Association study of schizophrenia with variants in miR-137 binding sites
There is strong cumulative evidence for the involvement of miR-137 and its targets in the aetiology of schizophrenia. Here we test whether variants, especially rare variants, in miR-137 binding sites are associated with schizophrenia in an exome-sequenced sample of 4225 cases and 5834 controls. Only a small proportion of binding sites were covered by the capture system which had been used. A weighted burden test using the 372 detected variants demonstrated an excess among cases significant at p=0.024. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David Curtis, Warren Emmett Source Type: research

Retrospective audit of people treated with long-acting antipsychotic injectable medications: Usage patterns and outcomes
Medication discontinuation or nonadherence is observed in many people with psychotic disorders (Kaplan et al., 2013). When experienced this increases risk of illness relapse, use of hospital and emergency psychiatric care, and worsens quality of life (Emsley et al., 2013). Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications were developed to overcome nonadherence and offer increased choice for how treatment is accessed (Bosanac and Castle, 2015). They also promote regular clinic attendance allowing for more frequent clinician contact, and have less variability in plasma drug levels to promote more stable drug effectiven...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stuart J. Lee, Anthony de Castella, Simon Stafrace, Sandra Keppich-Arnold, Jayashri Kulkarni Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Evidence of disturbances of deep levels of semantic cohesion within personal narratives in schizophrenia
Since initial conceptualizations, schizophrenia has been thought to involve core disturbances in the ability to form complex, integrated ideas. Although this has been studied in terms of formal thought disorder, the level of involvement of altered latent semantic structure is less clear. To explore this question, we compared the personal narratives of adults with schizophrenia (n=200) to those produced by an HIV+ sample (n=55) using selected indices from Coh-Metrix. Coh-Metrix is a software system designed to compute various language usage statistics from transcribed written and spoken language documents. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jon A. Willits, Timothy Rubin, Michael N. Jones, Kyle S. Minor, Paul H. Lysaker Source Type: research

Retrospective audit of people treated with long-acting antipsychotic injectable medications: Usage patterns and outcomes
Medication discontinuation or nonadherence is observed in many people with psychotic disorders (Kaplan et al., 2013). When experienced this increases risk of illness relapse, use of hospital and emergency psychiatric care, and worsens quality of life (Emsley et al., 2013). Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications were developed to overcome nonadherence and offer increased choice for how treatment is accessed (Bosanac and Castle, 2015). They also promote regular clinic attendance allowing for more frequent clinician contact, and have less variability in plasma drug levels to promote more stable drug effectiven...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stuart J. Lee, Anthony de Castella, Simon Stafrace, Sandra Keppich-Arnold, Jayashri Kulkarni Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Evidence of disturbances of deep levels of semantic cohesion within personal narratives in schizophrenia
Since initial conceptualizations, schizophrenia has been thought to involve core disturbances in the ability to form complex, integrated ideas. Although this has been studied in terms of formal thought disorder, the level of involvement of altered latent semantic structure is less clear. To explore this question, we compared the personal narratives of adults with schizophrenia (n=200) to those produced by an HIV+ sample (n=55) using selected indices from Coh-Metrix. Coh-Metrix is a software system designed to compute various language usage statistics from transcribed written and spoken language documents. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jon A. Willits, Timothy Rubin, Michael N. Jones, Kyle S. Minor, Paul H. Lysaker Source Type: research

The instability of functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and their siblings: A dynamic connectivity study
The distributed connectivity among brain regions is in a constant state of flux, even when a subject is at rest. This instability (temporal variability), when optimal, may contribute to efficient cross-network communications. We investigate the role of this variability in the genetic diathesis and symptom expression of schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shuixia Guo, Wei Zhao, Haojuan Tao, Zhening Liu, Lena Palaniyappan Source Type: research

Abnormal brain activation during threatening face processing in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies
Impairment of face perception in schizophrenia is a core aspect of social cognitive dysfunction. This impairment is particularly marked in threatening face processing. Identifying reliable neural correlates of the impairment of threatening face processing is crucial for targeting more effective treatments. However, neuroimaging studies have not yet obtained robust conclusions. Through comprehensive literature search, twenty-one whole brain datasets were included in this meta-analysis. Using seed-based d-Mapping, in this voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed to: 1) establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions related to t...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xiaoyan Jia, Yingjia Li, Xuebin Chang, Marie Vandekerckhove, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao Source Type: research

