Lower circulating levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in patients with schizophrenia
This study aimed at evaluating changes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with controls. Plasma levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, angiotensin (Ang)-(1 –7) and Ang II were assessed in 25 patients with schizophrenia and 20 controls. Patients with schizophrenia presented decreased levels of ACE compared to controls [median (25th–75th percentiles) = 434.79 (341.15–524.02) vs. 508.49 (396.34–608.72); p  (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Satyajit Mohite, Salvina M. de Campos-Carli, Natalia P. Rocha, Shiva Sharma, Aline S. Miranda, Izabela G. Barbosa, Joao V. Salgado, Ana Cristina Simoes-e-Silva, Antonio L. Teixeira Source Type: research

Autoimmune diseases are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based cohort study
Studies have suggested a possible autoimmune contribution in a subset of patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine if a history of autoimmune diseases (AD) is associated with an increased risk of later onset of schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ling-Yi Wang, Shih-Fen Chen, Jen-Huai Chiang, Chung-Y Hsu, Yu-Chih Shen Source Type: research

Is the grass greener for those at risk of psychosis?
It has become clear in recent years that the incidence of schizophrenia, and of psychosis in general, varies considerably. Thus, the systematic review by McGrath et al. (2004) suggested a five-fold variation in the incidence of schizophrenia, while the very recent EU-GEI study reported that the incidence of psychosis was five times higher in certain of the Northern European sites studied than that in parts of Italy and Spain (Jongsma et al., 2018). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robin M. Murray Source Type: research

Does social cognition training augment response to computer-assisted cognitive remediation for schizophrenia?
Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has shown significant improvement in cognition in schizophrenia. However, effect sizes of CRT have been reported to be modest raising the issue how to augment the effects of CRT on neurocognition and social cognition. Our aim was to examine whether the addition of computerized social cognition training would enhance the effects on neurocognition and social cognition as compared to CRT alone. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Anzalee Khan, Susan R. McGurk, Mila Kirstie C. Kulsa, Isidora Ljuri, Veronica Ozog, Samantha Fregenti, Gianna Capodilupo, Kiara Buccellato, Amod Thanju, Abraham Goldring, Mohan Parak, Benedicto Parker Source Type: research

Neural correlates of dynamic emotion perception in schizophrenia and the influence of prior expectations
Impaired emotion perception is a well-established and stable deficit in schizophrenia; however, there is limited knowledge about the underlying aberrant cognitive and brain processes that result in emotion perception deficits. Recent influential work has shown that perceptual deficits in schizophrenia may result from aberrant precision in prior expectations, associated with disrupted activity in frontal regions. In the present study, we investigated the perception of dynamic, multisensory emotion, the influence of prior expectations and the underlying aberrant brain processes in schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilvana Dzafic, Hana Burianov á, Andrew K. Martin, Bryan Mowry Source Type: research

Is the higher incidence of clozapine induced myocarditis in Australia due to awareness and monitoring?
We read with interest the recent case report and review of serious clozapine adverse reactions by Li et al. (2018). Clozapine induced myocarditis (CIM) is a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction (ADR). The authors attribute mortality in this case to CIM and suggest that screening via cardiac enzymes and inflammatory markers should be routine. Internationally, the incidence of CIM has been estimated at 0.07% to 0.7% (Cohen et al., 2012). In contrast, rates ranging from (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica L. Dawson, Scott R. Clark, Janet K. Sluggett, Nicholas G. Procter, J. Simon Bell Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

What prevents youth at clinical high risk for psychosis from engaging in physical activity? An examination of the barriers to physical activity
Exercise has increasingly been proposed as a healthful intervention prior to and after the onset of psychosis. There is some evidence to suggest that youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are less physically active and report more barriers to engaging in exercise; however, there has been relatively limited empirical work documenting this phenomenon, and to date, relationships between physical activity, barriers, and clinical phenomenology have been unclear. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Raeana E. Newberry, Derek J. Dean, Madison D. Sayyah, Vijay A. Mittal Source Type: research

Some neuroanatomical insights to impulsive aggression in schizophrenia
Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk of engaging in violence towards others, compared to both the general population and most other patient groups. We have here explored the role of cortico-limbic impairments in schizophrenia, and have considered these brain regions specifically within the framework of a popular neuroanatomical model of impulsive aggression. In line with this model, evidence in patients with aggressive schizophrenia implicated structural deficits associated with impaired decision-making, emotional control and evaluation, and social information processing, especially in the orbitofrontal and ve...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marcel P. Leclerc, Christina Regenbogen, Roy H. Hamilton, Ute Habel Source Type: research

