SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 disease: a mini review on diagnostic methods.
Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease initially reported in China and currently worldwide dispersed caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV) affecting more than seven million people around the world causing more than 400 thousand deaths (on June 8th, 2020). The diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on the clinical and epidemiological history of the patient. However, the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is the viral detection through the amplification of nucleic acids. Although the quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been described as t...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oliveira BA, Oliveira LC, Sabino EC, Okay TS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Chronic heart diseases as the most prevalent comorbidities among deaths by COVID-19 in Brazil.
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of patients with comorbidities who died of COVID-19 in Brazil. Searches of data were carried out on the official pages of the 26 State health departments and the federal district. The random-effect method was used to calculate the prevalence of patients with comorbidities who died. From the beginning of the pandemic in Brazil until May 20, 2020, 276,703 cases of COVID-19 were notified in Brazil, 6.4% died, 58.6% of whom were male. The prevalence of comorbidities among deaths was 83% (95% CI: 79 - 87), with heart disease and diabetes being the most prevalent. To our...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pachiega J, Afonso AJDS, Sinhorin GT, Alencar BT, Araújo MDSM, Longhi FG, Zanetti ADS, Espinosa OA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Atypical clinical presentation of an Arthroderma gypseum infection in a renal transplant recipient.
Abstract Dermatophytes are known as a common cause of superficial mycosis, but atypical presentations in immunosuppressed patients make the diagnosis more challenging. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old patient, a renal transplant recipient from a living donor, who presented with atypical cutaneous lesions of lower extremities caused by Arthroderma gypseum (Nannizzia gypsea), four months after receiving a renal transplant. It is important to highlight the importance of the early detection of fungal infections in immunosuppressed patients. Clinicians should have a high degree of suspicion for the early detecti...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Belda Junior W, Criado PR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Prevalence of comorbidities in patients and mortality cases affected by SARS-CoV2: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract The new coronavirus, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Risk factors associated with this disease are age, sex, and the presence of comorbidities, the most common being hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. The aim of this meta-analysis was to calculate the prevalence and geographical distribution of comorbidities in all patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and the mortality rate of COVID-19. We selected studies based upon epidemiological and clinical descriptions of the patients and mortality from the disease to determine the pooled prev...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Espinosa OA, Zanetti ADS, Antunes EF, Longhi FG, Matos TA, Battaglini PF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Awareness of Chagas disease and socioeconomic characteristics of Bolivian immigrants living in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
In this study which is part of a research project on Chagas disease (CD) among Bolivian immigrants in Sao Paulo, we describe socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of CD and implications for acess to health care. We applied a structured questionnaire to a sample of 472 Bolivian adults (> 18 years) living in Sao Paulo and enrolled at the Barra Funda School Health Center. Participants' median age was 28.5 years, 75.0% were from the Bolivian department of La Paz, and>90% worked in the garment industry. Respondents had lived in Sao Paulo for a median of 5.8 years. Only 169 (35.8%) were familiar with CD, while roughly h...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Silva RAD, Wanderley DMV, Forsyth C, Leite RM, Luna EJA, Carneiro Júnior N, Shikanai-Yasuda MA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Chikungunya encephalitis: report of a fatal case in Northeastern Brazil.
We report a 57-year-old male patient with comorbidities, admitted with high fever, arthralgia, asthenia, vomiting, psychomotor agitation, behavioral changes and seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) values revealed pleocytosis (98 cells/mm3 with 68% lymphocytes and 12% monocytes) and high levels of protein (161 mg%). Brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the temporal and frontal lobes and bilaterally in the posterior thalamus. CSF serology was positive for IgM antibodies to Chikungunya virus. Encephalitis due to an acute viral infection by Chikungunya was diagnosed. The patient's clinical condition worsened and he died on...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lima ECB, Januário AMS, Fortuna EG, Real MEC, Lacerda HR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Relevance of epidemiological surveillance in travelers: an imported case of Leishmania tropica in Mexico.
