Simulated car driving and its association with cognitive abilities in patients with schizophrenia
This study is the first to examine driving behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using an advanced driving simulator, and to explore the role of cognitive abilities of people with schizophrenia for driving. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anselm B.M. Fuermaier, Dafne Piersma, Rafaele J.C. Huntjens, Dick de Waard, Celina Westermann, Magdalena Bossert, Klaus W. Lange, Matthias Weisbrod, Richard Bruggeman, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Oliver Tucha Source Type: research

Family functioning moderates the impact of psychosis-risk symptoms on social and role functioning
Youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis often experience difficulties in social and role functioning. Given evidence that family stress and support can impact psychosis-risk symptoms, as well as an individual's ability to fulfill social and role functions, family dynamics are hypothesized to moderate the effect of psychosis-risk symptoms on functioning. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elizabeth Thompson, Pamela Rakhshan, Steven C. Pitts, Caroline Demro, Zachary B. Millman, Kristin Bussell, Jordan DeVylder, Emily Kline, Gloria M. Reeves, Jason Schiffman Source Type: research

Color vision impairments in schizophrenia and the role of antipsychotic medication type
Schizophrenia patients (SCZ) demonstrate deficits in many domains of mental functioning, including visual perception. An issue that has been relatively unexplored, in terms of explaining variation in visual function in SCZ, however, is medication use. The present study explored potential medication effects on color vision in SCZ, a process that is strongly linked to dopaminergic function in the retina. SCZ patients who had clear-cut either typical (n  = 29) or atypical (n = 29) monotherapy, without any other concurrent medication, and a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in the study. (S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thiago Monteiro Paiva Fernandes, Steven M. Silverstein, Pamela D. Butler, Szabolcs K éri, Lucas Galdino Santos, Renata Lyra Nogueira, Natanael Antonio Santos Source Type: research

Elevated allostatic load index is associated with working memory deficits in first-episode psychosis
Cognitive impairment represents one of core characteristics of schizophrenia psychopathology. Chronic stress might impact cognition via various mechanisms (Marin et al., 2011). According to the allostatic load (AL) concept, processes that are activated in response to stress are adaptive in a short-term perspective and enable to maintain homeostasis (McEwen and Wingfield, 2003). These processes have been termed ‘allostasis’. The AL refers to detrimental effects of chronic stress exposure that appear due to over-activation of allostatic mechanisms. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: B łażej Misiak, Kamila Kotowicz, Olga Loska, Filip Stramecki, Jan Aleksander Beszłej, Jerzy Samochowiec, Agnieszka Samochowiec, Marcin Jabłoński, Piotr Podwalski, Katarzyna Waszczuk, Michał Wroński, Anna Michalczyk, Leszek Sagan, Patryk Piotrowski Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Comparing static and dynamic predictors of risk for hostility in serious mental illness: Preliminary findings
This study compared static predictors of hostility (e.g. demographics, clinician ratings) to subjective (i.e., self-reported affect on slider scales in response to written questions) and objective (i.e., vocal indicators of arousal from speech samples in a story-retelling task) dynamic predictors using ambulatory assessment over five days in a sample of 25 stable outpatients with diagnoses of a serious mental illness. Multilevel modeling showed that both subjective and objective dynamic predictors were significant, but none of the static predictors were. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tovah Cowan, Thanh P. Le, Brita Elvev åg, Peter W. Foltz, Raymond P. Tucker, Terje B. Holmlund, Alex S. Cohen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Short-term outcome of first episode delusional disorder in an early intervention population
Previous evidence suggests that delusional disorder has a later onset and better functional outcomes compared to schizophrenia. However, studies have not examined longitudinal outcomes in a first episode population, where confounding factors may be adjusted for. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tobias Rowland, Maximillian Birchwood, Swaran Singh, Nicholas Freemantle, Linda Everard, Peter Jones, David Fowler, Tim Amos, Max Marshall, Vimal Sharma, Andrew Thompson Source Type: research

