Sacred Lives - an account of the history, cultural associations and social impact of epilepsy by Ian Bone
This book is excellent at so many levels. Its breadth for a start is impressive. Who knew that, as a result of the eugenics movement, ‘by the mid-1950s a total of 17 states in the USA had prohibited the marriage of people with epilepsy’? Who knew that Napoleon Bonaparte most probably had epilepsy, as well as non-epileptic attacks, that Alfred Lord Tennyson may have had epilepsy, while Alfred Nobel most likely did not. Napoleon was a very good example of a highly successful and ambitious individual, demonstrating that those with epilepsy can be as capable as those without. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lina Nashef Source Type: research

History of abuse and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: A systematic review
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a subtype of functional neurological disorder (FNDs); disorders of the nervous system with no organic, structural cause but that cause significant symptoms and impairment for the patient [36]. FNDs are distinct from factitious disorders or malingering [12]. PNES' are categorically separated from epilepsy, which is caused by abnormal and excessive discharge of populations of neurons within the brain, detectable by EEG [31]. PNES patients do not present with this EEG finding, and have different clinical presentations, such as a gradual onset, resisted eyelid opening, fluctuations ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura Lloyd Jones, Hugh Rickards Source Type: research

Seizures in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorders and related immune factors
MOG was identified in the late 1970s as a central nervous system (CNS) specific protein expressed on the surface of myelin sheath and oligodendrocytes. In pediatric demyelinating diseases, MOG antibodies were first described in 2007 [1], and Mariotto [2] reported that MOG-IgG was detected in up to 40% of pediatric patients with acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the CNS. MOG antibody-mediated central nervous system demyelinating diseases have a variety of phenotypes, including optic neuritis (ON), myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and brain stem/cortical encephalitis. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Kang Liu, Suzhen Sun, Jieyuan Cui, Lei Zhang, Kai Zhang, Lin Zhang Source Type: research

Sodium channel blockers are effective for benign infantile epilepsy
Benign infantile epilepsy (BIE) is characterized by onset in infancy (with typical development before onset), no underlying disorders, seizure clusters, short seizure duration, and normal interictal electroencephalogram.[1-3] BIE can be familial [3,4] and proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene is a major causal factor.[4,5] The long-term outcome of BIE is favorable, with seizure cessation before 2 years of age [6] and no cognitive or behavioral problems.[7] (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Shingo Numoto, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Mizuki Takagi, Yoshiteru Azuma, Hideyuki Iwayama, Akihisa Okumura Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Impact of antiepileptic drugs on simulated driving in patients with epilepsy
Epilepsy is a common disease, with prevalence ranging from 0.5% to 1.0% in the general population [1,2]. Uncontrolled epileptic seizures have a serious impact on the social activities of affected individuals, such as school achievements and employment [3,4]. Driving license restriction is one of the most frequently noted issues, as that can limit the daily activities of patients with active epilepsy, while acquisition or re-acquisition of a driver's license has been constantly listed as one of the most highly evaluated benefits of successful surgical intervention [5,6]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Momoe Saji, Kousuke Kanemoto, Emi Matsuoka, Kunihiro Iwamoto Source Type: research

Predictors and prognoses of epilepsy after anti-neuronal antibody-positive autoimmune encephalitis
Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous group of conditions associated with anti-neural antibodies (Abs)[1]. These Abs can be classified into two groups according to their epitopes: Abs targeting intracellular neuronal antigens (INAbs); and Abs targeting neural surface antigens (NSAbs)[2]. The initial and common symptoms of AIE include seizures (of several different types), which occur at a high prevalence (50- 90%)[3, 4]. These seizures are reported to respond poorly to routine therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)[5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Shan-shan Chen, Yan-fang Zhang, Qing Di, Jing-ping Shi, Ling-ling Wang, Xing-jian Lin, Nian Yu Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Psychological Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Non-Epileptic Seizures
Non-epileptic seizures (NES) are events that appear similar to epileptic seizures but present without associated epileptic brain activity [38]. In DSM-V and ICD-10 NES is considered to be a subtype of conversion disorder/ functional neurological symptom disorder [2, 51]. A lack of agreement with regard to the most appropriate term to use for NES, means there are a number of synonyms in use, which include pseudoseizures, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, non-epileptic attack disorder [34] and functional seizures; the latter has been found to be acceptable to patients and relatively popular with clinicians [3]. (Source: Se...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dr Hemma Velani, Dr Julia Gledhill Source Type: research

