Roadblocks to driving cognitive gains through transcranial electrical stimulation
The crucial role of cognitive dysfunction in determining functional outcomes in schizophrenia cannot be understated (Fett et al. 2011; Green 1996). Given the at-best modest benefits (Wykes et al. 2011) and time/resource intensive nature of cognitive training interventions, there is a felt clinical need to explore alternative methods, and one such promising avenue that has emerged over the last decade is non-invasive brain stimulation that includes Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) (Mehta and Keshavan 2015; Minzenberg and Carter 2012). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta Source Type: research

Expressed emotion as a predictor of the first psychotic episode — Results of the European prediction of psychosis study
To investigate the impact of expressed emotion (EE) on the risk of developing the first psychotic episode (FEP). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theresa Haidl, Marlene Rosen, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Dorien Nieman, Susanne Eggers, Markus Heinimaa, Georg Juckel, Andreas Heinz, Anthony Morrison, Don Linszen, Raimo Salokangas, Joachim Klosterk ötter, Max Birchwood, Paul Patterson, Stephan Ruhrmann, t Source Type: research

Factors motivating spontaneous exercise in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders
Individuals with schizophrenia are less likely to be physically active than the general population and at greater risk for chronic medical conditions leading to premature mortality and morbidity. The biological effects of exercise on the human body include cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal, and immunologic changes, as well as changes in brain functioning and anatomy. (Vancampfort et al., 2012) Clinical studies have indicated the effects on the brain are not purely physical but may have therapeutic effects on several psychiatric disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Danielle Dahle, Douglas Noordsy Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

‘You are what you eat’ (not what you said you ate yesterday): Why a one-off 24-hour dietary recall fails capture usual dietary intake in schizophrenia
We read with interest the recent cross-sectional analysis of dietary intake and physical activity in people (n=428) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders by Jakobsen et al. (2018). Participants were asked to self-report a singular 24-hour recall to estimate energy and macronutrient intake. This dietary data was compared to general population results from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) from 2011 to 2013 (7 consecutive day, pre-coded questionnaire). The authors concluded that energy intake in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders do not differ from the general population, a...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Scott B. Teasdale, Joseph Firth, Brendon Stubbs, Tracy L. Burrows Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A positive-psychological intervention reduces acute psychosis-proneness
While individuals at ultra-risk for schizophrenia are characterized by high negative/disorganised but low positive schizotypy, schizophrenia patients are usually high in all three schizotypy facets. Thus, avoiding increases in positive schizotypy in ultra-high risk individuals may constitute of form of schizophrenia-prevention. A possible method of reducing positive schizotypy could be Positive-Psychological intervention (PI). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Phillip Grant, Aisha Judith Leila Munk, Juergen Hennig Source Type: research

Corpus callosum shape and morphology in youth across the psychosis Spectrum
The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract in the human brain connecting and coordinating homologous regions of the right and left hemispheres and has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of psychosis. We investigated corpus callosum morphology in a large community cohort of 917 individuals (aged 8 –21), including 267 endorsing subsyndromal or threshold psychotic symptoms (207 on the psychosis spectrum and 60 with limited psychosis based on previously published criteria) and 650 non-psychotic volunteers. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: D.M. Prendergast, K.H. Karlsgodt, C.L. Fales, B.A. Ardekani, P.R. Szeszko Source Type: research

Expressed emotion as a predictor of the first psychotic episode — Results of the European prediction of psychosis study
To investigate the impact of expressed emotion (EE) on the risk of developing the first psychotic episode (FEP). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Theresa Haidl, Marlene Rosen, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Dorien Nieman, Susanne Eggers, Markus Heinimaa, Georg Juckel, Andreas Heinz, Anthony Morrison, Don Linszen, Raimo Salokangas, Joachim Klosterk ötter, Max Birchwood, Paul Patterson, Stephan Ruhrmann, t Source Type: research

Factors motivating spontaneous exercise in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders
Individuals with schizophrenia are less likely to be physically active than the general population and at greater risk for chronic medical conditions leading to premature mortality and morbidity. The biological effects of exercise on the human body include cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal, and immunologic changes, as well as changes in brain functioning and anatomy. (Vancampfort et al., 2012) Clinical studies have indicated the effects on the brain are not purely physical but may have therapeutic effects on several psychiatric disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Danielle Dahle, Douglas Noordsy Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

