Predicting work outcome in patients with schizophrenia: Influence of IQ decline
Patients with schizophrenia show various trajectories in intelligence. However, whether the degree of IQ decline is associated with functional outcomes remains unclear. The purposes of the study were 1) to determine whether IQ decline was related with work outcome, and 2) to perform predictions for attaining a certain amount of work measured by work hours. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chika Sumiyoshi, Haruo Fujino, Hidenaga Yamamori, Noriko Kudo, Hirotsugu Azechi, Michiko Fujimoto, Yuka Yasuda, Kazutaka Ohi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Ryota Hashimoto Source Type: research

Is it possible for people with severe mental illness to sit less and move more? A systematic review of interventions to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behaviour
Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) (schizophrenia-spectrum, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) die 10 –20 years prematurely due to physical disorders such as cardiovascular disease. Physical activity (PA) is effective in preventing and managing these conditions in the general population, however individuals with SMI engage in substantially less PA and more sedentary behaviour (SB) compared to he althy counterparts. Furthermore, the effectiveness of intervening to increase PA or reduce SB in SMI populations is unknown. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Garcia Ashdown-Franks, Julie Williams, Davy Vancampfort, Joseph Firth, Felipe Schuch, Kathryn Hubbard, Tom Craig, Fiona Gaughran, Brendon Stubbs Source Type: research

Parcellating cognitive heterogeneity in early psychosis-spectrum illnesses: A cluster analysis
Cognitive impairment is argued to represent a core feature of psychosis-spectrum illnesses. However, within-diagnosis heterogeneity is common, and risk factors for poor cognition remain to be examined after statistically accounting for heterogeneity. Accordingly, we used a data-driven technique (cluster analysis) to empirically-derive cognitive clusters across diagnoses and examined whether concurrent substance use or a history of a neurodevelopmental/behavioral disorder differed between clusters. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jacob J. Crouse, Ahmed A. Moustafa, Sophia E.R. Bogaty, Ian B. Hickie, Daniel F. Hermens Source Type: research

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody-related pathologies and pre-existent mental state disorders
We read with interest the article by Mantere and colleagues, who tested serum autoantibodies against a wide spectrum of neuronal antigens in a large series of patients with a first-episode psychosis, or clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis (Mantere et al., 2018). They found that only one patient with a history of recurrent major depressive episodes was seropositive for antibodies to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The patient was referred to the study for symptoms of CHR for psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Federico Massa, Diego Franciotta, Matteo Gastaldi, Giovanni Luigi Mancardi, Luana Benedetti Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Frontal hypoactivation and alterations in the reward-system during humor processing in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders
Humor is a ubiquitous human ability with important implications for both social and emotional functioning. Patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, experience difficulties in the comprehension and appreciation of humor. However, the specific neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are unknown. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the neural correlates of humor processing in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used in thirty-one patients with SSD and a control group, performing a humor processing paradigm. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Philipp Berger, Florian Bitsch, Arne Nagels, Benjamin Straube, Irina Falkenberg Source Type: research

“Other” tags for “Self”-generated speech in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations, an fMRI study
While the mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remain elusive, various disorders of inner speech (thinking in words) have been consistently implicated (Stephane et al., 2001). Developmental research indicates that both inner speech and social speech develop from a common precursor; and just like social speech, inner speech includes a perceptual (inner voice) and motor components (speech muscles activity). Similarly, in addition to the inherent perceptual component of hallucinations, AVH are often associated with a motor component (e.g. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Massoud Stephane, Philip Burton, Dustin Meriwether, Gihyun Yoon Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder and delayed sleep-wake phase in schizophrenia: Clinical and functional correlates
Growing evidence suggests that circadian rhythm disruption is detrimental to health. A link between clock genes, circadian rhythm disruption and dopamine dysregulation has been shown in schizophrenia (Yates, 2016). In a recent report (Wulff et al., 2012), two profiles of sleep disturbance in schizophrenia were identified. The first profile was characterized by delayed or non-24-hour sleep-wake phase, sleep onset difficulty, prolonged sleep, and reduced daytime activity, while the other had normal non-shifted entrained rhythms, sleep onset difficulty, and excessively prolonged, irregular or fragmented sleep. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yvonne Patricia Yuan-Ping Poon, Chui-Kwan Kan, Wing-Fai Yeung, Ka-Fai Chung Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Neurobiology of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: Effects of EAAT2 polymorphism
Cognitive deficits represent core features of schizophrenia, affecting quality of life and functioning. The excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is responsible for the majority of glutamate reuptake and its activity is crucial for glutamatergic neurotransmission, prevention of excitotoxic damage and cerebral metabolism. Different studies reported that EAAT2 rs4354668 ( −181 T/G) influences cognitive functions and brain structures in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, the G allele, linked to lower EAAT2 expression, was associated with impaired prefrontal cognitive performance and reduced grey matter v...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marco Spangaro, Marta Bosia, Margherita Bechi, Mariachiara Buonocore, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Laura Bianchi, Antonella Mastromatteo, Cristina Lorenzi, Roberto Cavallaro Source Type: research