We report the case of a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis who showed a rapidly progressing ulcerative lesion after traveling to multiple countries where different Leishmania species are endemic. Diagnosis of Leishmania tropica, an exotic species in Mexico was established by using serological and molecular tools. PMID: 32578727 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fernández-Figueroa EA, Sánchez-Montes S, Miranda-Ortíz H, Mendoza-Vargas A, Cervantes-Sarabia R, Cárdenas-Ovando RA, Ruiz-Remigio A, Becker I Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Geoprocessing and spatial analysis for identifying leptospirosis risk areas: a systematic review.
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the geoprocessing and spatial analysis techniques adopted for mapping risk areas of human and animal leptospirosis. The articles were collected on scientific platforms by entering the following terms: SIG/GIS, leptospirose/leptospirosis, area de risco/risk area and distribuicao espacial/spatial distribution, and included in the study if they met the following criteria: a) publication in the period from 1998 to 2017; b) identification of risk areas and/or spatial distribution of leptospirosis as one of the research topics; and c) application of GIS in the met...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Souza IPO, Uberti MS, Tassinari WS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

The performance of an in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples in comparison with Xpert MTB/RIF, microscopy and culture.
Abstract Simple, low-cost and effective diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) are needed especially in TB-high burden settings. The present study evaluated the performance of an in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosing TB by comparing it to Xpert MTB/RIF, microscopy and culture. In Thailand, a total of 204 excess sputum samples volume after the processing of cultures were used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) detection by Xpert MTB/RIF and LAMP. Based on culture results as the gold standard, the overall sensitivity of LAMP and Xpert MTB/RIF were 82.1% (126/153; 95% confidential in...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Phetsuksiri B, Klayut W, Rudeeaneksin J, Srisungngam S, Bunchoo S, Toonkomdang S, Wongchai T, Nakajima C, Suzuki Y Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Frequency of genomic mutations mediating resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to rifampicin in Northern Morocco.
Abstract Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is challenging particularly in developing countries. As such, a previous investigation gave the first insight into the mutational status of the Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region (RRDR) of rpoB gene among a restricted number of MTB patients' residents in the Northern Morocco. The purpose of this study was to investigate rpoB mutation types and frequencies associated with resistance to Rifampicin in a larger panel of MTB patients and to evaluate the usefulness of these mutations to improve the diagnosis of resistance to Rifampicin. A panel of 301 consecutive sputum...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Karimi H, Oudghiri A, En-Nanei L, Mzibri ME, Laglaoui A, Chaoui I, Abid M Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Susceptibility of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in the field, to alpha-cypermethrin in four municipalities endemic to leishmaniasis.
The objective of this study was to analyze the susceptibility profile of four populations of phlebotomine sandflies to the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin. Sandflies collected in field in four Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using CDC bottles in different concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin. A total of 1,186 phlebotomine sandflies were used in the bioassays. The LD50 ranged from 1.48 to 2.57 ug/mL in the field populations. For a dose of 5 ug/mL of alpha-cypermethrin, the LT50 and LT95 ranged from 17.9 to 27.5 minutes, and LT95 from 39.7 to 61.5 minutes, respectively. All the populations studied were highly suscepti...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rocha DA, Andrade AJ, Moura LR, Figueiredo NG, Pessoa GCD, Obara MT Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Fatal fungaemia due to Cryptococcus albidus in an elderly diabetic woman presenting with pleural effusion.
This report places C. albidus on the growing number of disseminated mycosis-causing agents in diabetic patients. PMID: 32491141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rodríguez-Leguizamón G, Coque-Burgos E, Espitia-Castro O, Firacative C Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Oral yeast colonization in patients with eating disorders: commensal acquisition or due to purgative habits?
Abstract Oral problems are common in patients diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED) and still require better elucidation. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of oral Candida spp in individuals with ED. The sample of the study was comprised of 30 women with purgative habits and 15 without purgative habits. Samples of the oral cavity were collected by sterile cotton swab rubbed on soft tissues and teeth. Yeasts were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Yeasts were isolated from the oral cavity of 53% of the patients yielding 75 yeast isolates; of these, 43 were identified by conventional mycological methods: C. paraps...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Esteves CV, Freitas RS, Campos WG, Shimabukuro N, Thomaz DY, Cordas T, Benard G, Witzel AL, Lemos CA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Recurrent kala-azar: report of two cured cases after total splenectomy.