‘You are what you eat’ (not what you said you ate yesterday): Why a one-off 24-hour dietary recall fails capture usual dietary intake in schizophrenia
We read with interest the recent cross-sectional analysis of dietary intake and physical activity in people (n=428) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders by Jakobsen et al. (2018). Participants were asked to self-report a singular 24-hour recall to estimate energy and macronutrient intake. This dietary data was compared to general population results from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) from 2011 to 2013 (7 consecutive day, pre-coded questionnaire). The authors concluded that energy intake in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders do not differ from the general population, a...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Scott B. Teasdale, Joseph Firth, Brendon Stubbs, Tracy L. Burrows Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A positive-psychological intervention reduces acute psychosis-proneness
While individuals at ultra-risk for schizophrenia are characterized by high negative/disorganised but low positive schizotypy, schizophrenia patients are usually high in all three schizotypy facets. Thus, avoiding increases in positive schizotypy in ultra-high risk individuals may constitute of form of schizophrenia-prevention. A possible method of reducing positive schizotypy could be Positive-Psychological intervention (PI). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Phillip Grant, Aisha Judith Leila Munk, Juergen Hennig Source Type: research

Corpus callosum shape and morphology in youth across the psychosis Spectrum
The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract in the human brain connecting and coordinating homologous regions of the right and left hemispheres and has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of psychosis. We investigated corpus callosum morphology in a large community cohort of 917 individuals (aged 8 –21), including 267 endorsing subsyndromal or threshold psychotic symptoms (207 on the psychosis spectrum and 60 with limited psychosis based on previously published criteria) and 650 non-psychotic volunteers. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: D.M. Prendergast, K.H. Karlsgodt, C.L. Fales, B.A. Ardekani, P.R. Szeszko Source Type: research

Comprehensive pathway analyses of schizophrenia risk loci point to dysfunctional postsynaptic signaling
Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated many low-penetrance loci in schizophrenia. However, its pathological mechanisms are poorly understood, which in turn hampers the development of novel pharmacological treatments. Pathway and gene set analyses carry the potential to generate hypotheses about disease mechanisms and have provided biological context to genome-wide data of schizophrenia. We aimed to examine which biological processes are likely candidates to underlie schizophrenia by integrating novel and powerful pathway analysis tools using data from the largest Psychiatric Genomics Consortium ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dick Schijven, Daniel Kofink, Vinicius Tragante, Marloes Verkerke, Sara L. Pulit, Ren é S. Kahn, Jan H. Veldink, Christiaan H. Vinkers, Marco P. Boks, Jurjen J. Luykx Source Type: research

Brain functional connectivity of meaning attribution in patients with psychosis: Preliminary electroencephalographic observations
Psychotic patients show lower performances on tasks requiring goals attribution, intentions and beliefs of others (Koelkebeck et al., 2010; Liepelt et al., 2012). Recent researches supported the “disconnectivity hypothesis” by considering the “abnormal” functional integration among structural brain regions as a useful marker of specific impairment in higher-order processing typically described in schizophrenia (Uhlhaas, 2015). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carlo Lai, Massimiliano Luciani, Chiara Di Giorgio, Roberta Fiorini, G ülara Yaya, Gaia Romana Pellicano, Marianna Mazza, Daniela Altavilla, Paola Aceto Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Interaction between childhood adversity and functional polymorphisms in the dopamine pathway on first-episode psychosis
There is consistent evidence of a cumulative relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis, with number of adversities experienced increasing the probability of psychosis onset. It is possible that genetic factors moderate the association between childhood adversity and psychosis, potentially by influencing how an individual reacts biologically and/or psychologically following exposure to adversity, in such a way as to set them off on the path to psychosis. However, identifying the specific genetic variants involved and how they interact with childhood adversity remains challenging. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antonella Trotta, Conrad Iyegbe, Jenny Yiend, Paola Dazzan, Anthony S. David, Carmine Pariante, Valeria Mondelli, Marco Colizzi, Robin M. Murray, Marta Di Forti, Helen L. Fisher Source Type: research