Childhood trauma and adolescent psychotic experiences in a community-based cohort: The potential role of positive attributes as a protective factor
To investigate how a set of positive social and personality characteristics called ‘positive attributes’ affects the emergence and persistence of Psychotic Experiences (PE) in adolescence. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pedro M. Pan, Ary Gadelha, Felipe C. Argolo, Mauricio S. Hoffmann, Felipe B. Arcadepani, Euripedes C. Miguel, Luis A. Rohde, Philip McGuire, Giovanni A. Salum, Rodrigo A. Bressan Source Type: research

Screening for the ultra-high risk state in a youth mental health service
There is clinical utility in being able to identify individuals who are at higher risk of developing a psychotic disorder, as interventions are being developed with the aim of either delaying or preventing the onset of psychosis (van der Gaag et al., 2013). The Comprehensive Assessment of the At-Risk Mental State (CAARMS) is a widely used diagnostic instrument for identifying those at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) (Yung et al., 2005), however it can take a moderate amount of time to complete and requires a level of expertise to complete reliably. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brian O'Donoghue, Vidyendaran Rudhran, Shakira Kumar, Meghan Bowtell, Andrea Polari, Andrew MacKinnon, Patrick McGorry, Barnaby Nelson Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Hippocampal volume and vasculature before and after exercise in treatment-resistant schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is associated with poor cognitive function and elevated cardiometabolic disease risk. These health concerns may exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction associated with hippocampal abnormalities, particularly hippocampal volume reductions. Regular exercise is thought to improve symptom severity, reduce depression, and improve cognition in schizophrenia, and may trigger exercise-mediated hippocampal growth. The potential for the benefits of exercise for treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients has not been clearly assessed. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: M.L. Woodward, K.M. Gicas, D.E. Warburton, R.F. White, A. Rauscher, O. Leonova, W. Su, G.N. Smith, A.E. Thornton, A.T. Vertinsky, A.A. Phillips, V.M. Goghari, W.G. Honer, D.J. Lang Source Type: research

Measuring theory of mind in schizophrenia research: Cross-cultural validation
Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand mental states of others and it is crucial for building sensitivity to other persons or events. Measuring ToM is important for understanding and rehabilitating social cognitive impairments in persons with schizophrenia. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) has been successfully employed to measure ToM between individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) in North America. Given that the SAT-MC uses geometric shapes, is nonverbal and less culturally loaded than other social cognition measures, it may serve for measuring ToM in schizophrenia acr...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hyeon-Seung Lee, Silvia Corbera, Ania Poltorak, Kiho Park, Michal Assaf, Morris D. Bell, Bruce E. Wexler, Young-Il Cho, Sunho Jung, Sophy Brocke, Kee-Hong Choi Source Type: research

An evaluation of the differences in DNA damage in lymphocytes and repair efficiencies in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder
Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorders. The present study was designed to determine DNA damage in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to assess the roles of oxidative metabolism and DNA repair mechanisms in this process, to assess the contribution of drugs, and thus to demonstrate the differences between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Thirty schizophrenia and 30 schizoaffective disorder patients, each having at least five years of disease history, aged between 18 and 60  years with no physical or neurological diseases, and 30 healthy...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Osman Zulkif Topak, Osman Ozdel, Yavuz Dodurga, Mucahit Secme Source Type: research