lio KD, Costa CHN Abstract In Latin America, the causative agent of kala-azar is the intracellular protozoan Leishmania infantum. Most cases in South America are reported in Brazil. Worldwide, it mainly affects Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan and Sudan. Despite the high morbidity and lethality of kala-azar, most infections are asymptomatic. However, a small portion of patients evolves with recurrence of kala-azar becoming symptomatic even after all available drug treatments. Kala-azar is not a formal indication for splenectomy in adults. Splenectomy is recommended as a saving measure, when kala-azar is as...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Reinaldo LGC, Araújo Júnior RJC, Diniz TM, Moura RD, Costa DL, Eulálio KD, Costa CHN Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

The search for yellow fever virus vaccine in breast milk of inadvertently vaccinated women in Brazil.
Abstract Eleven lactating women were inadvertently vaccinated with 17DD yellow fever vaccine in a small city of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Their infants were being exclusively breast-fed and the breastfeeding was interrupted for 10 days. Serum and breastmilk were collected from the vaccinated mothers and tested for the presence of genomic RNA of the vaccine strain 8, 10 and 15 days after vaccination. Viral RNA was not detected in any of the serum and human milk samples tested and the infants remained asymptomatic. Our result strengthens the effectineness of stopping breastfeeding for 10 days after the inadvertent ye...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fernandes EG, Nogueira JS, Porto VBG, Sato HK Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Performance of a new Candida anti-mannan IgM and IgG assays in the diagnosis of candidemia.
Abstract Candida is one of the most frequent pathogens of bloodstream infections, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Rapid immunological detection methods are essential in the early diagnosis of candidemia. Anti-mannan is one of host-derived biomarkers against cell wall components of Candida. We conducted this study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two anti-mannan assays (IgM, IgG) for candidemia through the analysis of 40 candidemia patients, 48 participants with Candida colonization and 213 participants with neither Candida colonization nor Candida infections (13 patients with ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Meng Y, Kang M, Li D, Wang T, Kuang Z, Ma Y Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Tumor of the epididymis: an uncommon presentation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis.
We present the case of a 48-year-old man with a hard and heterogeneous tumor in the posterior aspect of the right testis. Color flow doppler testicular ultrasonography was performed and two nodular masses in the tail of the right epididymis were identified. An epididymectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed coccidioidomycosis. After diagnosis, the patient was successfully treated with fluconazol. PMID: 32401954 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jiménez-Castillo RA, Gómez-Quiroz RA, Carrizales-Sepúlveda EF, Molina-Ayala M, Garza-Guajardo R, Mendoza-Coronado R, Martínez-Moyano JA, Náñez-Terreros H Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Immunoreactivity of proteins within 30-40 kDa range during the acute and the recovery phases in rats experimentally infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of anti-Strongyloides IgG antibodies and the recognition of immunogenic protein bands during the acute and the recovery phases in rats experimentally infected with S. venezuelensis. Rats were infected subcutaneously with 400 or 4,000 S. venezuelensis infective larvae. The acute phase was characterized by elimination of a large number of eggs in the faeces on days 6-14 post infection; the recovery phase was characterized by the resolution of the infection between days 30 and 35 post infection. Differences in IgG levels were observed in the acute and the recovery pha...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fonseca PDM, Corral MA, Meisel DMCL, Levi D, Nascimento RC, Castro-Borges W, Gryschek R, Costa-Cruz JM, Paula FM Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Expression of Hsp60 and its cell location in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
Abstract Paracoccidioides species cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis highly prevalent in Brazil. Therapy of PCM has some issues that make studies for new therapeutic and vaccine targets relevant, such as the P. brasiliensis 60-kDa-heat-shock protein (PbHsp60), an immunogenic antigen that induces protection in experimental mice infection. Here, we investigated the relative expression of mRNA for PbHsp60 in P. brasiliensis in the different morphotypes of P. brasiliensis and in morphological transition phases. In addition, antibodies to rPbHsp60 were produced and used to analyze the location of Pb...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fernandes FF, Pitangui NS, Peron G, Valim CXR, Mazucato VM, Oliveira AF, Silva TAD, Roque-Barreira MC, Panunto-Castelo A Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

A comprehensive systematic review of leishmaniasis in patients undergoing drug-induced immunosuppression for the treatment of dermatological, rheumatological and gastroenterological diseases.
