by clinical spasms and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalography (although spasms can also be diagnosed without typical EEG findings). The prognosis for most patients with IS is poor and may include evolution to Lennox Gastaut Syndrome and other drug-resistant epilepsies, severe intellectual disability, and other neurodevelopmental impairments such as autism spectrum disorders [1-3]. Intellectual disability, often in the moderate to severe range, affects up to 70-90% of patients [2, 4, 5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jonathan Y. Bitton, B éatrice Desnous, Hannelore C. Sauerwein, Mary Connolly, Shelly K. Weiss, Elizabeth J. Donner, Sharon Whiting, Ismail S. Mohamed, Elaine C. Wirrell, Gabriel M. Ronen, Anne Lortie, for the CPEN Source Type: research

Thumb-up sign: characterization of an undescribed seizure semiologic sign.
In temporal lobe epilepsy, dystonic posturing of the body has been described as a lateralizing sign contralateral to the epileptic hemisphere in focal onset seizures with impaired awareness (Kotagal P, Luders H, Morris HH, Dinner DS, Wyllie E and Of 1989). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Andreu Vilaseca, Elena Fonseca, Carla Anciones Mart ín, Iván Seijo-Raposo, Laura Abraira, Estevo Santamarina, Manuel Quintana, José Álvarez-Sabin, Antonio Gil-Nagel, Manuel Toledo Source Type: research

A novel scale for suspicion of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: development and accuracy
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), also known as dissociative seizures, are paroxysms of altered subjective experience, involuntary movements or reduced self-control resembling epileptic seizures, yet unrelated to ictal epileptiform discharges [1]. Early identification shortens disease duration, optimizes counseling and improves prognosis. Despite this, accurate diagnosis of PNES may take up to 8 years, a fact mainly associated with health care providers ’ education and inadequacies of the health care system [2,3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Gislaine Baroni, William Alves Martins, Jaqueline C. Rodrigues, Vit ória Piccinini, Cássia Marin, Wagner de Lara Machado, Denise R. Bandeira, Eliseu Paglioli, Kette D. Valente, André Palmini Source Type: research

Combining perampanel and ketamine in super refractory post-traumatic status epilepticus: a case report
Status Epilepticus (SE) is a condition resulting either from the failure of seizure termination mechanisms or from the abnormal activation of prolonged seizure mechanisms. It represents a life-threatening medical emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. SE treatment begins with a quick-acting benzodiazepine, followed by intravenous (IV) loading and a continuous infusion of antiseizure medications (ASMs). The failure of first- and second-line treatments is defined as “refractory SE” (RSE) and requires infusion of IV anaesthetics. (Source: Seizure: Europ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Paolo Manganotti, Marta Cheli, Alessandro Dinoto, Francesco Biaduzzini, Marinella Tomaselli, Giulia Mazzon, Erik Roman-Pognuz, Stefano Meletti Source Type: research

Reciprocal burden: Adults with drug-resistant epilepsy reflect upon informal caregiver support.
Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is serious disorder characterized by unpredictable and intrusive seizures. Due to uncontrolled seizures, poor memory and cognitive deficits, family caregivers have to be relied upon for disease management and emotional support [1]. As a consequence, epilepsy is as much a focus of the lives of caregivers, as it is for those diagnosed with the condition [2-4]. Caregiving is frequently subtle and varied, both with respect to how carers identify with the role and the tasks they undertake. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sandra R. Dewar, Lizza Ranit, Huibrie C. Pieters Source Type: research

Efficacy and tolerability of a whey-based, medium-chain triglyceride –enhanced ketogenic formula in children with refractory epilepsy: a retrospective study
Ketogenic metabolic therapy (KMT) is a term coined by Beth Zupac-Kania in 2016 to describe the variety of dietary therapies that restrict carbohydrate intake and liberalize dietary fat intake to stimulate nutritional ketosis [1]. Nutritional ketosis occurs when the body metabolizes fat in the absence of adequate carbohydrates for energy production via glycolysis. A meta-analysis of 38 studies reviewed the therapeutic efficacy of KMT for epilepsy and calculated a weighted success rate of 58.4% (95% CI, 48.7-69.9%), with success defined as a reduction of seizures by at least 50% at 3 months [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Christine E. Wheeler, M'hamed Temkit, Angus A. Wilfong, Lisa Vanatta, Randa Jarrar Source Type: research

Can patients with epilepsy become bone marrow donors? A case report of allogeneic hematopoietic stem transplantation from child with seizures
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important treatment option for malignant and non-malignant hematopoietic disorder in adults and children. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mario Brinciotti, Federica Gigliotti, Consuelo Basile, Walter Barberi, Anna Maria Testi Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Prevalence and mortality of epilepsies with convulsive and non-convulsive seizures in Kilifi, Kenya
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders and is an important public health problem affecting close to 70 million people worldwide [1]. This number approximates about 0.7% of the global burden of disease and contributes up to 17 million disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) annually [2]. Up to 90% of the people with epilepsy (PWE) reside in low and middle income countries (LMICs) [1], with 20% of the global burden in Africa alone [3]. Another 500 million people are affected indirectly as parents, relatives and friends [4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Symon M Kariuki, Anthony K Ngugi, Martha Z Kombe, Michael Kazungu, Eddie Chengo, Rachael Odhiambo, Amek Nyaguara, Brian G Neville, Charles RJC Newton Source Type: research

Genotype-phenotype implications from three representative clinical FOXG1 variants associated with FOXG1 syndrome
FOXG1 (Forkhead Box G1) gene, as its name indicates, encodes a transcription factor with a Forkhead DNA-binding domain. FoxG1 protein is highly conserved among mammalian and reptilian species, with DNA-binding and C-terminal domains showing highest conservation, whereas its N-terminal domain contains a mammal-specific extended proline- and glutamine-rich region [1]. The neurodevelopmental disorder associated with heterozygous variants in FOXG1 gene is referred as FOXG1 syndrome (OMIM #613454), equivalent to the original designation of “congenital variant of Rett syndrome.” [2] The main clinical features of FOXG...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Yan Bai, Aiwen Yi, Jing Xin, Jiaxin Xu, Mingwei Huang Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Neuromagnetic High Frequency Spikes Are a New and Noninvasive Biomarker for Localization of Epileptogenic Zones
Recent advances in epilepsy research have revealed that the epileptic brain generates high frequency brain signals (HFBS,> 80 Hz), which can be detected invasively [1 –5] and noninvasively [6–9]. Invasive recordings [1–5] have provided solid evidence that HFBS play an important role in epileptogenesis and epileptogenicity. The resection of the brain areas generating HFBS can predict favorable outcomes of epilepsy surgery [10–12]. Noninvasive technologies, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and scalp electroencephalography (EEG), have shown promising results for detection and localization of HFB...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jing Xiang, Ellen Maue, Han Tong, Francesco T Mangano, Hansel Greiner, Jeffrey Tenney Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - May 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research