Polygenic risk score, genome-wide association, and gene set analyses of cognitive domain deficits in schizophrenia
This study assessed genetic contributions to six cognitive domains, identified by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery as relevant for schizophrenia, cognition-enhancing, clinical trials. Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores showed significant negative correlations with each cognitive domain. Genome-wide association analyses identified loci associated with attention/vigilance (rs830786 within HNF4G), verbal memory (rs67017972 near NDUFS4), and reasoning/problem solving (rs76872642 within HDAC9). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Soichiro Nakahara, Sarah Medland, Jessica A. Turner, Vince D. Calhoun, Kelvin O. Lim, Bryon A. Mueller, Juan R. Bustillo, Daniel S. O'Leary, Jatin G. Vaidya, Sarah McEwen, James Voyvodic, Aysenil Belger, Daniel H. Mathalon, Judith M. Ford, Guia Guffanti, Source Type: research

Metacognition – What did James H. Flavell really say and the implications for the conceptualization and design of metacognitive interventions
In the last two decades years, several interventions have been designed for people with major psychological disorders that all have “metacognitive” in their name: Metacognitive Therapy (MCT), Metacognitive Training (e.g., for people with psychosis) and Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT). Two of these interventions are primarily targeted at patients with schizophrenia. Prompted by a recent discussion about w hat constitutes “true” metacognitive treatment, we will first explore the original concept of metacognition as defined by James H. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Steffen Moritz, Paul H. Lysaker Source Type: research

Reduced higher-dimensional resting state fMRI dynamism in clinical high-risk individuals for schizophrenia identified by meta-state analysis
New techniques to investigate functional network connectivity in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data have recently emerged. One novel approach, called meta-state analysis, goes beyond the mere cross-correlation of time courses of distinct brain areas and explores temporal dynamism in more detail, allowing for connectivity states to overlap in time and capturing global dynamic behavior. Previous studies have shown that patients with chronic schizophrenia exhibit reduced neural dynamism compared to healthy controls, but it is not known whether these alterations extend to earlier phases of the illness. (S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eva Mennigen, Robyn L. Miller, Barnaly Rashid, Susanna L. Fryer, Rachel L. Loewy, Barbara K. Stuart, Daniel H. Mathalon, Vince D. Calhoun Source Type: research

Disorganization and real-world functioning in schizophrenia: Results from the multicenter study of the Italian Network for Research on Psychoses
A general consensus has not yet been reached regarding the role of disorganization symptoms in real-world functioning in schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: P. Rocca, S. Galderisi, A. Rossi, A. Bertolino, P. Rucci, D. Gibertoni, C. Montemagni, S. Bellino, E. Aguglia, M. Amore, A. Bellomo, M. Biondi, B. Carpiniello, A. Cuomo, E. D'Ambrosio, L. dell'Osso, P. Girardi, C. Marchesi, P. Monteleone, C. Montemitro, L Source Type: research

Antipsychotic adherence and emergency department utilization among patients with schizophrenia
This retrospective cohort study evaluated the relationship between antipsychotic medication adherence and emergency department (ED) utilization for 7851 Medicaid patients with schizophrenia enrolled in Community Care of North Carolina (CCNC). Claims and pharmacy data from January to December 2015 were collected. Medication adherence was approximated using the medication possession ratio (MPR). Negative binomial regressions estimated the effect of antipsychotic adherence on rates of medical and psychiatric ED visits. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Morgan Hardy, Carlos Jackson, Jennie Byrne Source Type: research

Lithium levels in tap water and psychotic experiences in a general population of adolescents
Recently, several epidemiologic studies have reported that lithium in drinking water may be associated with lower rates of suicide mortality, lower incidence of dementia, and lower levels of adolescents' depression and aggression at the population level. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated lithium level in tap water in relation to psychotic experiences in a general population of adolescents. This is the first study to investigate this using a large dataset. Information on psychotic experiences, distress associated with these experiences, and depressive symptoms were collected in 24 public junior high schoo...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shinji Shimodera, Shinsuke Koike, Shuntaro Ando, Syudo Yamasaki, Ryosuke Fujito, Kaori Endo, Yudai Iijima, Yu Yamamoto, Masaya Morita, Ken Sawada, Nobuki Ohara, Yuji Okazaki, Atsushi Nishida Source Type: research

