Ideology and Scientific Progress: First-Rank Symptoms
This is a psychopathology story of some importance. Kurt Schneider described symptoms associated with schizophrenia and referred to a small group as first rank based on a unique relationship to schizophrenia.1 Kendler2 reviews the history of concept development leading to Schneider ’s influential formulation. This psychopathology was influential in English-speaking psychiatry made accessible in Fish’s little blue book3 and Mellor ’s description of 11 first-rank symptoms (FRS).4 FRS were central to Wing ’s concept of nuclear schizophrenia and the algorithm used in Catego5 and Langfeldt ’s disti...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Estimating Exposome Score for Schizophrenia Using Predictive Modeling Approach in Two Independent Samples: The Results From the EUGEI Study
AbstractExposures constitute a dense network of the environment: exposome. Here, we argue for embracing the exposome paradigm to investigate the sum of nongenetic “risk” and show how predictive modeling approaches can be used to construct an exposome score (ES; an aggregated score of exposures) for schizophrenia. The training dataset consisted of patients with schizophrenia and controls, whereas the independent validation dataset consisted of patients, th eir unaffected siblings, and controls. Binary exposures were cannabis use, hearing impairment, winter birth, bullying, and emotional, physical, and sexual abu...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - July 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Hyperfocusing Hypothesis: A New Account of Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia
AbstractImpairments in basic cognitive processes such as attention and working memory are commonly observed in people with schizophrenia and are predictive of long-term outcome. In this review, we describe a new theory —thehyperfocusing hypothesis—which provides a unified account of many aspects of impaired cognition in schizophrenia. This hypothesis proposes that schizophrenia involves an abnormally narrow but intense focusing of processing resources. This hyperfocusing impairs the ability of people with schizophrenia to distribute attent ion among multiple locations, decreases the number of representations th...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - July 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Prehistory of Schneider ’s First-Rank Symptoms: Texts From 1810 to 1932
Conclusions and RelevanceFrom the beginning of Western descriptive psychopathology in the early 19th century, symptoms have been observed later described as first-rank by Schneider. A term “delusion of unseen agency”—closely related to Schneider’s first-rank concept—was popular in the second half of the 19th century and described in publications as prominent as the Encyclopedia Britannica and New England Journal of Medicine. The descriptions of these specific symptoms, with substantial continuity, over more than 2 centuries and many countries, suggest that an understanding of their etiology wo...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Is Attentional Filtering Impaired in Schizophrenia?
AbstractRecent evidence suggests that schizophrenia involveshyperfocusing, an unusually narrow but intense focusing of processing resources. This appears to contradict the classic idea that schizophrenia involves an impairment in the ability to focus on relevant information and filter irrelevant information. Here, we review one set of studies suggesting that attentional filtering is impaired in people with schizophrenia and another set of studies suggesting that attentional filtering is unimpaired or even enhanced in these individuals. Considerable evidence supports both conclusions, and we propose 3 potential ways of reco...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia
ECTschizophreniatreatment resistant (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Modulation of Cerebellar Activity in Schizophrenia: Is It the Time for Clinical Trials?
Theories involving the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have a long tradition, rising and falling throughout the history of psychiatry. Now, preliminary studies suggest the modulation of cerebellar activity could actually relieve symptoms of schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - April 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Auditory Hallucinations: Does a Continuum of Severity Entail Continuity in Mechanism?