es CM Abstract Immunosuppression is an important risk factor for leishmaniasis. We assessed the clinical profile, geographic distribution and prevalence of leishmaniasis in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for dermatological, rheumatological or gastroenterological autoimmune diseases. We identified relevant studies in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS on July 3rd, 2018. We included articles that reported at least one case of leishmaniasis in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment for dermatological, rheumatological or gastroenterological diseases. Our protocol was registered i...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kurizky PS, Marianelli FF, Cesetti MV, Damiani G, Sampaio RNR, Gonçalves LMT, Sousa CAF, Martins SS, Vernal S, Mota LMHD, Gomes CM Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Retrospective clinical and epidemiological analysis of scorpionism at a referral hospital for the treatment of accidents by venomous animals in Alagoas State, Northeast Brazil, 2007-2017.
i ÊJ Abstract Scorpionism has a high incidence rate in Brazil. It is considered a serious public health problem mainly in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The number of scorpion accidents have increased over the years and the highest frequencies have been reported mainly in the Brazilian Northeast region. Therefore, in this study we report a retrospective clinical and epidemiological analysis of scorpion stings from 2007 to 2017 in Alagoas State, Northeast Brazil, at a referral hospital for assistance and treatment of accidents by venomous animals. During the analyzed period, the referral h...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Taniele-Silva J, Martins LG, Sousa MB, Souza LM, Cardoso RMB, Velasco SRU, Ramos GDS, Miranda CT, Moura AÁ, Anderson L, Bassi ÊJ Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Importation and early local transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil, 2020.
ira W Abstract We conducted the genome sequencing and analysis of the first confirmed COVID-19 infections in Brazil. Rapid sequencing coupled with phylogenetic analyses in the context of travel history corroborate multiple independent importations from Italy and local spread during the initial stage of COVID-19 transmission in Brazil. PMID: 32401959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jesus JG, Sacchi C, Candido DDS, Claro IM, Sales FCS, Manuli ER, Silva DBBD, Paiva TM, Pinho MAB, Santos KCO, Hill SC, Aguiar RS, Romero F, Santos FCPD, Gonçalves CR, Timenetsky MDC, Quick J, Croda JHR, Oliveira W Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Pooling of sera for human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) screening in a time of increasing health care expenditure and limited resources.
In conclusion, the results of this study suggest the use of pooling sera in sero-epidemiological surveillance studies and possibly in prenatal care screening programs in Brazil. PMID: 32401960 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Silva RXD, Campos KR, Caterino-de-Araujo A Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Syphilis and HIV infection in indigenous Mbya Guarani communities of Puerto Iguazu (Argentina): diagnosis, contact tracking, and follow-up.
;n JM Abstract The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of Treponema pallidum and HIV infection in Amerindian people (Mbya Guarani) over the age of 11 in Puerto Iguazu (Argentina) and to describe the contact tracking of cases. The method was a cross-sectional study in the Mbya Guarani people living in three villages of Puerto Iguazu (community A, pop. 1,146; community B, pop. 369; and community C, pop. 149). Participants were randomly invited to participate in the survey and in blood testing. Of the 551 participants, 48 were infected by T. pallidum (8.71%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.38-10.04). The infecti...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marx J, Acosta L, Deschutter EJ, Bornay-Llinares FJ, Sotillo-Soler V, Ramos-Rincón JM Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Genetic analysis of Giardia duodenalis isolates from children of low-income families living in an economically successful region in Southeastern Brazil.
imarães S Abstract Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important and widespread gastrointestinal parasites in the world. Despite its relevance as a causative agent of diarrhea, asymptomatic giardiasis occurs frequently, especially in low resources settings in which children are exposed to many risk factors. Based on microscopic examination and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes, we assessed G. duodenalis occurrence and genetic diversity in isolates of children attending a daycare ce...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Corrêa CRT, Oliveira-Arbex AP, David ÉB, Guimarães S Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Secondary syphilis presenting as Syphilide psoriasiforme: lessons from the older syphilology literature.