Adolescent inhalant use and psychosis risk – a prospective longitudinal study
Cross-sectional studies have suggested inhalant use is associated with psychosis. This association was examined in a longitudinal study accounting for other substance use and potential confounders. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Antti Mustonen, Solja Niemel ä, John J. McGrath, Graham K. Murray, Tanja Nordström, Pirjo Mäki, Jouko Miettunen, James G. Scott Source Type: research

Cognitive therapies for psychosis: Advances and challenges
Over the past two decades, recovery, not just symptom control, has become the focus of treatment for individuals suffering from the various clinical challenges associated with the schizophrenia syndrome. While pharmacotherapy is standard practice for managing the disorder, it has clear limitations for achieving the outcomes that patients urgently need to regain social and vocational functioning. Effective treatments for negative symptoms, persistent psychotic symptoms, and neuro- and social cognitive impairments remain major unmet needs, which prevent optimal functional outcomes and impede the recovery of a significant pro...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alice Medalia, Aaron T. Beck, Paul M. Grant Source Type: research

Self-esteem moderates affective and psychotic responses to social stress in psychosis: A virtual reality study
This study investigated how self-esteem moderates paranoia, peak subjective distress and stress reactivity of people with different psychosis liability in response to social stressors in virtual reality. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alyssa Jongeneel, Roos Pot-Kolder, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag, Wim Veling Source Type: research

Impaired associative inference in the early stage of psychosis
Relational memory is impaired in chronic schizophrenia. It is unclear if similar deficits are already present in the early stage of psychosis. We used the Associative Inference Paradigm to test relational memory ability in the early stage of a non-affective psychotic disorder. Eighty-two early stage psychosis patients and 67 healthy control subjects were trained on 3 sets of 30 paired associates: H-F1 (house paired with face), H-F2 (same house paired with new face), F3-F4 (two new faces). Subjects who reached 80% recall accuracy of the paired associates during training were then tested for their ability to recall the previ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kristan Armstrong, Suzanne Avery, Jenni U. Blackford, Neil Woodward, Stephan Heckers Source Type: research

Letter to the editors: Reducing stigmatizing attitudes in high school adolescents - a cluster RCT on the effectiveness of a schizophrenia documentary
Public stigma can contribute to the challenges in finances, stable and suitable housing, employment and social relations that people with schizophrenia often experience (Morgan et al., 2017; Harrison and Gill, 2010). Studies in the adult population have demonstrated the effectiveness of contact-based documentaries in reducing social distance and negative emotions towards people with mental illness (Thonon et al., 2016). However, adolescents might be a more susceptible target group for anti-stigma interventions, because stigmatizing attitudes and early symptoms of mental illness often begin to form in childhood and early ad...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jojanneke Bruins, Agna A. Bartels-Velthuis, Jaap van Weeghel, Kim Helmus, Gerdina H.M. Pijnenborg Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Sensitivity and specificity of hypoactivations and failure of de-activation in schizophrenia
Brain functional changes reported in schizophrenia include reduced prefrontal cortex activation (hypofrontality), increased frontal activation (hyperfrontality) and failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex. The relative importance of these changes is unestablished. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pilar Salgado-Pineda, Joaquim Radua, Salvador Sarr ó, Amalia Guerrero-Pedraza, Raymond Salvador, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter J. McKenna Source Type: research

Neural correlates of global and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia
This study investigated whether volume of the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), hippocampus, and white matter were associated with impairment in specific cognitive domains, including executive functioning, working memory, verbal memory, verbal fluency, processing speed, versus global functioning. The multi-site data used in this study was collected from the Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP), and consisted of 206 healthy controls and 247 individuals with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert J. Jirsaraie, Julia M. Sheffield, Deanna M. Barch Source Type: research

