Residential Location and Psychological Distance in Americans ’ Risk Views and Behavioral Intentions Regarding Zika Virus
AbstractTwo 2017 experiments with a U.S. national opportunity sample tested effects of location, psychological distance (PD), and exposure to location ‐related information on Americans’ Zika risk views and behavioral intentions. Location—distance from mosquito transmission of the virus in Florida and Texas; residence within states with 100+ Zika infections; residence within potential mosquito vector ranges—had small, inconsistent effects. Hazard proximity weakly enhanced personal risk judgments and concern about Zika transmission locally. It also increased psychological proximity, and intentions of mosq...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Branden B. Johnson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Salmonellosis from the Consumption of Australian Pork: Minced Meat from Retail to Burgers Prepared and Consumed at Home
AbstractPork burgers could be expected to have an elevated risk of salmonellosis compared to other pork products due to their comminuted nature. A stochastic risk assessment was performed to estimate the risk of salmonellosis from Australian pork burgers and considered risk ‐affecting factors in the pork supply chain from retail to consumption at home. Conditions modeled included prevalence and concentration ofSalmonella in pork mince, time and temperature effects during retail, consumer transport, and domestic storage and the effect of cooking, with the probability of illness from consumption estimated based on these ef...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Phillip M. Gurman, Tom Ross, Andreas Kiermeier Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Frequency of Risk ‐Related News Media Messages in 2016 Coverage of Zika Virus
This study analyzed and described the content of U.S. news media coverage of Zika virus and Zika response during 2016. A random selection of 800 Zika ‐related news stories from 25 print and television news sources was analyzed. The study examined 24 different messages that appeared in news media articles and characterized them using theories of risk perception as messages with characteristics that could increase perception of risk (risk‐eleva ting messages;n = 14), messages that could decrease perception of risk (risk ‐minimizing messages;n = 8), or messages about travel or testing guidance (n = 2). Overall, 96% of n...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tara Kirk Sell, Crystal Watson, Diane Meyer, Marissa Kronk, Sanjana Ravi, Laura E. Pechta, Keri M. Lubell, Dale A. Rose Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

A Probabilistic Transmission Model for the Spread of Extended ‐Spectrum‐β‐Lactamase and AmpC‐β‐Lactamase‐Producing Escherichia Coli in the Broiler Production Chain
The objective of this work is to design a mathematical transmission model describing the effects of vertical and horizontal bacterial transmission in the broiler production chain, from the parent generation to the slaughterhouse level. To achieve this objective, an exi sting transmission model forCampylobacter was adapted for the case ofE. coli. The model keeps track of prevalence among flocks (flock prevalence) and of prevalence among animals within one flock (animal prevalence). Flock and animal prevalences show different dynamics in the model. While flock prevalence increases mainly through horizontal transmission in ha...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carolina Plaza Rodr íguez, Guido Correia Carreira, Annemarie Käsbohrer Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Differences Between Florida and the Rest of the United States in Response to Local Transmission of the Zika Virus: Implications for Future Communication Campaigns
AbstractFor those at risk for Zika virus infection, prevention requires an approach that includes individual, interpersonal, and community ‐level support for behavior change. In August 2016, the announcement of local Zika transmission in Florida provided an opportunity to determine whether Zika‐related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors might be affected differentially in Florida compared to the rest of the nation. From August 8– October 3, 2016, we conducted nationally representative weekly surveys (N = 12,236), oversampling Florida residents, measuring Zika virus news exposure, knowledge about transmission and...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kenneth M. Winneg, Jo Ellen Stryker, Daniel Romer, Kathleen Hall Jamieson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Communicating Zika Risk: Using Metaphor to Increase Perceived Risk Susceptibility
AbstractEffectively communicating the risks associated with emerging zoonotic diseases remains an important challenge. Drawing on research into the psychological effects of metaphoric framing, we explore the conditions under which exposure to the “nation as a body” metaphor influences perceived risk susceptibility, behavioral intentions, and policy support in the context of Zika virus. In a between‐subjects experiment, 354 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions as part of a 2 (severity message: high v s. low) × 2 (U.S. framing: metaphoric vs. literal) design. Results r...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Hang Lu, Jonathon P. Schuldt Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Improving Hurricane Power Outage Prediction Models Through the Inclusion of Local Environmental Factors