We present herein a case of syphilide psoriasiforme, an uncommon but well recognized clinical presentation of secondary syphilis. A 46-year-old HIV-infected female patient was referred to our attention with a presumptive diagnosis of palmoplantar psoriasis. On examination, there were exuberant pinkish-red papules and plaques covered with a thick silvery scale in the palms, flexor surfaces of the wrists, and the medial longitudinal arches of the feet. Serological and histopathological analyses uncovered the diagnosis of syphilis. Clinical remission was obtained after treatment. A detailed review of the literature on syphili...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Martins CJ, Lima RB, Eyer-Silva WA, Almenara CB, Carvalho-Rangel I, Carvalho RS, Basílio-de-Oliveira RP, Araujo LF, Ferry FRA, Silva LRD Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Colonization profile and duration by multi-resistant organisms in a prospective cohort of newborns after hospital discharge.
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the spontaneous decolonization period and characteristics in a prospective cohort of newborns colonized by multidrug-resistant organisms, after their discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Multidrug resistance is defined as bacterial non-susceptibility to ≥ 1 agent of ≥ 3 antimicrobial categories. In total, 618 newborns were included in the study, of which 173 (28.0%) presented a positive culture for multidrug-resistant microorganisms, and of these, 52 (30.1%) were followed up in this study. The most frequent intrinsic factors were be born by cesarean...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sakai AM, Iensue TNAN, Pereira KO, Silva RLD, Pegoraro LGO, Salvador MSA, Rodrigues R, Capobiango JD, Souza NAA, Pelisson M, Vespero EC, Yamauchi LM, Perugini MRE, Yamada-Ogatta SF, Rossetto EG, Kerbauy G Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Zika virus infection in the genital tract of non-pregnant females: a systematic review.
Abstract This review provides a general overview on the positivity and persistence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in female genital tract (FGT) of non-pregnant women and animals, as well as in cell cultures, and its influence on FGT health. We performed a systematic review based on the PRISMA statement to identify studies focused on "Zika virus" and "non-pregnant female" in PubMed, Embase, Scopus Scholar and Web of Knowledge databases of full-text papers and abstracts published in English, with no restrictions regarding the initial date of publication, up to August 2019. Our search terms yielded 625 reco...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - March 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Morelli F, Souza RP, Cruz TED, Damke GMZF, Damke E, Suehiro TT, Silva VRSD, Consolaro MEL Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Molecular detection of prepatent Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria glabrata snail vectors.
Santo MCCD Abstract Approximately 240 million people worldwide are infected by Schistosoma. In Brazil, one of the main intermediate hosts of this parasite is Biomphalaria glabrata snails. The early detection of larval stages in intermediate hosts is an important challenge to public health, but it also represents an opportunity as a new alternative to indicate earlier natural infections before cercariae differentiation and emergence. In this context, we demonstrated that PCR amplification of a 28S gene fragment from the parasite does demonstrate S. mansoni infection in snails 14 days post infection. This convention...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - March 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Casotti MO, Gryschek RCB, Paula FM, Gomes-Gouvêa M, Pinho JRR, Tuan R, Dias-Neto E, Luna EJA, Espírito-Santo MCCD Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

A cross-sectional study on dental surgeons' immune status against hepatitis B virus in the Public Health System.
This study aimed to determine the immunization profile of dental surgeons - against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the Public Health System (PHS) through the detection of anti-HBsAg antibodies by immunochromatography and associations with dental surgeons' social and educational profile, factors related to professional knowledge and practices. This is a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of vaccination and immune status to HBV in dentists of Sao Paulo State PHS. Data collection occurred in three stages: questionnaire application, analysis of adhesion to the vaccination protocol and anti-HBsAg tests. Statistical analysis us...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - March 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Garbin CAS, Wakayama B, Saliba TA, Saliba Junior OA, Garbin AJÍ Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Human visceral leishmaniasis: epidemiological, temporal and spacial aspects in Northeast Brazil, 2003-2017.
