The Cancer Risk Associated with Residential Exposure to Soil Containing Radioactive Coal Combustion Residuals
The objective of this study was to utilize methodology on radionuclide risk assessment from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estimate the potential cancer risks associated with residential exposure to CCR‐containing soil. We evaluated potential radionuclide exposure via soil ingestion, inhalation of soil particulates, and external exposure to ionizing radiation using published CCR radioactivity values for 232Th, 228Ra, 238U, and 226Ra from the Appalachia, Illinois, and Powder River coal basins. Mean and upper‐bound cancer risks were estimated individually for each radionuclide, exposure pathway, and coal ba...
Source: Risk Analysis - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kevin M. Towle, Neva F. B. Jacobs, James J. Keenan, Andrew D. Monnot Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Risk Mapping of Groundwater ‐Drawdown‐Induced Land Subsidence in Heterogeneous Soils on Large Areas
In this study, the risk for subsidence is estimated by coupling two probabilistic models, a geostatistics‐based soil stratification model with a subsidence model. Statistical analyses of stratification and soil properties are inputs into the models. The results include spatially explicit probabilistic estimates of subsidence magnitude and sensitivities of included model parameters. From these, areas with significant risk for subsidence are distinguished from low‐risk areas. The efficiency and usefulness of this modeling approach as a tool for communication to stakeholders, decision support for prioritization of risk‐...
Source: Risk Analysis - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jonas Sundell, Ezra Haaf, Tommy Norberg, Claes Al én, Mats Karlsson, Lars Rosén Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Perceptions of Risk and Vulnerability Following Exposure to a Major Natural Disaster: The Calgary Flood of 2013
Abstract Many studies have examined the general public's flood risk perceptions in the aftermath of local and regional flooding. However, relatively few studies have focused on large‐scale events that affect tens of thousands of people within an urban center. Similarly, in spite of previous research on flood risks, unresolved questions persist regarding the variables that might influence perceptions of risk and vulnerability, along with management preferences. In light of the opportunities presented by these knowledge gaps, the research reported here examined public perceptions of flood risk and vulnerability, and manage...
Source: Risk Analysis - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alexa Tanner, Joseph Árvai Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Setting Priorities in Behavioral Interventions: An Application to Reducing Phishing Risk
This study suggests that interventions to reduce response bias, rather than to increase sensitivity, have greater net benefit. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Casey Inez Canfield, Baruch Fischhoff Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics by Richard  Thaler
(Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Louis Anthony (Tony) Cox Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

From the Editors
(Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tony Cox, Karen Lowrie Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