Brain functional connectivity of meaning attribution in patients with psychosis: Preliminary electroencephalographic observations
Psychotic patients show lower performances on tasks requiring goals attribution, intentions and beliefs of others (Koelkebeck et al., 2010; Liepelt et al., 2012). Recent researches supported the “disconnectivity hypothesis” by considering the “abnormal” functional integration among structural brain regions as a useful marker of specific impairment in higher-order processing typically described in schizophrenia (Uhlhaas, 2015). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carlo Lai, Massimiliano Luciani, Chiara Di Giorgio, Roberta Fiorini, G ülara Yaya, Gaia Romana Pellicano, Marianna Mazza, Daniela Altavilla, Paola Aceto Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Interaction between childhood adversity and functional polymorphisms in the dopamine pathway on first-episode psychosis
There is consistent evidence of a cumulative relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis, with number of adversities experienced increasing the probability of psychosis onset. It is possible that genetic factors moderate the association between childhood adversity and psychosis, potentially by influencing how an individual reacts biologically and/or psychologically following exposure to adversity, in such a way as to set them off on the path to psychosis. However, identifying the specific genetic variants involved and how they interact with childhood adversity remains challenging. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antonella Trotta, Conrad Iyegbe, Jenny Yiend, Paola Dazzan, Anthony S. David, Carmine Pariante, Valeria Mondelli, Marco Colizzi, Robin M. Murray, Marta Di Forti, Helen L. Fisher Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Morphometric analysis of the cerebral expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCB1 in chronic schizophrenia: Circumscribed deficits in the habenula” [Schizophr. Res. 2016 Nov;177(1–3):52–58]
The authors regret to inform that the published Fig. 1 has to be corrected. Panel A and D show the wrong pictures. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: H.G. Bernstein, J. Hildebrandt, H. Dobrowolny, J. Steiner, B. Bogerts, J. Pahnke Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Development of the global schizophrenia research under epidemiological and socio-economic influences
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 21 million people were affected by schizophrenia in 2016 (WHO, 2016). It is one of the most serious mental illnesses in the world (Oertel-Knochel et al., 2011). In 2001, the World Health Report ranked schizophrenia as one of the ten main causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Of 1000 people worldwide, approximately 7.2 suffer from schizophrenia in the course of their lives, with prevalence rates varying from country to country (USA: 12-month prevalence of 1,1% of the US adult population) (NIMH, 2016). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: E. Lammer, D. Klingelh öfer, M.H.K. Bendels, D. Ohlendorf, M. Spallek, D.A. Groneberg Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Morphometric analysis of the cerebral expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCB1 in chronic schizophrenia: Circumscribed deficits in the habenula” [Schizophr. Res. 2016 Nov;177(1–3):52–58]
The authors regret to inform that the published Fig. 1 has to be corrected. Panel A and D show the wrong pictures. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: H.G. Bernstein, J. Hildebrandt, H. Dobrowolny, J. Steiner, B. Bogerts, J. Pahnke Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Development of the global schizophrenia research under epidemiological and socio-economic influences
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 21 million people were affected by schizophrenia in 2016 (WHO, 2016). It is one of the most serious mental illnesses in the world (Oertel-Knochel et al., 2011). In 2001, the World Health Report ranked schizophrenia as one of the ten main causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Of 1000 people worldwide, approximately 7.2 suffer from schizophrenia in the course of their lives, with prevalence rates varying from country to country (USA: 12-month prevalence of 1,1% of the US adult population) (NIMH, 2016). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: E. Lammer, D. Klingelh öfer, M.H.K. Bendels, D. Ohlendorf, M. Spallek, D.A. Groneberg Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Left-handedness and rTMS for auditory verbal hallucinations: Should left-handers be treated the same as right-handers?
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive, focal neurostimulation technique using electromagnetic pulses. These pulses induce a brief electrical current in the underlying cortical tissue that can modulate the excitability of the targeted area and its associated network. Several meta-analyses have demonstrated a promising therapeutic efficacy of this treatment against auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (Kennedy et al., 2018). In this context, rTMS is generally administered using a low-frequency (1Hz) stimulation pattern delivered to the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). (S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fanny Thomas, Cl élia Passemard, Dominique Januel Source Type: research