Improving working memory in schizophrenia: Effects of 1  mA and 2 mA transcranial direct current stimulation to the left DLPFC
Deficits in various cognitive processes, such as working memory, are characteristic for schizophrenia, lowering patients' functioning and quality of life. Recent research suggests that transcranial direct stimulation (tDCS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may be a potential therapeutic intervention for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we examined the effects of online tDCS to the DLPFC on working memory (WM) performance in 40 schizophrenia patients in two separate experiments with a double blind, sham-controlled, cross-over design. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Irina Papazova, Wolfgang Strube, Benedikt Becker, Bettina Henning, Tobias Schwippel, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm, Peter Falkai, Christian Plewnia, Alkomiet Hasan Source Type: research

The relationship of IQ and emotional processing with insula volume in schizophrenia
The insula is involved in general and social cognition, in particular emotion regulation. Aim of this study is to investigate whether insula volume is associated with Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and emotional processing in schizophrenia patients versus healthy controls (HC). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alice Caldiroli, Massimiliano Buoli, Neeltje E.M. van Haren, Jessica de Nijs, A. Carlo Altamura, Wiepke Cahn Source Type: research

Schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections: A nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan
In Taiwan, there has been a growing emphasis on physical health screening, health education and improving access to treatment in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, sexual health needs, including screening and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), are neglected in this population. The study aimed to investigate the association between SCZ and the subsequent incident STI and to examine potential risk factors. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shih-Fen Chen, Jen-Huai Chiang, Chung-Y Hsu, Yu-Chih Shen Source Type: research

Effects of bilateral prefrontal rTMS on brain activation during social-emotional evaluation in schizophrenia: A double-blind, randomized, exploratory study
This exploratory study reports on the effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on (prefrontal) brain activity changes during ambiguous emotional evaluation in patients with schizophrenia. Before and after randomly assigned treatment with active and sham rTMS, patients performed the Wall of Faces task during fMRI scanning. fMRI analysis showed that rTMS treatment resulted in reduced activation of striato-fronto-parietal brain areas, while activation increased compared to baseline after sham. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Edith J. Liemburg, Jozarni J. Dlabac-De Lange, Leonie Bais, Henderikus Knegtering, Andr é Aleman Source Type: research

Adjunct transcranial direct current stimulation improves cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia: A double-blind 12-week study
Cognitive impairment is a common symptom of schizophrenia that has significant effects on quality of life and the activities of daily living. The present study examined the ability of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to improve cognitive function and clinical symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dong-Wook Jeon, Do-Un Jung, Sung-Jin Kim, Joo-Cheol Shim, Jung-Joon Moon, Young-Soo Seo, Sung-Soo Jung, Beom-Joo Seo, Jeong-Eun Kim, Minkyung Oh, You-Na Kim Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical highlights in this Issue
Alphs and colleagues used a mechanistic computer model to identify optimal ways to switch from oral antipsychotics to paliperidone palmitate monthly injections (PP1M) in schizophrenia. They observed that starting PP1M one day after the last oral dose or 4 weeks after a last long acting injectable medication was more optimal than a delayed beginning of PP1M after 1week with either a 1- or 2-week overlap with oral paliperidone. Clinicians need to evaluate how optimum efficacy can be rapidly achieved while avoiding potential loss of efficacy and safety concerns. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: John Torous, Matcheri S. Keshavan Source Type: research

Comparison of the anti-inflammatory effect of aripiprazole and risperidone in 75 drug-na ïve first episode psychosis individuals: A 3 months randomized study
Evidence about the anti-inflammatory properties of antipsychotics has grown. However, no previous studies have compared the immunomodulatory effect of risperidone and aripiprazole. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mar ía Juncal-Ruiz, Laura Riesco-Dávila, Víctor Ortiz-García de la Foz, Obdulia Martínez-Garcia, Mariluz Ramírez-Bonilla, Javier Gonzalo Ocejo-Viñals, Juan Carlos Leza, Marcos López-Hoyos, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro Source Type: research

Psychiatric disability as mediator of the neurocognition-functioning link in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: SEM analysis using the Evaluation of Cognitive Processes involved in Disability in Schizophrenia (ECPDS) scale
The functional outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders is affected by multiple factors such as cognitive performance and clinical symptoms. Psychiatric disability may be another important determinant of functional outcome. The purpose of this study was to test whether schizophrenia symptoms and psychiatric disability mediated the association between cognition and functioning.Between April 2013 and July 2017, we included 108 community-dwelling adults with stable schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a multicenter study. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul Roux, Mathieu Urbach, Sandrine Fonteneau, Fabrice Berna, Lore Brunel, Delphine Capdevielle, Isabelle Chereau, Julien Dubreucq, Catherine Faget-Agius, Guillaume Fond, Sylvain Leignier, Claire-C écile Perier, Raphaëlle Richieri, Priscille Schneider, Source Type: research