The instability of functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and their siblings: A dynamic connectivity study
The distributed connectivity among brain regions is in a constant state of flux, even when a subject is at rest. This instability (temporal variability), when optimal, may contribute to efficient cross-network communications. We investigate the role of this variability in the genetic diathesis and symptom expression of schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shuixia Guo, Wei Zhao, Haojuan Tao, Zhening Liu, Lena Palaniyappan Source Type: research

Abnormal brain activation during threatening face processing in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies
Impairment of face perception in schizophrenia is a core aspect of social cognitive dysfunction. This impairment is particularly marked in threatening face processing. Identifying reliable neural correlates of the impairment of threatening face processing is crucial for targeting more effective treatments. However, neuroimaging studies have not yet obtained robust conclusions. Through comprehensive literature search, twenty-one whole brain datasets were included in this meta-analysis. Using seed-based d-Mapping, in this voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed to: 1) establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions related to t...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xiaoyan Jia, Yingjia Li, Xuebin Chang, Marie Vandekerckhove, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao Source Type: research

Environmental adversities and psychotic symptoms: The impact of timing of trauma, abuse, and neglect
Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Inga Schalinski, Susanne Breinlinger, Vanessa Hirt, Martin H. Teicher, Michael Odenwald, Brigitte Rockstroh Source Type: research

Symptom dimensions and subgroups in childhood-onset schizophrenia
This study investigated symptom dimensions and subgroups in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) cohort and their similarities to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) literature. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kirsten E.S. Craddock, Xueping Zhou, Siyuan Liu, Peter Gochman, Dwight Dickinson, Judith L. Rapoport Source Type: research

Every-day coincidences and referential thinking: Differentiating normative experiences from symptoms in psychosis
Coincidence is defined as a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances without apparent causal connection (Oxford). While the experience of coincidence is common in the general population, abnormalities surrounding this phenomenon are also a hallmark feature of psychosis. When faced with a coincidence, patients with schizophrenia may exhibit difficulties with assigning significance or making a determination of causality and as a result, unrelated things may seem meaningfully connected (i.e., referential thinking). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: K. Juston Osborne, Vijay A. Mittal Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Clinical and demographic predictors of continuing remission or relapse following discontinuation of antipsychotic medication after a first episode of psychosis. A systematic review
Clinical guidelines recommend maintenance treatment with antipsychotic medication for one to two years following remission of symptoms after a first episode of psychosis. However, recent research has suggested that this may not be indicated. Consistent predictors of outcome would be beneficial to guide clinicians as to which individuals are likely to have a successful discontinuation. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Meghan Bowtell, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Eoin Killackey, Brian O'Donoghue Source Type: research

Environmental adversities and psychotic symptoms: The impact of timing of trauma, abuse, and neglect
Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Inga Schalinski, Susanne Breinlinger, Vanessa Hirt, Martin H. Teicher, Michael Odenwald, Brigitte Rockstroh Source Type: research

Symptom dimensions and subgroups in childhood-onset schizophrenia
This study investigated symptom dimensions and subgroups in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) cohort and their similarities to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) literature. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kirsten E.S. Craddock, Xueping Zhou, Siyuan Liu, Peter Gochman, Dwight Dickinson, Judith L. Rapoport Source Type: research

Every-day coincidences and referential thinking: Differentiating normative experiences from symptoms in psychosis
Coincidence is defined as a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances without apparent causal connection (Oxford). While the experience of coincidence is common in the general population, abnormalities surrounding this phenomenon are also a hallmark feature of psychosis. When faced with a coincidence, patients with schizophrenia may exhibit difficulties with assigning significance or making a determination of causality and as a result, unrelated things may seem meaningfully connected (i.e., referential thinking). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: K. Juston Osborne, Vijay A. Mittal Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Clinical and demographic predictors of continuing remission or relapse following discontinuation of antipsychotic medication after a first episode of psychosis. A systematic review
Clinical guidelines recommend maintenance treatment with antipsychotic medication for one to two years following remission of symptoms after a first episode of psychosis. However, recent research has suggested that this may not be indicated. Consistent predictors of outcome would be beneficial to guide clinicians as to which individuals are likely to have a successful discontinuation. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Meghan Bowtell, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Eoin Killackey, Brian O'Donoghue Source Type: research