AbstractTropical cyclones can significantly damage the electrical power system, so an accurate spatiotemporal forecast of outages prior to landfall can help utilities to optimize the power restoration process. The purpose of this article is to enhance the predictive accuracy of the Spatially Generalized Hurricane Outage Prediction Model (SGHOPM) developed by Guikemaet  al. (2014). In this version of the SGHOPM, we introduce a new two ‐step prediction procedure and increase the number of predictor variables. The first model step predicts whether or not outages will occur in each location and the second step predicts ...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: D. Brent McRoberts, Steven M. Quiring, Seth D. Guikema Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Multivariate Global Sensitivity Analysis Based on Distance Components Decomposition
AbstractIn this article, a new set of multivariate global sensitivity indices based on distance components decomposition is proposed. The proposed sensitivity indices can be considered as an extension of the traditional variance ‐based sensitivity indices and the covariance decomposition‐based sensitivity indices, and they have similar forms. The advantage of the proposed sensitivity indices is that they can measure the effects of an input variable on the whole probability distribution of multivariate model output when the power of distance . When , the proposed sensitivity indices are equivalent to the covariance deco...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sinan Xiao, Zhenzhou Lu, Pan Wang Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Mercury Levels and Risk Implications Through Fish Consumption on the Sinaloa Coasts (Gulf of California, Northwest Mexico)
AbstractFish consumption is the major source of mercury to humans. Fetuses and children are the most sensitive groups of populations to the effects of mercury. Consequently, fish consumption by pregnant women, children, and women of childbearing age is of concern because of the effects of mercury exposure on human health. To assess mercury exposure in a population in northwest Mexico, the allowed daily consumption of fish (which indicates the maximum daily amount of fish that can be consumed without causing adverse noncarcinogenic effects) was calculated for the general population (GP) and fishing ‐related population (FR...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Nydia ‐Yuriana Zamora‐Arellano, Miguel Betancourt‐Lozano, César Ilizaliturri‐Hernández, Jaqueline García‐Hernández, Matín Jara‐Marini, Cristina Chávez‐Sánchez, Jorge Ricardo Ruelas‐Inzunza Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Sequential Refined Partitioning for Probabilistic Dependence Assessment
AbstractModeling dependence probabilistically is crucial for many applications in risk assessment and decision making under uncertainty. Neglecting dependence between multivariate uncertainties can distort model output and prevent a proper understanding of the overall risk. Whenever relevant data for quantifying and modeling dependence between uncertain variables are lacking, expert judgment might be sought to assess a joint distribution. Key challenges for the use of expert judgment for dependence modeling are over ‐ and underspecification. An expert can provide assessments that are infeasible, i.e., not consistent with...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Christoph Werner, Tim Bedford, John Quigley Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Retweeting Risk Communication: The Role of Threat and Efficacy
In this study we add to this growing body of research by identifying message‐level strategies to increase message passing during high‐ambiguity events. In addition, we draw on the extended parallel process model to examine how threat and efficacy information influence the passing of Zika risk messages. In August 2016, we collected 1,409 Twitter messages about Zika sent by U.S. public health agencies’ accounts. Using content analysis methods, we identified intrinsic message features and then analyzed the influence of those features, the account sending the message, the network surrounding the account, and the sali...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sarah C. Vos, Jeannette Sutton, Yue Yu, Scott Leo Renshaw, Michele K. Olson, C. Ben Gibson, Carter T. Butts Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Understanding Fear of Zika: Personal, Interpersonal, and Media Influences
AbstractFear of infectious disease often motivates people to protect themselves. But, it can also produce negative bio ‐social‐psychological effects whose severity is on par with those of the disease. The WHO declaration of Zika as a world health crisis presented an opportunity to study factors that bring about fear. Beginning nine days after the WHO announcement, data were gathered from women aged 18–35 livin g in the southern United States (N = 719). Respondents reported experiencing fear of Zika at levels akin to those reported following other significant crises/disasters (e.g., the terrorist attacks of 9/11)....
