A Tiered Strategy for Investigating Status Epilepticus
In status epilepticus the imperative to start anti-seizure therapy, initially subjugates the need to investigate the cause. Once treatment is initiated this balance shifts in favour of identifying: the causes and consequences of the seizure; the factors that predetermined the occurrence of status epilepticus; and finally the prognosis of this acute episode. Just as there are multiple causes of seizures and epilepsy, there are a vast number of causes of status epilepticus. We discuss the more common and the more important to identify as they may dictate a change in therapy or a certain prognosis. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Donald P. Craig, Tejal N. Mitchell, Rhys H. Thomas Source Type: research

Seasonal Distribution of Febrile Seizure and the Relationship with Respiratory and Enteric Viruses in Korean Children Based on Nationwide Registry Data
Febrile seizure is a benign convulsive disorder that affects 2 –8% of children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years [1,2] This disease is preceded by or accompanied with fever in the absence of other causes, such as central nervous system infection or metabolic disease [3]. The etiology of febrile seizures remains unclear, although fever, age, and genetic predisposition have been identified as major factors. In addition, multifactorial models based on genetic and environmental causes have been proposed recently [4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Do Hoon Han, Yeong Kim Su, Mi Lee Na, Yong Yi Dae, Weon Yun Sin, Seok Lim In, Ahn Chae Soo Source Type: research

Are seizures predictors of mortality in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU)?
This study aimed to determine if seizures in critically ill patients are predictive of in-hospital mortality. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Diosely C. Silveira, Anirudh Sagi, Raquel Romero Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Personality profiles differ between patients with epileptic seizures and patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are episodes of abnormal limb movements that resemble epileptic seizures (ES), but are not associated with organic aetiologies, and presumably manifest due to psychological distress [1]. Similarities in presentation to ES mean that patients with PNES are often misdiagnosed with epilepsy, resulting in multiple financial, social, emotional and health implications [2 –6]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Michelle Leong, Albert D Wang, David Trainor, Ben Johnstone, Genevieve Rayner, Tomas Kalincik, Izanne Roos, Patrick Kwan, Terence J O ’Brien, Dennis Velakoulis, Charles B Malpas Source Type: research

Epilepsy, cerebral calcifications, and gluten-related disorders: are anti-transglutaminase 6 antibodies the missing link?
Gluten-related disorders (GRDs) are a group of immune-mediated diseases with several clinical manifestations triggered by gluten ingestion (1). The three main forms of GRDs are celiac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA) and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity (NCGS) [1,2]. GRDs often present extraintestinal symptoms. Neurological manifestations have been reported in 10 to 22% of patients with coeliac disease (CD) and include gluten ataxia, polyneuropathy, myopathy, epilepsy, leukoencephalopathy, and headache [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Edoardo Ferlazzo, Serena Polidoro, Giuseppe Gobbi, Sara Gasparini, Chiara Sueri, Vittoria Cianci, Vito Sofia, Loretta Giuliano, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Sara Casciato, Tullio Messana, Antonietta Coppola, Salvatore Striano, Leonilda B Source Type: research

Discussing sudden unexpected death in epilepsy with children and young people with epilepsy and their parents/carers: a mixed methods systematic review
Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is commonly defined as “sudden, unexpected, witnessed or unwitnessed, nontraumatic and nondrowning death in patients with epilepsy, with or without evidence for a seizure and excluding documented status epilepticus, in which post-mortem examination does not reveal a toxicologic or anatomic cause for death” [1]. Due to difficulties with definitive diagnosis it is increasingly classified as definite, probable or possible [1]. Epilepsy is a common neurological disease in children, and whilst SUDEP is considered a relatively rare event, it has a devastating effect on fam...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kay Cooper, Pamela Kirkpatrick, Celia Brand, Alix Rolfe, Sarah Florida-James Source Type: research