Incidence of child and adolescent mental disorders in children aged 0-17 with familial high risk for severe mental illness - A Danish register study
Offspring of parents with severe mental illness (SMI: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) have an increased risk of developing mental disorder themselves. In childhood they may have neurodevelopmental delays, cognitive deficits and social adversities. We aimed to investigate if these individuals are more at risk of being diagnosed with a mental disorder during childhood/adolescence in a national sample. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne A.E. Thorup, Thomas Munk Laursen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Anne Ranning, Preben Bo Mortensen, Kerstin J. Plessen, Merete Nordentoft Source Type: research

Differentiating between clinical and behavioral phenotypes in first-episode psychosis during maintenance of visuospatial working memory
We probed the neural basis of working memory in individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and assessed how these neural abnormalities are associated with behavioral performance and/or core to psychosis pathophysiology. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P. Murty, Patricia L. Stan, Jusmita Saifullan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Beatriz Luna Source Type: research

Mismatch negativity: A simple and useful biomarker of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-type glutamate dysfunction in schizophrenia
The diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia (SCZ) in clinical practice has remained largely unchanged since the fortuitous discovery of the antipsychotic effects of chlorpromazine in the 1950s. In contrast, an explosion of research in the last few decades has revealed multiple novel biological mechanisms that may contribute to both psychopathological symptoms and neurocognitive dysfunction in SCZ (Fig. 1). Many of these mechanisms converge on brain glutamatergic pathways and, in particular, impaired function of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (Howes et al., 2015; Hu et al., 2015; Kantrowitz and Javitt, 2012;...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael Avissar, Daniel Javitt Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

Incidence of child and adolescent mental disorders in children aged 0-17 with familial high risk for severe mental illness - A Danish register study
Offspring of parents with severe mental illness (SMI: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) have an increased risk of developing mental disorder themselves. In childhood they may have neurodevelopmental delays, cognitive deficits and social adversities. We aimed to investigate if these individuals are more at risk of being diagnosed with a mental disorder during childhood/adolescence in a national sample. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne A.E. Thorup, Thomas Munk Laursen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Anne Ranning, Preben Bo Mortensen, Kerstin J. Plessen, Merete Nordentoft Source Type: research

Differentiating between clinical and behavioral phenotypes in first-episode psychosis during maintenance of visuospatial working memory
We probed the neural basis of working memory in individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and assessed how these neural abnormalities are associated with behavioral performance and/or core to psychosis pathophysiology. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P. Murty, Patricia L. Stan, Jusmita Saifullan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Beatriz Luna Source Type: research

Cognitive therapy of psychosis: Research and implementation
Research into cognitive therapy for psychosis has developed and evolved in the past three decades to cover most symptoms and phases of psychosis and a range of different cultures. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is a time-sensitive, structured, present-oriented psychotherapy directed toward solving current problems and teaching clients skills to modify dysfunctional thinking and behaviour. It has been adapted for psychotic symptoms, e.g. paranoia, negative symptoms and hallucinations, and stages of the disorder, e.g. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David Kingdon, Douglas Turkington Source Type: research

Impaired mismatch negativity to frequency deviants in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis, and preliminary evidence for further impairment with transition to psychosis
This study aimed to test whether individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show pre-morbid impairments in fMMN, and if so, whether fMMN continues to deteriorate with transition to psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Suzie Lavoie, Bradley N. Jack, Oren Griffiths, Ayaka Ando, Paul Amminger, Anthony Couroupis, Aidan Jago, Connie Markulev, Patrick D. McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, Andrea Polari, Hok Pan Yuen, Thomas J. Whitford Source Type: research

“Ethnic density of neighbourhood at age 15 modifies the risk for psychosis”. So what?
An interesting paper in this journal reports that the risk for teenagers from ethnic minority groups to develop non-affective psychotic disorder in adult life depends on the size of their group in their neighbourhood of residence (Schofield et al., 2017a). According to a second paper from the same group of authors, this effect is prominent in the second generation and weak or absent in the first generation (Schofield et al., 2017b). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jean-Paul Selten, Fabian Termorshuizen Source Type: research

