Effects of an Advisory Brochure on Fish Consumption of Urban Anglers in the Great Lakes Region
Abstract Past research has suggested that urban anglers are a group at high risk of being exposed to contaminants from fish consumption. Fish consumption advisories have been used in many regions to encourage healthy fish‐eating behaviors, but few studies have been designed to assess whether these advisories actually influence behavior as intended. We conducted a large‐scale, randomized experiment to test the influence of an advisory brochure on urban anglers’ fish consumption. We collected detailed information on anglers’ fish consumption in three urban counties in the Great Lakes region in the summers of ...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: T. Bruce Lauber, Nancy A. Connelly, Jeff Niederdeppe, Barbara A. Knuth Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

The Essential Elements of a Risk Governance Framework for Current and Future Nanotechnologies
Abstract Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance approach that goes beyond legislation. Development of this approach must be evidence based and involve key stakeholders to ensure acceptance by end users. The challenge is to develop a framework that coordinates the variety of actors involved in nanotechnology and civil society to facilitate consideration of the complex issues tha...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Vicki Stone, Martin F ühr, Peter H. Feindt, Hans Bouwmeester, Igor Linkov, Stefania Sabella, Finbarr Murphy, Kilian Bizer, Lang Tran, Marlene Ågerstrand, Carlos Fito, Torben Andersen, Diana Anderson, Enrico Bergamaschi, John W. Cherrie, Sue Cowan, Jean Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

An Integrated Framework for Environmental Multi ‐Impact Spatial Risk Analysis
Abstract Quantitative risk analysis is being extensively employed to support policymakers and provides a strong conceptual framework for evaluating decision alternatives under uncertainty. Many problems involving environmental risks are, however, of a spatial nature, i.e., containing spatial impacts, spatial vulnerabilities, and spatial risk‐mitigation alternatives. Recent developments in multicriteria spatial analysis have enabled the assessment and aggregation of multiple impacts, supporting policymakers in spatial evaluation problems. However, recent attempts to conduct spatial multicriteria risk analysis have general...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Valentina Ferretti, Gilberto Montibeller Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation
We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation‐related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation...
Source: Risk Analysis - December 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alexander P. Keil, David B. Richardson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Spatially Representing Vulnerability to Extreme Rain Events Using Midwestern Farmers ’ Objective and Perceived Attributes of Adaptive Capacity
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Which Fire to Extinguish First? A Risk ‐Informed Approach to Emergency Response in Oil Terminals
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Which Fire to Extinguish First? A Risk ‐Informed Approach to Emergency Response in Oil Terminals
Abstract The performance of fire protection measures plays a key role in the prevention and mitigation of fire escalation (fire domino effect) in process plants. In addition to passive and active safety measures, the intervention of firefighting teams can have a great impact on fire propagation. In the present study, we have demonstrated an application of dynamic Bayesian network to modeling and safety assessment of fire domino effect in oil terminals while considering the effect of safety measures in place. The results of the developed dynamic Bayesian network—prior and posterior probabilities—have been combin...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Nima Khakzad Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Public Response to a Near ‐Miss Nuclear Accident Scenario Varying in Causal Attributions and Outcome Uncertainty
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 24, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 24, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

An Assessment of the Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model for Epidemiologic Studies
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Characterizing Risk for Cumulative Risk Assessments
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Should I Stay or Should I Go Now? Or Should I Wait and See? Influences on Wildfire Evacuation Decisions
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Should I Stay or Should I Go Now? Or Should I Wait and See? Influences on Wildfire Evacuation Decisions
Abstract As climate change has contributed to longer fire seasons and populations living in fire‐prone ecosystems increase, wildfires have begun to affect a growing number of people. As a result, interest in understanding the wildfire evacuation decision process has increased. Of particular interest is understanding why some people leave early, some choose to stay and defend their homes, and others wait to assess conditions before making a final decision. Individuals who tend to wait and see are of particular concern given the dangers of late evacuation. To understand what factors might influence different decisions, we ...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sarah McCaffrey, Robyn Wilson, Avishek Konar Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