Comparison of 4 weeks versus 12 weeks antiseizure medication for acute symptomatic seizures in children with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome: An open-label, randomized controlled trial,
Acute encephalitis syndrome is a global problem. World Health Organization has defined AES as a ‘child of any age, at any time of year with the acute onset of fever and a change in mental status (including symptoms such as confusion, disorientation, coma, or inability to talk) and/or new onset of seizures (excluding simple febrile seizures)’.1 AES can be caused by bacterial, viral infectio ns, fungal, parasitic, and spirochetal infections. The etiology varies depending on geography and season. Common causes of AES in Indian sub-continent include acute bacterial meningitis (pyogenic meningitis), Scrub typhus men...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sumeet Rajendra Dhawan, Jitendra Kumar Sahu, Pratibha Singhi, Naveen Sankhyan, Muralidharan Jayashree Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Depressive disorders and quality of life in patients with Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures and Drug Resistant Epilepsy living in Argentina
Epileptic seizures are defined as transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to an abnormal excessive and hypersynchronous neuronal activity in the brain cortex [1, 2]. Epilepsy is considered as drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) when seizure freedom has not been achieved after two tolerated and appropriately chosen AEDs schedules, determined from seizures occurring within the past 12 months  [3]. Approximately 30-40% of the people with epilepsy do not achieve seizure control [4,5] however only a few patients suspected of DRE are evaluated and treated at specialized epilepsy centers [5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura Sc évola, Camila Wolfzun, Mercedes Sarudiansky, María Marta Areco Pico, Micaela Ponieman, Ernesto Gonzalez Stivala, Guido Korman, Silvia Kochen, Luciana D'Alessio Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early-onset eyelid stereotypies are a frequent and distinctive feature in dravet syndrome
We describe 5 patients out of a series of 23 patients with DS who present between 12 and 24 months of age with repetitive episodes of eyelid closure, sometimes as fast as eye blinking or flickering. Consistent lack of any EEG correlate in serial video-EEG ruled out an epileptic origin. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: J úlia Sala-Coromina, Miquel Raspall-Chaure, Anna Marcé-Grau, Alejandro Martinez de la Ossa, Alfons Macaya Source Type: research

Seizure-induced reversible mri abnormalities in status epilepticus: a systematic review
Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of SE has been reported to be between 9.9 and 41 per 100,000 person-years, with a bimodal peaking in children and the elderly.[1] Ascertaining the underlying aetiology of SE is an essential step of management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain plays an important role. Abnormalities seen on MRI do not always reflect a pathology, however, as several studies have reported seizure-induced reversible MRI abnormalities (SRMA). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Frederick P. Mariajoseph, Parveen Sagar, Subramanian Muthusamy, Shalini Amukotuwa, Udaya Seneviratne Source Type: research

Altered topological properties of brain functional networks in drug-resistant epilepsy patients with vagus nerve stimulators
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by sudden, recurrent, and transient dysfunction of the central nervous system [1]. As the second-most common neurological disorder, the prevalence of epilepsy is 0.5% –1% [2]. Approximately 30% of people with epilepsy cannot effectively control their seizures after traditional drug treatment; these people are classified as having drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) [3]. DRE is usually accompanied with low quality of life as well as cognitive and emotional disorders, and results in serious economic and social problems [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jin Zhu, Cuiping Xu, Xi Zhang, Liang Qiao, Xueyuan Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Xiaoming Yan, Duanyu Ni, Tao Yu, Guojun Zhang, Yongjie Li Source Type: research

Treatment outcomes in drug resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: valproate resistance may not be the end of the road
To determine treatment responses to various antiseizure medicines (ASMs) in patients with drug resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (DRJME) (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 31, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Neeraj Baheti, Chaturbhuj Rathore, Atma Ram Bansal, Saumya Shah, Hari Kunhi Veedu, Sanjay Prakash, Kalyani Kanhere, Shyam K. Jaiswal, Anis Jukkarwala, Jagarlapudi M.K. Murthy, Kurupath Radhakrishnan Source Type: research