Stereo-eeg ictal/interictal patterns and underlying pathologies
Surgery is a reliable treatment option1 –6 for drug-resistant focal epilepsies associated with cortical structural lesions.7,8 When no lesion is detected with high resolution magnetic resonance (MR), or when the lesion extension cannot be outlined by neuroimaging,9,10additional intracerebral neurophysiological information is needed, in order to identify the brain area to be resected to achieve post-surgical seizure freedom.11 Stereo-electro-encephalography (Stereo-EEG) reveals intralesional and perilesional electrical activities, which define the Stereo-EEG identified Seizure Onset Zone (SEEG-SOZ) and its network. (S...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Roberta Di Giacomo, Reinaldo Uribe San Martin, Roberto Mai, Stefano Francione, Lino Nobili, Ivana Sartori, Francesca Gozzo, Veronica Pelliccia, Marco Onofrj, Giorgio Lo Russo, Marco de Curtis, Laura Tassi Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Analysis of the reasons and costs of hospitalization for epilepsy patients in East China
Epilepsy is a paroxysmal disabling brain dysfunction that affects a wide range of individuals. About 50 million people suffer from epilepsy worldwide [1]. The current global prevalence of epilepsy is approximately 1% [2]. Nearly 80% of epilepsy patients are found in developing regions, such as China and India. Epilepsy patients usually respond well to the currently available anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Nearly 70% of these patients only require outpatient treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with epilepsy in developing countries (about 66% in China and 95% in India) do not receive regular or standard treatmen...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nian Yu, Xing-jian Lin, Shu-gang Zhang, Qing Di Source Type: research

A pragmatic approach to intravenous anaesthetics and electroencephalographic endpoints for the treatment of refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus in critical care
Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency, with overall mortality around 20%. Over half of cases are first time presentations of seizures. The pathological process by which spontaneous seizures are generated arises from an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks, which if unchecked, can result in alterations in intracellular signalling pathways and electrolyte shifts, which bring about changes in the blood brain barrier, neuronal cell death and eventually cerebral atrophy. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lara Prisco, Mario Ganau, Sidra Aurangzeb, Olivia Moswela, Claire Hallett, Simon Raby, Karina Fitzgibbon, Christopher Kearns, Arjune Sen Tags: Review Source Type: research

The transition to status epilepticus: how the brain meets the demands of perpetual seizure activity
The pathophysiology leading to the development of status epilepticus (SE) remains a topic of significant scientific interest and clinical relevance. The use of multiple experimental and computational models has shown that SE relies on a complex interaction between mechanisms that operate at both a cellular and network level. In this review, we will summarise the current knowledge on the factors that play a key role in allowing SE to develop and persist. These include pathological adaptations to changing ion dynamics, neuroenergetics, receptor expression and neurotransmission, which enable the brain to meet the extensive de...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Richard J. Burman, Joseph V. Raimondo, John G.R. Jefferys, Arjune Sen, Colin J. Akerman Source Type: research

Ictal Vomiting; A dominant hemisphere phenomenon as demonstrated by intracranial depth electrode seizure mapping
We describe a case of ictal vomiting where intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) has demonstrated seizure lateralisation to the dominant hemisphere and localisation of ictal vomiting to the dominant insula lobe. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Elisaveta Sokolov, Richard Selway, Franz Brunnhuber Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Risk factors for early-onset seizures in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: A meta-analysis of observational studies
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a subtype of cerebral stroke, with an annual incidence of approximately 3 –4 cases per million population [1]. Unlike other types of stroke, CVST typically occurs in young adults (mean age at onset: 35 years) [2]. In general, patients with CVST have a fair prognosis. Previous studies have shown that 60–79% of patients achieve good functional outcomes [Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0–1) [3–4]. However, occurrence of seizures in these patients may adversely affect the prognosis; in one study, CVST patients with seizures were found to experience two-fold h...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hao Li, Liqian Cui, Ziyi Chen, Yue Chen Source Type: research