White matter abnormalities of the tapetum and their associations with duration of untreated psychosis and symptom severity in first-episode psychosis
In patients with schizophrenia, white matter (WM) abnormalities have been demonstrated across widespread brain regions, including the corpus callosum (Samartzis et al., 2014). The tapetum is a part of the splenium of the corpus callosum that provides anatomical trajectories connecting temporal lobes (Abe et al., 2004). Although the role of the tapetum in schizophrenia remains unknown, some neuroimaging studies showed alterations of WM integrity in the tapetum in patients with schizophrenia (Ellison-Wright et al., 2014) and bipolar psychosis (Lu et al., 2011). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sun Woo Lee, Arira Lee, Tai Kiu Choi, Borah Kim, Kang-Soo Lee, Minji Bang, Sang-Hyuk Lee Source Type: research

Impact of severe mental illness on cancer stage at diagnosis and subsequent mortality: A population-based register study
Excess mortality in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) is often explained by physical comorbidity and suboptimal healthcare. Cancer is a prevalent cause of death, and tumour stage at diagnosis is a strong predictor of mortality. We aimed to study cancer incidence, disease stage at diagnosis and subsequent mortality in individuals with SMI compared to individuals without SMI. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Toender, T. Munk-Olsen, M. Vestergaard, J.T. Larsen, N.P. Suppli, S.O. Dalton, P. Vedsted, M. Nordentoft, P.B. Mortensen, T.M. Laursen Source Type: research

Is there rebound psychosis on withdrawal of antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia?
It is well established that dopamine antagonist medications, antipsychotics, have an important role in the prevention of relapse in schizophrenia and other psychoses (Buchanan et al., 2010; Hasan et al., 2013). Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials indicates continuation of medication is associated with fewer relapses over the next year than discontinuation (Leucht et al., 2012). However, there remains vigorous ongoing debate around longer-term risks and benefits (Correll et al., 2018), and whether adaptive changes such as dopamine supersensitivity may lead to rebound psychosis on medication withdrawal, which could...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Matthew J. Taylor, Seb Yim Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

The role of coping in the association between subclinical psychotic experiences and functioning: A within study replication in two independent adolescent samples
An inverse association between psychosocial functioning and psychotic experiences is now established in both clinical and non-clinical populations, however the mechanisms which drive this are unclear. Adolescents with subclinical psychotic experiences (SPE) are more likely to use maladaptive coping strategies and less likely to use adaptive ones, and maladaptive coping has also been associated with poor functioning. A within study replication in two adolescent samples from the general populations of Melbourne, Australia (n  = 723) and Birmingham, United Kingdom (n = 239), was conducted to determine whether the asso...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katharine E. Chisholm, Johanna T.W. Wigman, Danielle Hallett, Tamara Woodall, Simone Mahfouda, Renate L.E.P. Reniers, Eoin Killackey, Alison R. Yung, Stephen J. Wood, Ashleigh Lin Source Type: research

Aggressive urges in schizotypy: Preliminary data from an ambulatory study
In a recent issue of Schizophrenia Research, Rund (in press) delineates the inconsistent findings among common factors (e.g., substance use, poor insight, impulsivity) typically associated with aggressive behaviors such as violence in schizophrenia. With increasing emphasis on implementing preventative public policy coupled with public perceptions linking violence to the schizophrenia-spectrum (Gwarjanski and Parrott, 2017), it is important to understand links between aggression and schizotypy, the personality traits reflecting an underlying vulnerability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thanh P. Le, Brita Elvev åg, Peter W. Foltz, Terje B. Holmlund, Elana K. Schwartz, Tovah Cowan, Alex S. Cohen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Insight and cortisol responses in women with first episode psychosis
The concept of insight and its relationship to mental disorders is most frequently understood as a conscious recognition of one's own mental state or the degree of personal awareness or self-understanding (Lysaker et al., 2013). In recent research, insight is most frequently studied in schizophrenia patients and disturbances of self-awareness and conscious experience might have a critical role in pathophysiology of schizophrenia (Bob et al., 2016). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tereza Petraskova Touskova, Petr Bob, Ondrej Pec, Aaron Mishara, Zdislava Vanickova, Jiri Raboch, Paul Lysaker Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Modeling neuromotor pathology in schizophrenia: A window to brain mechanisms and clinical insight into the syndrome
The neurobiological etiopathology of schizophrenia and related psychoses has endured as the main paradigm despite the evolution of their core clinical features over the past century. Schizophrenia is conceptualized as a syndrome characterized by positive, negative, cognitive and affective domains, while several other pathological domains are generally neglected. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: V. Peralta, M.J. Cuesta Source Type: research