The use of polygenic risk scores to identify phenotypes associated with genetic risk of schizophrenia: Systematic review
Studying the phenotypic manifestations of increased genetic liability for schizophrenia can increase our understanding of this disorder. Specifically, information from alleles identified in genome-wide association studies can be collapsed into a polygenic risk score (PRS) to explore how genetic risk is manifest within different samples. In this systematic review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of studies examining associations between schizophrenia PRS (SZ-PRS) and several phenotypic measures. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sumit Mistry, Judith R. Harrison, Daniel J. Smith, Valentina Escott-Price, Stanley Zammit Source Type: research

Increase in serum HDL level is associated with less negative symptoms after one year of antipsychotic treatment in first-episode psychosis
We examined whether changes in serum lipids are associated with alleviation of psychosis symptoms after one year of antipsychotic drug treatment in a cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Priyanthi B. Gjerde, Ingrid Dieset, Carmen Simonsen, Eva Z. Hoseth, Trude Iversen, Trine V. Lagerberg, Siv Hege Lyngstad, Ragni H. M ørch, Silje Skrede, Ole A. Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Vidar M. Steen Source Type: research

Discontinuing antipsychotic treatment after a first-episode of psychosis: Who, when and how?
Deciding how long antipsychotic treatment should be maintained in patients who respond favourably after a single psychotic episode remains a controversial and unresolved matter, of great clinical importance. On the one hand, it could be argued that, given the very high rates of relapse after antipsychotic discontinuation and the serious consequences associated with illness recurrence, indefinite maintenance treatment should be advised for all patients who have benefitted from treatment and where side-effects are not severe. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robin Emsley Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

Clinical insights: Addressing command hallucinations
Dugre et al. (2017) highlight the clinically relevant problem of command hallucinations (CH). Clinicians may be asked to assess risk posed by CH, a symptom which may prompt substantial concern. In this context, it is important to consider that both under-reaction and over-reaction to CH can result in negative consequences, and to incorporate an evidence-based understanding of how CH may impact risk of engaging in harmful behavior. Methodological flaws weaken existing research examining the association between CH and risk of harm (e.g., Braham et al., 2004), including often small sample sizes. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michelle L. West Source Type: research

Who needs antipsychotic maintenance treatment and who does not? Our need to profile and personalize the treatment of first episode psychosis
Recently, a number of studies were published showing that not all patients who are in remission after having experienced a first episode of psychosis do need maintenance antipsychotic treatment (Wunderink et al., 2013; Gaebel et al., 2016). These studies point to growing awareness of the potential drawbacks of the use of antipsychotic drugs, particularly on the long term (Murray et al., 2016). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lex Wunderink Source Type: research

Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during affective Go/NoGo in violent schizophrenia patients: An fMRI study
We investigated the influence of anger processing on cognitive control in male schizophrenia patients presenting violent behaviors. We recruited 23 patients without and 24 patients with (SCZ+V) a history of violent behaviors, as well as 22 healthy non-violent men. Participants were administered an affective (angry-neutral faces) Go/NoGo task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found a reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in SCZ+V patients specifically when inhibiting a response while viewing angry faces. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andr às Tikàsz, Stéphane Potvin, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Olivier Lipp, Sheilagh Hodgins, Pierre Lalonde, Ovidiu Lungu, Alexandre Dumais Source Type: research

The use of polygenic risk scores to identify phenotypes associated with genetic risk of schizophrenia: Systematic review
Studying the phenotypic manifestations of increased genetic liability for schizophrenia can increase our understanding of this disorder. Specifically, information from alleles identified in genome-wide association studies can be collapsed into a polygenic risk score (PRS) to explore how genetic risk is manifest within different samples. In this systematic review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of studies examining associations between schizophrenia PRS (SZ-PRS) and several phenotypic measures. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sumit Mistry, Judith R. Harrison, Daniel J. Smith, Valentina Escott-Price, Stanley Zammit Source Type: research

Increase in serum HDL level is associated with less negative symptoms after one year of antipsychotic treatment in first-episode psychosis
We examined whether changes in serum lipids are associated with alleviation of psychosis symptoms after one year of antipsychotic drug treatment in a cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Priyanthi B. Gjerde, Ingrid Dieset, Carmen Simonsen, Eva Z. Hoseth, Trude Iversen, Trine V. Lagerberg, Siv Hege Lyngstad, Ragni H. M ørch, Silje Skrede, Ole A. Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Vidar M. Steen Source Type: research