Chronic post-encephalitic epilepsy following Japanese encephalitis: clinical features, neuroimaging data, and outcomes
Central nervous system (CNS) infections are one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy [1]. Patients with encephalitis have a risk of developing seizures at the acute stage, as well as later developing unprovoked seizures [2]. It is well recognized that the risk of developing unprovoked seizures in these patients is 7 to 16 times higher compared to the general population [3,4], especially in those with Herpes simplex virus and Japanese encephalitis (JE), and the odds ratio of subsequent epilepsy was reported to be 8.06 for JE [5]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Weixi Xiong, Lu Lu, Jiani Chen, Yingfeng Xiao, Dong Zhou Source Type: research

Epilepsy patients with and without perceived benefit from vagus nerve stimulation: A long-term observational single center study
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of epilepsy has been designed to prevent or interrupt seizures by cycling or triggered electrical stimulation of the left vagus nerve. It is an empirically based method with limited knowledge on mechanisms of action. The vagus nerve has rich afferent connections to the brain stem and mesencephalon. The effect of VNS was suggested in animal studies and subsequently supported by randomized clinical trials in uncontrolled focal onset epilepsy. These findings led to European Community and US approval in 1994 and 1997, respectively [1]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Eylert Brodtkorb, Christian Samsonsen, Jan V. J ørgensen, Grethe Helde Source Type: research

Prospective Evaluation Of Oral Cannabis Extracts In Children With Epilepsy
Interest in cannabis as a treatment for people living with epilepsy has increased over the last several years. The use of cannabis for epilepsy has been described in anecdotal reports for centuries. [1 –3] Colorado voters passed a medicinal cannabis law allowing use for specific diagnoses in November 2000. Despite many new treatments becoming available in the last 20 years, including new antiseizure medications, neurostimulation, and improvements in surgical techniques and etiologic identificati on, many children living with epilepsy do not have well-controlled seizures. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kelly G. Knupp, John D. Rice, Laura J. Helmkamp, Galinkin Jeffrey, Cristina Sempio, Klawitter Jost, Kevin E. Chapman Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “The effect of perampanel on aggression and depression in patients with epilepsy: A short-term prospective study” [Seizure 67 (2019) 1–4]
The authors regret the term “standardized coefficients (β)” should be replaced with “unstandardized coefficients (B)” in Table 5. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiroko Goji, Kousuke Kanemoto Source Type: research

Status Epilepticus in Pediatric patients Severity Score (STEPSS): A clinical score to predict the outcome of status epilepticus in children- a prospective cohort study
Status epilepticus (SE) is a frequent neurological emergency with short term mortality ranging from 0.9 to 3.6% in children [1 –5]. The outcome of status epilepticus is determined mainly by the underlying etiology, delays in treatment and the refractoriness of the ongoing seizures to treatment [6–10]. The morbidity of status epilepticus increases as the seizure becomes refractory to medical therapy. Identifying the clin ical factors that predict the outcome of patients with status epilepticus is important as this may be useful for deciding further treatment. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sidharth, Suvasini Sharma, Puneet Jain, Surendra Bahadur Mathur, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Virendra Kumar Source Type: research

Association between high titers of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody and epilepsy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is characterized by progressive immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta-cells [1]. Epilepsy is a frequent disorder; however, its etiology is unknown in most cases [2]. The hypothesis that epilepsy of unknown etiology involves autoimmunity has found increased support [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tiago S. Aguiar, Joana R. Dantas, D ébora B. Cabral, Cláudia Cecília S. Rego, Lenita Zajdenverg, Gil Fernando Salles, Soniza V. Alves-Leon, Melanie Rodacki, Marco Antonio Lima Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Reply to the Letter to the Editor on “The effect of perampanel on aggression and depression in patients with epilepsy: A short-term prospective study”
We are grateful to Professor Lee for his attentive reading of our paper, as well as for providing helpful comments and suggestions. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiroko Goji, Kousuke Kanemoto Tags: Reply Source Type: research

Women with epilepsy in sub –Saharan Africa: a review of the reproductive health challenges and perspectives for management
Epilepsy is a leading neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures and affecting more than 50 million people worldwide [1]. There is a disproportionate geographical burden of epilepsy, with 80% of cases living in low- and middle-income countries [1]. In sub –Saharan Africa (SSA), the estimated median prevalence of epilepsy is 14.2 per 1000 [2]; there is a peak prevalence in the 20–29 years age group, with both sexes being equally affected particularly for individuals under 40 years [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sonia Menon, Joseph Siewe Fodjo, Sarah Weckhuysen, Dan Bhwana, Alfred K. Njamnshi, Marieke Dekker, Robert Colebunders Source Type: research

