Stochastic Counterfactual Risk Analysis for the Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber ‐Physical Attacks on Electricity Distribution Infrastructure Networks
AbstractIn December 2015, a cyber ‐physical attack took place on the Ukrainian electricity distribution network. This is regarded as one of the first cyber‐physical attacks on electricity infrastructure to have led to a substantial power outage and is illustrative of the increasing vulnerability of Critical National Infrastructu re to this type of malicious activity. Few data points, coupled with the rapid emergence of cyber phenomena, has held back the development of resilience analytics of cyber‐physical attacks, relative to many other threats. We propose to overcome data limitations by applying stochastic counterf...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 27, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Edward J. Oughton, Daniel Ralph, Raghav Pant, Eireann Leverett, Jennifer Copic, Scott Thacker, Rabia Dada, Simon Ruffle, Michelle Tuveson, Jim W Hall Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Reply
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: H. Orri Stef ánsson Tags: Response Source Type: research

Comment: The Precautionary Principle and Judgment Aggregation
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Thomas Boyer ‐Kassem Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Effect of Providing the Uncertainty Information About a Tornado Occurrence on the Weather Recipients ’ Cognition and Protective Action: Probabilistic Hazard Information Versus Deterministic Warnings
This study aims to investigate the effects of providing the uncertainty information about a tornado occurrence through the PHI's graphical swath on laypeople's concern, fear, and protective action, as compared with providing the warning information with the deterministic polygon. The displays of color ‐coded swaths and deterministic polygons were shown to subjects. Some displays had a blue background denoting the probability of any tornado formation in the general area. Participants were asked to report their levels of concern, fear, and protective action at randomly chosen locations within eac h of seven designated leve...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Seyed M. Miran, Chen Ling, Alan Gerard, Lans Rothfusz Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

On the Limits of the Precautionary Principle
AbstractThe precautionary principle (PP) is an influential principle of risk management. It has been widely introduced into environmental legislation, and it plays an important role in most international environmental agreements. Yet, there is little consensus on precisely how to understand and formulate the principle. In this article I prove some impossibility results for two plausible formulations of the PP as a decision ‐rule. These results illustrate the difficulty in making the PP consistent with the acceptance of any tradeoffs between catastrophic risks and more ordinary goods. How one interprets these results will...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: H. Orri Stef ánsson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Comments to Orri Stef ánsson's Paper on the Precautionary Principle
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Terje Aven Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Comment: The Precautionary Principle and Judgment Aggregation
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Thomas Boyer ‐Kassem Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Effect of Providing the Uncertainty Information About a Tornado Occurrence on the Weather Recipients ’ Cognition and Protective Action: Probabilistic Hazard Information Versus Deterministic Warnings
This study aims to investigate the effects of providing the uncertainty information about a tornado occurrence through the PHI's graphical swath on laypeople's concern, fear, and protective action, as compared with providing the warning information with the deterministic polygon. The displays of color ‐coded swaths and deterministic polygons were shown to subjects. Some displays had a blue background denoting the probability of any tornado formation in the general area. Participants were asked to report their levels of concern, fear, and protective action at randomly chosen locations within eac h of seven designated leve...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Seyed M. Miran, Chen Ling, Alan Gerard, Lans Rothfusz Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

On the Limits of the Precautionary Principle
AbstractThe precautionary principle (PP) is an influential principle of risk management. It has been widely introduced into environmental legislation, and it plays an important role in most international environmental agreements. Yet, there is little consensus on precisely how to understand and formulate the principle. In this article I prove some impossibility results for two plausible formulations of the PP as a decision ‐rule. These results illustrate the difficulty in making the PP consistent with the acceptance of any tradeoffs between catastrophic risks and more ordinary goods. How one interprets these results will...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: H. Orri Stef ánsson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Comments to Orri Stef ánsson's Paper on the Precautionary Principle
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Terje Aven Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Reply
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: H. Orri Stef ánsson Tags: Response Source Type: research