N400 event-related brain potential evidence for semantic priming deficits in persons at clinical high risk for psychosis
The N400 electroencephalographic event-related potential (ERP) waveform normally occurs in response to any meaningful stimulus, such as a word or picture, and is smaller (less negative) for stimuli that are more related to preceding ones (Kutas and Federmeier, 2011). For example, after seeing the prime word cat, people exhibit smaller N400  s to the related word mouse than the unrelated word arrow. These “N400 semantic priming effects” are thought to occur because meaningful prime stimuli activate the neural representations of their concepts in semantic memory, our store of knowledge about the world, and this...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer R. Lepock, Romina Mizrahi, Michele Korostil, Margaret Maheandiran, Cory J. Gerritsen, Lauren Drvaric, Sarah Ahmed, R. Michael Bagby, Michael Kiang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Separating hearing sensitivity from auditory perceptual abnormalities in clinical high risk (CHR) youth
Attenuated auditory distortions, illusions or hallucinations are often observed in those meeting criteria for a prodromal syndrome (clinical high-risk CHR individuals). For example, CHR individuals might report hearing distinct and indistinct sounds or words in the absence of an external stimulus, such as hearing one's name being called, only to then discover that no one is around. Given the costs associated with false-positive CHR diagnoses (e.g., stigma, unnecessary and expensive treatment), it is important to accurately understand and categorize these types of experiences. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Teresa Vargas, K. Juston Osborne, Emily S. Cibelli, Vijay A. Mittal Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of TAK-063 in subjects with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia
TAK-063 is a potent, selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 10A, an enzyme selectively expressed in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. This randomized, parallel-group study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 20-mg daily TAK-063 versus placebo in subjects with acutely exacerbated symptoms of schizophrenia (NCT02477020). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas A. Macek, Maggie McCue, Xinxin Dong, Elizabeth Hanson, Paul Goldsmith, John Affinito, Atul R. Mahableshwarkar Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Issue highlights
In a prospective matched cohort study, Bourgeois and colleagues examined the prevalence of psychotic disorders in sexually abused persons between the time of abuse and the beginning of adulthood. Sexually abused youth had a 10-fold Increase in risk for psychotic disorders compared to the general population. Identification of risk factors and trajectories of psychopathology In sexually abused youth is critical for prevention and early intervention efforts. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: John Torous, Matcheri S. Keshavan Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes in social cognition in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis: An outcome based analysis
Social cognition deficits have been observed in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Longitudinal change in social cognition were analyzed in CHR individuals from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS2) based on outcome at 24  months. Individuals (n = 359) were classified into remission, symptomatic, prodromal progression and transition to psychosis (CHR-T) groups. Social cognition was assessed using theory of mind, emotion perception, and social perception tasks. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: M.K. Shakeel, L. Lu, T.D. Cannon, K.S. Cadenhead, B.A. Cornblatt, T.H. McGlashan, D.O. Perkins, L.J. Seidman, M.T. Tsuang, S.W. Woods, E.F. Walker, D.H. Mathalon, C.E. Bearden, J. Addington Source Type: research

Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: A longitudinal analysis using latent variable structural equation modelling
Recent network models of schizophrenia propose it is the consequence of mutual interaction between its symptoms. While cross-sectional associations between negative and positive symptoms are consistent with this idea, they may merely reflect their involvement in the diagnostic process. Longitudinal analyses however may allow the identification of possible causal relationships. The European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC) provides data suitable for this purpose. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Giuseppe Carr à, Cristina Crocamo, Matthias Angermeyer, Traolach Brugha, Mondher Toumi, Paul Bebbington Source Type: research

Widespread white-matter microstructure integrity reduction in first-episode schizophrenia patients after acute antipsychotic treatment
Potential effects of initiating acute antipsychotic treatment on white matter (WM) microstructure in schizophrenia patients remain poorly characterized. Thirty-five drug-na ïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were scanned before and after six weeks of treatment with second-generation antipsychotic medications. Nineteen demographically matched healthy subjects were scanned twice over the same time interval. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to test for chang es in WM microstructural integrity after treatment. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Linghui Meng, Kaiming Li, Wenbin Li, Yuan Xiao, Su Lui, John A. Sweeney, Qiyong Gong Source Type: research

Fine motor skill and processing speed deficits in young people with psychotic experiences: A longitudinal study
To identify neuropsychological and motor changes from adolescence to early adulthood in young people with psychotic experiences (PE). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eleanor Carey, Niamh Dooley, Diane Gillan, Colm Healy, Helen Coughlan, Mary Clarke, Ian Kelleher, Mary Cannon Source Type: research