Estimating the cost of status epilepticus admissions in the United States of America using ICD-10 codes
There are approximately 17-23/100,000 pediatric status epilepticus (SE) episodes per year and approximately 4-15/100,000 SE episodes per year in adults [1,2]. SE is a condition with a mortality of approximately 2-5% in children and 13-19% in adults, even higher when SE is refractory or super-refractory [3]. Therefore, SE generally requires hospital management and close monitoring, frequently in the intensive care unit (ICU). The cost of caring for SE is substantial, but there is limited literature on cost associated with SE. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - September 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Iv án Sánchez Fernández, Marta Amengual-Gual, Cristina Barcia Aguilar, Tobias Loddenkemper Source Type: research

Peri-ictal magnetic resonance imaging in status epilepticus: Temporal relationship and prognostic value in 60 patients
When the mechanisms responsible for terminating epileptic seizures fail, status epilepticus (SE) may occur, resulting in prolonged seizures that can have long-term consequences [1]. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used in SE patients as an aid to establish the etiological diagnosis. However, recent studies have described acute MRI changes associated with SE [2 –4], which are mainly restriction in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in different brain areas. Based on the findings in animal models, these features are usually interpreted as stemming from changes in cellular metabolism occ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Manuel Requena, Silvana Sarria-Estrada, Estevo Santamarina, Manuel Quintana, Mar ía Sueiras, Alex Rovira, Manuel Toledo Source Type: research

Structured testing during seizures: a practical guide for assessing and interpreting ictal and postictal signs during video EEG long term monitoring
Seizures have many different manifestations, with diverse clinical signs and symptoms, together referred to as ictal semiology [1 –4]. Semiology can help determine the hemisphere and lobe of seizure onset. To characterise a patient’s habitual seizures, admission is often required to a long-term electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring unit (LTM). A video recording of all captured seizures is correlated with the simultaneous ly recorded EEG to either confirm or refute the epileptic nature of the event [5], and in presurgical cases potentially identify the hemisphere (lateralisation) and cerebral lobe (localisatio...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Michael Owen Kinney, Stjepana Kovac, Beate Diehl Source Type: research

Optimized SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) remains of special interest due to its high prevalence and frequent drug-resistance [1]. Standard surgical approaches including anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) or selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) are established effective treatments in medically refractory MTLE-HS patients. Prospective, randomized trials have demonstrated seizure-free rates significantly greater in surgically-treated patients compared to those given best medical therapy [2 –4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiaotong Fan, Yongzhi Shan, Chao Lu, Yang An, Yihe Wang, Jialin Du, Di Wang, Penghu Wei, Robert S. Fisher, Yuping Wang, Liankun Ren, Guoguang Zhao Source Type: research

Patient and Family Perspectives of Paediatric Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures: A Systematic Review
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are noticeable changes in an individual ’s consciousness or behaviour that share a similar appearance to epileptic seizures, with the key difference being that PNES are not accompanied by electrophysiological changes [1]. Although as many as 15 different names have been documented in describing this condition [2], PNES is the term that will be employed throughout this systematic review. Reuber [3] posits that these seizures are best understood through the lens of a biopsychosocial, etiologic model, whereby interacting predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating and triggering f...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Amanda Dunne, Rory Carolan, Lorraine Swords, Gillian Fortune Tags: Review Source Type: research

