Neurosyphilis in Brazilian newborns: a health problem that could be avoided.
Abstract Syphilis is a public health problem, especially in pregnant women, due to the risk of transmission to the fetus and the involvement of the central nervous system, causing neurosyphilis. A case-control study was carried out to analyze the variables associated with neurosyphilis in Brazilian newborns of pregnant women with syphilis admitted for childbirth. Newborns were submitted to treponemal and non-treponemal tests, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and long bone radiography. Newborns diagnosed with neurosyphilis and congenital syphilis were defined as cases and controls, respectively. The length of hospital...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ribeiro ADDC, Dan CS, Santos ADS, Croda J, Simionatto S Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical detection of Lp25 and LipL32 proteins in skeletal and cardiac muscles of fatal human leptospirosis.
Abstract Leptospirosis is an acute infection caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira, which affects humans and animals in all world. In severe forms of the disease, kidneys, liver and lungs are the main affected organs, resulting in acute kidney injury, jaundice and pulmonary hemorrhage. Previous post-mortem studies have shown that lesions are not limited to these organs. Cardiac and striated muscle injuries have already been reported, but the pathophysiology of cardiac and skeletal lesions in leptospirosis is not fully understood. It has been suggested that the tissue damage observed in leptospirosis...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Iglezias SD, Abreu PAE, Kanamura C, Magaldi AJ, Seguro AC, Brito T Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Unusual case of lagochilascariasis with breast involvement: the first case report in pregnancy.
cedil;a FOS Abstract Lagochilascariasis is a neglected neotropical helminthiasis, responsible for human infections through the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat from wild animals infected by larvae encysted in their tissues. It is characterized by a chronic evolution with periods of remission and recurrences, affecting mainly the head and neck regions. It can progress to death by invasion of the central nervous system. It is caused by the Lagochilascaris minor nematode, first described in 1909 and mainly found in the Brazilian Amazon ecosystem, notably in Para State. In May 2010, a 15-year-old female, born in t...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Assy JGPL, Esper HR, Quiroga MMM, Brandão ADS, Said RDC, Pinheiro OC, Ribeiro APDS, Santo MCCDE, França FOS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Severe gastrintestinal bleeding as an unusual presentation of pediatric tuberculosis: a situation for injectable antituberculous drugs use?
We report a case of a 4-year-old girl admitted due to disseminated tuberculosis with extensive intestinal involvement characterized by massive intestinal bleeding and hemorrhagic shock. The severity of the intestinal involvement precluded the exclusive use of oral anti-tuberculosis drugs and the patient was successfully treated with a combination of injectable and oral anti-tuberculosis agents. We discuss the importance of a regimen with injectable drugs for treating severe forms of tuberculosis in which the intestinal involvement impaired the use of oral drugs. PMID: 33146307 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Santos ACEZ, Sztajnbok J, Duarte-Neto AN, Sousa AFT, Lopes AGD, Barrientos ACM Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Bartonella henselae infection induces a persistent mechanical hypersensitivity in mice.
Abstract Bartonella spp. are re-emerging and neglected bacterial pathogens. The natural reservoirs for several species of this genus are domestic animals such as cats and dogs, the most common pets in the USA and Brazil. Some cat studies suggest that the infection is more prevalent in tropical and poverty-stricken areas. These bacteria were associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations: fever of unknown origin, endocarditis, angiomatosis, chronic lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, fatigue, paresthesia and pain. Our group has already demonstrated that B. henselae -infected sickle cell disease mice present wit...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Vieira-Damiani G, Almeida AR, Silva MN, Lania BG, Soares TCB, Drummond MR, Lins KA, Ericson M, Gupta K, Velho PENF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal distribution of human American visceral leishmaniasis in the Western region of Sao Paulo State, from 2004 to 2018.
ki RB Abstract Leishmaniasis comprises a group of zoonotic diseases caused by protozoa belonging to the Leishmania genus, noting that the visceral form is the most severe and lethal, if untreated. Nowadays visceral leishmaniasis is widespread in Brazil and the Adamantina microregion, located in the west of Sao Paulo State, has been affected by Human American Visceral Leishmaniasis (HAVL) since 2004. We evaluated the epidemiological profile of HAVL in the Adamantina microregion through a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and established its incidence rate by location and time. Notified cases were provided by the...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rancan EA, Chagas EFB, Sperança MA, Carvalho VCL, Martins LPA, Suzuki RB Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children and adolescents: comparison of two versions of the Brazilian Ministry of Health scoring system.