The continuum view holds that psychotic symptoms vary along dimensions such as distress, vividness, and duration in clinical and nonclinical groups. At one extreme, symptoms are so severe and disabling that they require treatment and sometimes hospitalization. At the other end of the spectrum, individuals display similar symptoms without significant distress, disability, or dysfunction. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - February 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Aberrant Frontostriatal Connectivity in Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
AbstractNegative symptoms represent a distinct component of psychopathology in schizophrenia (SCZ) and are a stable construct over time. Although impaired frontostriatal connectivity has been frequently described in SCZ, its link with negative symptoms has not been carefully studied. We tested the hypothesis that frontostriatal connectivity at rest may be associated with the severity of negative symptoms in SCZ. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) data from 95 mostly medicated patients with SCZ and 139 healthy controls (HCs) were acquired. Negative symptoms were assessed using the Brief Negative Symptom Scale. The...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - December 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anomalous Bodily Maps of Emotions in Schizophrenia
ConclusionsAnomalous and undifferentiated mapping of embodied emotions in SZ could lead to deficits in linking bodily sensations to conceptual categories of emotions. Disrupted emotional embodiment could also contribute to poor social functioning. Abnormal bodily sensations of emotions might therefore be a promising target for future psychosocial interventions. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - December 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reconsidering the Latent Structure of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Review of Evidence Supporting the 5 Consensus Domains
Negative symptoms have featured prominently as a core symptom of schizophrenia (SZ) since the earliest descriptions of the disorder.1,2 They predict a range of poor clinical outcomes, such as reduced rates of recovery,3 poor functional outcome,4 lower subjective well-being,5 and liability for the onset of a psychotic disorder.6 Unfortunately, interventions targeting negative symptoms have produced minimal benefits and no drug has received US Food and Drug Administration approval for an indication of negative symptoms.7 (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - December 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adolescent Paranoia: Prevalence, Structure, and Causal Mechanisms
ConclusionsThere is a continuum of paranoia in adolescence and occasional suspicions are common at this age. Anxiety and depression are closely connected with paranoia and may causally contribute to its development. Paranoia may negatively impact adolescent peer relationships. The clinical significance of paranoia in adolescents accessing mental health services must now be established. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - December 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Factor Analysis of Negative Symptom Items in the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes
ConclusionsSimilar to factor solutions identified in adults diagnosed with psychotic disorders, results indicated that the SIPS negative symptom subscale is not a unidimensional construct. Rather, the SIPS negative subscale has 2 distinct factors that have different associations with clinical outcome and should be interpreted independently. Results have significant relevance for informing the valid assessment and conceptual interpretation of early clinical phenomenology in the psychosis prodrome. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - December 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Auditory and Visual Oddball Stimulus Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia and the Psychosis Risk Syndrome: Forecasting Psychosis Risk With P300
AbstractIdentification of neurophysiological abnormalities associated with schizophrenia that predate and predict psychosis onset may improve clinical prediction in the psychosis risk syndrome (PRS) and help elucidate the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Amplitude reduction of the P300 event-related potential component reflects attention-mediated processing deficits and is among the most replicated biological findings in schizophrenia, making it a candidate biomarker of psychosis risk. The relative extent to which deficits in P300 amplitudes elicited by auditory and visual oddball stimuli precede psychosis onset during the P...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - December 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Identification of Common Thalamocortical Dysconnectivity in Four Major Psychiatric Disorders
ConclusionOur findings provide FC evidence that supports the common network hypothesis by identifying common thalamocortical dysconnectivities across 4 major psychiatric disorders. The network analysis also supports the cardinal role of salience network abnormalities in major psychiatric disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - December 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reassessing “Praecox Feeling” in Diagnostic Decision Making in Schizophrenia: A Critical Review
AbstractThe “Praecox Feeling” (PF) is a classical concept referring to a characteristic feeling of bizarreness experienced by a psychiatrist while encountering a person with schizophrenia. Although the PF used to be considered a core symptom of the schizophrenia spectrum, it fell into disuse since the sprea d of operationalized diagnostic methods (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders/International Classification of Diseases systems). In contemporary research on schizophrenia, it remains largely unaddressed. This critical review investigates the evolution of the PF in historical and contemporary...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - November 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Stress Exposure in Dopamine D4 Receptor Knockout Mice Induces Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors via Disruption of GABAergic Transmission
AbstractA combination of genetic and environmental risk factors has been considered as the pathogenic cause for mental disorders including schizophrenia. Here, we sought to find out whether the abnormality of the dopamine system, coupled with the exposure to modest stress, is sufficient to trigger the manifestation of schizophrenia-like behaviors. We found that exposing dopamine D4 receptor knockout (D4KO) mice with 1-week restraint stress (2 h/d) induced significant deficits in sensorimotor gating, cognitive processes, social engagement, as well as the elevated exploratory behaviors, which are reminiscent to schizophrenia...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - November 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Schizophrenia is Associated With an Aberrant Immune Response to Epstein –Barr Virus