Six months' course and outcome of metabolic abnormalities in a cohort of patients with schizophrenia in rural India
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a frequently encountered serious adverse outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia (De Hert et al., 2008). A meta-analysis of worldwide studies estimated the overall prevalence of MetS as 33.4% (Vancampfort et al., 2015). We noted a similar pooled prevalence of 33.05% from hospital-based studies in India, but a much lower estimate of 10.81% in the studies done in rural communities (Ganesh et al., 2016). We recently reported that prevalence of MetS in schizophrenia in a rural community was comparable to that of general population (Rawat et al). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Somashekar Bijjal, Suhas Ganesh, Vikram Singh Rawat, Vikas Agarwal, K. Shanivaram Reddy, N.R. Renuka Devi, Chennaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Rita Christopher, Jagadisha Thirthalli Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

An experience sampling study on the nature of the interaction between traumatic experiences, negative affect in everyday life, and threat beliefs
Research suggests that trauma is associated with the development of psychotic experiences, such as paranoia, via affective processes. However, the empirical evidence on the exact mechanism is limited and it is unclear which aspects of trauma are relevant. Here we tested whether self-reported frequency of trauma, recurring trauma, age, and type of trauma are predictive of later threat beliefs in daily life and which role affective processes (self-reported negative affect and autonomic arousal) play in this association. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katarina Krkovic, Bj örn Schlier, Tania Lincoln Source Type: research

The relationship between components of metabolic syndrome and disease onset in patients with schizophrenia
The increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and some of its components among patients with schizophrenia may be related to a shared genetic liability (Malan-M üller et al., 2016). Metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia may therefore be associated with the more severe forms of illness and an earlier onset (Saari et al., 2004). Only one study has previously investigated possible associations between schizophrenia onset and plasma triglyceride concentrati on (Saari et al., 2004), and there are no reports comparing variations in other components of metabolic syndrome and disease onset. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sergej Nadalin, Jelena Rebi ć, Klementina Ružić, Alena Buretić-Tomljanović Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Psychotic experiences and religiosity: Findings from the collaborative psychiatric epidemiological surveys
A substantial body of literature has shown that religiosity is associated with better mental health, including higher levels of happiness and life satisfaction, as well as lower likelihood of major depression (see Schieman et al., 2013). However, Baetz et al. (2006) analyzed the Canadian Community Health Survey, and found that while religious attendance was associated with lower odds of endorsing a psychiatric disorder, the act of regarding spiritual values as important (to help find meaning in life, for strength in dealing with everyday difficulties, to help understand life's difficulties) was associated with higher odds ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hans Oh, Kyle Waldman, Ai Koyanagi Source Type: research

Episodic memory retrieval is impaired in negative schizotypy under fast response deadline
Schizotypy offers a useful, multidimensional framework for understanding the development and expression of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. Nonclinically ascertained young adults who endorse positive and negative schizotypy traits exhibit similar, albeit milder, versions of the symptoms and impairment seen in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that negative, but not positive, schizotypy is associated with impairment in free-recall, recognition, and source memory. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R. Kwapil Source Type: research

Psychotic experiences as indicators of risk for cardiovascular disease
Recent studies have discovered that people who report psychotic experiences (PEs) –a milder but more prevalent expression of psychosis in the general population (Linscott and van Os, 2013) — also report a wide range of serious mental and physical health problems, such as comorbid psychiatric disorders (DeVylder et al., 2014), disabilities (Oh et al., 2018), chronic health pro blems (Moreno et al., 2013; Oh and DeVylder, 2015), shorter lifespan (Sharifi et al., 2015), and suicidal behaviors (DeVylder et al., 2015; Kelleher et al., 2013). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hans Oh, Ai Koyanagi, Parveen Garg, Jordan DeVylder Source Type: research