Discontinuing antipsychotic treatment after a first-episode of psychosis: Who, when and how?
Deciding how long antipsychotic treatment should be maintained in patients who respond favourably after a single psychotic episode remains a controversial and unresolved matter, of great clinical importance. On the one hand, it could be argued that, given the very high rates of relapse after antipsychotic discontinuation and the serious consequences associated with illness recurrence, indefinite maintenance treatment should be advised for all patients who have benefitted from treatment and where side-effects are not severe. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robin Emsley Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

Clinical insights: Addressing command hallucinations
Dugre et al. (2017) highlight the clinically relevant problem of command hallucinations (CH). Clinicians may be asked to assess risk posed by CH, a symptom which may prompt substantial concern. In this context, it is important to consider that both under-reaction and over-reaction to CH can result in negative consequences, and to incorporate an evidence-based understanding of how CH may impact risk of engaging in harmful behavior. Methodological flaws weaken existing research examining the association between CH and risk of harm (e.g., Braham et al., 2004), including often small sample sizes. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michelle L. West Source Type: research

Who needs antipsychotic maintenance treatment and who does not? Our need to profile and personalize the treatment of first episode psychosis
Recently, a number of studies were published showing that not all patients who are in remission after having experienced a first episode of psychosis do need maintenance antipsychotic treatment (Wunderink et al., 2013; Gaebel et al., 2016). These studies point to growing awareness of the potential drawbacks of the use of antipsychotic drugs, particularly on the long term (Murray et al., 2016). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lex Wunderink Source Type: research

Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during affective Go/NoGo in violent schizophrenia patients: An fMRI study
We investigated the influence of anger processing on cognitive control in male schizophrenia patients presenting violent behaviors. We recruited 23 patients without and 24 patients with (SCZ+V) a history of violent behaviors, as well as 22 healthy non-violent men. Participants were administered an affective (angry-neutral faces) Go/NoGo task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found a reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in SCZ+V patients specifically when inhibiting a response while viewing angry faces. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andr às Tikàsz, Stéphane Potvin, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Olivier Lipp, Sheilagh Hodgins, Pierre Lalonde, Ovidiu Lungu, Alexandre Dumais Source Type: research

Overlooked fatal infectious diseases after long-term antipsychotic use in patients with psychiatric illness
There is mounting evidence that indicates a relation between antipsychotic medication use and sudden cardiac deaths (Ray et al., 2009; Ray et al., 2001). Antipsychotic medications have a high affinity for the cardiac potassium channel which can lead to fatal electrical activity and cause severe arrhythmia such as long QT syndrome (Teodorescu et al., 2013). Additionally, there are increasing reports which suggest a correlation between antipsychotic medications and inflammatory activity (Bedrossian et al., 2016; Tonhajzerova et al., 2015). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Liliang Li, Xing Ye, Ziqin Zhao, Pan Gao, Yan Jiang Source Type: research

Cognitive remediation can improve negative symptoms and social functioning in first-episode schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial
Meta-analyses have reported that the effects of cognitive remediation might go beyond improvement in cognition to include unexpected benefits for schizophrenia patients such as negative symptom reduction and improvements in functioning. In addition, some evidence indicated that these potentially beneficial effects are also present in the initial course of schizophrenia, but work in this area is still developing. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joseph Ventura, Kenneth L. Subotnik, Denise Gretchen-Doorly, Laurie Casaus, Michael Boucher, Alice Medalia, Morris D. Bell, Gerhard S. Hellemann, Keith H. Nuechterlein Source Type: research

Aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia: A case report of twins
Indisputably, tardive dyskinesia (TD) is the most important and latent irreversible side effect of antipsychotic treatment (Bergman et al., 2017). Muller et al. reports that having a family history of TD may contribute to an individual developing TD, but found no correlation between family history of schizophrenia and TD (Muller et al., 2001). The risk for developing aripiprazole-induced TD remains unknown. To date, only a small fraction of TD has been reportedly caused by aripiprazole, and to our knowledge, this is the first case report of twin schizophrenic patients with TD. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shenglin She, Qijie Kuang, Yingjun Zheng Source Type: research