A Probabilistic Approach to Assess External Doses to the Public Considering Spatial Variability of Radioactive Contamination and Interpopulation Differences in Behavior Pattern
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 8, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 8, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Behavioral Modeling of Adversaries with Multiple Objectives in Counterterrorism
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Preference Functions for Spatial Risk Analysis
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Assessment of Instructions on Protection Against Food Contaminated with Radiocesium in Japan in 2011
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Emerging New Risk Analysis Science: Foundations and Implications
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Emerging New Risk Analysis Science: Foundations and Implications
This article presents an emerging new risk analysis science based on novel ideas and theories on risk analysis developed in recent years by the risk analysis community. It builds on a fundamental change in thinking, from the search for accurate predictions and risk estimates, to knowledge generation related to concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods, and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and (in a broad sense) manage risk. Examples are used to illustrate the importance of this distinct/separate risk analysis science for solving risk problems, supporting science in general and ...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Terje Aven Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Assessment of Instructions on Protection Against Food Contaminated with Radiocesium in Japan in 2011
Abstract The Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has published instructions for radiological protection against food after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011. Following the instructions, the export and consumption of food items identified as being contaminated were restricted for a certain period. We assessed the validity of the imposed restriction periods for two representative vegetables (spinach and cabbage) grown in Fukushima Prefecture from two perspectives: effectiveness for reducing dietary dose and economic efficiency. To assess effectiveness, we estimated the restriction per...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Mayumi Seto, Koichiro Uriu, Isao Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki Yokomizo Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Behavioral Modeling of Adversaries with Multiple Objectives in Counterterrorism
Abstract Attacker/defender models have primarily assumed that each decisionmaker optimizes the cost of the damage inflicted and its economic repercussions from their own perspective. Two streams of recent research have sought to extend such models. One stream suggests that it is more realistic to consider attackers with multiple objectives, but this research has not included the adaption of the terrorist with multiple objectives to defender actions. The other stream builds off experimental studies that show that decisionmakers deviate from optimal rational behavior. In this article, we extend attacker/defender models to in...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 7, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dogucan Mazicioglu, Jason R. W. Merrick Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Multicriteria Decision Framework for Cybersecurity Risk Assessment and Management
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Deep Uncertainties in Sea ‐Level Rise and Storm Surge Projections: Implications for Coastal Flood Risk Management
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Scenario Analysis for the Safety Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repositories: A Critical Review
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Scenario Analysis for the Safety Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repositories: A Critical Review
Abstract A major challenge in scenario analysis for the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories pertains to the comprehensiveness of the set of scenarios selected for assessing the safety of the repository. Motivated by this challenge, we discuss the aspects of scenario analysis relevant to comprehensiveness. Specifically, we note that (1) it is necessary to make it clear why scenarios usually focus on a restricted set of features, events, and processes; (2) there is not yet consensus on the interpretation of comprehensiveness for guiding the generation of scenarios; and (3) there is a need for sound approaches to ...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Edoardo Tosoni, Ahti Salo, Enrico Zio Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Multicriteria Decision Framework for Cybersecurity Risk Assessment and Management
We present a decision‐analysis‐based approach that quantifies threat, vulnerability, and consequences through a set of criteria designed to assess the overall utility of cybersecurity management alternatives. The proposed framework bridges the gap between risk assessment and risk management, allowing an analyst to ensure a structured and transparent process of selecting risk management alternatives. The use of this technique is illustrated for a hypothetical, but realistic, case study exemplifying the process of evaluating and ranking five cybersecurity enhancement strategies. The approach presented does not necessaril...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alexander A. Ganin, Phuoc Quach, Mahesh Panwar, Zachary A. Collier, Jeffrey M. Keisler, Dayton Marchese, Igor Linkov Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Ambient Asbestos Fiber Concentrations and Long ‐Term Trends in Pleural Mesothelioma Incidence between Urban and Rural Areas in the United States (1973–2012)
Risk Analysis,Volume 38, Issue 3, Page 454-471, March 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis,Volume 38, Issue 3, Page 454-471, March 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - September 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Designing Graphs that Promote Both Risk Understanding and Behavior Change
Abstract Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk‐avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm (“foreground+background...
Source: Risk Analysis - September 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Yasmina Okan, Eric R. Stone, W ändi Bruine de Bruin Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Effects of Acknowledging Uncertainty about Earthquake Risk Estimates on San Francisco Bay Area Residents ’ Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Optimal Mission Abort Policy for Systems Operating in a Random Environment
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effects of Acknowledging Uncertainty about Earthquake Risk Estimates on San Francisco Bay Area Residents ’ Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions
We test here the risk communication proposition that explicit expert acknowledgment of uncertainty in risk estimates can enhance trust and other reactions. We manipulated such a scientific uncertainty message, accompanied by probabilities (20%, 70%, implicit [“will occur”] 100%) and time periods (10 or 30 years) in major (≥magnitude 8) earthquake risk estimates to test potential effects on residents potentially affected by seismic activity on the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (n = 750). The uncertainty acknowledgment increased belief that these specific experts were more honest and open, an...
Source: Risk Analysis - August 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kazuya Nakayachi, Branden B. Johnson, Kazuki Koketsu Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Impact of Cooking Procedures and Storage Practices at Home on Consumer Exposure to Listeria Monocytogenes and Salmonella Due to the Consumption of Pork Meat
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 28, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Optimal Inspection of Imports to Prevent Invasive Pest Introduction
Risk Analysis,Volume 38, Issue 3, Page 603-619, March 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 28, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 28, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis,Volume 38, Issue 3, Page 603-619, March 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 28, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Optimal Inspection of Imports to Prevent Invasive Pest Introduction
The United States imports more than 1 billion live plants annually—an important and growing pathway for introduction of damaging nonnative invertebrates and pathogens. Inspection of imports is one safeguard for reducing pest introductions, but capacity constraints limit inspection effort. We develop an optimal sampling strategy to minimize the costs of pest introductions from trade by posing inspection as an acceptance sampling problem that incorporates key features of the decision context, including (i) simultaneous inspection of many heterogeneous lots, (ii) a lot‐specific sampling effort, (iii) a budget constrai...
Source: Risk Analysis - August 28, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Cuicui Chen, Rebecca S. Epanchin ‐Niell, Robert G. Haight Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Insurance, Public Assistance, and Household Flood Risk Reduction: A Comparative Study of Austria, England, and Romania
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Informing Ex Ante Event Studies with Macro ‐Econometric Evidence on the Structural and Policy Impacts of Terrorism
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Insurance, Public Assistance, and Household Flood Risk Reduction: A Comparative Study of Austria, England, and Romania
In this study, we investigate risk‐reduction behavior at the household level in three European Union Member States with fundamentally different insurance and compensation schemes. We try to understand if and how insurance and public assistance influence private risk‐reduction behavior. Data were collected using a telephone survey (n = 1,849) of household decisionmakers in flood‐prone areas. We show that insurance overall is positively associated with private risk‐reduction behavior. Warranties, premium discounts, and information provision with respect to risk reduction may be an explanation for this positive relati...
Source: Risk Analysis - August 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Susanne Hanger, Joanne Linnerooth ‐Bayer, Swenja Surminski, Cristina Nenciu‐Posner, Anna Lorant, Radu Ionescu, Anthony Patt Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

A Risk Analysis Approach to Prioritizing Epidemics: Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa as a Case Study
Risk Analysis,Volume 38, Issue 3, Page 429-441, March 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis,Volume 38, Issue 3, Page 429-441, March 2018. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Communicating Earthquake Preparedness: The Influence of Induced Mood, Perceived Risk, and Gain or Loss Frames on Homeowners ’ Attitudes Toward General Precautionary Measures for Earthquakes
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“Birds of a Feather” Fail Together: Exploring the Nature of Dependency in SME Defaults
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - August 11, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research