Synaptic plasticity/dysplasticity, process memory and item memory in rodent models of mental dysfunction
Activity-dependent changes in the effective connection strength of synapses are a fundamental feature of a nervous system. This so-called synaptic plasticity is thought to underlie storage of information in memory and has been hypothesized to be crucial for the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy. Synaptic plasticity stores information in a neural network, creating a trace of neural activity from past experience. The plasticity can also change the behavior of the network so the network can differentially transform/compute information in future activations. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kally C. O'Reilly, Maria I. Perica, Andr é A. Fenton Source Type: research

Clinical correlates of aberrant conversational turn-taking in youth at clinical high-risk for psychosis
Studies on speech abnormalities in schizophrenia suggest that atypical turn-taking during conversation is a prominent feature of speech patterns in psychosis. These studies have typically reported inappropriate pause times based on pragmatic rating scales (e.g. Colle et al., 2013). However, these subjective assessments are susceptible to rater bias and provide only a broad perceptual analysis of vocal expression; specific, quantifiable speech parameters cannot be assessed. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura Sichlinger, Emily Cibelli, Matthew Goldrick, Vijay A. Mittal Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Efficacy of cariprazine on negative symptoms in patients with acute schizophrenia: A post hoc analysis of pooled data
Although currently approved antipsychotics exert efficacy on positive symptoms of schizophrenia, treatments for negative symptoms remain a major unmet need. Post hoc analyses were used to investigate the possible efficacy of cariprazine in patients with moderate/severe negative symptoms of schizophrenia and no predominance of positive symptoms. Data were pooled from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled cariprazine studies in patients with acute schizophrenia (NCT00694707, NCT01104766). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Willie Earley, Hua Guo, David Daniel, Henry Nasrallah, Suresh Durgam, Yan Zhong, Mehul Patel, Ágota Barabássy, Balázs Szatmári, György Németh Source Type: research

A plea for a transdiagnostic conceptualization of negative symptoms and for consistent psychiatric vocabulary
When the first author worked in the early 1990s as a student helper in a psychiatric facility, it was regarded as almost diagnostic malpractice to describe any symptoms of a patient with schizophrenia – then called a schizophrenic – as depressive. Following the Kraepelinian dichotomy of dementia praecox/schizophrenia versus manic-depressive illness or depression (Kraepelin, 1899), which was still predominant at that time, many clinicians felt they had to decide between the two. Clearly, the e ntity schizoaffective illness already existed, but such a diagnosis was rejected by many as wishy-washy. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Steffen Moritz, Anja Fritzsche, Maike Engel, Jule Meiseberg, Stefan Klingberg, Klaus Hesse Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Incorporating music therapy into cognitive remediation to improve both cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia
Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms make social participation difficult for patients with schizophrenia (Brekke et al., 2009; Green and Nuechterlein, 1999; Ventura et al., 2014). Interestingly, cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia can be improved through cognitive remediation (Cella et al., 2015), which simultaneously facilitates social participation (Katsumi et al., 2017; Wykes et al., 2011). In addition, there is evidence that music therapy can ameliorate negative symptoms (Geretsegger et al., 2017; Ulrich et al., 2007). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Naoko Kosugi, Chiaki Oshiyama, Naoki Kodama, Shin-Ichi Niwa Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Oscillatory brain dynamics supporting impaired Stroop task performance in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder
The Stroop color-word interference task, prompting slower response to color-incongruent than to congruent items, is often used to study neural mechanisms of inhibitory control and dysfunction in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Inconsistent findings of an augmented Stroop effect limit identification of relevant dysfunctional mechanism(s) in schizophrenia. The present study sought to advance understanding of normal and impaired neural oscillatory dynamics by distinguishing interference detection and response preparation during the Stroop task in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders via analysis of behavioral performance and 4 ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tzvetan Popov, Thomas Kustermann, Petia Popova, Gregory A. Miller, Brigitte Rockstroh Source Type: research

Vitamin D and clinical symptoms in First Episode Psychosis (FEP): A prospective cohort study
There is a paucity of longitudinal research investigating vitamin D in people with early psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: John Lally, Olesya Ajnakina, Nidhita Singh, Poonam Gardner-Sood, Brendon Stubbs, Dominic Stringer, Marta Di Forti, Anthony S. David, Shubulade Smith, Robin M. Murray, Oliver D. Howes, Fiona Gaughran Source Type: research