Prescriber and institutional barriers and facilitators of clozapine use: A systematic review
As clozapine is under-prescribed in persons with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), it is necessary to better identify the determinants of health inequalities in access to clozapine use. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: H élène Verdoux, Clélia Quiles, Christian J. Bachmann, Dan Siskind Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Age of onset of Cannabis use and cognitive function in first-episode non-affective psychosis patients: Outcome at three-year follow-up
In recent years, the effects of cannabis use on cognitive functions in patients with psychosis have been widely studied. Recently, special emphasis has been placed on the impact of age at the onset of consumption on cognition in these patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Esther Seti én-Suero, Obdulia Martínez-García, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Javier Vázquez-Bourgon, Patricia Correa-Ghisays, Adele Ferro, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola Source Type: research

Physical activity pattern and cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with schizophrenia compared with a population-based sample
Thorough description of objectively assessed physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in people with schizophrenia is lacking, and previous studies comparing PA and cardiorespiratory fitness levels with healthy controls are limited by their small sample size and/or poor methodology. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eivind Andersen, Tom Langerud Holmen, Jens Egeland, Egil Wilhelm Martinsen, Therese Torgersen Bigseth, Gry Bang-Kittilsen, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Bj ørge Herman Hansen, John Abel Engh Source Type: research

Changes in metabolism and microbiota after 24-week risperidone treatment in drug na ïve, normal weight patients with first episode schizophrenia
This study was to examine the alterations in metabolic parameters, anti-oxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and microbiota after 24-week risperidone treatment in drug na ïve, normal weight, first episode schizophrenia patients; the study further examined the relationship between metabolic changes and changes in microbiota. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xiuxia Yuan, Peifen Zhang, Yaping Wang, Yafei Liu, Xue Li, Bachoo Upshant Kumar, Gangrui Hei, Luxian Lv, Xu-Feng Huang, Xiaoduo Fan, Xueqin Song Source Type: research

Lower glutamate level in temporo-parietal junction may predict a better response to tDCS in schizophrenia
Auditory hallucinations are highly distressing and functionally impairing to patients with schizophrenia. Brain areas which show activation during auditory hallucination periods have been targeted for neuromodulation treatment, such as the auditory cortex or temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) (Brunelin et al., 2012). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique which uses weak electric currents to modulate targeted brain areas. Some studies have shown that tDCS may be useful in reducing psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucinations by suppressing hyperactivity of the temporal...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Junhee Lee, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, S. Andrea Wijtenburg, Laura M. Rowland, Hongji Chen, Frank E. Gaston, In Chan Song, Kang Ik K. Cho, Minah Kim, Tae Young Lee, Jun Soo Kwon Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Correlates of risk factors for reduced life expectancy in schizophrenia: Is it possible to develop a predictor profile?
Patients with schizophrenia have significantly greater mortality rates than the general population, with an estimated reduced lifespan of 10 –20 years. We previously reported on a link between impairment in cognition and premature death in a prospective 20-year study. Patients who had died prematurely showed neurocognitive impairment in nine different cognitive tests compared to those who did not. Based on those findings, in this stu dy the surviving patients in the cohort were divided into three different groups based on neurocognitive impairment and compared on symptom severity including remission status, RAND-36...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hawar Moradi, Philip D. Harvey, Lars Helldin Source Type: research

Comparison of neurocognitive domains in patients with schizophrenia with and without co-morbid obsessive compulsive disorder
Neurocognitive deficits have been well documented in patients with schizophrenia. Research has shown that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia have co-morbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms/disorder (OCS/OCD). However, the impact of OCS/OCD on various neurocognitive domains in patients with schizophrenia is less understood. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Swapnajeet Sahoo, Sandeep Grover, Ritu Nehra Source Type: research