No association between children's febrile seizures and S100B protein levels: A meta-analysis
: In recent years, studies have examined the relationship between febrile seizures in children and S100B protein with contradictory results. We systematically evaluated the relationship between children's febrile seizures and S100B protein levels. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiayu Huang, Jiao Li, Xiao Sun, Jinfeng Meng, Shangbin Li, Weichen Yan, Jie Wang, Changjun Ren, Ling Hao Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of ketogenic dietary theraphies in infancy. A single-center experience in 42 infants less than two years of age.
Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders in childhood, and its incidence is higher during the first two years of life [1]. Seizure in infants may lead to severe cognitive problems and may seriously affect psychomotor developmentb [2]. In addition, some severe epileptic encephalopathies typically appear in the first months of life. Pharmacological treatment of epilepsy in infancy is often ineffective, and up to one third of infants may have drug resistant epilepsy. In this group of patients, the use of multiple ineffective antiseizure medicines (ASMs) may lead to progressive deterioration and the appearance of si...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jana Ruiz Herrero, Elvira Ca ñedo Villarroya, Isabel Pérez-Sebastián, Beatriz Bernardino-Cuesta, Consuelo Pedrón-Giner Source Type: research

"Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric patients with epilepsy in Jordan: The caregiver perspective".
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by the newly emergent SARS-COV-2 . The literature was able to uncover several aspects of respiratory and non-respiratory manifestations (AlSamman M. et al, 2020). Neurological manifestations have been frequently encountered and documented (Keyhanian K. et al., 2020). Mild complaints of anosmia and ageusia have been used to distinguish contracting COVID-19 from the seasonal flu (La Torre G.et al., 2020). The most commonly reported serious neurological manifestations in young low-risk patients included encephalitis and strokes (Helms J. (Source: Seizure: Eu...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Miral Al Momani, Basima A. Almomani, Aladdin Al-Qudah, Samah Aburahma, Yusra Arafeh, Philip Sweidan Source Type: research

Causes and classification of first unprovoked seizures and newly-diagnosed epilepsy in a defined geographical area- an all-comers analysis
Epidemiologic studies are needed to understand the burden of epilepsy within a population and to set health service priorities [1]. More detailed reporting of incidence studies, especially with regard to seizure and epilepsy type, aetiology and age-specific results, have been called for, particularly in previously unreported populations [2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Eimer M Maloney, Éilis J O'Reilly, Daniel J Costello Source Type: research

Seizures as the main presenting manifestation of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection in children
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is more likely to cause symptomatic disease in adults than in children. If symptoms do occur, they are often milder compared to those of adults. The main symptoms in children are fever and mild respiratory symptoms [1-5]. Several studies describing the manifestations of acute COVID-19 in children did not report any neurological manifestations, for example, out of 2,306 pediatric patients from China and 81 from Singapore, none reported neurological symptoms [1, 2, 4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohammad Kurd, Saar Hashavya, Shmuel Benenson, Tal Gilboa Source Type: research

The relationship between social anxiety and felt stigma in patients with epilepsy: a network analysis
Epilepsy, characterized by a prolonged predisposition to generate epileptic seizures, is one of the most common chronic neurologic disorders [1]. Although many differences have been found among these three categories of seizures, including generalized onset seizures, focal onset epilepsy and unknown onset epilepsy, almost 70% of patients with epilepsy (PWE) respond positively to treatment, including pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacy therapy, and become seizure free [2]. However, in addition to seizure attacks, there are many other problems faced by PWE, including social impairments and psychiatric comorbidities, even after t...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Zihan Wei, Lei Ren, Lei Yang, Chao Liu, Mi Cao, Qun Yang, Xufeng Liu, Yonghong Liu, Yanchun Deng Source Type: research

Genetic-Cellular Epilepsy: Clues to Diagnosing Newborns with Neonatal Seizures
Seizures are the most frequent sign of neurological dysfunction in newborns. They occur in an estimated 2-3 per 1,000 term newborns and in 10-15 per 1,000 in preterms [1,2]. They are mostly due to acute brain injury such as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, metabolic disorders, or infection but are sometimes the first sign of neonatal-onset epilepsy due to pathogenic genetic mutations [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Matej Panjan, Darja Paro-Panjan, Aneta Soltirovska Salamon Source Type: research