This study aimed to characterize HVL in its epidemiological andtemporal aspects in Ceara State, from 2003 to 2017, as this is a neglected disease and a public health problem. This is an ecological study carried out with HVL confirmed cases in Ceara, using three blocks of years (2003 to 2007, 2008 to 2012 and 2013 to 2017). The disease presented an endemic behavior, affecting mainly male residents in the urban area, especially children under five and young adults between 30 and 49 years old. HVL is recorded in all the municipalities, for more than 10 years, with a growing trend and territorial expansion to the Central and E...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Cavalcante FRA, Cavalcante KKS, Florencio CMGD, Moreno JO, Correia FGS, Alencar CH Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Efficacy of antiviral therapy during the second or the third trimester for preventing mother-to-child hepatitis B virus transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract For pregnant women with high viral load, antiviral therapy has been administered in addition to active and passive immune prophylaxis as a crucial adjunctive therapy to interrupt mother-to-child hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission (MTCT). However, the time of antiviral therapy onset remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy of antiviral therapy during the second or the third trimester for prevention of HBV vertical transmission. We searched nine databases for observational studies and randomized controlled trials that enrolled pregnant women with p...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yang X, Zhong X, Liao H, Lai Y Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Novel kidney injury biomarkers in tropical infections: a review of the literature.
This study has increased the knowledge on the pathophysiology of kidney disease in the presence of these infections and has contributed to the early diagnosis of kidney injury, pointing to glomerular, endothelial and inflammatory involvement as the main causes of the mechanisms leading to nephropathy and clinical complications. Future perspectives comprise establishing long-term cohort groups to assess the development of kidney disease and the patients' survival, as well as the use of new biomarkers such as urinary exosomes to detect risk groups and to understand the progression of kidney injuries. PMID: 32074217 [Pub...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Meneses GC, Silva Junior GBD, Tôrres PPBF, Castro VQ, Lopes RL, Martins AMC, Daher EF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Analysis of mitochondrial enzymatic activity in blood lymphomonocyte fractions during infection with different Trypanosoma cruzi strains.
la HW, Paglini-Oliva PA Abstract Proinflammatory and inflammatory mediators induced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection increase the oxidative stress, generating toxicity for cells targeting mitochondria of different tissues. We studied the activity of citrate synthase and complexes I-IV of respiratory chain in mitochondria of blood lymphomonocyte fraction, from albino Swiss mice infected with different isolates of T. cruzi , during Chagas disease evolution. Complexes I-IV were modified in infected groups (p
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Báez AL, Lo Presti MS, Bazán PC, Strauss M, Velázquez López DA, Miler N, Rivarola HW, Paglini-Oliva PA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of pre-extensive drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northeast Brazil.
This study investigated the risk factors associated with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and identified the drug-resistance phenotype and resistance-conferring mutations. The geographic distribution of DR-TB in Fortaleza, Brazil, was also determined. From March 2017 to February 2018, 41 DR-TB isolates and 69 drug-susceptible pulmonary TB isolates were obtained from patients seen at a referral hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. Samples were subjected to phenotypic and genetic analysis of resistance; the spatial distribution of the participants was also analyzed. Primary resistance was high (50.9%) among participants. The fo...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Campelo TA, Lima LNC, Lima KVB, Silva CS, Conceição MLD, Barreto JAP, Mota APP, Sancho SO, Frota CC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Presence of genes encoding enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from food, food establishment surfaces and cases of foodborne diseases.
Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological characteristics and profile of genes encoding enterotoxins in 95 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained between April 2011 and December 2014 from foodstuffs, persons and surfaces of retail food stores. After microbiological identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed, targeting sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes that code for classical enterotoxins (ET) A-E, and three additional genes: seg , seh and sei , coding for so-called "new enterotoxins" G, H and I. The isolates were chara...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Machado V, Pardo L, Cuello D, Giudice G, Luna PC, Varela G, Camou T, Schelotto F Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii keratitis: rare case reported in Brazil.
In this report, we described a rare case of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii keratitis in a young healthy male, in the absence of risk factors. PMID: 32049257 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Silva SC, Almeida IN, Ribeiro WC, Miranda SS, Rocha ACH Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Vaccuuming method as a successful strategy in the diagnosis of active infestation by Pediculus humanus capitis.