Anticonvulsive effect of anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation in super-refractory status epilepticus crucially depends on active stimulation zone —A single case observation
Super-refractory status epilepticus has a high mortality, and its treatment remains a challenge for clinical epileptologists. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is successfully used in pharmacotherapy-resistant epilepsy and larger studies showed significant seizure reduction by high frequency stimulation in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) [1]. Furthermore, several case reports indicate that DBS is also effective in the management of status epilepticus. In a recent, very comprehensive publication, Lehtim äki and co-workers reported resolution of a super-refractory non-convulsive status epilepticus with continuous ...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lukas L. Imbach, Christian R. Baumann, Rositsa Poryazova, Olivia Geissler, Peter Brugger, Johannes Sarnthein, Ian Mothersill, Michael Weller, Markus F. Oertel, Lennart H. Stieglitz Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Human neocortical interictal epileptiform discharges are initiated by a low-voltage negative polarity wave
Epilepsy is a disease that affects the electrical activity of the brain. Epileptic seizures are paroxysms of electrical discharges that disrupt the brain ’s ability to process information. In between seizures, a brain with epilepsy generates isolated electrical discharges known as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) (Stern and Engel, 2013). IED identification corroborates a diagnosis of epilepsy and enables classification of the underlying ty pe of epilepsy (Stern and Engel, 2013). In some cases, IED waveforms correlate with underlying pathology (Noachtar et al., 2008; Tassi et al., 2012). (Source: Seizure: Eur...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ruggero Serafini Source Type: research

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in Chinese patients: phenotypic analysis and mutational screening of TSC1/TSC2 genes
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the growths of benign hamartomatous tumors in multiple organ systems, primarily in the brain, eyes, heart, kidney, skin and lungs [1]. The prevalence of the disease was estimated to range from 1/6000 to 1/10 000 [2]. Inactivating mutations in either of two genes, TSC1 on chromosome 9q34 (MIM 191100) and TSC2 on chromosome 16p13 (MIM 191092), were identified as responsible for TSC [3,4]. The TSC1 gene contains 23 exons, coding for a 130-kDa protein named Hamartin, while TSC2 consists of 42 exons generating a transcript from whi...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shan Lin, Jia-Bin Zeng, Gui-Xian Zhao, Zhen-Zhen Yang, Hui-Ping Huang, Min-Ting Lin, Zhi-Ying Wu, Ning-Wang, Wan-Jin Chen, Ling Fang Source Type: research

The best evidence for progressive myoclonic epilepsy: a pathway to precision therapy
The Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of uncommon clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders (mainly autosomal recessive), characterised by myoclonus, generalized epilepsy, and progressive neurological deterioration, including dementia and ataxia [1]. PMEs are disorders with debilitating evolution, resistance to treatment and poor prognosis, and it is estimated that these diseases are responsible for up to 1% of epileptic syndromes in children and adolescents around the world. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Alessandro Orsini, Angelo Valetto, Veronica Bertini, Mariagrazia Esposito, Niccol ò Carli, Berge A. Minassian, Alice Bonuccelli, Diego Peroni, Roberto Michelucci, Pasquale Striano Tags: Review Source Type: research

Using scalp EEG and intracranial EEG signals for predicting epileptic seizures: review of available methodologies
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in which patients suffer seizures. Being able to predict the onset of a seizure before it occurs is important since this may facilitate the prevention of accidents and injury that can occur during seizures and additionally may help with pre-seizure delivery of medication or other interventions [1]. Electrical activity in the brain can be monitored using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals [2], which can be recorded from the scalp of patients, referred to as scalp EEG [3], or by implanting electrodes inside brain tissues during surgery, referred to as intracranial EEG signals (iEEG)...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Syed Muhammad Usman, Shehzad Khalid, Rizwan Akhtar, Zuner Bortolotto, Zafar Bashir, Haiyang Qiu Tags: < ![CDATA[Review]] > Source Type: research

Prognostic factors and seizure outcome in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) in children with hematological malignancies and bone marrow failure: a retrospective monocentric study
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), as defined by Hinchey et al. (1996), is a phenomenon of transient cerebral vasogenic edema occurring preferentially in posterior circulation [1]. Clinically, PRES is characterized by headaches, seizures, reduced consciousness, and visual and other focal neurological symptoms [2,3]. PRES is a clinicoradiological syndrome; a characteristic radiologic finding is vasogenic edema in the bilateral parietal-occipital lobes, which might be related to the lower concentrations of sympathetic innervation of the posterior intracranial arteries in comparison with other cerebral regio...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pavl ína Danhofer, Michaela Tomečková, Dáša Černá, Danica Zapletalová, Ondřej Horák, Štefánia Aulická, Lenka Juříková, Jiří Domanský, Petra Kovalčíková, Tomáš Pavlík, Jaroslav Štěrba, Hana Ošlejšková Source Type: research