MC, Tahan TT, Rodrigues CO, Kritski AL, Sant'Anna CC, Cardoso CAA, Sant'Anna MFBP Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance between two versions of the scoring system (2011 and 2019), recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children and adolescents. A retrospective descriptive study was performed to assess the medical records of children and adolescents with PTB, in TB units from Brazilian cities located in Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, and Parana States, from January 1 st , 2004, to December 1 st , 2018. Patients aged 0 to 18 year...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Carvalho RF, Carvalho ACC, Velarde LGC, Rossoni AMO, Aurilio RB, Sias SMA, Schmidt CM, Moreira ADSR, Martins PDS, Gonçalves LI, Martire TM, Barbosa APF, Santos APQD, Romanelli RMC, Oliveira MDGR, Diniz LMO, Carvalho AL, Lucena SC, Cruz MLS, Saavedra MC, Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Absence of gender influence on the pharmacokinetics of chloroquine combined with primaquine in malaria vivax patients.
The objective of the study was to investigate whether gender modifies the pharmacokinetics parameters of chloroquine in patients with malaria vivax. A prospective study was performed in male and female adult patients using chloroquine (total dose of 25 mg/kg for three days) combined with primaquine. Serial blood samples were collected at admission and up to 672 h post-administration of the drugs. Chloroquine was measured in plasma samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A non-compartmental analysis was used for modeling the data. A total of 26 male and 25 female patients were enrolled...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Vieira MVDF, Mello AGCN, Sena LWP, Vieira JLF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Determination of the viability of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by PCR real-time after treatment with propidium monoazide.
This study aimed to investigate a methodology for discriminating viable and non-viable T. gondii oocysts in water. Analyses included two steps: (i) microscopic investigation with vital dyes; (ii) molecular investigation, using a real time PCR (qPCR), after parasite treatment (or not) with propidium monoazide (PMA). The method was called qPCR-PMA. Oocyst aliquots were incubated (15 min) at 25 ºC or 100 ºC and analyzed by microscopy, after trypan blue and neutral red staining. Microscopic investigation determined viable and non-viable oocysts. For the molecular investigation, both aliquots of oocysts were treated w...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marciano MAM, Silva RA, Barbosa ML, Ferreira ARS, Pereira-Chioccola VL Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Lacaziosis: immunohistochemical evaluation of elements of the humoral response in cutaneous lesions.
Abstract Lacaziosis is a cutaneous mycosis caused by the fungus Lacazia loboi, described in different countries of Latin America and prevalent in the Amazon region. The ineffective immune response against the agent seems to be related to a Th2 pattern of cytokines. There are few reports exploring elements of the humoral response in these lesions. Our aim was to investigate some elements focusing on B cells, plasma cells and local expression of IgG and IgM antibodies. Forty skin biopsies of lower limbs were selected. The diagnosis of lacaziosis was based on direct mycological examination and histological analysis. ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kanashiro-Galo L, Alexandre AF, Tafuri WL, Barboza TC, Quaresma JAS, Brito AC, Nascimento GYFDSD, Santos Filho AMD, Sotto MN, Pagliari C Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema in COVID-19: case report and literature review.
We report one COVID-19 patient who presented with a transient pneumothorax, spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SP), as well as subcutaneous emphysema during hospitalization. Chest CT andclinical findings were discussed, and a literature review is presented. The probable cause of SP in COVID-19 was alveolar damage. Once pneumothorax and SP were present, the patient should be carefully monitored to prevent respiratory deterioration, especially when lung lesions are severe. PMID: 33053145 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Shan S, Guangming L, Wei L, Xuedong Y Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of meningitis and meningoencephalitis with an automated real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction in a tertiary reference complex in Medell ín, Colombia.