An Assessment of the Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model for Epidemiologic Studies
This study addresses whether hazard ratio, i.e., relative risk (RR), estimates using the Cox model are biased when these assumptions are violated. We investigated also the dependence of RR estimates on temporal exposure characteristics, and how inadequate control for a strong, time‐dependent confounder affects RRs for a modest, correlated risk factor. In a realistic cohort of 500,000 adults constructed using the National Cancer Institute Smoking History Generator, we used the Cox model with increasing control of smoking to examine the impact on RRs for smoking and a correlated covariate X. The smoking‐associated RR was...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Suresh H. Moolgavkar, Ellen T. Chang, Heather N. Watson, Edmund C. Lau Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

An Agent ‐Based Model of Evolving Community Flood Risk
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Insights into Flood ‐Coping Appraisals of Protection Motivation Theory: Empirical Evidence from Germany and France
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Insights into Flood ‐Coping Appraisals of Protection Motivation Theory: Empirical Evidence from Germany and France
This study presents the results of two surveys among more than 1,600 flood‐prone households in Germany and France. Five hypotheses were tested using multivariate statistics regarding factors related to flood‐coping appraisals, which were derived from the PMT framework, related literature, and the literature on social vulnerability. We found that socioeconomic characteristics alone are not sufficient to explain flood‐coping appraisals. Particularly, observational learning from the social environment, such as friends and neighbors, is positively related to flood‐coping appraisals. This suggests that social norms and ...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 17, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Philip Bubeck, W. J. Wouter Botzen, Jonas Laudan, Jeroen C.J.H. Aerts, Annegret H. Thieken Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Potential Exposure and Cancer Risk from Formaldehyde Emissions from Installed Chinese Manufactured Laminate Flooring
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 15, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Perceptions and Expected Immediate Reactions to Severe Storm Displays
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 9, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 9, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

From the Editors
(Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tony Cox, Karen Lowrie Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Issue Information ‐ TOC
(Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 8, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

A Comparison of the Bow ‐Tie and STAMP Approaches to Reduce the Risk of Surgical Instrument Retention
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 6, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Comparative Probabilistic Assessment of Occupational Pesticide Exposures Based on Regulatory Assessments
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 6, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 6, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Comparison of the Bow ‐Tie and STAMP Approaches to Reduce the Risk of Surgical Instrument Retention
Abstract Although relatively rare, surgical instrument retention inside a patient following central venous catheterization still presents a significant risk. The research presented here compared two approaches to help reduce retention risk: Bow‐Tie Analysis and Systems‐Theoretic Accident Model and Processes. Each method was undertaken separately and then the results of the two approaches were compared and combined. Both approaches produced beneficial results that added to existing domain knowledge, and a combination of the two methods was found to be beneficial. For example, the Bow‐Tie Analysis gave an overview of w...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 6, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Maria Mikela Chatzimichailidou, James Ward, Tim Horberry, P. John Clarkson Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Risk Assessment of Human Toxoplasmosis Associated with the Consumption of Pork Meat in Italy
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Cancer Risk Associated with Residential Exposure to Soil Containing Radioactive Coal Combustion Residuals
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Risk Analysis, Ahead of Print. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Risk Assessment of Human Toxoplasmosis Associated with the Consumption of Pork Meat in Italy
Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan disease and has a broad range of hosts, including humans and several wild and domestic animals. The human infection is mostly acquired through the consumption of contaminated food and pork meat has been recognized as one of the major sources of transmission. There are, however, certain fundamental differences between countries; therefore, the present study specifically aims to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to Toxoplasma gondii through the ingestion of several types of pork meat products habitually consumed in Italy and to estimate the annual number of human infecti...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Roberto Condoleo, Laura Rinaldi, Stefania Sette, Ziad Mezher Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Using the CAUSE Model to Understand Public Communication about Water Risks: Perspectives from Texas Groundwater District Officials on Drought and Availability
Abstract Public communication about drought and water availability risks poses challenges to a potentially disinterested public. Water management professionals, though, have a responsibility to work with the public to engage in communication about water and environmental risks. Because limited research in water management examines organizational communication practices and perceptions, insights into research and practice can be gained through investigation of current applications of these risk communication efforts. Guided by the CAUSE model, which explains common goals in communicating risk information to the public (e.g....
Source: Risk Analysis - November 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Matthew S. VanDyke, Andy J. King Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Spatially Representing Vulnerability to Extreme Rain Events Using Midwestern Farmers ’ Objective and Perceived Attributes of Adaptive Capacity
This article addresses this knowledge gap by: (1) incorporating perceived adaptive capacity into a vulnerability assessment; (2) using spatial smoothing to aggregate individual‐level vulnerabilities to the county level; and (3) evaluating the relationships among different dimensions of adaptive capacity to examine whether perceived capacity should be integrated into vulnerability assessments. The result suggests that vulnerability assessments that rely only on objective measures might miss important sociocognitive dimensions of capacity. Vulnerability indices and maps presented in this article can inform engagement strat...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Public Response to a Near ‐Miss Nuclear Accident Scenario Varying in Causal Attributions and Outcome Uncertainty
This study evaluated public response (emotional, cognitive, and behavioral) over three phases of a near‐miss nuclear accident. Simulating a loss‐of‐coolant accident (LOCA) scenario, we manipulated (1) attribution for the initial cause of the incident (software failure vs. cyber terrorist attack vs. earthquake), (2) attribution for halting the incident (fail‐safe system design vs. an intervention by an individual expert vs. a chance coincidence), and (3) level of uncertainty (certain vs. uncertain) about risk of a future radiation leak after the LOCA is halted. A total of 773 respondents were sampled using a 3 &time...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jinshu Cui, Heather Rosoff, Richard S. John Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Characterizing Risk for Cumulative Risk Assessments
This article summarizes key steps of a cumulative risk assessment (CRA) followed by a discussion of considerations for characterizing cumulative risks. Cumulative risk characterizations differ considerably from single chemical‐ or single source‐based risk characterization. CRAs typically focus on a specific population instead of a pollutant or pollutant source and should include an evaluation of all relevant sources contributing to the exposures in the population and other factors that influence dose–response relationships. Second, CRAs may include influential environmental and population‐specific conditions, i...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Margaret M. MacDonell, Richard C. Hertzberg, Glenn E. Rice, J. Michael Wright, Linda K. Teuschler Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