Should people with psychosis be supported in choosing cognitive therapy as an alternative to antipsychotic medication: A commentary on a commentary
Having collaborated with Anthony Morrison for a number of years, there is no doubt in my mind that his primary objective is to improve the acceptability, effectiveness and safety of interventions for people with psychosis. In his article (Morrison, 2018) he is correct to say the effectiveness of antipsychotics have been overestimated and the adverse effects underestimated (Hutton et al., 2012; Hutton et al., 2015; Leucht et al., 2017; Morrison et al., 2012), and he should be commended for producing world ‑leading evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alternative approaches, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CB...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul Hutton Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of sphingolipids associate with disease severity in first episode psychosis patients
Alterations in brain lipid composition have been described in schizophrenia (Hamazaki et al., 2015; Schmitt et al., 2004; Amminger et al., 2012), a disease characterized by positive and negative symptoms as well as with deficits in cognitive function (Fatouros-Bergman et al., 2014). Specifically, decreased levels of sphingomyelins and hexosylceramides in thalamus (Schmitt et al., 2004) and reduced gene expression of the sphingolipid pathway in prefrontal cortical samples (Narayan et al., 2009) have been described, as well as an association between sphingomyelin levels in red blood cell (RBC) membranes and symptom severity ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antonio Checa, Anna Malmqvist, Lena Flyckt, Lilly Schwieler, Martin Samuelsson, Elisabeth Skogh, Simon Cervenka, Marja-Liisa Dahl, Fredrik Piehl, Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) Consortium, Sophie Erhardt, Craig E. Wheelock Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Room to move: Plasticity in early auditory information processing and auditory learning in schizophrenia revealed by acute pharmacological challenge
Many patients with chronic psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (SZ) maintain meaningful levels of plasticity (i.e., capacity for change) within neurocognition-relevant brain mechanisms, as evidenced by gains in neurocognition and function after interventions such as targeted cognitive training. However, like many clinical features of these disorders, therapeutic responses in SZ are heterogeneous, and prospectively identifying treatment-sensitive individuals and individualized treatment modalities remains an unmet challenge. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Neal R. Swerdlow, Savita G. Bhakta, Gregory A. Light Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of sphingolipids associate with disease severity in first episode psychosis patients
Alterations in brain lipid composition have been described in schizophrenia (Hamazaki et al., 2015; Schmitt et al., 2004; Amminger et al., 2012), a disease characterized by positive and negative symptoms as well as with deficits in cognitive function (Fatouros-Bergman et al., 2014). Specifically, decreased levels of sphingomyelins and hexosylceramides in thalamus (Schmitt et al., 2004) and reduced gene expression of the sphingolipid pathway in prefrontal cortical samples (Narayan et al., 2009) have been described, as well as an association between sphingomyelin levels in red blood cell (RBC) membranes and symptom severity ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antonio Checa, Anna Malmqvist, Lena Flyckt, Lilly Schwieler, Martin Samuelsson, Elisabeth Skogh, Simon Cervenka, Marja-Liisa Dahl, Fredrik Piehl, Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) Consortium, Sophie Erhardt, Craig E. Wheelock Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Room to move: Plasticity in early auditory information processing and auditory learning in schizophrenia revealed by acute pharmacological challenge
Many patients with chronic psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (SZ) maintain meaningful levels of plasticity (i.e., capacity for change) within neurocognition-relevant brain mechanisms, as evidenced by gains in neurocognition and function after interventions such as targeted cognitive training. However, like many clinical features of these disorders, therapeutic responses in SZ are heterogeneous, and prospectively identifying treatment-sensitive individuals and individualized treatment modalities remains an unmet challenge. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Neal R. Swerdlow, Savita G. Bhakta, Gregory A. Light Source Type: research

Telomere length and early trauma in schizophrenia
This data confirms the substantial excess of early trauma among schizophrenia cases. There were significant sex-differences in the relationship of the trauma to LTL, with only male cases showing the expected shortening. There were converse sex effects in the control group. Mean LTL was notably similar in cases and controls, despite the trauma-related shortening in male cases, cigarette smoking, older age and chronic illness of the cases. Factors may lengthen LTL in some schizophrenia cases. The converse sex differences in the cases are consistent with findings defective sexual differentiation in schizophrenia, consistent w...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabriella Riley, Mary Perrin, Leila M. Vaez-Azizi, Eugene Ruby, Raymond R. Goetz, Roberta Dracxler, Julie Walsh-Messinger, David L. Keefe, Peter F. Buckley, Philip R. Szeszko, Dolores Malaspina Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Smoking does not impact social and non-social cognition in patients with first episode psychosis
This study analyzed the effects of tobacco use on non-social and social cognitive function in a large group of FEP patients and a matched healthy control group. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Teresa S ánchez-Gutiérrez, M. Paz García-Portilla, Mara Parellada, Julio Bobes, Ana Calvo, Lucía Moreno-Izco, Ana González-Pinto, Antonio Lobo, Elena de la Serna, Bibiana Cabrera, Carla Torrent, Laura Roldán, Julio Sanjuan, Ángela Ibáñez, Ana Mar Source Type: research