ConclusionsIndividuals with schizophrenia have increased levels of antibodies to some but not all EBV proteins indicating an aberrant response to EBV infection. This aberrant response may contribute to the immunopathology of schizophrenia and related disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - November 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Meta-analysis of Immune Parameters, Variability, and Assessment of Modal Distribution in Psychosis and Test of the Immune Subgroup Hypothesis
AbstractImmune parameters are elevated in psychosis, but it is unclear whether alterations are homogenous across patients or heterogeneity exists, consistent with the hypothesis that immune alterations are specific to a subgroup of patients. To address this, we examine whether antipsychotic-na ïve first-episode psychosis patients exhibit greater variability in blood cytokines, C-reactive protein, and white cell counts compared with controls, and if group mean differences persist after adjusting for skewed data and potential confounds. Databases were searched for studies reporting levels of peripheral immune parameters...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - November 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Everything at Once, or Nothing at All
I often recall feeling like a stranger in every situation albeit social or family oriented. My upbringing was not special nor deprived, a loving family and parents who worked hard to provide financial, emotional, and academic support. Yet, as a minority individual who also stood out for being profoundly underweight, I struggled with low self-esteem and apathy from an early age which followed into adulthood. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - November 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Towards a Unifying Cognitive, Neurophysiological, and Computational Neuroscience Account of Schizophrenia
AbstractPsychotic experiences may be understood as altered information processing due to aberrant neural computations. A prominent example of such neural computations is the computation of prediction errors (PEs), which signal the difference between expected and experienced events. Among other areas showing PE coding, hippocampal-prefrontal-striatal neurocircuits play a prominent role in information processing. Dysregulation of dopaminergic signaling, often secondary to psychosocial stress, is thought to interfere with the processing of biologically important events (such as reward prediction errors) and result in the aber...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - November 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Self-defining Memories Predict Engagement in Structured Activity in First Episode Psychosis, Independent of Neurocognition and Metacognition
ConclusionThis is the first study to assess SDMs in FEP and to explore the important role of SDMs on clinical outcomes, compared to healthy controls. This study suggests that elaborating on specific SDMs is a valid therapeutic target and may be considered a tool to improve daily functioning in FEP. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - November 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Paracingulate Sulcus Morphology and Hallucinations in Clinical and Nonclinical Groups
AbstractHallucinations are a characteristic symptom of psychotic mental health conditions that are also experienced by many individuals without a clinical diagnosis. Hallucinations in schizophrenia have been linked to differences in the length of the paracingulate sulcus (PCS), a structure in the medial prefrontal cortex which has previously been associated with the ability to differentiate perceived and imagined information. We investigated whether this putative morphological basis for hallucinations extends to individuals without a clinical diagnosis, by examining whether nonclinical individuals with hallucinations have ...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Global Functioning: Social and Role Scales —Further Validation in a Large Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis
ConclusionsThe GF scales can be administered in a large-scale multi-site study with excellent inter-rater reliability and accuracy. CHR individuals showed social and role functioning impairments over time that were not confounded by positive symptom severity levels. The results of this study demonstrate that social decline is a particularly effective predictor of conversion outcome. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Incidence of Nonaffective, Nonorganic Psychotic Disorders in Older People: A Population-based Cohort Study of 3 Million People in Sweden
We examined VLOSLP incidence by age, sex, region of origin, income, partner or child death, birth period, and sensory impairments. ResultsWe identified 14 977 cases and an overall incidence of 37.7 per 100 000 person-years at-risk (95% CI = 37.1 –38.3), with evidence that rates increased more sharply with age for women (likelihood ratio test: χ2(6) = 31.56,P
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Longitudinal Cognitive Performance in Individuals at Ultrahigh Risk for Psychosis: A 10-year Follow-up
AbstractIt remains unclear whether the onset of psychosis is associated with deterioration in cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to examine the course of cognitive performance in an ultrahigh risk (UHR) cohort, and whether change in cognition is associated with transition to psychosis and change in functioning. Consecutive admissions to Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) Clinic between May 1994 and July 2000 who had completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment at baseline and follow-up were eligible (N = 80). Follow-up ranged from 7.3 to 13.4 years (M = 10.4 years;SD = 1.5). In the whole sampl...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Genetic Variation in the Psychiatric Risk Gene CACNA1C Modulates Reversal Learning Across Species
AbstractGenetic variation inCACNA1C, which encodes the alpha-1 subunit of Cav1.2 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), has been strongly linked to risk for psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. How genetic variation inCACNA1C contributes to risk for these disorders is however not fully known. Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with impairments in reversal learning (RL), which may contribute to symptoms seen in these conditions. We used a translational RL paradigm to investigate whether genetic variation inCACNA1C affects RL in both humans and transgenic rats. Assoc...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Single-Session Mobile-Augmented Intervention in Serious Mental Illness: A Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial
AbstractPsychosocial interventions for serious mental illness are resource intensive and poorly accessible. Brief interventions (eg, single session) that are augmented by follow-on automated mobile health intervention may expand treatment access. This was a randomized single-blind controlled trial with 255 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions: CBT2go, which combined one individual session of cognitive behavioral therapy with automated thought challenging/adaptive behavior delivered through mobile devices; Self-Monitoring (SM), which combined s...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Polygenic Risk Score for Schizophrenia and Face-Processing Network in Young Adulthood
AbstractDevelopment of schizophrenia relates to both genetic and environmental factors. Functional deficits in many cognitive domains, including the ability to communicate in social interactions and impaired recognition of facial expressions, are common for patients with schizophrenia and might also be present in individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia. Here we explore whether an individual ’s polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia is associated with the degree of interregional similarities in blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal and gray matter volume of the face-processing network and whet...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Association Study Detected Novel Susceptibility Genes for Schizophrenia and Shared Trans-Populations/Diseases Genetic Effect
In conclusion, (a) Fifteen novel loci are possible susceptibility genes for SCZ and (b) SCZ “risk” effect is shared with other psychiatric disorders even across populations. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Altered Global Signal Topography and Its Different Regional Localization in Motor Cortex and Hippocampus in Mania and Depression
AbstractBipolar disorder (BD) is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by dominant symptom swings across different phases (manic, depressive, and euthymic). Different symptoms in BD such as abnormal episodic memory recall and psychomotor activity have been related to alterations in different regions, ie, hippocampus and motor cortex. How the abnormal regional distribution of neuronal activity relates to specific symptoms remains unclear, however. One possible neuronal mechanism of the relationship is the alteration of the global distribution of neuronal activity manifested in specific local regions; this can be meas...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - October 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Network Analysis Reveals the Latent Structure of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia
AbstractPrior studies using exploratory factor analysis provide evidence that negative symptoms are best conceptualized as 2 dimensions reflecting diminished motivation and expression. However, the 2-dimensional model has yet to be evaluated using more complex mathematical techniques capable of testing structure. In the current study, network analysis was applied to evaluate the latent structure of negative symptoms using a community-detection algorithm. Two studies were conducted that included outpatients with schizophrenia (SZ; Study 1:n = 201; Study 2:n = 912) who were rated on the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). I...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Working Memory Impairment Across Psychotic disorders
ConclusionsThe patient groups generally performed in a similarly impaired fashion across tasks, suggesting that WM impairment and attention lapsing are general features of psychotic disorders. Capacity estimates from the Change Localization and Detection tasks were related to functional capacity and outcome, suggesting that these methods may be useful in a clinical context. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Effect of Reducing the “Jumping to Conclusions” Bias on Treatment Decision-Making Capacity in Psychosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Mediation Analysis
This study sought to establish whether reducing the extent to which this group form conclusions based on limited evidence, also known as the “jumping-to-conclusions” (JTC) bias, could improve capacity.MethodsIn a randomized controlled open trial, 37 patients aged 16 –65 years diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a single-session intervention designed to reduce the JTC bias (MCT-JTC; adapted from Metacognitive Training [MCT]) or an attention control (AC) condition designed to control for therapist attention, d uration, modality, and face validity. Primary ...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Healthy Adolescent Performance With Standardized Scoring Tables for the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery: A Multisite Study
ConclusionsWith the results from this study, we have developed an accessible standardized data set of healthy adolescent test performance for the MCCB. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Attenuated Post-Movement Beta Rebound Associated With Schizotypal Features in Healthy People
ConclusionThese findings indicate a continuum of neural deficit between schizotypy and schizophrenia, with diminution of PMBR, previously reported in schizophrenia, also measurable in individuals with schizotypal features, particularly disorganization and impaired interpersonal relations. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Impaired Right Temporoparietal Junction –Hippocampus Connectivity in Schizophrenia and Its Relevance for Generating Representations of Other Minds
AbstractSchizophrenia is associated with impaired and exaggerated Theory of Mind processes, pointing on alterations in generating a representation of another person ’s mind. Despite recent work on healthy subjects suggesting that a coupling between the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) and the hippocampus is relevant for building representations of others’ intentions, the neural basis of related dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia remains unclea r. Therefore, we used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging together with a modified prisoner’s dilemma game to test the hypotheses, th...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Linking Cortical and Connectional Pathology in Schizophrenia
AbstractSchizophrenia is associated with cortical thickness (CT) deficits and breakdown in white matter microstructure. Whether these pathological processes are related remains unclear. We used multimodal neuroimaging to investigate the relationship between regional cortical thinning and breakdown in adjacent infracortical white matter as a function of age and illness duration. Structural magnetic resonance and diffusion images were acquired in 218 schizophrenia patients and 167 age-matched healthy controls to map CT and fractional anisotropy in regionally adjacent infracortical white matter at various cortical depths. We ...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Altered Brain Activation During Memory Retrieval Precedes and Predicts Conversion to Psychosis in Individuals at Clinical High Risk