A telemedicine platform to improve clinical parameters in paranoid schizophrenia patients: Results of a one-year randomized study
The study objective was to test a smartphone-based MONEO platform designed to improve the clinical condition of paranoid schizophrenia patients. Telemedicine treatment is considered to be as effective as traditional treatment in outpatient clinics. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marek Krzystanek, Mariusz Borkowski, Katarzyna Ska łacka, Krzysztof Krysta Source Type: research

Efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a treatment for persistent hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Hallucinations are common symptoms of schizophrenia, yet 25% to 30% of patients would still continue to experience persistent hallucinations even after continuous pharmacological treatment (Shergill et al., 1998). Studies have thus investigated on the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in reducing the severity of hallucination in patients with psychosis. TDCS is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique. It acts by depolarizing (anodal stimulation) or hyperpolarizing (cathodal stimulation) the neuronal membrane potential by applying a very low-intensity electrical current on scalp. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Edwin H.M. Lee, Pik Ying Chan, Eunice Y.L. Law, Jessie J.X. Lin, Christy L.M. Hui, Wing Chung Chang, Sherry K.W. Chan, Eric Y.H. Chen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Clarifying associations between cortical thickness, subcortical structures, and a comprehensive assessment of clinical insight in enduring schizophrenia
The relationship between poor insight and less favorable outcomes in schizophrenia has promoted research efforts to understand its neurobiological basis. Thus far, research on neural correlates of insight has been constrained by small samples, incomplete insight assessments, and a focus on frontal lobes. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes, with a comprehensive assessment of clinical insight, in a large sample of enduring schizophrenia patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sophie B éland, Carolina Makowski, Susanna Konsztowicz, Lisa Buchy, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Martin Lepage Source Type: research

Chronic schizophrenia with the absence of the septum pellucidum: A case report
This report describes an unusual case of a middle-aged adult with chronic schizophrenia found to be missing the septum pellucidum. The relationship of the septum pellucidum to the other structures in the limbic system suggests that disturbance of the septum pellucidum may have a role in the neurological etiology of schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shin-Young Kim, Min-Hyeon Park, Kyu-In Jung Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

How cognitive remediation can be utilized strategically to enhance social and independent living self-efficacy
Self-efficacy beliefs are context-specific judgments about an individual's confidence in their ability to successfully perform goal-directed behaviors (Bandura, 1977). These beliefs are known to impact community participation and engagement in healthy controls. Specifically, people with high self-efficacy for a given task (i.e. a strong belief that a task can successfully be performed) are more likely to 1) engage; 2) expend greater effort; 3) persist longer even under challenging circumstances; and 4) perform better on the task (Bandura, 1977). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S.D. Bryce, J.L. Ponsford, E.J. Tan, S.L. Rossell, S.J. Lee Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Implementation and fidelity assessment of the NAVIGATE treatment program for first episode psychosis in a multi-site study
This article describes the approach to training and implementing the NAVIGATE program at the 17 sites (including 134 practitioners) randomized to provide it, and to evaluating the fidelity of service delivery to the NAVIGATE model. Fidelity was evaluated to five different components of the program, all of which were standardized in manuals in advance of implementation. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kim T. Mueser, Piper S. Meyer-Kalos, Shirley M. Glynn, David W. Lynde, Delbert G. Robinson, Susan Gingerich, David L. Penn, Corrine Cather, Jennifer D. Gottlieb, Patricia Marcy, Jennifer L. Wiseman, Sheena Potretzke, Mary F. Brunette, Nina R. Schooler, Je Source Type: research

Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with childhood trauma experiences and number of depressive episodes in severe mental disorders
Although several studies have found reduced plasma BDNF levels in patients with severe mental disorders, the sample sizes have been small and have exhibited variation and heterogeneity. Furthermore, long-term neurobiological changes following childhood trauma and clinical severity have been linked to a reduction in BDNF levels. Accordingly, we aim to clarify, using the largest sample size to date, the role of plasma BDNF in individuals with severe mental disorders in relation to the number of episodes, current remission status, and childhood trauma experiences. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Monica Aas, Ingrid Dieset, Ragni M ørch, Nils Eiel Steen, Sigrun Hope, Elina J. Reponen, Jannicke F. Laskemoen, Thor Ueland, Pål Aukrust, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A. Andreassen Source Type: research