Beneficial and adverse effects of antipsychotic medication on cognitive flexibility are related to COMT genotype in first episode psychosis
This study evaluated the ability to flexibly shift cognitive set and to consistently maintain a new response preference using the Penn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET). The relationship of performance errors with catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 (Val158Met) genotype (Met carriers vs. Val homozygotes) on test performance before and after antipsychotic treatment in 32 first episode psychosis (FEP) patients was examined. After treatment, patients demonstrated a mixture of beneficial and adverse cognitive outcomes that varied in relation to COMT genotype. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Courtney L.M. Nelson, Hayley M. Amsbaugh, James L. Reilly, Cherise Rosen, Robert W. Marvin, Michael E. Ragozzino, Jeffrey R. Bishop, John A. Sweeney, S. Kristian Hill Source Type: research

We need reproducible health behaviour change interventions to help adults with severe mental illness
It is with great pleasure we read the health behaviour change intervention developed by Bonfioli et al. (2017) that aimed to increase the time improve physical activity and dietary fiber consumption in adults with severe mental illness. In their trials, the authors found that seven one-hour health education group sessions combined with weekly group of walking sessions significantly increased the number of participants with health behaviours (HB) corresponding to the World Health Organization recommendations. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: P. Bernard, S. St Amour, C. Kingsbury, A.J. Romain Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Decreased blood flow in the right insula and middle temporal gyrus predicts negative formal thought disorder in schizophrenia
Formal thought disorder (FTD) causes severe disturbances of language and communication, and affects 50% –80% of people with schizophrenia (Roche et al., 2015). It is part of the disorganization syndrome that has been found to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from patients with psychotic bipolar disorder, and may, thus, inform differential diagnosis (Palaniyappan et al., 2018). The breakdown o f effective communication in FTD is associated with structural and functional alterations of the fronto-temporal language network (Cavelti et al., 2018; Horn et al., 2009; Kircher et al., 2008; Palaniyappan et al., 2015; ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephanie Winkelbeiner, Marialuisa Cavelti, Andrea Federspiel, Katharina Kunzelmann, Thomas Dierks, Werner Strik, Helge Horn, Philipp Homan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Social aversive conditioning in youth at clinical high risk for psychosis and with psychosis: An ERP study
Social cognition and emotion processing are compromised in schizophrenia. Disruptions in these domains may also be present during the psychosis-risk state. Aversive conditioning is an established translational research paradigm to investigate affective reactivity and learning. Using an aversive conditioning ERP paradigm with social cues, we examined whether psychosis patients and at-risk youths differentially respond to aversively conditioned faces. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anna J. Watters, Petra E. Rupert, Daniel H. Wolf, Monica E. Calkins, Ruben C. Gur, Raquel E. Gur, Bruce I. Turetsky Source Type: research

The impact of intrinsic motivation on session attendance and reliable cognitive improvement in cognitive remediation in schizophrenia
This study explored the impact of task-specific intrinsic motivation on attendance and reliable cognitive improvement in a controlled trial comparing CR with a computer game (CG) playing control. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S.D. Bryce, S.J. Lee, J.L. Ponsford, R.J. Lawrence, E.J. Tan, S.L. Rossell Source Type: research

Efficacy of esketamine in the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia – A case series
Primary negative symptoms are thought to be intrinsic to schizophrenia and represent a major independent factor determining disability in schizophrenia subjects; as an aggravating factor, these symptoms are poorly responsive to antipsychotics (Strassnig et al., 2015). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marcel V. Nunes, Marcelo P.M. Adelino, Elias Ajub, Lucas C. Quarantini, Acioly L.T. Lacerda Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Low plasma concentrations of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits as a possible biomarker for psychosis
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been largely implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia and other psychosis. Aiming to evaluate their potential as peripheral biomarkers for psychosis, we quantified the plasma concentrations of NR1 and NR2 NMDAR subunits of first-episode psychosis patients in their first contact with mental health services due to psychotic symptoms, compared with siblings and matched community-based controls. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: C.M. Loureiro, R. Shuhama, H.A. Fachim, P.R. Menezes, C.M. Del-Ben, P. Louzada-Junior Source Type: research