Bone turnover analysis and vitamin D status in children with epilepsy
We have read the recently published article by Kija and colleagues, entitled “Vitamin D abnormalities and bone turn over analysis in children with epilepsy in the Western Cape of South Africa” with great interest [1]. The authors studied the effect of antiepileptic drugs on bone metabolism and found that 16.6% of children with epilepsy and 8.8% healthy children had vitam in D deficiency. We congratulate the authors for their excellent work and want to add few points. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Indar Kumar Sharawat, Lesa Dawman Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Vitamin D abnormalities and bone turn over analysis in children with Epilepsy in the Western Cape of South Africa
We would like to respond to a letter entitled “Bone turnover analysis and Vitamin D status in children with Epilepsy” [1] which relates to our article recently published in Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy entitled Vitamin D abnormalities and bone turn over analysis in children with Epilepsy in the Western Cape of South Africa [2]. We are delighted by the great interest shown by the authors in this area of significant public health importance which still has insufficient data particularly in sub Saharan Africa. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Edward Kija, Barry E. Gidal, Alexander Shapson-Coe, Shihaam Cader, George van der Watt, Steve Delport, Jo M. Wilmshurst Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures publications in PubMed: Geographical distribution of the publications
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are common occurrences in epilepsy centers [1]. Currently, the diagnosis is often made by neurologists/epileptologists and the treatment is usually offered by psychologists/psychiatrists. But, misdiagnosis and delay in making a definite diagnosis and consequently maltreatment practices are common in these patients [2]. In addition, there is no universally accepted terminology, definition and classification system for this common condition [3,4]. Similarly, pathophysiology and neurobiological underpinnings of PNES are still poorly understood [5,6]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Maryam Sharifian Dorche, Amir Hossein Sharifian Dorche, Ali A. Asadi-Pooya Tags: Review Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Febrile seizures: Are they truly benign? Longitudinal analysis of risk factors and future risk of afebrile epileptic seizure based on the national sample cohort in South Korea, 2002–2013” [Seizure 64 (January) (2019) 77–83]
The authors regret that at the time the article was published the spelling for the author Joonghee Kim was incorrect. In addition the order of authors should be: Yoo Jin Choi, MD, Joonghee Kim, MD, Jae Yun Jung, MD, PhD, Hyuksool Kwon, MD, Joong Wan Park, MD, Young Ho Kwak, MD, PhD, Do Kyun Kim, MD, PhD, Jin Hee Lee, MD (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yoo Jin Choi, Joonghee Kim, Jae Yun Jung, Hyuksool Kwon, Joong Wan Park, Young Ho Kwak, Do Kyun Kim, Jin Hee Lee Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Autism, ADHD and parent-reported behavioural difficulties in young children with epilepsy
Ddifficulties with neurodevelopment and behaviour are frequently reported in children with epilpesy [1]. The difficulties experienced by the children are greater than that experienced by children with other non-neurological conditions [2] and have often a greater impact on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) than seizures [3]. In school-aged children the prevalence of behavioural comorbidities have been described [1]. There is however, limited data on behavior in younger children with epilepsy [4] including the presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (Source: Seizu...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Colin Reilly, Patricia Atkinson, Ayesha Memon, Chloe Jones, Lyvia Dabydeen, J. Helen Cross, Krishna B. Das, Christopher Gillberg, Brian G.R. Neville, Rod C. Scott Source Type: research