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Chun Yang, James Price Dillard, Ruobing Li Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Rethinking Social Amplification of Risk: Social Media and Zika in Three Languages
AbstractUsing the Zika outbreak as a context of inquiry, this study examines how assigning blame on social media relates to the social amplification of risk framework (SARF). Past research has discussed the relationship between the SARF and traditional mass media, but the role of social media platforms in amplification or attenuation of risk perceptions remains understudied. Moreover, the communication and perceptions of Zika ‐related risk are not limited to discussions in English. To capture conversations in languages spoken by affected countries, this study combines data in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. To better u...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Christopher D. Wirz, Michael A. Xenos, Dominique Brossard, Dietram Scheufele, Jennifer H. Chung, Luisa Massarani Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Erratum
Risk Analysis, Volume 38, Issue 12, Page 2738-2739, December 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
Risk Analysis, Volume 38, Issue 12, December 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Introduction to Special Series: Communicating About Zika
Risk Analysis, Volume 38, Issue 12, Page 2504-2506, December 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dominique Brossard, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, William Hallman Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

From the Editors
Risk Analysis, Volume 38, Issue 12, Page 2503-2503, December 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - December 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tony Cox, Karen Lowrie Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Are We Adapting to Floods? Evidence from Global Flooding Fatalities
This article presents one of the first empirical analyses of adaptation to flooding on a global scale. Using a sample of 97 countries between 1985 and 2010, we investigate the extent and pattern of flood adaptation by estimating the effects of a country's climatological risk, recent flood experiences, and socioeconomic characteristics on its flood ‐related fatalities. Our results provide mixed evidence on adaptation: countries facing greater long‐term climatological flooding risks do not necessarily adapt better and suffer fewer fatalities; however, after controlling for the cross‐country heterogeneity, we find that ...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Qing Miao Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

GIS ‐Based Integration of Social Vulnerability and Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment to Advance Emergency Preparedness, Planning, and Response for Severe Nuclear Power Plant Accidents
This article offers a methodology for adapting the concept of social vulnerability, commonly used in natural hazard research, in the context of a severe nuclear power plant accident. The methodology has four steps: (1) calculating a hazard‐independent social vulnerability index for the local population; (2) developing a location‐specific representation of the maximum radiological hazard estimated from current Level 3 PRA, in a geographic information system (GIS) environment; (3) developing a GIS‐based socio‐technical r isk map by combining the social vulnerability index and the location‐specific radiological haza...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Justin Pence, Ian Miller, Tatsuya Sakurahara, James Whitacre, Seyed Reihani, Ernie Kee, Zahra Mohaghegh Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

GIS ‐Based Integration of Social Vulnerability and Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment to Advance Emergency Preparedness, Planning, and Response for Severe Nuclear Power Plant Accidents
This article offers a methodology for adapting the concept of social vulnerability, commonly used in natural hazard research, in the context of a severe nuclear power plant accident. The methodology has four steps: (1) calculating a hazard‐independent social vulnerability index for the local population; (2) developing a location‐specific representation of the maximum radiological hazard estimated from current Level 3 PRA, in a geographic information system (GIS) environment; (3) developing a GIS‐based socio‐technical r isk map by combining the social vulnerability index and the location‐specific radiological haza...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Justin Pence, Ian Miller, Tatsuya Sakurahara, James Whitacre, Seyed Reihani, Ernie Kee, Zahra Mohaghegh Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Interdisciplinary Research as an Iterative Process to Build Disaster Systems Knowledge
This article argues that interdisciplinary disaster research can be successful when it entails an iterative process in which researchers from different disciplines work collaboratively and exert reciprocal influence to generate disaster systems knowledge. Disaster systems knowledge is interdisciplinary and is defined as a comprehensive understanding of the intersections of built, natural, and human environmental factors and their interplay in hazards and disasters. The iterative process can reduce disciplinary biases and privileges by encouraging collaboration among researchers to help ensure disciplinary knowledge complem...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jishnu Subedi, J. Brian Houston, Kathleen Sherman ‐Morris Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Machine Learning Methods as a Tool for Predicting Risk of Illness Applying Next ‐Generation Sequencing Data
AbstractNext ‐generation sequencing (NGS) data present an untapped potential to improve microbial risk assessment (MRA) through increased specificity and redefinition of the hazard. Most of the MRA models do not account for differences in survivability and virulence among strains. The potential of machine lear ning algorithms for predicting the risk/health burden at the population level while inputting large and complex NGS data was explored withListeria monocytogenes as a case study. Listeria data consisted of a percentage similarity matrix from genome assemblies of 38 and 207 strains of clinical and food origin, respec...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Patrick Murigu Kamau Njage, Clementine Henri, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Michel ‐Yves Mistou, Rene S. Hendriksen, Tine Hald Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Machine Learning Methods as a Tool for Predicting Risk of Illness Applying Next ‐Generation Sequencing Data
AbstractNext ‐generation sequencing (NGS) data present an untapped potential to improve microbial risk assessment (MRA) through increased specificity and redefinition of the hazard. Most of the MRA models do not account for differences in survivability and virulence among strains. The potential of machine lear ning algorithms for predicting the risk/health burden at the population level while inputting large and complex NGS data was explored withListeria monocytogenes as a case study. Listeria data consisted of a percentage similarity matrix from genome assemblies of 38 and 207 strains of clinical and food origin, respec...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Patrick Murigu Kamau Njage, Clementine Henri, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Michel ‐Yves Mistou, Rene S. Hendriksen, Tine Hald Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Flood Risk Perceptions and Insurance Choice: Do Decisions in the Floodplain Reflect Overoptimism?