Should people with psychosis be supported in choosing cognitive therapy as an alternative to antipsychotic medication: A commentary on current evidence
Evidence from randomised controlled trials suggest that both antipsychotic medication and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be helpful to people with a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. On this basis, many clinical guidelines recommend that people with psychosis should be offered both antipsychotic medication and CBT and that they should be collaboratively involved in the decisions about which treatment options they choose. The reality of service provision is often very different, with data regarding the availability of such treatment options and the extent of user involvement in decision making suggestin...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anthony P. Morrison Source Type: research

Sexually dimorphic subcortical brain volumes in emerging psychosis
In schizophrenic psychoses, the normal sexual dimorphism of the brain has been shown to be disrupted or even reversed. Little is known, however, at what time point in emerging psychosis this occurs. We have therefore examined, if these alterations are already present in the at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura Egloff, Claudia Lenz, Erich Studerus, Fabienne Harrisberger, Renata Smieskova, Andr é Schmidt, Christian Huber, Andor Simon, Undine E. Lang, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Stefan Borgwardt Source Type: research

Schizophrenia moderates the relationship between white matter integrity and cognition
Cognitive impairment is a primary feature of schizophrenia, with alterations in several cognitive domains appearing in the pre-morbid phase of the disorder. White matter microstructure is also affected in schizophrenia and considered to be related to cognition, but the relationship of the two is unclear. As interaction between cognition and white matter structure involves the interplay of several brain structures and cognitive abilities, investigative methods which can examine the interaction of multiple variables are preferred. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luis F.S. Castro-de-Araujo, Mathew Allin, Marco M. Picchioni, Colm Mcdonald, Christos Pantelis, Richard A.A. Kanaan Source Type: research

Sexually dimorphic subcortical brain volumes in emerging psychosis
In schizophrenic psychoses, the normal sexual dimorphism of the brain has been shown to be disrupted or even reversed. Little is known, however, at what time point in emerging psychosis this occurs. We have therefore examined, if these alterations are already present in the at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura Egloff, Claudia Lenz, Erich Studerus, Fabienne Harrisberger, Renata Smieskova, Andr é Schmidt, Christian Huber, Andor Simon, Undine E. Lang, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Stefan Borgwardt Source Type: research

Schizophrenia moderates the relationship between white matter integrity and cognition
Cognitive impairment is a primary feature of schizophrenia, with alterations in several cognitive domains appearing in the pre-morbid phase of the disorder. White matter microstructure is also affected in schizophrenia and considered to be related to cognition, but the relationship of the two is unclear. As interaction between cognition and white matter structure involves the interplay of several brain structures and cognitive abilities, investigative methods which can examine the interaction of multiple variables are preferred. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luis F.S. Castro-de-Araujo, Mathew Allin, Marco M. Picchioni, Colm Mcdonald, Christos Pantelis, Richard A.A. Kanaan Source Type: research

Persistent tachycardia in clozapine treated patients: A 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram study
Tachycardia is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Tachycardia is also a known clozapine adverse effect. However, whether clozapine-associated tachycardia is persistent is not known. Thirty clozapine-treated patients with clinical tachycardia were investigated with 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG). Baseline peripheral heart rate (HR) was 106.7 ±7.8. The ambulatory ECG 24-hour-HR was 98.7±9.7. Baseline HR and 24-hour-HR correlated strongly (r=0.74, p=0.000003). Daytime HR was 106.4±9.9 and nighttime HR 89.2±12.0. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bj örn M. Nilsson, Leif Lindström, Issam Mohsen, Karolina Holmlöv, Robert Bodén Source Type: research