In this study, we investigated brain functional alterations during memory processing in a sample of 155 individuals at clinical high risk (including 18 subjects who later converted to full psychosis) and 108 healthy controls drawn from the second phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS-2). All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with a paired-associate memory paradigm at the point of recruitment and were clinically followed up for approximately 2 years. We found that at baseline, subjects at high risk showed significantly higher activation during memory retrieval in the prefr...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Variants Shared Between Smoking Quantity and Schizophrenia on 15q25 Are Associated With CHRNA5 Expression in the Brain
AbstractCigarette smokers with schizophrenia consume more cigarettes than smokers in the general population. Schizophrenia and smoking quantity may have shared genetic liability. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia and smoking quantity have highlighted a biological pleiotropy in which a robust 15q25 locus affects both traits. To identify the genetic variants shared between these traits on 15q25, we used summary statistics from large-scale GWAS meta-analyses of schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2 and smoking quantity assessed by cigarettes smoked per day in the Tobacco and Genetics Co...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Liberal Acceptance Bias, Momentary Aberrant Salience, and Psychosis: An Experimental Experience Sampling Study
This study aimed to investigate the interplay of liberal acceptance (LA) bias, which is a specific type of reasoning bias, and momentary aberrant salience in the development of paranoid and psychotic experiences in daily life in first-episode psychosis patients (FEP), at-risk mental state participants (ARMS), and controls. We used a novel experimental Experience Sampling Methodology (eESM) task for measuring LA bias (ie, decisions based on low probability estimates) and ESM measures of momentary aberrant salience and paranoid and psychotic experiences in 51 FEP, 46 ARMS, and 53 controls. We found evidence that LA bias was ...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Burden for Parents of Patients With Schizophrenia —A Nationwide Comparative Study of Parents of Offspring With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Epilepsy, and Healthy Controls
ConclusionsParents of patients with schizophrenia have a considerably higher risk of psychiatric health care and social welfare benefit receipt than other parents. Psychiatric health care use worsens over time and with increasing disease severity of the offspring. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - September 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Ideal Psychiatry —A Utopia?
(Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - August 31, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Salience –Default Mode Functional Network Connectivity Linked to Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
AbstractSchizophrenia is a complex, debilitating mental disorder characterized by wide-ranging symptoms including delusions, hallucinations (so-called positive symptoms), and impaired motor and speech/language production (so-called negative symptoms). Salience-monitoring theorists propose that abnormal functional communication between the salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) begets positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, yet prior studies have predominately reported links between disrupted SN/DMN functional communication and positive symptoms. It remains unclear whether disrupted SN/DMN functional ...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - August 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in First-Episode Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
AbstractDespite mixed findings, increasing evidence suggests that people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) show increased pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative status. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to conduct a systematic literature search of cross-sectional studies comparing in vivo inflammatory and oxidative blood markers between FEP patients and healthy controls. We analyzed 61 independent samples from 59 publications, including 3002 patients with FEP (ie, patients with FEP, early psychosis, first-episode schizophrenia or early schizophrenia) and 2806 co...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - August 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neutrophil Count Is Associated With Reduced Gray Matter and Enlarged Ventricles in First-Episode Psychosis
AbstractAlthough there is recent evidence that cells from the peripheral immune system can gain access to the central nervous system in certain conditions such as multiple sclerosis, their role has not been assessed in psychosis. Here, we aimed to explore whether blood cell count was associated with brain volume and/or clinical symptomatology. A total of 218 participants (137 first-episode psychosis patients [FEP] and 81 healthy controls [HC]) were included in the study. For each participant, a T1 structural image was acquired, from which brain tissue volumes were calculated. We found that, in FEP, neutrophil count was ass...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - August 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Associations and Heritability of Auditory Encoding, Gray Matter, and Attention in Schizophrenia
ConclusionsPresent findings indicated that the 3 SZ endophenotypes examined are not isolated markers of pathology but instead are connected. The pattern of auditory encoding group differences and the pattern of brain function −structure associations differ as a function of brain region, indicating the need for regional specificity when studying these endophenotypes, and with the presence of left STG function−structure associations in HC and UR but not in SZ perhaps reflecting disease-associated damage to gray matter that disrupts function−structure relationships in SZ. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosis as a Dialectic of Aha- and Anti-Aha-Experiences
(Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - May 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinically Meaningful Gaps Between Clinical Trials and Patient Treatment
In this editorial, we note issues in the psychopharmacological treatment of persons with psychosis, which are usually ignored in regulatory clinical trials and are inadequately addressed in subsequent studies. Virtually all the data to date relate to antipsychotic medications, which have their initiating action at the D2 dopamine receptor. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Corrigendum
“Understanding the Association Between Negative Symptoms and Performance on Effort-Based Decision-Making Tasks: The Importance of Defeatist Performance Beliefs” by L. Felice Reddy et al. Schizophr Bull. 2017; doi:10.1093/schbul/sbx156. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - May 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research