AbstractIn the presence of rare disasters, risk perceptions may not always align with actual risks. These perceptions can nevertheless influence an individual's willingness to mitigate risks through activities such as purchasing flood insurance. In a survey of Maryland floodplain residents, we find that stated risk perceptions predict voluntary flood insurance take ‐up, while perceptions themselves varied widely among surveyed residents, owing in large part to differences in past flood experience. We use a formal test for overoptimism in risk perceptions and find that, on aggregate, floodplain residents are overly optimi...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 20, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Andrew Royal, Margaret Walls Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Toward an Epidemiology of Safety and Security Risks: An Organizational Vulnerability Assessment in International Airports
AbstractInternational airports are complex sociotechnical systems that have an intrinsic potential to develop safety and security disruptions. In the absence of appropriate defenses, and when the potential for disruption is neglected, organizational crises can occur and jeopardize aviation services. This investigation examines the ways in which modern international airports can be “authors of their own misfortune” by adopting practices, attitudes, and behaviors that could increase their overall level of vulnerability. A sociotechnical perspective, the macroergonomic approach, is applied in this research to dete...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ivano Bongiovanni, Cameron Newton Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Addressing Climate Change as an Emerging Risk to Infrastructure Systems
AbstractThe consequences that climate change could have on infrastructure systems are potentially severe but highly uncertain. This should make risk analysis a natural framework for climate adaptation in infrastructure systems. However, many aspects of climate change, such as weak background knowledge and societal controversy, make it an emerging risk where traditional approaches for risk assessment and management cannot be confidently employed. A number of research developments aimed at addressing these issues have emerged in recent years, such as the development of probabilistic climate projections, climate services, and...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Julie Shortridge, Janey Smith Camp Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Toward an Epidemiology of Safety and Security Risks: An Organizational Vulnerability Assessment in International Airports
AbstractInternational airports are complex sociotechnical systems that have an intrinsic potential to develop safety and security disruptions. In the absence of appropriate defenses, and when the potential for disruption is neglected, organizational crises can occur and jeopardize aviation services. This investigation examines the ways in which modern international airports can be “authors of their own misfortune” by adopting practices, attitudes, and behaviors that could increase their overall level of vulnerability. A sociotechnical perspective, the macroergonomic approach, is applied in this research to dete...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ivano Bongiovanni, Cameron Newton Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Addressing Climate Change as an Emerging Risk to Infrastructure Systems
AbstractThe consequences that climate change could have on infrastructure systems are potentially severe but highly uncertain. This should make risk analysis a natural framework for climate adaptation in infrastructure systems. However, many aspects of climate change, such as weak background knowledge and societal controversy, make it an emerging risk where traditional approaches for risk assessment and management cannot be confidently employed. A number of research developments aimed at addressing these issues have emerged in recent years, such as the development of probabilistic climate projections, climate services, and...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Julie Shortridge, Janey Smith Camp Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Rethinking Risk Assessment for Public Utility Safety Regulation
AbstractTo aid in their safety oversight of large ‐scale, potentially dangerous energy and water infrastructure and transportation systems, public utility regulatory agencies increasingly seek to use formal risk assessment models. Yet some of the approaches to risk assessment used by utilities and their regulators may be less useful for this purp ose than is supposed. These approaches often do not reflect the current state of the art in risk assessment strategy and methodology. This essay explores why utilities and regulatory agencies might embrace risk assessment techniques that do not sufficiently assess organizational...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carl Danner, Paul Schulman Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Evaluating Potential Distribution of High ‐Risk Aquatic Invasive Species in the Water Garden and Aquarium Trade at a Global Scale Based on Current Established Populations
In this study, we fit species distribution models using five different model algorithms for three non‐native aquatic invasive species with bioclimatic, topographic, and remotely sensed covariates to evaluate potential suitable habitat beyond simple climate matches. The species examined included a frog (Xenopus laevis), toad (Bombina orientalis), and snail (Pomacea spp.). Using a unique modeling approach for each species including background point selection based on known established populations resulted in robust ensemble habitat suitability models. All models for all species had test area under the receiver operating ch...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Amanda M. West, Catherine S. Jarnevich, Nicholas E. Young, Pam L. Fuller Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Information Hazards in Biotechnology