Combination therapy of electroconvulsive therapy and aripiprazole for dopamine supersensitivity psychosis
Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients meet the criteria of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) (Peuskens, 1999), but some TRS patients are resistant even to clozapine. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has shown particular effectiveness on catatonic and clozapine-refractory symptoms (Zervas et al., 2011; Lehman et al., 2004). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nobuhisa Kanahara, Makihiko Hirabayashi, Takashi Mamada, Masahiko Nishimoto, Masaomi Iyo Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Gender differences in childhood trauma in first episode psychosis: Association with symptom severity over two years
Early life adversity is associated with increased risk for psychosis onset and poor clinical outcome. Male compared to female patients often show a more severe course of psychotic illness. The aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences in childhood trauma (CT) and their impact on symptomatic and functional outcome following psychosis onset.The study included 210 patients (144 men, 66 women) diagnosed with a first-episode of psychosis (FEP). Early adversity was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marita Pruessner, Suzanne King, Nadia Vracotas, Sherezad Abadi, Srividya Iyer, Ashok K. Malla, Jai Shah, Ridha Joober Source Type: research

A positive take on schizophrenia negative symptom scales: Converting scores between the SANS, NSA and SDS
To provide quantitative conversions between commonly used scales for the assessment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adrian Preda, Dana D. Nguyen, Juan R. Bustillo, Aysenil Belger, Daniel S. O'Leary, Sarah McEwen, Shichun Ling, Lawrence Faziola, Daniel H. Mathalon, Judith M. Ford, Steven G. Potkin, FBIRN, Theo G.M. van Erp Source Type: research

Service utilization and suicide among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders
To compare individuals with and without schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified) who die by suicide. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Juveria Zaheer, Binu Jacob, Claire de Oliveira, David Rudoler, Ari Juda, Paul Kurdyak Source Type: research

Negative symptom dimensions differentially impact on functioning in individuals at-risk for psychosis
There is a growing interest in studying negative symptoms in individuals with at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis. Negative symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia and related psychoses. It is recognized that negative symptoms are prevalent in the prodromal phase of illness and predate the onset of attenuated positive symptoms (Yung and McGorry, 1996; Hafner et al., 2003; Lencz et al., 2004; Lyne et al., 2014). Previous research has suggested that more severe negative symptoms at baseline may predict transition from ARMS to full-blown psychosis (Demjaha et al., 2012; Piskulic et al., 2012; Nelson et al., 2013; V...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: W.C. Chang, H.C. Lee, S.I. Chan, S.Y. Chiu, H.M. Lee, K.W. Chan, M.C. Wong, K.L. Chan, W.S. Yeung, L.W. Choy, S.Y. Chong, M.W. Siu, T.L. Lo, W.C. Yan, M.K. Ng, L.T. Poon, P.F. Pang, W.C. Lam, Y.C. Wong, W.S. Chung, Y.M. Mo, S.Y. Lui, L.M. Hui, E.Y.H. Chen Source Type: research

Treating auditory hallucinations with transcranial direct current stimulation in a double-blind, randomized trial
This study used tDCS as a treatment method for these hallucinations in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a relatively large sample size. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sanne Koops, Jan Dirk Blom, Ouarda Bouachmir, Margot I. Slot, Bas Neggers, Iris E. Sommer Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of functional capacity in treatment resistant schizophrenia patients: Comparison and differences with non-resistant schizophrenia patients
Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is defined by poor or non-response to conventional antipsychotic agents. Functional capacity is defined as the baseline potential of a patient to function in the community, irrespective of actual achievements gained, and has never been studied in TRS. Here, we screened 182 patients with psychotic symptoms and separated them in TRS (n  = 28) and non-TRS (n = 32) ones, to evaluate whether they exhibited differential extents and predictive clinical variables of functional capacity. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Felice Iasevoli, Luigi D'Ambrosio, Danilo Notar Francesco, Eugenio Razzino, Elisabetta Filomena Buonaguro, Sara Giordano, Thomas L. Patterson, Andrea de Bartolomeis Source Type: research