This study aimed to describe the performance of an automated multiplex molecular test from patients with suspected meningitis and meningoencephalitis in a tertiary referral complex in Medellin, Colombia. Thus, a prospective study was performed in 638 cerebrospinal fluid samples from January 2017 to July 2019. Molecular detections were carried out by means of the FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (M/E) Panel from bioMérieux, France, and by conventional tests. Univariate analyses for microbiological and demographic characteristics were performed. Accuracy of the bacterial/fungal PCR assay compared to cultures was...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Peñata A, Mesa S, Leal A, Castaño T, Bustamante J, Sigifredo O Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Vertical transmission of HIV from 2007 to 2018 in a reference university hospital in Rio de Janeiro.
e SR Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. The study design is a retrospective cohort. The population consisted of 323 HIV-positive mothers and their newborns, attended at the Perinatal Nucleus/HUPE-UERJ, municipality of Rio de Janeiro, in the period of 2007-2018. The average age of mothers was 27 years (14-44), with 12.7% (41) of adolescents. The majority (66.8%) knew they were infected during pregnancy: 39.4% in the current pregnancy and 27.4% in a previous pregnancy. The incidence of MTCT was 2.7% in 2007-2009, 1% in 2010-2015 and 0 i...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gouvêa ADN, Trajano AJB, Monteiro DLM, Rodrigues NCP, Costa JTD, Cavalcante MB, Auar DF, Gouvea EF, Taquette SR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Estimation of Leishmania spp. infection in asymptomatic people from Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India by antigen-antibody and skin testing.
Abstract Asymptomatic VL is a concern, considering the risk of transmission in highly endemic areas due to human-to-human transmission. The aim of this study was to report the sero-epidemiological prevalence in Bihar, India, a highly endemic area of VL, using the leishmanin skin test (LST) and the direct agglutination test (DAT). This was a cross-sectional study performed in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India. Relatives of patients with VL were tested by LST and DAT. Other epidemiological data were evaluated and correlated with tests results. Forty individuals (either previous or current patients), and 109 household contac...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Johanson GH, Amato VS, Ribeiro VST, Tuon FF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Calvarial tuberculosis: two cases in children.
ACC Abstract Tuberculosis of the skull or calvarial tuberculosis (CTB) is rare. The literature until 2019 reported less than 60 cases of CTB in childhood. The authors describe two patients with CTB associated with other manifestations of TB, such as: spine and rib injuries, peripheral adenopathy, hepatic and splenic involvement who improved with chemotherapy. The patients were a four-year-old and an eight-year-old child, whose diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological, bacteriological or molecular investigation. Both were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and did not need orthopedic tre...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sant'Anna CC, Perinei PLF, Pessôa ACM, Goudouris E, Frota ACC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Survival analysis in non-congenital neurological disorders related to dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections in Northeast Brazil.
da HR Abstract The Northeast of Brazil has experienced a triple epidemic, with the simultaneous circulation of dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which may have contributed to the observed increase across this region of atypical forms of disease and deaths. In view of this fact, non-congenital neurological disorders related to arboviruses were compared with other etiologies, mortality and survival rates of patients admitted to referral neurology hospitals in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, from 2015 to 2018. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and tested usin...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lima ECB, Montarroyos UR, Magalhães JJF, Dimech GS, Lacerda HR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Viral metagenomics in blood donors with post-donation diseases and negative tests for dengue and Zika viruses RNA detection during a major outbreak of arboviruses in Sao Paulo State in 2016.
PMID: 33027394 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bezerra RDS, Peronni KC, Barros BDF, Oliveira LS, Rodrigues ES, Azevedo R, Ubiali EMA, Covas DT, Kashima S, Slavov SN Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Access to drinking water and sewage treatment in Brazil: a challenge for the control of waterborne infectious diseases.
a FOS PMID: 33027395 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gomes FMDS, Santo MCCDE, Gryschek RCB, Bertolozzi MR, França FOS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Impact of health interventions on epidemiological and operational leprosy indicators in a hyperendemic municipality of Brazil.