Adequacy of prenatal care use among pregnant women with epilepsy: a population-based, cross-sectional study, Finland, 2000-2014
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterized by abnormal brain activity leading to symptoms of varying degrees, including recurrent seizures. Globally, it is estimated that 15 million women with epilepsy are of reproductive age.1 It is estimated that 0.3 to 0.8 percent of all pregnancies occur among women with epilepsy.2 Epilepsy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in a small proportion of pregnancies.3, 4 Successful prenatal care is often more difficult among women with epilepsy as it requires collaborative care from both obstetricians and neurologists. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanjida Mowla, Mika Gissler, Sari R äisänen, Vijaya Kancherla Source Type: research

Brain injury markers in new-onset seizures in adults: a pilot study
There is a need for biomarkers in epilepsy, especially markers that can be used to support diagnosis and prognostication early in the disease course. In patients with a first seizure, large structural brain lesions visible on brain imaging increase the risk of seizure recurrence [1]. Whether brain pathology capturable on a biochemical level has prognostic or diagnostic value is not known. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Hanna Eriksson, Rakesh Kumar Banote, David Larsson, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Johan Zelano Source Type: research

Incidence of clinical fractures: a 7-year follow-up study in institutionalized adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability
To determine the incidence of clinical fractures over seven years of follow-up, in adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability, residing in a long-stay care facility. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: J.J.L. Berkvens, C.E. Wyers, S. Mergler, K. Beerhorst, P. Verschuure, I.Y. Tan, H.J.M Majoie, J.P.W. van den Bergh Source Type: research

NTRK2-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathy: Report of 5 new cases
This study aimed to describe the phenotype of five new cases of NTRK2-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sangeetha Yoganathan, Gautham Arunachal, Vykuntaraju K Gowda, Kollencheri Puthenveettil Vinayan, Maya Thomas, Robyn Whitney, Puneet Jain Source Type: research

Another case of iconodiagnosis: misattribution of alien hand in dr strangelove?
Helmstaedter and others [1-3] have interpreted the inability of the main character to control his right arm in Stanley Kubrick's satire Dr Strangelove (1964) as an alien hand syndrome. Dr. Strangelove's right arm has a will of its own and constantly forms a Nazi salute and, at one point, attempts to strangle him with its black-gloved right hand. But, quite frankly, Kubrick modeled this arm after the prosthesis of the evil genius scientist Dr Rotwang (Rudolf Klein-Rogge) in Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1929). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Eelco.F.M. Wijdicks Source Type: research

Postoperative seizure and developmental outcomes of children with hemimegalencephaly and drug-resistant epilepsy
Hemimegalencephaly (HMEG) belongs to the brain overgrowth spectrum with unilateral megalencephaly involving one or almost one entire brain hemisphere [1]. Developmental delay, contralateral hemiparesis, and drug-resistant epilepsy are common in children with HMEG [2, 3]. Early epileptic seizures usually evolve into epileptic encephalopathies and lead to severe psychomotor retardation without intervention [4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Qingzhu Liu, Jiayi Ma, Guojing Yu, Qian Zhang, Ying Zhu, Ruofan Wang, Hao Yu, Chang Liu, Yu Sun, Wen Wang, Shuang Wang, Taoyun Jia, Ming Li, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuwu Jiang, Lixin Cai, Ye Wu Source Type: research

Epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in forcibly displaced people: A scoping review
At the end of 2019, 79.5 million people worldwide had been forcibly displaced; 45.7 million of these were internally displaced people (IDP), while 26 million were refugees. [1] The latter are either under the mandate of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR; 20.4 million) or the mandate of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA; 5.6 million Palestinian refugees). The term refugee describes people who have left their home countries and cannot return owing to fear of persecution, conflict, violence or other reasons that may compromise their lives and health, as defined by ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Asma Hallab, Arjune Sen Source Type: research

Cluster analysis of a large dataset of patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a childhood epilepsy syndrome characterized by multiple seizure types (e.g., tonic, atonic, absences, etc.), a specific interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern [i.e., generalized slow spike-waves (SSW) and/or generalized paroxysmal fast activity (GPFA)], and intellectual/psychosocial dysfunction.1-3 Seizures in LGS are often resistant to antiseizure medications (ASMs); reduction in the frequency of the most incapacitating seizures [i.e., Generalized tonic-clonic (GTC), tonic, and atonic] should be the major objective in their management strategy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Ali A. Asadi-Pooya, Mehdi Bazrafshan, Mohsen Farazdaghi Source Type: research