An Optimization ‐Based Framework for the Identification of Vulnerabilities in Electric Power Grids Exposed to Natural Hazards
This article proposes a novel mathematical optimization framework for the identification of the vulnerabilities of electric power infrastructure systems (which is a paramount example of critical infrastructure) due to natural hazards. In this framework, the potential impacts of a specific natural hazard on an infrastructure are first evaluated in terms of failure and recovery probabilities of system components. Then, these are fed into a bi ‐level attacker–defender interdiction model to determine the critical components whose failures lead to the largest system functionality loss. The proposed framework bridges the...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Yi ‐Ping Fang, Giovanni Sansavini, Enrico Zio Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Design and Assessment Methodology for System Resilience Metrics
This article covers this gap by introducing a methodology that can show the validity of an RM against its conceptual framework. This methodology combines experimental design methods and statistical analysis techniques that provide an insight into the RM's quality. We also propose a new metric that can be used for general systems. The analysis of the proposed metric using the presented methodology shows that this metric is a better indicator of the system's abilities compared to the existing metrics. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Mohammad Najarian, Gino J. Lim Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

A CGE Framework for Modeling the Economics of Flooding and Recovery in a Major Urban Area
AbstractCoastal cities around the world have experienced large costs from major flooding events in recent years. Climate change is predicted to bring an increased likelihood of flooding due to sea level rise and more frequent severe storms. In order to plan future development and adaptation, cities must know the magnitude of losses associated with these events, and how they can be reduced. Often losses are calculated from insurance claims or surveying flood victims. However, this largely neglects the loss due to the disruption of economic activity. We use a forward ‐looking dynamic computable general equilibrium model to...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Aaron B. Gertz, James B. Davies, Samantha L. Black Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Design and Assessment Methodology for System Resilience Metrics
This article covers this gap by introducing a methodology that can show the validity of an RM against its conceptual framework. This methodology combines experimental design methods and statistical analysis techniques that provide an insight into the RM's quality. We also propose a new metric that can be used for general systems. The analysis of the proposed metric using the presented methodology shows that this metric is a better indicator of the system's abilities compared to the existing metrics. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Mohammad Najarian, Gino J. Lim Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

A CGE Framework for Modeling the Economics of Flooding and Recovery in a Major Urban Area
AbstractCoastal cities around the world have experienced large costs from major flooding events in recent years. Climate change is predicted to bring an increased likelihood of flooding due to sea level rise and more frequent severe storms. In order to plan future development and adaptation, cities must know the magnitude of losses associated with these events, and how they can be reduced. Often losses are calculated from insurance claims or surveying flood victims. However, this largely neglects the loss due to the disruption of economic activity. We use a forward ‐looking dynamic computable general equilibrium model to...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Aaron B. Gertz, James B. Davies, Samantha L. Black Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Validation of a Stochastic Discrete Event Model Predicting Virus Concentration on Nurse Hands
In this study, a model was developed to predict virus concentration on nurses ’ hands using data from a bacteriophage tracer study conducted in Tucson, Arizona, in an urgent care facility. Surfaces were swabbed 2 hours, 3.5 hours, and 6 hours postseeding to measure virus spread over time. To estimate the full viral load that would have been present on hands without sampling , virus concentrations were summed across time points for 3.5‐ and 6‐hour measurements. A stochastic discrete event model was developed to predict virus concentrations on nurses’ hands, given a distribution of virus concentrations on sur...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Amanda M. Wilson, Kelly A. Reynolds, Marc P. Verhougstraete, Robert A. Canales Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Risk Perceptions Toward Drinking Water Quality Among Private Well Owners in Ireland: The Illusion of Control
AbstractIn rural areas where no public or group water schemes exist, groundwater is often the only source of drinking water and is extracted by drilling private wells. Typically, private well owners are responsible for the quality and testing of their own drinking water. Previous studies indicate that well owners tend to underestimate the risks of their well water being contaminated, yet little is known about why this is the case. We conducted a qualitative study by interviewing private well owners in Ireland to investigate their beliefs surrounding their water quality, which, in turn, inform their risk perceptions and the...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Teresa Hooks, Geertje Schuitema, Frank McDermott Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

When Evolution Works Against the Future: Disgust's Contributions to the Acceptance of New Food Technologies
AbstractNew food technologies have a high potential to transform the current resource ‐consuming food system to a more efficient and sustainable one, but public acceptance of new food technologies is rather low. Such an avoidance might be maintained by a deeply preserved risk avoidance system called disgust. In an online survey, participants (N = 313) received information about a variety of new food technology applications (i.e., genetically modified meat/fish, edible nanotechnology coating film, nanotechnology food box, artificial meat/milk, and a synthetic food additive). Every new food technology application was rated...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Aisha Egolf, Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Risk Perceptions Toward Drinking Water Quality Among Private Well Owners in Ireland: The Illusion of Control
AbstractIn rural areas where no public or group water schemes exist, groundwater is often the only source of drinking water and is extracted by drilling private wells. Typically, private well owners are responsible for the quality and testing of their own drinking water. Previous studies indicate that well owners tend to underestimate the risks of their well water being contaminated, yet little is known about why this is the case. We conducted a qualitative study by interviewing private well owners in Ireland to investigate their beliefs surrounding their water quality, which, in turn, inform their risk perceptions and the...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Teresa Hooks, Geertje Schuitema, Frank McDermott Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