An Agent ‐Based Model of Evolving Community Flood Risk
This study lends insight into priorities for future work, including the development of more in‐depth behavioral and decision rules at the individual and community level. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - November 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gina L. Tonn, Seth D. Guikema Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Potential Exposure and Cancer Risk from Formaldehyde Emissions from Installed Chinese Manufactured Laminate Flooring
Abstract Lumber Liquidators (LL) Chinese‐manufactured laminate flooring (CLF) has been installed in>400,000 U.S. homes over the last decade. To characterize potential associated formaldehyde exposures and cancer risks, chamber emissions data were collected from 399 new LL CLF, and from LL CLF installed in 899 homes in which measured aggregate indoor formaldehyde concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m3 from a total of 17,867 homes screened. Data from both sources were combined to characterize LL CLF flooring‐associated formaldehyde emissions from new boards and installed boards. New flooring had an average (±...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Patrick Sheehan, Ankur Singhal, Kenneth T. Bogen, David MacIntosh, Renee M. Kalmes, John McCarthy Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Perceptions and Expected Immediate Reactions to Severe Storm Displays
Abstract The National Weather Service has adopted warning polygons that more specifically indicate the risk area than its previous county‐wide warnings. However, these polygons are not defined in terms of numerical strike probabilities (ps). To better understand people's interpretations of warning polygons, 167 participants were shown 23 hypothetical scenarios in one of three information conditions—polygon‐only (Condition A), polygon + tornadic storm cell (Condition B), and polygon + tornadic storm cell + flanking nontornadic storm cells (Condition C). Participants judged each polygon's ps and reported the likeli...
Source: Risk Analysis - November 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Ihnji Jon, Shih ‐Kai Huang, Michael K. Lindell Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Influence of Distribution of Animals between Dose Groups on Estimated Benchmark Dose and Animal Welfare for Continuous Effects
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - October 30, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A Probabilistic Analysis of Surface Water Flood Risk in London
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - October 30, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

People's Risk Recognition Preceding Evacuation and Its Role in Demand Modeling and Planning
Risk Analysis, EarlyView. (Source: Risk Analysis)
Source: Risk Analysis - October 30, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research