Exploring factors associated with interictal heart rate variability in patients with medically controlled focal epilepsy
People with epilepsy have autonomic dysfunction and a significantly higher premature mortality rate than the healthy controls. [1, 2] Heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of autonomic function, reflects the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. [3] HRV parameters are a useful objective marker of physiological stress. It measures the  changes in time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. [4] Increased HRV indicates an increased parasympathetic activity, whereas decreased HRV indicates increased sympathetic activity. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wei-Chih Yeh, Hsun-Chang Lin, Yao-Chung Chuang, Chung-Yao Hsu Source Type: research

Safety and tolerability of the novel 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) vaccines among People with Epilepsy (PwE): A cross-sectional study
Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 [1], which was declared as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020 [2]; since then, the entire world is facing unprecedented problems and living conditions. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Fathi Massoud, Samar Farouk Ahmad, Ahmed Medhat Hassan, K.J Alexander, Jasem Al –Hashel, Maher Arabi Source Type: research

Cortical and thalamic hyper-perfusion in non-convulsive status epilepticus. Relationship between perfusion CT patterns and Salzburg EEG criteria
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency, with an incidence of 10-41 cases per 100 000 population [1,2] and a mortality rate of around 20% [2]. Nonconvulsive seizures, nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), and the postictal state, in particular, may masquerade as a stroke and often represent a diagnostic challenge [3] [4]. Failure in recognizing SE can have important negative consequences leading to incorrect treatment, diagnostic delay and potential treatment adverse effects [5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Giada Giovannini, Marcella Malagoli, Giulia Turchi, Alice Miani, Niccol ò Orlandi, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Stefano Meletti Source Type: research

Incidence rate and risk factors of status epilepticus after stroke
status epilepticus (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Haijiao Wang, Deng Chen, Ge Tan, Li Na Zhu, Ling Liu Source Type: research

Teratogenic effects of zonisamide
To the Editors: (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Frank J.E. Vajda, Piero Perucca, Terence J. O'Brien, Cecilie M. Lander, Mervyn J. Eadie Source Type: research

Prevalence, Incidence, and Risk Factors of Epilepsy in Arab Countries: A systematic review
The Arab world consists of 22 countries, geographically located over two continents: Asia and Africa. It traverses an estimated total area of 13,132,327 km2, with a total of 423 million inhabitants across all countries. [1] People in the Arab world share a common language, with very similar cultures and traditions. Throughout the past few decades, the world has witnessed a slow yet steady development of the Arab world in different fields and especially in the medical field. This is evident by the increase in medical research productivity [2] and the improvement in health indicators, with an increase in life expectancy and ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Anas Idris, Mohamad S. Alabdaljabar, Alyaman Almiro, Anas Alsuraimi, Ahmad Dawalibi, Salim Abduljawad, Mashael AlKhateeb Source Type: research

What is the optimal duration for vigabatrin monotherapy in patients with infantile spasms: 6 months or longer?
Vigabatrin (VGB) is approved as monotherapy for pediatric patients with Infantile Spasms (IS). Duration of VGB use should be limited because of the risk of retinal and neurotoxicity, but the optimal length of treatment is unknown. Our study aimed to determine the risk of spasms relapse after 6 months of VGB as first-line therapy in IS patients deemed VGB good responders.The participants were 44 infants with IS who demonstrated both absence of clinical spasms and hypsarrhythmia four weeks after starting VGB, obtained from two cohorts: 29 patients from a multicenter prospective cohort and 15 patients from a retrospective sin...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: B éatrice Desnous, Marien Lenoir, Jonathan Y. Bitton, Mélina Arbour, Nathalie Villeneuve, Sharon Whiting, Ismail Mohammed, Elaine C. Wirrell, Luis Bello-Espinosa, Gabriel M Ronen, Anne Lortie, Ala Birca Source Type: research