When Evolution Works Against the Future: Disgust's Contributions to the Acceptance of New Food Technologies
AbstractNew food technologies have a high potential to transform the current resource ‐consuming food system to a more efficient and sustainable one, but public acceptance of new food technologies is rather low. Such an avoidance might be maintained by a deeply preserved risk avoidance system called disgust. In an online survey, participants (N = 313) received information about a variety of new food technology applications (i.e., genetically modified meat/fish, edible nanotechnology coating film, nanotechnology food box, artificial meat/milk, and a synthetic food additive). Every new food technology application was rated...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Aisha Egolf, Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Validation of a Stochastic Discrete Event Model Predicting Virus Concentration on Nurse Hands
In this study, a model was developed to predict virus concentration on nurses ’ hands using data from a bacteriophage tracer study conducted in Tucson, Arizona, in an urgent care facility. Surfaces were swabbed 2 hours, 3.5 hours, and 6 hours postseeding to measure virus spread over time. To estimate the full viral load that would have been present on hands without sampling , virus concentrations were summed across time points for 3.5‐ and 6‐hour measurements. A stochastic discrete event model was developed to predict virus concentrations on nurses’ hands, given a distribution of virus concentrations on sur...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Amanda M. Wilson, Kelly A. Reynolds, Marc P. Verhougstraete, Robert A. Canales Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Null Hypothesis Testing ≠ Scientific Inference: A Critique of the Shaky Premise at the Heart of the Science and Values Debate, and a Defense of Value‐Neutral Risk Assessment
AbstractMany philosophers and statisticians argue that risk assessors are morally obligated to evaluate the probabilities and consequences of methodological error, and to base their decisions of whether to adopt a given parameter value, model, or hypothesis on those considerations. This argument is couched within the rubric of null hypothesis testing, which I suggest is a poor descriptive and normative model for risk assessment. Risk regulation is not primarily concerned with evaluating the probability of data conditional upon the null hypothesis, but rather with measuring risks, estimating the consequences of available co...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Brian H. MacGillivray Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
Risk Analysis, Volume 39, Issue 2, February 2019. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Special Series: Social Science of Automated Driving
Risk Analysis, Volume 39, Issue 2, Page 293-294, February 2019. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Joseph F. Coughlin, Martina Raue, Lisa A. D'Ambrosio, Carley Ward, Chaiwoo Lee Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

From the Editors
Risk Analysis, Volume 39, Issue 2, Page 291-292, February 2019. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tony Cox, Karen Lowrie Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Behaving Better  BEHAVE: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky, Penguin Press, 2017, and12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos by Jordan B. Peterson, Random House Canada, 2018.
Risk Analysis, Volume 39, Issue 2, Page 505-508, February 2019. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Louis Anthony Cox Tags: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Advancing Risk ‐Informed Decision Making in Managing Defense Nuclear Waste in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges for Risk Analysis
AbstractAn omnibus spending bill in 2014 directed the Department of Energy to analyze how effectively Department of Energy (DOE) identifies, programs, and executes its plans to address public health and safety risks that remain as part of DOE's remaining environmental cleanup liabilities. A committee identified two dozen issues and associated recommendations for the DOE, other federal agencies, and the U.S. Congress to consider, as well as other stakeholders such as states and tribal nations. In regard to risk assessment, the committee described a risk review process that uses available data, expert experience, identifies ...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Michael R. Greenberg, George Apostolakis, Timothy Fields, Bernard D. Goldstein, David Kosson, Steven Krahn, R. Bruce Matthews, James Rispoli, Jane Stewart, Richard Stewart Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Probabilistic Integrated Human Mixture Risk Assessment of Multiple Metals Through Seafood Consumption
This study linked probabilistic risk assessment to the interactive hazard index (HIINT) approach to assess the human mixture risk posed by the dietary intake of iAs, Cd, Pb, and MeHg from seafood for different age populations, and joint toxic actions and toxic interactions among metals were also considered in the assessment. We found that, in combination, an iAs –Cd–Pb–MeHg mixture synergistically causes neurological toxicity. Furthermore, an iAs–Cd–Pb mixture antagonistically causes renal and hematological effects and additively causes cardiovascular effect. Our results demonstrated that if t...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Yi ‐Jun Lin, Pinpin Lin Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Lightning Rods, Earthquakes, and Regional Identities: Towards a Multi ‐Scale Framework of Assessing Fracking Risk Perception
This article contributes to the SLO outcomes literature by establishing a need to consider multi‐ scalar influences on risk perception when explaining diverse SLO outcomes in communities where fracking operations are prospective or already taking place. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: James A. Pollard, David C. Rose Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