Epileptic encephalopathy and brain iron accumulation due to WDR45 mutation
We present the case of a 10-year-old Chinese boy with profound developmental delay, spastic quadriparesis, and intractable epilepsy with tonic and atypical absence seizures. He was first noted to have a delay at 9 months. When evaluated at 17 months he had diffusely decreased tone, was only able to roll over but could not sit, hold his head, crawl or communicate. His seizures started at age 2 and consisted of atypical absence (hypomotor) and generalized tonic seizures occasionally preceded by myoclonic jerks. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jean Khoury, Prakash Kotagal, Ahsan N.V. Moosa Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Electrical stimulation mapping in children
Electrical stimulation mapping is a longstanding practice that aids in identification and delineation of eloquent cortex. Initially used to expand our understanding of the typical human cortex, it now plays a significant role in mapping cortical function in individuals with atypical structural and functional tissue organization undergoing epilepsy surgery. This review discusses the unique challenges that arise in the functional testing of the immature cortex of a child and the parameters of stimulation that optimize accurate results in conventional open implantation and in stereo-electroencephalography. (Source: Seizure: E...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ann Hyslop, Michael Duchowny Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rasmussen ’s Encephalitis Presenting as Progressive Parietal Dysfunction Sans Seizures
Rasmussen ’s encephalitis (RE) is a rare immune-mediated condition that classically presents in children with focal epilepsy or epilepsia partialis continua, progressive hemiplegia associated with cognitive deterioration and chronic unilateral cortical inflammation and hemi-atrophy [1]. Adults may have atyp ical manifestations including a prolonged prodromal phase, poorly defined residual period and slower progression [2]. Adults have more frequent occipital lobe involvement, bilateral hemispheric involvement or presentation as temporal lobe epilepsy or movement disorders [3]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Divyani Garg, Ayush Agarwal, Deepa Dash, Swati Mahajan, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Rohit Bhatia, Manjari Tripathi Tags: Clinical letter Source Type: research

Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thinning in Genetic Generalized Epilepsy
Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) comprises common epilepsies characterized by an electroclinical phenotype, complex genetic component and presumed common pathogenetic mechanism [1,2]. GGE shows no structural lesions on conventional MRI [2]. However, studies based on more advanced imaging technologies have shown subtle differences in brain structure [3 –6]. MRI volumetry and voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated regional changes, particularly thalamic volume loss, in GGE patients [4,7,8]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jes ús González de la Aleja, Maripaz Guerrero-Molina, Rosa Ana Saíz-Díaz, Francisco López-Muñoz, Isidoro Raga-Martínez, Jesús Hernández-Gallego, Patricia Navarrete-Chamorro, Francisco Javier Povedano-Montero Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dissecting the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of early childhood-onset generalized epilepsies
After Doose et al. [1] described epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizure (MAE), exploration of genetic causes has been ongoing [2]. Recent studies have identified pathogenic variants in SLC2A1 and SLC6A1 in 4% and 5% of MAE patients, respectively [3,4]. SLC2A1 has also been identified as responsible for up to 10% of early onset absence epilepsy (EOAE) patients [5 –7]. Similarly, EOAE and childhood absence epilepsy have also been reported in patients with pathogenic variants in SLC6A1 [8]. Therefore, although the principal seizure type may characterize MAE and EOAE as distinct epilepsy syndromes, they may share a genet...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Soo Yeon Kim, Se Song Jang, Jong-Il Kim, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang, Ji Eun Choi, Jong-Hee Chae, Ki Joong Kim, Byung Chan Lim Source Type: research

A case of DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) under treatment with eslicarbazepine
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a well-known and often limiting problem in the pharmacological treatment of epilepsies. Cutaneous drug reactions – ranging from mild maculopapular exanthema (MPE) to severe Stevens-Johnson syndrome/ toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are frequently observed in association with several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) [1]. DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a potentially life-threate ning subtype that features hypereosinophilia, morbilliform skin eruptions, fever, facial edema, enlarged lymph nodes and other organ involvement and occurs with a latency of 2 to...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sophia Willikens, Stefan Wolking Tags: Clinical Letter Source Type: research