Can machine learning improve randomized clinical trial analysis?
Despite over 24 approved anti-seizure medications, seizure freedom eludes 1 in 3 patients [1]. Meanwhile, new drug development costs have accelerated into billions of dollars. With these factors at play, it is time to re-assess basic assumptions about evaluating randomized clinical trial outcomes. It was recently shown that using “median percentage change” (MPC) [2] increased trial efficiency and lowered cost [3]. Is there a better metric, one that can reduce trial size while maintaining quality, reproducibility, and surveillance for adverse events? (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Juan Romero, Sharon Chiang, Daniel M. Goldenholz Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Care After Presenting with Seizures (CAPS): An analysis of the impact of a seizure referral pathway and nurse support on neurology referral rates for patients admitted with a seizure
Unprovoked seizures account for around 1.5% of emergency medical admissions in the UK, and a similar number attend an Emergency Department (ED) without need of admission [1, 2]. Around 20% of patients with epilepsy attend an ED each year, [3, 4, 5], and these unplanned attendances and admissions cost the health service around £70-£90 million annually [6, 7]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 28, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Pete A Dixon, Constantinos Kallis, Ruth Grainger, Michael G Pearson, Catrin Tudur-Smith, Anthony G Marson Source Type: research

Erratum to ‘Reciprocal burden: Adults with drug-resistant epilepsy reflect upon informal caregiver support [Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy 89 (2021) 85-92)
The Publisher would like to inform you that during typesetting some formatting problems were introduced to Tables  3 and 4 of the published article. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Sandra R. Dewar, Lizza Ranit, Huibrie C. Pieters Source Type: research

Computational models predicts premature death in epilepsy?
In their article “The use of computational models in the management and prognosis of refractory epilepsy: A critical evaluation” [1] Rigney and colleagues demonstrated that computational modelling is a new tool that can improve the prognosis and management of refractory epilepsy. In addition, it has also been st rongly proposed that these models should be explored for their ability to refine surgical outcomes in individuals with refractory epilepsy [1]. Considering the enormous clinical convergence of Rigney's study [1], we consider it pertinent to add some thoughts that may stimulate the debate about how a rti...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Fulvio A. Scorza, Antonio-Carlos G. de Almeida, Carla A. Scorza, Ant ônio Márcio Rodrigues, Josef Finsterer Source Type: research

Perilesional white matter integrity in drug-resistant epilepsy related to focal cortical dysplasia
As a common form of malformation of cortical development, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of the major etiologies of drug-resistant focal epilepsy and a common pathological finding in those who underwent resective epilepsy surgery [1 –4]. It has been proven that drug-resistant focal epilepsy is associated with a pronounced reduction in quality of life, education, and employment prospects. Although the incidence of drug-resistance is high in epilepsy caused by FCD, a minority of those epileptic patients are reported to be respo nsive to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for a prolonged period of time or even life-long ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bo Jin, Zhijun Lv, Wei Chen, Chao Wang, Thandar Aung, Wenjuan Chen, Meiping Wang, Shan Wang, Cong Chen, Fang Ding, Yu Geng, Shuang Wang Source Type: research

Antiseizure medication nonadherence and its associated factors among Epileptic patients in Ethiopia, A systematic review and Meta-analysis
Medication non-adherence is the intentional or unintentional behavior of not filling or refilling a prescription, discontinuing a medication before the course of therapy is completed, failing to adhere to agreed recommendations from a healthcare provider, taking more or less of a medication than recommended, and taking a dose at the incorrect time [1, 2]. Numerous studies have found that a large proportion of epilepsy patients in resource-poor countries do not receive adequate treatment, with many individuals, despite diagnosis and treatment initiation, quickly becoming non-adherent [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Haile Amha, Peter Memiah, Asmamaw Getnet, Belayneh Mengist, Mihretie Gedfew, Temesgen Ayenew, Tadesse Yirga Akalu, Henok Mulugeta, Bekalu Bewket, Bekalu Kebede, Pammla Petrucka Source Type: research

‘TO REVEAL OR TO CONCEAL’- Disclosure strategies in parents of children with epilepsy in India
Epilepsy is a common, chronic neurological disorder affecting children at a prevalence of 3-9 per 1000 children [1,2]. Epilepsy is an example of a concealable stigmatized identity, with visibility either on disclosure of the condition, or occurrence of seizures in public, or other indicators of the disease (e.g., drug-taking) [3]. Disclosing a child's epilepsy to others is an extremely sensitive issue for parents as disclosure can be fraught with discrimination, rejection, restrictions and bullying. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Aishwarya V. Lachake, Neelu Desai, Vrajesh Udani Source Type: research