Abstract Most human epidemiological and clinical studies use visual inspection of the hair and scalp to diagnose Pediculus humanus capitis , however this method has low sensitivity to diagnose active infestations (presence of nymphs and adult lice). Vacuuming the hair and scalp has been used as a diagnostic method, but there are no previous data comparing its effectiveness with visual inspection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overall infestation (nits and trophic stages), of active infestation by Pediculus humanus capitis , and to evaluate the effectiveness of vacuuming in comparison wit...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lustosa BPR, Haidamak J, Oishi CY, Souza AB, Lima BJFS, Reifur L, Shimada MK, Vicente VA, Aleixandre MAV, Klisiowicz DDR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Access and adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy and occurrence of active TB in a cohort of people living with HIV: a retrospective cohort study in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
In this study, we addressed the access and adherence to PTI in a cohort of PLHIV with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) in a reference HIV clinic in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We have also analyzed the occurrence of active TB over a median of 131 months after a positive TST among study participants. Our findings revealed that 88.3% of the 238 TST-positive patients had access to PTI, and 196 (93.3%) of those with access adhered to PTI. Active tuberculosis was diagnosed in three of the 196 TST-positive patients who adhered to PTI (1.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-4.4%), whereas seven cases were detected among 42 patients wit...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Picone CM, Freitas AC, Gutierrez EB, Avelino-Silva VI Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

A Real Time PCR strategy for the detection and quantification of Candida albicans in human blood.
Abstract Candidemia is a significant cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in nosocomial settings. The identification of species can potentially improve the quality of care and decrease human mortality. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was evaluated for Candida albicans detection using culture suspensions containing C. albicans , spiked human blood, the cloned qPCR target fragment (ITS2 region) and the results of these assays were compared. The assays showed a good detection limit: C. albicans DNA extracted from yeast (sensitivity 0.2 CFU/µL), spiked human blood (sensitivity 10 CFU/mL), and cloned fragment of ITS2 re...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Busser FD, Coelho VC, Fonseca CA, Del Negro GMB, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Lopes MH, Magri MMC, Freitas VLT Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Prevalence of dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in a medium-sized city, Amazon, Brazil.
ebi R, Costa ACD Abstract Aedes aegypti is associated with epidemic diseases in Brazil, such as urban yellow fever, dengue, and more recently, chikungunya and Zika viruses infections. More information about Ae. aegypti infestation is fundamental to virological surveillance in order to ensure the effectiveness of control measures in use. Thus, the present study aims to identify and compare infestation and infectivity of Ae. aegypti females in Macapa city, Amapa State (Amazon region), Brazil, between the epidemiological weeks 2017/02 and 2018/20. A total number of 303 Ae. aegypti females were collected at 21 fixed c...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Monteiro FJC, Mourão FRP, Ribeiro ESD, Rêgo MODS, Frances PADC, Souto RNP, Façanha MDS, Tahmasebi R, Costa ACD Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Hepatitis C in the three main health institutions in Mexico: a 13-year mortality and hospitalization analysis.
In conclusion, the mortality and hospitalizations rates found in this study reflect a decrease in the burden of HCV in Mexico. PMID: 32049262 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ascencio-Montiel IJ Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Rabies encephalitis and extra-neural manifestations in a patient bitten by a domestic cat.
We present the case of a 25-year-old woman admitted due to behavioral disorders, generalized paresthesiasand acute respiratory deterioration compatible with a respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring orotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation and empirical initiation of antibiotic and antiviral therapy. Chest tomography showed pneumomediastinum and changes suggestive of pulmonary infection. In the presence of neurological symptoms, a central nervous system (CNS) infection was suspected and the cerebrospinal fluid showed no pleocytosis, hiperproteinorrachy without glucose consumption; cranial CT scan was normal. D...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Soler-Rangel S, Jiménez-Restrepo N, Nariño D, Rosselli D Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Kaposi's sarcoma in a HIV-positive patient: an exuberant and widespread case report in the Amazon.
Abstract A 37-year-old male patient, Fitzpatrick skin phototype IV, a student living in Belem, Amazon region, in 2015 had a confirmed diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but did not initiate antiretroviral treatment at his own option. Three years after the diagnosis, erythematous maculae appeared on the dorsum of the nose with rapid progression to the entire face, with posterior diffuse infiltration and appearance of nodules on the chin and shoulder. In December 2018, the patient presented with exacerbation of the condition with an increase in infiltrated violaceous plaques and disseminat...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pires CAA, Monteiro JCMS, Rego RM, Lodi VJC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

An exceptional case report of disseminated cryptococcosis in a hitherto immunocompetent patient.