Functional connectivity in distinct cognitive subtypes in psychosis
Cognitive dysfunction is common in psychotic disorders, and may reflect underlying pathophysiology. However, substantial cognitive heterogeneity exists both within and between diagnostic categories, creating challenges for studying the neurobiology of cognitive dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study was to identify patients with psychosis with intact versus impaired cognitive profiles, and to examine resting state functional connectivity between patient groups and compared to healthy controls to determine the extent to which patterns of connectivity are overlapping or distinct. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kathryn E. Lewandowski, Julie M. McCarthy, Dost Öngür, Lesley A. Norris, Geoffrey Z. Liu, Richard J. Juelich, Justin T. Baker Source Type: research

Concerns about bias in studies on clozapine and mortality
In view of the high all-cause mortality among patients with schizophrenia and the wide range of positive and negative effects of clozapine, it is important to know whether the drug is associated with a differential mortality pattern in comparison to other antipsychotic drugs. Tiihonen et al. (2009) reported a significantly lowered all-cause mortality and a lowered mortality from suicide in users of clozapine. In this journal, however, de Hert et al. (2010) pointed out that several types of bias may have influenced the results. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Y.C. van der Zalm, F. Termorshuizen, J.P. Selten Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Language comprehension and neurocognition independently and concurrently contribute to formal thought disorder severity in schizophrenia
Formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia is a prevalent symptom that has a significant impact on patients but low remediation options. This is largely due to a still unclear aetiology, where both neurocognitive and language dysfunction have been shown to contribute. Given established relationships between neurocognition and language themselves, this study aimed to examine if language comprehension impairments have a significant effect on FTD severity independent of neurocognition. 54 schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder patients (M  = 43.35, SD = 10.74) completed three measures of language comprehension alo...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eric J. Tan, Susan L. Rossell Source Type: research

Ten-year follow up of patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder from an early intervention service: Predictors of clinical remission and functional recovery
The long-term recovery rate of patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders has been persistently low despite the implementation of early intervention (EI) services internationally. It is, therefore, important to identify the modifiable factors during the early stage of the illness that predict long-term remission and recovery. The aim of this study is to explore the predictive value of the early stage clinical factors on the clinical remission and functional recovery at 10-year follow-up of patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who received a 2-year EI service. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sherry Kit Wa Chan, Christy Lai Ming Hui, Wing Chung Chang, Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Eric Yu Hai Chen Source Type: research

Affective modulation of target detection in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia
Emotional deficits are an integral feature of schizophrenia (SZ), but our understanding of these deficits is limited. In the present study, we examined whether the severity of emotional deficits reflects difficulty in the cognitive processing of affectively valenced stimuli. Healthy controls (HC; N  = 170) and stable outpatients with SZ (N = 245), characterized as either deficit syndrome (DS; N = 62) or non-deficit syndrome (NDS; N = 183), completed an Affective Go/NoGo task requiring discrimination of positively, negatively or neutrally valenced words. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pamela DeRosse, Chaya B. Gopin, Anita D. Barber, Anil K. Malhotra Source Type: research

The schizophrenia and bipolar twin study in Sweden (STAR)
is a large nation-wide cohort of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) same-sex twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and healthy control pairs, extensively characterized with brain imaging, neuropsychological tests, biomarkers, genetic testing, psychiatric symptoms and personality traits. The purpose is to investigate genetic and environmental mechanisms that give rise to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as the intermediate phenotypes. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Viktoria Johansson, Christina M. Hultman, Isabelle Kizling, Lennart Martinsson, Jacqueline Borg, Anna Hedman, Tyrone D. Cannon Source Type: research

Sleep duration and psychotic experiences in patients at risk of psychosis: A secondary analysis of the EDIE-2 trial
Sleep disturbance is common among individuals at risk of psychosis, yet few studies have investigated the relationship between sleep disturbance and clinical trajectory. The Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-2) trial provides longitudinal data on sleep duration and individual psychotic experiences from a cohort of individuals at risk of psychosis, which this study utilises in an opportunistic secondary analysis. Shorter and more variable sleep was hypothesised to be associated with more severe psychotic experiences and lower psychological wellbeing. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S. Reeve, A. Nickless, B. Sheaves, S.L.K. Stewart, A. Gumley, D. Fowler, A. Morrison, D. Freeman Source Type: research