Response to the editorial on antipsychotics and mortality in a nationwide cohort of 29,823 patients with schizophrenia
Dr. Nasrallah asked a few questions in the Editorial on our article (Nasrallah, 2018). Here are our answers: (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jari Tiihonen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Altered selection during language processing in individuals at high risk for psychosis
Performance in the executive function (EF) domain has been linked to symptoms and functional outcomes in psychosis. Studies have found that UHR populations have difficulty with verbal fluency, which involves multiple facets of EF. Two potentially implicated EF facets were examined to explore whether these could be dissociated in UHR populations: selection among alternatives (measured by selection costs) and retrieval from semantic memory retrieval (measured by retrieval costs). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: T. Vargas, H. Snyder, M. Banich, R. Newberry, Stewart A. Shankman, Gregory P. Strauss, V.A. Mittal Source Type: research

Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences: Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries
Sibship size and birth order may be contributing factors to the multifactorial etiology of psychosis. Specifically, several studies have shown that sibship size and birth order are associated with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies on their association with psychotic experiences (PE). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ai Koyanagi, Hans Oh, Andrew Stickley, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Josep Maria Haro, Jordan E. DeVylder Source Type: research

Computerized cognitive training is associated with improved psychosocial treatment engagement in schizophrenia
Poor treatment engagement is an enduring problem in the care of patients with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that targeted cognitive training (TCT) improves cognition and functional outcomes, but this time-consuming intervention might reduce patients' engagement in other treatment activities when implemented in real-world settings. This is especially true of residential care programs which encourage patients to engage in group therapies, self-care, and a wide variety of structured social, work, and other rehabilitation activities. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael L. Thomas, Emily B.H. Treichler, Andrew Bismark, Alexandra L. Shiluk, Melissa Tarasenko, Wen Zhang, Yash B. Joshi, Joyce Sprock, Lauren Cardoso, Kristine Tiernan, Gregory A. Light Source Type: research

Identification and prediction of clinical high risk of psychosis in Chinese outpatients using two-stage screening
This study used PRIME Screen-Revised (PS-R) and Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) to investigate the predictive validity of the two-stage screening. Of 566 participants who completed two-stage screening in this study, 192 were PS-R( −) and 374 were PS-R(+). After being interviewed with SIPS, 112 were rated as CHR(+), 109 were diagnosed with psychosis, and the other 345 individuals were CHR(−). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: LiHua Xu, Yan Wang, HuiRu Cui, YingYing Tang, JunJie Wang, XiaoChen Tang, Bin Zhang, YanYan Wei, YiKang Zhu, LiJuan Jiang, ZhenYing Qian, HuiJun Li, TianHong Zhang, JiJun Wang Source Type: research

Aberrant cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity and minimal self-disturbance in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and with first-episode schizophrenia
In the tradition of phenomenology, minimal selfdisturbance has been suggested as a manifestation of the core pathogenesis of schizophrenia; however, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, in line with the concept of “cognitive dysmetria,” we investigated the cerebro-cerebellar default mode network (DMN) connectivity and its association with pre-reflective minimal selfdisturbance in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Minji Bang, Hae-Jeong Park, Chongwon Pae, Kyoungri Park, Eun Lee, Seung-Koo Lee, Suk Kyoon An Source Type: research

Hyperactivation of left inferior parietal lobule and left temporal gyri shortens resting EEG microstate in schizophrenia
The momentary spatial configuration of the brain electric field at the scalp reflects quasi-stable “functional microstates” caused by activity of different intracranial generators. There is paucity in literature on the intracranial generators of resting state EEG microstate alterations in stable patients with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to investigate resting state microstate alter ations and their neural generators in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives as compared to healthy controls in an attempt to establish state and trait marker. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - June 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sunaina Soni, Suriya Prakash Muthukrishnan, Mamta Sood, Simran Kaur, Ratna Sharma Source Type: research