We described a case of an apparently immunocompetent 66-years old man admitted to hospital with a one-month history of cough, fever and vertigo. During hospitalization, thorax imaging was suggestive of lung metastasis, therefore, he went through several investigations. During hospitalization, he developed neurological symptoms and subsequently underwent a lumbar puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture was positive for Cryptococcus spp. isolated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and bird seed agar. In addition, the direct microscopy examination was positive for the India ink test, as well as with the latex agglutination test...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - January 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Adzic-Vukicevic T, Cevik M, Poluga J, Micic J, Rubino S, Paglietti B, Barac A Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Influence of vaccine-preventable diseases and HIV infection on demand for an infectious diseases service in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, over 22 years - Part II (1995-2016).
ra SA Abstract Patients' data during daily clinical care are extremely important for improving the allocation of healthcare resources and for assessing healthcare demands. The prospective gathering of these data over decades allowed us to describe the trends of infectious diseases in a tertiary hospital. The results concerning the period between 1965 and 1994 described the exponential increase in the incidence of HIV infection and its important effects on our institutional mortality. The present study describes the demand for the same hospital between 1995 and 2016. There were 4,691 admissions and the main causes ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ferreira LDC, Setúbal S, Keim LS, Oliveira SA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Pancreatitis as a severe complication of leptospirosis with fatal outcome: a case report.
We report a male patient who presented with an atypical leptospirosis that progressed with severe acute pancreatitis, acute kidney injury and atrial fibrillation. Early diagnosis and adequate supportive therapy are crucial for the appropriated management of symptoms. PMID: 31859840 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gomes PEAC, Brilhante SO, Carvalho RB, Sousa DR, Daher EF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Transmission control of schistosomiasis mansoni in a low endemicity area through a single intervention with rigorous prospection of infected cases treated with praziquantel: evaluation after 7 years of intervention.
o PMZ Abstract A prospective cohort study with rigorous searching for schistosomiasis cases was conducted among residents of Pedra Preta, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, seven years after an intervention. Kato-Katz (KK), Saline Gradient, Miracidia Hatch and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were used as the diagnostic methods in 2008. In the period of 2013-2016, 175 patients remaining in the area were examined using the diagnostic methods Kato-Katz (24 slides, 1 g of feces) and Saline Gradient (2 procedures, 1 g of feces). Sixty-eight out of the 69 infected and treated individuals in 2008 tested negative....
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Carneiro NFF, Caldeira AP, Katz N, Oliveira ÁA, Siqueira LMV, Oliveira E, Silveira MF, Enk MJ, Coelho PMZ Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in children: case report and case series from an endemic area of Brazil.
We present HCPS in a child from the Pantanal Biome and a review of all reported pediatric cases in Mato Grosso State, an endemic area for HCPS in Brazil. The investigation used the Information System for Notifiable Diseases database (SINAN). A 12-year-old boy was hospitalized with fever and respiratory failure and hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA in serum samples. During the period of 1999 to 2016, 32 HCPS pediatric cases confirmed by serology were reported to SINAN with a mortality rate of 34.4%. The possibility of hantavirus infection in children with acute febrile illness associated with respirat...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Terças-Trettel ACP, Melo AVG, Bonilha SMF, Moraes JM, Oliveira RC, Guterres A, Fernandes J, Atanaka M, Espinosa MM, Sampaio L, Ueda SK, Lemos ERS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of rodent-borne viruses in Afro-descendent communities in Brazil.
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of rodent-borne viruses in two Afro-descendent communities from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Midwestern Brazil. A total of 319 individuals from rural and urban quilombola communities were enrolled. Twelve (3.76%) had anti-rodent-borne virus IgG antibodies. Seven (2.19%) were anti-mammarenavirus reactive and nine (2.82%) had anti-orthohantavirus antibodies. The literature includes limited data on the health status of quilombola communities, but all the studies emphasize the disparity of attention of local healthcare personnel to these communities compared to the gen...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fernandes J, Coelho TA, Oliveira RC, Guedes LSAL, Teixeira BR, Guterres A, Niel C, Levis SC, Lago BV, Motta-Castro ARC, Lemos ERS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research