Cognitive outcome of pediatric epilepsy surgery across ages and different types of surgeries: A monocentric 1-year follow-up study in 306 patients of school age
Pediatric patients with epilepsy for whom epilepsy surgery is a treatment option very often profit from this intervention in terms of becoming seizure free. However, while seizure freedom can be achieved in many patients, the eventual neuropsychological costs of successful and even more important of non-successful surgery represent a relevant issue under discussion. Neuropsychological impairments are almost present when epilepsy starts already, they can increase with ongoing epilepsy, and surgery may add to this [1 –4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: C. Helmstaedter, K. Beeres, C.E. Elger, S. Kuczaty, J. Schramm, C. Hoppe Source Type: research

Epilepsy in China: Factors influencing Marriage Status and fertility
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent seizures affecting various aspects of social life [1,2]. It is generally agreed that patients with epilepsy (PWE) are less likely to get married and bear offspring [3 –6]. Lower marriage rates and reduced fertility within marriage may be associated with sociological and clinical characteristics of epilepsy [5,7,8]. PWE have lower rates of marriage when disease onset in their first decade of life [3,5]. Carran et al. found that patients with temporal lobe epilep sy have higher marriage rates than those with extratemporal lobe epilepsy [5]. (Source: Seizure: Eur...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sisi Li, Jiani Chen, Ammar Taha Abdullah Abdulaziz, Yadong Liu, Xuran Wang, Mintao Lin, Yingjie Qin, Xu Liu, Dong Zhou Source Type: research

A de novo heterozygous missense BSCL2 variant in 2 siblings with intractable developmental and epileptic encephalopathy
The last 20 years have seen great advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsy. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled the discovery of hundreds of genes associated with idiopathic epilepsies, in particular early infantile epileptic encephalopathies [1 –4]. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ana Fern ández-Marmiesse, Sofía Sánchez-Iglesias, Alejandra Darling, María M. O'Callaghan, Raúl Tonda, Cristina Jou, David Araújo-Vilar Source Type: research

Convulsive status epilepticus due to different evolutionary stages of neurocysticercosis - solitary cyticercus granuloma, low cyst load, and single calcific lesion in an endemic country: Clinical profile
Seizures and epilepsy are the most common manifestations of all the evolutionary stages of neurocysticercosis (NCC) (78.8%, 95% CI: 65.1% –89.7%) [1]. Seizure presentation can be as an isolated seizure, seizure cluster, or convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) [2,3]. CSE is a rare presentation of all the evolutionary stages of NCC [2–5]. Extremely rarely,CSE due to NCC may evolve into super refractory SE [6]. However because of its rarity, CSE due to different evolutionary stages of NCC has not been well characterized. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jagarlapudi M.K. Murthy, Devdutt Suresh Deshmukh Source Type: research

Efficacy of Statin Therapy in Post-Stroke Seizure Prophylaxis: Clues from an Observational Study of Routine Secondary Prevention Treatment
Stroke is a common cause of epilepsy in the elderly population. The abnormal neuronal discharges of post-stroke seizures (PSS) can cause damage to neurons and worsen the outcome of stroke. Numerous studies have focused on the clinical epidemiology of PSS; and the reported incidence varies from 2% to 20%, depending on the study population, stroke subtype, and the seizure onset time after the stroke [1 –4]. Patients with early-onset seizures (ES) have a high risk of disability and mortality [1,5], whereas those with late-onset seizures (LS) and post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) tend to end up with poorer outcomes [6]. (Source...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuxiang Li, Bei Zhang, Lu Zhang, Dandan Xie, Yi Li Source Type: research

Rashes and Other Hypersensitivity Reactions Associated with Antiepileptic Drugs: A Review of Current Literature
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are associated with rashes and other hypersensitivity reactions. The incidence varies depending on the type of rash, the AED used, and the previous history of rash with quoted incidences ranging from 1.7 -8.8%. Drugs with the greatest risk include phenytoin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and lamotrigine, while several other AEDs have a risk (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - July 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ram Mani, Catherine Monteleone, Peter C. Schalock, Thu Truong, Xiao B. Zhang, Mary L. Wagner Source Type: research