How Safe Is Safe Enough for Self ‐Driving Vehicles?
AbstractSelf ‐driving vehicles (SDVs) promise to considerably reduce traffic crashes. One pressing concern facing the public, automakers, and governments is “How safe is safe enough for SDVs?” To answer this question, a new expressed‐preference approach was proposed for the first time to determine the socially acceptable risk of SDVs. In our between‐subject survey (N = 499), we determined the respondents ’ risk‐acceptance rate of scenarios with varying traffic‐risk frequencies to examine the logarithmic relationships between the traffic‐risk frequency and risk‐acceptance rate. Logarithmic re...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Peng Liu, Run Yang, Zhigang Xu Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Public Acceptance of Fully Automated Driving: Effects of Social Trust and Risk/Benefit Perceptions
AbstractAutomated driving (AD) is one of the most significant technical advances in the transportation industry. Its safety, economic, and environmental benefits cannot be realized if it is not used. To explain, predict, and increase its acceptance, we need to understand how people perceive and why they accept or reject AD technology. Drawing upon the trust heuristic, we tested a psychological model to explain three acceptance measures of fully AD (FAD): general acceptance, willingness to pay (WTP), and behavioral intention (BI). This heuristic suggests that social trust can directly affect acceptance or indirectly affect ...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Peng Liu, Run Yang, Zhigang Xu Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Why Do Countries Regulate Environmental Health Risks Differently? A Theoretical Perspective
AbstractWhy do countries regulate, or prefer to regulate, environmental health risks such as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and endocrine disruptors differently? A wide variety of theories, models, and frameworks can be used to help answer this question, though the resulting answer will strongly depend on the theoretical perspective that is applied. In this theoretical review, we will explore eight conceptual frameworks, from different areas of science, which will offer eight different potential explanations as to why international differences occur in environmental health risk management. We are particularly intere...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sander C. S. Clahsen, Irene Kamp, Betty C. Hakkert, Theo G. Vermeire, Aldert H. Piersma, Erik Lebret Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Financial Instruments for Mitigation of Flood Risks: The Case of Florence
This article analyzes the mechanisms and effects of innovative financial instruments that a central public administration (CPA) may adopt to minimize the flood risk in particularly exposed regions. The pattern we suggest assumes that in risky areas the CPA can issue two financial instruments, calledproject options andCAT ‐bonds, producing a dynamic interaction among three types of agents: the CPA itself, the local public administrations, and private investors. We explore the possible scenarios of such interaction and the conditions under which the CPA's goal of maximal risk reduction is attained. This pattern is proposed...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Fabio Castelli, Marcello Galeotti, Giovanni Rabitti Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

The Influence of Feelings While Driving Regular Cars on the Perception and Acceptance of Self ‐Driving Cars
In this study (N = 1,484), we investigated how feelings related to traditional driving affect risk perception, benefit perception, and trust related to self ‐driving cars as well as people's acceptance of the technology. Due to limited experiences with and knowledge of self‐driving cars, we expected that feelings related to a similar experience, namely, driving regular cars, would influence judgments of self‐driving cars. Our results support this assumption. While positive feelings of enjoyment predicted higher benefit perception and trust, negative affect predicted higher risk and higher benefit perception of self...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Martina Raue, Lisa A. D'Ambrosio, Carley Ward, Chaiwoo Lee, Claire Jacquillat, Joseph F. Coughlin Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