The M üller-Lyer illusion in patients with schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease
Visuo-spatial perception refers to our ability to process and interpret visual information about where objects are located in space. Geometrical-optical illusions are visual illusions, in which the perceived geometrical properties of the corresponding object or visual scene differ from the objective reality. The M üller-Lyer illusion is a well-known geometrical-optical illusion, first described by German psychiatrist Franz Carl Müller-Lyer (1896). The major theory on the origin of the Müller-Lyer illusion, proposed by R. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elena Alexandrovna Tolmacheva, Vasiliy Valerievich Ognivov, Tatjana Dmitrievna Shevelenkova, Vladimir Antoninovich Bastakov Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Latent toxoplasma infection in real-world schizophrenia: Results from the national FACE-SZ cohort
The objective of the present study were (i) to determine if latent Toxoplasma infection was associated with specific clinical features in stabilized SZ subjects, with cognitive impairment and with increased low-grade peripheral inflammation and (ii) to determine if Treatments with Anti-Toxoplasmic Activity (TATA) were associated with improved outcomes in subjects with latent Toxoplasma infection. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: G. Fond, L. Boyer, F. Sch ürhoff, F. Berna, O. Godin, E. Bulzacka, M. Andrianarisoa, L. Brunel, B. Aouizerate, D. Capdevielle, I. Chereau, N. Coulon, T. D'Amato, C. Dubertret, J. Dubreucq, C. Faget, C. Lançon, S. Leignier, J. Mallet, D. Misdrahi, C. Pas Source Type: research

Auditory steady state response deficits are associated with symptom severity and poor functioning in patients with psychotic disorder
Gamma oscillation is important for cortico-cortical coordination and the integration of information across neural networks. The 40  Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR), which reflects neural synchrony in the gamma band (30–100 Hz), is abnormal in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). The present study used the ASSR at multiple frequencies to examine (1) gamma dysfunction in patients with SZ, schizoaffective (SA), and bip olar disorder (BD) compared with controls, (2) the relationship between ASSR measures and clinical symptom severity, and (3) the relationship between ASSR measures and real-life community functi...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tian-Hang Zhou, Nora E. Mueller, Kevin M. Spencer, Sonal G. Mallya, Kathryn Eve Lewandowski, Lesley A. Norris, Deborah L. Levy, Bruce M. Cohen, Dost Öngür, Mei-Hua Hall Source Type: research

Machine learning improved classification of psychoses using clinical and biological stratification: Update from the bipolar-schizophrenia network for intermediate phenotypes (B-SNIP)
Psychiatry continues to suffer from challenges to diagnostic validity due to lack of biological markers. Distinctions between diagnostic categories are still largely informed on symptom clusters, while underlying biology is complex and largely indiscernible. (Insel et al., 2010; Keshavan et al., 2013) While the reliability of diagnoses has improved with successive revisions of the classificatory systems such as the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), whether these disorders have natural biological distinctions is uncertain. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Mukund Sudarshan, Neeraj Tandon, Carol Tamminga, Godfrey Pearlson, John Sweeney, Brett Clementz, Matcheri S. Keshavan Source Type: research

Developmental vulnerability to psychosis: Selective aggregation of basic self-disturbance in early onset schizophrenia
Trait-like anomalies of subjective experience (aka, Basic Self-disturbance or Self-disorder, SD) have been empirically identified as schizophrenia-specific markers of vulnerability in several clinical and genetic high-risk populations. However, such specificity is still to be tested in developmental years, where emerging psychopathology is less crystallized and diagnostic boundaries more blurred. Thus, the current study explores the distribution of SD in adolescent help-seekers (age range 14 to 18) and tests the specificity of SD with respect to the severity of their diagnostic staging (Early Onset schizophrenia-spectrum p...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea Raballo, Elena Monducci, Mauro Ferrara, Paolo Fiori Nastro, Claudia Dario, RODIN group Source Type: research

Measuring adherence to antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia: Concordance and validity among a community sample in rural China
Despite the abundance of measures to assess medication adherence by persons suffering schizophrenia, few studies have evaluated their concordance and validity against a reference standard in resource-poor community settings. We explored the concordance and validity of several measures to assess antipsychotic medication adherence in a resource-poor community. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dong (Roman) Xu, Wenjie Gong, Steve Gloyd, Eric D. Caine, Jane Simoni, James P. Hughes, Shuiyuan Xiao, Wenjun He, Bofeng Dai, Meijuan Lin, Juan Nie, Hua He Source Type: research