AbstractWith the advance of biotechnology, biological information, rather than biological materials, is increasingly the object of principal security concern. We argue that both in theory and in practice, existing security approaches in biology are poorly suited to manage hazardous biological information, and use the cases of Mousepox, H5N1 gain of function, and Botulinum toxin H to highlight these ongoing challenges. We suggest that mitigation of these hazards can be improved if one can: (1) anticipate hazard potential before scientific work is performed; (2) consider how much the new information would likely help both go...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gregory Lewis, Piers Millett, Anders Sandberg, Andrew Snyder ‐Beattie, Gigi Gronvall Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Living Well in Times of Threat: The Importance of Adjustment Processes to Explain Functional Adaptation to Uncertain Security in Expatriates Deployed in the Sudan
AbstractThe present study investigated expatriate humanitarian aid workers ’ perceptions and responses to uncertain security while deployed in the Sudan. Interviews conducted in Khartoum (n = 7) and Darfur (n = 17) focused on risk perception, concern for personal security, and strategies used to function well in an insecure environment. Despite a high perceived general risk, as well as broad knowledge and experience with security incidents, participants often expressed low concern. General adjustment processes were drawn on to explain this finding, while different constellations of processes resulted in different pat...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Johannes Leder Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Information Hazards in Biotechnology
AbstractWith the advance of biotechnology, biological information, rather than biological materials, is increasingly the object of principal security concern. We argue that both in theory and in practice, existing security approaches in biology are poorly suited to manage hazardous biological information, and use the cases of Mousepox, H5N1 gain of function, and Botulinum toxin H to highlight these ongoing challenges. We suggest that mitigation of these hazards can be improved if one can: (1) anticipate hazard potential before scientific work is performed; (2) consider how much the new information would likely help both go...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gregory Lewis, Piers Millett, Anders Sandberg, Andrew Snyder ‐Beattie, Gigi Gronvall Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Chronicling the Risk and Risk Communication by Governmental Officials During the Zika Threat
AbstractThe unique circumstances surrounding Zika, including the fact that it is both mosquito ‐borne and sexually transmissible, brought to the fore concerns about optimal ways to communicate risk in an environment characterized by rapidly evolving knowledge. The difficulty in doing so is magnified by the fact that science‐based health messages from governmental agencies must be develope d in an evidence‐based, audience‐participative, and collaborative manner. A recent reminder inJAMA asserted the importance of preparing now for future threats. Understanding how the knowledge and messaging about Zika changed acros...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Marin Pearson Allen Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Living Well in Times of Threat: The Importance of Adjustment Processes to Explain Functional Adaptation to Uncertain Security in Expatriates Deployed in the Sudan
AbstractThe present study investigated expatriate humanitarian aid workers ’ perceptions and responses to uncertain security while deployed in the Sudan. Interviews conducted in Khartoum (n = 7) and Darfur (n = 17) focused on risk perception, concern for personal security, and strategies used to function well in an insecure environment. Despite a high perceived general risk, as well as broad knowledge and experience with security incidents, participants often expressed low concern. General adjustment processes were drawn on to explain this finding, while different constellations of processes resulted in different pat...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Johannes Leder Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

A Risk Assessment Framework for the Socioeconomic Impacts of Electricity Transmission Infrastructure Failure Due to Space Weather: An Application to the United Kingdom
AbstractSpace weather phenomena have been studied in detail in the peer ‐reviewed scientific literature. However, there has arguably been scant analysis of the potential socioeconomic impacts of space weather, despite a growing gray literature from different national studies, of varying degrees of methodological rigor. In this analysis, we therefore provide a general framework for assessing the potential socioeconomic impacts of critical infrastructure failure resulting from geomagnetic disturbances, applying it to the British high‐voltage electricity transmission network. Socioeconomic analysis of this threat has hith...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Edward J. Oughton, Mike Hapgood, Gemma S. Richardson, Ciar án D. Beggan, Alan W. P. Thomson, Mark Gibbs, Catherine Burnett, C. Trevor Gaunt, Markos Trichas, Rabia Dada, Richard B. Horne Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Cultivating Metacognition in Each of Us: Thinking About “Thinking” in Interdisciplinary Disaster Research
This article argues that metacognition has an instrumental value both for IDR projects and for individual researchers involved in IDR. For IDR projects, metacognition can help: (1)overcome disciplinary barriers in IDR by revealin g cognitive abilities and inabilities for each team member through identifying what is hindering or enabling individuals and the group to transcend disciplinary boundaries toward true integration across the disciplines; (2)deal with “wicked” problems that characterize disaster contexts in a more effective and creative manner; (3)oversee team functioning; and (4)monitor and evaluate pr...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: N. Emel Ganapati, Ali Mostafavi Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Risk Information Seeking and Processing About Particulate Air Pollution in South Korea: The Roles of Cultural Worldview
This study integrates cultural theory of risk into the risk information seeking and processing model in the context of particulate air pollution in South Korea. Specifically, it examines how cultural worldviews (hierarchy, individualism, egalitarianism, and fatalism) influence the way people interpret risk about an environmental risk, which may in turn promote or deter their information seeking and processing about the risk. An online survey (N = 645) showed that egalitarianism was positively associated with perceptions of societal and personal risks, affective responses toward the risk, and informational subjective norms....