How Should Autonomous Cars Drive? A Preference for Defaults in Moral Judgments Under Risk and Uncertainty
AbstractAutonomous vehicles (AVs) promise to make traffic safer, but their societal integration poses ethical challenges. What behavior of AVs is morally acceptable in critical traffic situations when consequences are only probabilistically known (a situation of risk) or even unknown (a situation of uncertainty)?   How do people retrospectively evaluate the behavior of an AV in situations in which a road user has been harmed? We addressed these questions in two empirical studies (N = 1,638) that approximated the real ‐world conditions under which AVs operate by varying the degree of risk and uncertainty of the situa...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bj örn Meder, Nadine Fleischhut, Nina‐Carolin Krumnau, Michael R. Waldmann Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
Risk Analysis, Volume 39, Issue 2, February 2019. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Special Series: Social Science of Automated Driving
Risk Analysis, Volume 39, Issue 2, Page 293-294, February 2019. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Joseph F. Coughlin, Martina Raue, Lisa A. D'Ambrosio, Carley Ward, Chaiwoo Lee Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

From the Editors
Risk Analysis, Volume 39, Issue 2, Page 291-292, February 2019. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tony Cox, Karen Lowrie Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Behaving Better  BEHAVE: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky, Penguin Press, 2017, and12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos by Jordan B. Peterson, Random House Canada, 2018.
Risk Analysis, Volume 39, Issue 2, Page 505-508, February 2019. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Louis Anthony Cox Tags: Book Reviews Source Type: research

Building an Interdisciplinary Team for Disaster Response Research: A Data ‐Driven Approach
This article examines three teaming mechanisms for interdisciplinary disaster response research, includingad hoc and/or grant proposal driven teams, research center or institute based teams, and teams oriented by matching expertise toward long ‐term collaborations. Using hurricanes as the response context, it further examines several types of critical data that require interdisciplinary collaboration on collection, integration, and analysis. Last, suggesting a data‐driven approach to engaging multiple disciplines, the article advocate s building interdisciplinary teams for disaster response research with a long‐term ...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Yue “Gurt” Ge, Christopher W. Zobel, Pamela Murray‐Tuite, Roshanak Nateghi, Haizhong Wang Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Whose Risk? Why Did the U.S. Public Ignore Information About the Ebola Outbreak?
AbstractTo test a possible boundary condition for the risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model, this study experimentally manipulates risk perception related to the 2014 Ebola outbreak in a nationally representative sample. Multiple ‐group structural equation modeling results indicate that psychological distance was negatively related to systematic processing in the high‐risk condition. In the low‐risk condition, psychological distance was positively related to heuristic processing; negative attitude toward media coverage dampened people's need for information, which subsequently influenced information pr...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Janet Z. Yang Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Building an Interdisciplinary Team for Disaster Response Research: A Data ‐Driven Approach
This article examines three teaming mechanisms for interdisciplinary disaster response research, includingad hoc and/or grant proposal driven teams, research center or institute based teams, and teams oriented by matching expertise toward long ‐term collaborations. Using hurricanes as the response context, it further examines several types of critical data that require interdisciplinary collaboration on collection, integration, and analysis. Last, suggesting a data‐driven approach to engaging multiple disciplines, the article advocate s building interdisciplinary teams for disaster response research with a long‐term ...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Yue “Gurt” Ge, Christopher W. Zobel, Pamela Murray‐Tuite, Roshanak Nateghi, Haizhong Wang Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Whose Risk? Why Did the U.S. Public Ignore Information About the Ebola Outbreak?
AbstractTo test a possible boundary condition for the risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model, this study experimentally manipulates risk perception related to the 2014 Ebola outbreak in a nationally representative sample. Multiple ‐group structural equation modeling results indicate that psychological distance was negatively related to systematic processing in the high‐risk condition. In the low‐risk condition, psychological distance was positively related to heuristic processing; negative attitude toward media coverage dampened people's need for information, which subsequently influenced information pr...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Janet Z. Yang Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

AbSRiM: An Agent ‐Based Security Risk Management Approach for Airport Operations
This article introduces AbSRiM, a novel agent ‐based modeling and simulation approach to perform security risk management for airport operations that uses formal sociotechnical models that include temporal and spatial aspects. The approach contains four main steps: scope selection, agent‐based model definition, risk assessment, and risk mit igation. The approach is based on traditional security risk management methodologies, but uses agent‐based modeling and Monte Carlo simulation at its core. Agent‐based modeling is used to model threat scenarios, and Monte Carlo simulations are then performed with this model to e...
Source: Risk Analysis - February 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Stef Janssen, Alexei Sharpanskykh, Richard Curran Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research