Social vs. non-social measures of learning potential for predicting community functioning across phase of illness in schizophrenia
Studies demonstrate that dynamic assessment (i.e., learning potential) improves the prediction of response to rehabilitation over static measures in individuals with schizophrenia. Learning potential is most commonly assessed using neuropsychological tests under a test-train-test paradigm to examine change in performance. Novel learning potential approaches using social cognitive tasks may have added value, particularly for the prediction of social functioning, but this area is unexplored. The present study is the first to investigate whether patients with schizophrenia demonstrate social cognitive learning potential acros...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peter E. Clayson, Robert S. Kern, Keith H. Nuechterlein, Barbara J. Knowlton, Carrie E. Bearden, Tyrone D. Cannon, Alan P. Fiske, Livon Ghermezi, Jacqueline N. Hayata, Gerhard S. Hellemann, William P. Horan, Kimmy Kee, Junghee Lee, Kenneth L. Subotnik, Ca Source Type: research

Can low-dose aripiprazole reverse some of the adverse effects from a long-acting injectable?
Long-acting injectables (LAIs) are one of the most effective tools to address medication non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia. However, if a patient develops adverse effects, such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and hyperprolactinemia with an LAI, s/he can suffer from those adverse effects for an extended period of time. Although anticholinergic medications are the first line of treatment for EPS, they are usually not effective for akathisia. Aripiprazole is a potent partial agonist which has the ability to displace concomitantly-administered antipsychotic drugs that antagonize D2Rs, which may help reduce EPS and ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karen Fryefield, Mujeeb U. Shad Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Evidence that self-reported psychotic experiences in children are clinically relevant
Self-rated psychotic experiences (PE-S) are more common than psychotic experiences assessed in clinical interviews (PE-I) (van Os et al., 2009). In childhood, prevalence estimates of PE-S vary between studies and instruments (Kelleher et al., 2012), ranging from 21% –66% in 7–13 year-olds (Gundersen et al., 2018). In adult populations, PE-S that are not confirmed in clinical interviews are often referred to as ‘false-positive’ PE, but they are nevertheless clinically relevant and associated with mental health problems and help-seeking behavior (Bak et al., 2003; van der Steen et al., 2018; van Nie...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martin K. Rimvall, Steffie Gundersen, Lars Clemmensen, Anja Munkholm, Janne Tidselbak Larsen, Anne Mette Skovgaard, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Frank Verhulst, Jim van Os, Pia Jeppesen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Unmet need for mental health services among people screened but not admitted to an early psychosis intervention program
Information is lacking on people screened for early psychosis intervention (EPI) but not admitted to the program. Using health administrative data, we constructed a retrospective cohort of incident cases of psychosis in the catchment of an EPI program. Use of mental health services was compared between people screened and not admitted with an EPI-admitted group. The non-admitted group had higher rates of subsequent emergency department visits, psychiatric hospitalizations, and involuntary admissions. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jordan Edwards, Ross Norman, Paul Kurdyak, Arlene G. MacDougall, Lena Palaniyappan, Cindy Lau, Kelly K. Anderson Source Type: research

Dissociation of fractional anisotropy and resting-state functional connectivity alterations in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia
In this study, diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed with 181 antipsychotic-na ïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 173 matched healthy controls. FA was measured using tensor-guided tractography in identifiable pathways between selected pairs of brain regions with altered rsFC as determined by prior meta-analysis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jieke Liu, Li Yao, Wenjing Zhang, Wei Deng, Yuan Xiao, Fei Li, John A. Sweeney, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui Source Type: research

Timing matters in elaborative processing of positive stimuli: Gamma band reactivity in schizophrenia compared to depression and healthy adults
Some individuals with schizophrenia report similar feelings of positive affect “in the moment” compared to control participants but report decreased trait positive affect overall. One possible explanation for this disconnection between state and trait positive affect is the extent to which individuals with schizophrenia engage in elaborative processing of positive stimuli. To assess this, we examined evoked gamma band activity in response to positive words over several seconds in a group with schizophrenia, a group with major depressive disorder, and a healthy control group. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elizabeth A. Martin, Greg J. Siegle, Stuart R. Steinhauer, Ruth Condray Source Type: research