Low-pleasure beliefs in patients with schizophrenia and individuals with social anhedonia
Anhedonia in schizophrenia has been suggested to comprise a set of low-pleasure beliefs, defined as beliefs that certain things/activities were not pleasurable or that one does not feel pleasant generally. However, no instrument has been intentionally developed to specifically measure low-pleasure beliefs, and there is a paucity of empirical evidence for low-pleasure beliefs and their relationship with anhedonia in both patients with schizophrenia and individuals with high social anhedonia. We developed and validated the Beliefs About Pleasure Scale (BAPS) using non-clinical (Studies 1, 2& 3), chronic schizophrenia (St...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yin Yang, Zhuo-ya Yang, Ying-min Zou, Hai-song Shi, Yi Wang, Dong-jie Xie, Rui-ting Zhang, Simon S.Y. Lui, Alex C. Cohen, Gregory P. Strauss, Eric F.C. Cheung, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

60  years of placebo-controlled antipsychotic drug trials in acute schizophrenia: Meta-regression of predictors of placebo response
A recent meta-regression had shown that the degree of placebo response, which has increased over the decades, is the major predictor of drug-placebo differences in antipsychotic drug trials in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Drug response, however, had remained stable. In the current meta-regression we explored the factors that are associated with placebo-response. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stefan Leucht, Anna Chaimani, Claudia Leucht, Maximilian Huhn, Dimitris Mavridis, Bartosz Helfer, Myrto Samara, Andrea Cipriani, John R. Geddes, Georgia Salanti, John M. Davis Source Type: research

Examining relationships between psychotic experiences and suicidal ideation in adolescents using a network approach
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in young individuals. Timely and adequate identification of individuals with suicidal ideation could prevent from suicidal behavior. Psychotic experiences (PE) have been shown to increase levels of suicidal ideation (SI) in the general population. Therefore, detailed investigation of the relationship of PE and SI is relevant. However, the exact nature of the relationship between these two phenomena remains unclear. Understanding psychopathology as a complex network of interacting symptoms could be helpful to elucidate specific associations existing between PE and SI. (Source: S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: D. N úñez, A. Fresno, C.D. van Borkulo, P. Courtet, V. Arias, V. Garrido, J.T.W. Wigman Source Type: research

Effect of emotional cues on prospective memory performance in patients with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder
This study examined the influence of emotional cues on PM performance in patients with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. All participants were required to respond to emotional or neutral PM cues while completing a working memory task. Healthy participants showed improved PM performance with positive and negative cues. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tian-xiao Yang, Xi-long Cui, Ya Wang, Jing Huang, Simon S.Y. Lui, Rui-ting Zhang, Eric F.C. Cheung, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Factor structure of the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), a comprehensive psychopathology assessment scale used in the evaluation of psychopathology in schizophrenia, is also often used in the Ultra-High-Risk (UHR) population. This paper examined the dimensional structure of the PANSS in a UHR sample. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zixu Yang, Keane Lim, Max Lam, Richard Keefe, Jimmy Lee Source Type: research

The association between problem gambling and psychotic experiences: Findings from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007
Studies on the association between psychotic experiences (PEs) and problem gambling are lacking. Thus, we examined the association between PEs and problem gambling in the general UK population. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Louis Jacob, Josep Maria Haro, Ai Koyanagi Source Type: research

Relationship between antipsychotic blood levels and treatment failure during the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study
Antipsychotic blood levels (ABLs) may help identify patients at risk for treatment failure. Reference ranges (RR) for plasma concentrations of ABLs that account for between-patient variability were developed for risperidone and olanzapine based on population pharmacokinetic models. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) collected clinical outcomes and ABLs, allowing testing of the relationship of ABLs with outcomes. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rama Melkote, Arun Singh, An Vermeulen, Bart Remmerie, Adam Savitz Source Type: research

Increased plasticity of bodily self-experience in individuals who may carry latent liability for schizophrenia
Self-disturbances such as altered perception of one's own body boundary are central to the lived-in experience of schizophrenia. Bodily self-disturbances are also prevalent in healthy individuals who may carry latent liability for schizophrenia. Much of the research on self-disturbances rely on clinical interviews but these experiences are often difficult to verbalize, conceptualize and quantify. Furthermore, experimental evidence for plasticity of bodily self-experience in the schizophrenia-spectrum is scarce. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Taylor L. Benson, Sohee Park Source Type: research

Predictors of falls and fractures leading to hospitalization in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder: A large representative cohort study
To investigate predictors of falls/fractures leading to hospitalisation in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brendon Stubbs, Christoph Mueller, Fiona Gaughran, John Lally, Davy Vancampfort, Sarah E. Lamb, Ai Koyanagi, Shalini Sharma, Robert Stewart, Gayan Perera Source Type: research