Effects of 12-month, double-blind N-acetyl cysteine on symptoms, cognition and brain morphology in early phase schizophrenia spectrum disorders
Currently approved medications for schizophrenia are relatively ineffective for negative symptoms and cognitive impairment. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a neuroprotective agent that improved general symptoms, cognitive impairment and negative symptoms in some but not all studies, but failed to improve positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Progressive brain mass loss (PBML) has been consistently observed in early phase schizophrenia. NAC mitigates the deleterious effects oxidative stress, inflammation and glutamatergic excitotoxicity and these three pathological processes are hypothesized to contribute to PBML. (S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alan Breier, Emily Liffick, Tom A. Hummer, Jenifer L. Vohs, Ziyi Yang, Nicole F. Mehdiyoun, Andrew C. Visco, Emmalee Metzler, Ying Zhang, Michael M. Francis Source Type: research

Connectivity of the precuneus-posterior cingulate cortex with the anterior cingulate cortex-medial prefrontal cortex differs consistently between control subjects and first-episode psychosis patients during a movie stimulus
Functional connectivity is altered in psychotic disorders. Multiple findings concentrate on the default mode network, anchored on the precuneus-posterior cingulate cortex (PC-PCC). However, the nature of the alterations varies between studies and connectivity alterations have not been studied during an ecologically valid natural stimulus. In the present study, we investigated the functional and structural connectivity of a PC-PCC region, where functioning differentiated first-episode psychosis patients from control subjects during free viewing of a movie in our earlier study. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eva Rikandi, Teemu M äntylä, Maija Lindgren, Tuula Kieseppä, Jaana Suvisaari, Tuukka T. Raij Source Type: research

Aberrant within- and between-network connectivity of the mirror neuron system network and the mentalizing network in first episode psychosis
It has been suggested that the mentalizing network and the mirror neuron system network support important social cognitive processes that are impaired in schizophrenia. However, the integrity and interaction of these two networks have not been sufficiently studied, and their effects on social cognition in schizophrenia remain unclear. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eugenie Choe, Tae Young Lee, Minah Kim, Ji-Won Hur, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Kang-Ik K. Cho, Jun Soo Kwon Source Type: research

Replication of GWAS identified miR-137 and its target gene polymorphisms in Schizophrenia of South Indian population and meta-analysis with Psychiatric Genomics Consortium
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder involving multiple genes each contributing a small risk. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of risk loci for schizophrenia including miR-137, a miRNA shown to be involved in neuronal development. Several genes regulated by miR-137 were also reported as top risk genes associated with schizophrenia and has been hypothesised that the dysregulation of miR-137 and its target could be involved in the aetiology of schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ravi Sudesh, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Sujit John, Rangaswamy Thara, Bryan Mowry, Arasamabattu Kannan Munirajan Source Type: research

Increased complement component 4 (C4) gene expression in the cingulate cortex of rats exposed to late gestation immune activation
The largest genetic study of schizophrenia confirmed the strong genetic association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus (Ripke et al., 2011). Whilst the link between schizophrenia and the MHC locus is not yet fully elucidated, there is significant interest in immune dysfunction as an underlying pathology in schizophrenia. Recently Sekar et al. (2016) presented strong evidence for a role of complement component 4 (C4) in schizophrenia by showing that some of the variation in the MHC locus in schizophrenia is linked to the C4 gene. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryan J. Duchatel, Crystal L. Meehan, Lauren R. Harms, Patricia T. Michie, Mark J. Bigland, Doug W. Smith, Phillip Jobling, Deborah M. Hodgson, Paul A. Tooney Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Effects of 12-month, double-blind N-acetyl cysteine on symptoms, cognition and brain morphology in early phase schizophrenia spectrum disorders
Currently approved medications for schizophrenia are relatively ineffective for negative symptoms and cognitive impairment. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a neuroprotective agent that improved general symptoms, cognitive impairment and negative symptoms in some but not all studies, but failed to improve positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Progressive brain mass loss (PBML) has been consistently observed in early phase schizophrenia. NAC mitigates the deleterious effects oxidative stress, inflammation and glutamatergic excitotoxicity and these three pathological processes are hypothesized to contribute to PBML. (S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alan Breier, Emily Liffick, Tom A. Hummer, Jenifer L. Vohs, Ziyi Yang, Nicole F. Mehdiyoun, Andrew C. Visco, Emmalee Metzler, Ying Zhang, Michael M. Francis Source Type: research