Overlooked fatal infectious diseases after long-term antipsychotic use in patients with psychiatric illness
There is mounting evidence that indicates a relation between antipsychotic medication use and sudden cardiac deaths (Ray et al., 2009; Ray et al., 2001). Antipsychotic medications have a high affinity for the cardiac potassium channel which can lead to fatal electrical activity and cause severe arrhythmia such as long QT syndrome (Teodorescu et al., 2013). Additionally, there are increasing reports which suggest a correlation between antipsychotic medications and inflammatory activity (Bedrossian et al., 2016; Tonhajzerova et al., 2015). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Liliang Li, Xing Ye, Ziqin Zhao, Pan Gao, Yan Jiang Source Type: research

Cognitive remediation can improve negative symptoms and social functioning in first-episode schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial
Meta-analyses have reported that the effects of cognitive remediation might go beyond improvement in cognition to include unexpected benefits for schizophrenia patients such as negative symptom reduction and improvements in functioning. In addition, some evidence indicated that these potentially beneficial effects are also present in the initial course of schizophrenia, but work in this area is still developing. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joseph Ventura, Kenneth L. Subotnik, Denise Gretchen-Doorly, Laurie Casaus, Michael Boucher, Gerhard S. Hellemann, Keith H. Nuechterlein Source Type: research

Aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia: A case report of twins
Indisputably, tardive dyskinesia (TD) is the most important and latent irreversible side effect of antipsychotic treatment (Bergman et al., 2017). Muller et al. reports that having a family history of TD may contribute to an individual developing TD, but found no correlation between family history of schizophrenia and TD (Muller et al., 2001). The risk for developing aripiprazole-induced TD remains unknown. To date, only a small fraction of TD has been reportedly caused by aripiprazole, and to our knowledge, this is the first case report of twin schizophrenic patients with TD. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shenglin She, Qijie Kuang, Yingjun Zheng Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of adult height and birth length in schizophrenia
As a group, people with schizophrenia have a number of subtle anatomical abnormalities as well as physiological abnormalities that precede antipsychotic treatment. Some studies have also found shorter birth length or shorter adult height in people with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of birth length and adult height in schizophrenia, following PRISMA guidelines (Prospero Registration # CRD42016043718). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keely Latham, Brian Kirkpatrick Source Type: research

Theory of mind impairment and its clinical correlates in patients with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder
Although Theory of Mind (ToM) impairment has been observed in patients with a wide range of mental disorders, the similarity and uniqueness of these deficits across diagnostic groups has not been thoroughly investigated. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yan-yu Wang, Yi Wang, Ying-min Zou, Ke Ni, Xue Tian, Hong-wei Sun, Simon S.Y. Lui, Eric F.C. Cheung, John Suckling, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of adult height and birth length in schizophrenia
As a group, people with schizophrenia have a number of subtle anatomical abnormalities as well as physiological abnormalities that precede antipsychotic treatment. Some studies have also found shorter birth length or shorter adult height in people with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of birth length and adult height in schizophrenia, following PRISMA guidelines (Prospero Registration # CRD42016043718). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keely Latham, Brian Kirkpatrick Source Type: research

Theory of mind impairment and its clinical correlates in patients with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder
Although Theory of Mind (ToM) impairment has been observed in patients with a wide range of mental disorders, the similarity and uniqueness of these deficits across diagnostic groups has not been thoroughly investigated. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yan-yu Wang, Yi Wang, Ying-min Zou, Ke Ni, Xue Tian, Hong-wei Sun, Simon S.Y. Lui, Eric F.C. Cheung, John Suckling, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Increased resting-state global functional connectivity density of default mode network in schizophrenia subjects treated with electroconvulsive therapy
Modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) has been widely applied to help treat schizophrenia patients who are treatment-resistant to pharmaceutical therapy. Although the technique is increasingly prevalent, the underlying neural mechanisms have not been well clarified. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the alteration of global functional connectivity density (gFCD) in schizophrenia patients undergoing MECT using resting state fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Two groups of schizophrenia inpatients were recruited. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Huan Huang, Yuchao Jiang, Mengqing Xia, Yingying Tang, Tianhong Zhang, Huiru Cui, Junjie Wang, Yu Li, Lihua Xu, Adrian Curtin, Jianhua Sheng, Yuping Jia, Dezhong Yao, Chunbo Li, Cheng Luo, Jijun Wang Source Type: research