The association between treatment beliefs and engagement in care in first episode psychosis
Disengagement from mental health services poses an important problem for people with psychosis. Lack of treatment adherence is associated with poorer physical health, reduced social functioning, an increased rate of relapse and an increased likelihood of being legally detained (O'Brien et al., 2009). Previous research has uncovered differences in treatment beliefs based upon either differences in causal attributions (McCabe and Priebe, 2004) and ethnic/racial group (Jimenez et al., 2012), however the impact of differing treatment beliefs on engagement in care has not been examined. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: B.I. Perry, A. Kular, L. Brown, R. Gajwani, R. Jasani, Z. Islam, M. Birchwood, S.P. Singh Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Cognitive control network dysconnectivity and response to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia
To better understand cognitive control impairment in schizophrenia, it is vital to determine the extent of dysfunctional connectivity in the associated fronto-striatal brain network, with a focus on the connections with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prior to the potential confounding effect of medication. It is also essential to determine the effects following antipsychotic medication and the relationship of those effects on psychosis improvement. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia, initially unmedicated and after a 6-week course of risperidone, and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) performed a fMRI task twice, s...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elyse J. Cadena, David M. White, Nina V. Kraguljac, Meredith A. Reid, Ripu Jindal, Roland Matthew Pixley, Adrienne C. Lahti Source Type: research

The efficacy of computerized cognitive drill and practice training for patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis
Computerized methods for improving cognitive functioning in schizophrenia have gained popularity during the past decades. Therefore, this study evaluates the available evidence for the efficacy of computerized cognitive drill and practice training for patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Merel Prikken, Mette J. Konings, Wan U. Lei, Marieke J.H. Begemann, Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Social reward processing: A biomarker for predicting psychosis risk?
The desire to obtain social rewards (e.g. positive feedback) features prominently in our lives and relationships, and is relevant to understanding psychopathology – where behavior is often impaired. Investigating social rewards within the psychosis-spectrum offers an especially useful opportunity, given the high rates of impaired social functioning and social isolation. The goal of this study was to investigate hedonic experience associated with social rewa rd processing as a potential biomarker for psychosis risk. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Joseph M. Orr, Jessica A. Bernard, Vijay A. Mittal Source Type: research

Diminished modulation of motor cortical reactivity during context-based action observation in schizophrenia
Deficient mirror neuron system (MNS)-activity is associated with social cognition deficits in schizophrenia. However, it is not known how socio-emotional contexts modulate the MNS-response. In a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)-experiment, we aimed to compare putative MNS-responses to action observation stimuli with and without a context, in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Virupakshappa Irappa Bagewadi, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Shalini S. Naik, Ramajayam Govindaraj, Shivarama Varambally, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, C. Naveen Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli Source Type: research

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms as antecedents of later psychotic outcomes in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at substantially heightened risk for psychosis. Thus, prevention and early intervention strategies that target the antecedents of psychosis in this high-risk group are a clinical priority. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children with 22q11.2DS, particularly the inattentive subtype. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ADHD inattention symptoms predict later psychotic symptoms and/or psychotic disorder in those with 22q11.2DS. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maria Niarchou, Samuel J.R.A. Chawner, Ania Fiksinski, Jacob A.S. Vorstman, Johanna Maeder, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez, Marco Armando, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Donna M. McDonald-McGinn, Beverly S. Emanuel, Elaine H. Zackai, Carrie E. Bearden, V Source Type: research

Relapse in the first three months postpartum in women with history of serious mental illness
Relapse of serious mental illness (psychotic and bipolar disorders; SMI) in the postpartum period is potentially devastating for mother and baby. There is limited evidence on whether medication in the perinatal period is protective against postpartum relapse for women with SMI particularly non-affective psychoses. We aimed to investigate risk factors for postpartum relapse, particularly the potential prophylactic effects of medication. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Clare L. Taylor, Robert J. Stewart, Louise M. Howard Source Type: research

A multi-dimensional approach to the relationship between insight and aggressiveness in schizophrenia: Findings from the FACE-SZ cohort
Aggressiveness is a stigma frequently associated with schizophrenia. The role of insight as a risk factor of aggressiveness remains contradictory; mainly because single measures of these states mask their complexity and heterogeneity. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Schandrin, J. Norton, S. Raffard, B. Aouizerate, F. Berna, L. Brunel, I. Chereau-Boudet, T. D'Amato, H. Denizot, C. Dubertret, J. Dubreucq, C. Faget, G. Fond, F. Gabayet, P.M. Llorca, J. Mallet, D. Misdrahi, C. Passerieux, R. Rey, F. Schurhoff, M. Urba Source Type: research