For submission to Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy Full-length original research article Perilesional white matter integrity in drug-resistant epilepsy related to focal cortical dysplasia
As a common form of malformation of cortical development, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of the major etiologies of drug-resistant focal epilepsy and a common pathological finding in those who underwent resective epilepsy surgery [1-4]. It has been proven that drug-resistant focal epilepsy is associated with a pronounced reduction in quality of life, education, and employment prospects. Although the incidence of drug-resistance is high in epilepsy caused by FCD, a minority of those epileptic patients are reported to be responsive to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for a prolonged period of time or even life-long [5]. (So...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Bo Jin, Zhijun Lv, Wei Chen, Chao Wang, Thandar Aung, Wenjuan Chen, Meiping Wang, Shan Wang, Cong Chen, Fang Ding, Yu Geng, Shuang Wang Source Type: research

Temporal lobe epilepsy: Evaluation of central and systemic immune-inflammatory features associated with drug resistance.
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that affects people of all ages. It is characterized by an “enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures that are the transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain” [1, 2]. Around 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, making it one of the most common neurological dise ases. Nearly 80% of people with epilepsy live in low and middle-income countries [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Andrea Toledo, Sandra Orozco-Su árez, Marcos Rosetti, Lorenzo Maldonado, Sara I. Bautista, Ximena Flores, Alfonso Arellano, Sergio Moreno, Mario Alonso, Iris E. Martínez-Juárez, Gladis Fragoso, Edda Sciutto, Agnès Fleury Source Type: research

Title: Functional seizures across the adult lifespan: female sex, delay to diagnosis and disability
Functional seizures (FS), also known as dissociative or psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) [1-5], are involuntary transient episodes of abnormal behavior with an appearance of a neurologic etiology, for example demonstrating abnormal movements or cognition, and are believed to represent physical manifestations of psychological dysfunction [6-9]. FS differ from epileptic seizures (ES) in their cause and treatment. Prompt diagnosis of FS, generally with ictal video-EEG, has been associated with improved quality of life, seizure control, and healthcare utilization [10-16]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Wesley T. Kerr, Siddhika S. Sreenivasan, Corinne H. Allas, Emily A. Janio, Amir H. Karimi, Ishita Dubey, Shannon R. D'Ambrosio, Jena M. Smith, Jerome Engel, Jamie D. Feusner, John M. Stern Source Type: research

Erratum to ‘Seizures risk factors in sickle cell disease. The cooperative study of sickle cell disease [Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy 89 (2021) 107-113]’
The Publisher would like to inform you that the layout of Tables 2-5 was incorrect in the published article. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohammed Nawaiseh, Ala Shaban, Mohammad Abualia, Rund Haddadin, Yara Nawaiseh, Saif Aldeen AlRyalat, Ahmed Yassin, Iyad Sultan Source Type: research

What do we know about non-epileptic seizures in adults with intellectual disability: A narrative review
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are episodes of altered behavioural, sensory, motor or cognitive function which superficially resemble epileptic seizures, but are not associated with epileptiform activity. Most events are interpreted as a dissociative response to adverse internal or external cues[1]. The condition represents 10-20% of referrals to outpatient seizure clinics in general adult neurology and is one of the three causes of transient loss of consciousness, accounting for over 90% of clinical presentations[2]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregg H. Rawlings, Barbora Novakova, Nigel Beail, Markus Reuber Source Type: research

Epilepsy in LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy: A systematic review of the literature
Laminin alpha-2-related muscular dystrophy (LAMA2-RD), caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene, covers a wide spectrum of clinical disorders [1] that are typically divided into two main phenotypic categories: merosin- ​deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A), which is one of the most frequent forms of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) [2,3], and the milder and later-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) R23 phenotype [4]. The LAMA2 gene, located on chromosome 6q22-q23, encodes for the al pha-2 heavy chain of laminin-211 (laminin alpha-2, also called merosin), a major component of the basal membrane,...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Andrea Salvati, Eleonora Bonaventura, Gianluca Sesso, Rossella Pasquariello, Federico Sicca Tags: Review Source Type: research