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Yungwook Kim Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

A Risk Assessment Framework for the Socioeconomic Impacts of Electricity Transmission Infrastructure Failure Due to Space Weather: An Application to the United Kingdom
AbstractSpace weather phenomena have been studied in detail in the peer ‐reviewed scientific literature. However, there has arguably been scant analysis of the potential socioeconomic impacts of space weather, despite a growing gray literature from different national studies, of varying degrees of methodological rigor. In this analysis, we therefore provide a general framework for assessing the potential socioeconomic impacts of critical infrastructure failure resulting from geomagnetic disturbances, applying it to the British high‐voltage electricity transmission network. Socioeconomic analysis of this threat has hith...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Edward J. Oughton, Mike Hapgood, Gemma S. Richardson, Ciar án D. Beggan, Alan W. P. Thomson, Mark Gibbs, Catherine Burnett, C. Trevor Gaunt, Markos Trichas, Rabia Dada, Richard B. Horne Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Cultivating Metacognition in Each of Us: Thinking About “Thinking” in Interdisciplinary Disaster Research
This article argues that metacognition has an instrumental value both for IDR projects and for individual researchers involved in IDR. For IDR projects, metacognition can help: (1)overcome disciplinary barriers in IDR by revealin g cognitive abilities and inabilities for each team member through identifying what is hindering or enabling individuals and the group to transcend disciplinary boundaries toward true integration across the disciplines; (2)deal with “wicked” problems that characterize disaster contexts in a more effective and creative manner; (3)oversee team functioning; and (4)monitor and evaluate pr...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: N. Emel Ganapati, Ali Mostafavi Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Rethinking Social Amplification of Risk: Social Media and Zika in Three Languages
AbstractUsing the Zika outbreak as a context of inquiry, this study examines how assigning blame on social media relates to the social amplification of risk framework (SARF). Past research has discussed the relationship between the SARF and traditional mass media, but the role of social media platforms in amplification or attenuation of risk perceptions remains understudied. Moreover, the communication and perceptions of Zika ‐related risk are not limited to discussions in English. To capture conversations in languages spoken by affected countries, this study combines data in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. To better u...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Christopher D. Wirz, Michael A. Xenos, Dominique Brossard, Dietram Scheufele, Jennifer H. Chung, Luisa Massarani Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Risk Information Seeking and Processing About Particulate Air Pollution in South Korea: The Roles of Cultural Worldview
This study integrates cultural theory of risk into the risk information seeking and processing model in the context of particulate air pollution in South Korea. Specifically, it examines how cultural worldviews (hierarchy, individualism, egalitarianism, and fatalism) influence the way people interpret risk about an environmental risk, which may in turn promote or deter their information seeking and processing about the risk. An online survey (N = 645) showed that egalitarianism was positively associated with perceptions of societal and personal risks, affective responses toward the risk, and informational subjective norms....
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Yungwook Kim Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
Risk Analysis, Volume 38, Issue 11, November 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

From the Editors
Risk Analysis, Volume 38, Issue 11, Page 2243-2244, November 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tony Cox, Karen Lowrie Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Ten Great Ideas About Chance by Persi  Diaconis and Brian Skyrms (Princeton University Press, 2018).
Risk Analysis, Volume 38, Issue 11, Page 2497-2501, November 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Louis Anthony (Tony) Cox Tags: Book Review Source Type: research