Abstract The study aimed to analyze the impact of health interventions carried out in the city of Palmas, Brazil, on the epidemiological and operational indicators of leprosy between 2007 and 2017. The intervention consisted of training healthcare personnel on the diagnosis and follow-up of patients and organizing the referral of patients to health units. Estimates of the impact were calculated by taking the differences between indicators reported in two equal periods of 1.5 years pre- and post-intervention, with a transition period of six months. During the study period, the database contained 1,875 notifications...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Silva CSD, Barreto JA, Avelino-Silva VI, Bierrenbach AL Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Interactions between malnutrition, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and poverty among children living in periurban communities in Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil.
In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil. PMID: 33027397 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Almeida MM, Monteiro KJL, Bacelar PAA, Santos JPD, Freitas SPC, Evangelista BBC, Leal DN, Silva DAE, Cardoso AB, Nascimento EFD, Moraes Neto AHA, Carvalho-Costa FA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 and Triatoma pseudomaculata Corr êa and Espínola, 1964 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in rural communities in Northeast Brazil.
Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 and Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa and Espínola, 1964 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in rural communities in Northeast Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2020;62:e74 Authors: Ferreira ALDS, Santana MA, Santos LVBD, Monteiro DP, Campos JHF, Sena LLJ, Mendonça VJ Abstract Chagas disease is an important endemic morbidity in Latin America affecting millions of people in the American continent. It is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted through the feces of the insect vector belonging to the subfamily Triatominae. The prese...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ferreira ALDS, Santana MA, Santos LVBD, Monteiro DP, Campos JHF, Sena LLJ, Mendonça VJ Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

ERRATUM: SARS-CoV-2 infections with emphasis on pediatric patients: a narrative review.
Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article doi: 10.1590/s1678-9946202062065]. PMID: 33027389 [PubMed] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - September 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis: unusual presentation in an alcoholic patient.
We report an alcoholic 56-year-old male patient with no other comorbidities, presenting with multiple cutaneous nodules and ulcers. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was initially treated with amphotericin B with satisfactory results and then with itraconazole. PMID: 32876295 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - September 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Valente MF, Diogo AB, Merlo VFC, Pegas JRP Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Pregnancy and COVID-19: management and challenges.
Abstract The consequences of COVID-19 infecting pregnant women and the potential risks of vertical transmission have become a major issue. Since little is currently known about COVID-19 in pregnancy, the understanding of COVID-19 in this particular group will be updated in time, and a comprehensive review will be useful to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy. Based on recently published literature and official documents, this review provides an introduction to the pathogenesis, pathology, and clinical features of COVID-19 and has focused on the current researches on clinical features, pregnancy outcomes a...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - September 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Wenling Y, Junchao Q, Xiao Z, Ouyang S Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

How new molecular tools can help bugbusters: a Burkholderia cepacia complex outbreak investigation.
CONCLUSION: Environmental screening using genetic sequencing proved to be a useful tool for confirming our hypothesis of extrinsic contamination raised by the case-control study. PMID: 32876297 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - September 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Maciel ALP, Schmitt C, Baraldi MM, Silva CL, Oliveira LFV, Sampaio JLM, Lourenço RF, Levin AS, Boszczowski I Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Fighting HIV/AIDS in a developing country: lessons from a small cohort from the largest Brazilian city.
e AJS PMID: 32876298 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - September 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Casseb J, Veiga APR, Magri MMC, Monteiro MA, Rocha RC, Gascon MRP, Domingues-Ferreira M, Polis TJB, Nascimento NAL, Limongelli I, Oliveira ÍS, Prandi GC, Costa LMCBV, Fonseca LAM, Duarte AJS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Pneumothorax as a late complication of COVID-19.
We present a typical laboratory confirmed case of COVID-19 pneumonia, that was hospitalized due to hypoxemia but did not require mechanical ventilation. Although initially the patient was evaluated with a favorable outcome, in the third week of the disease, the symptomatology deteriorated due to a massive hypertensive pneumothorax with no known previous risk factor. Since the first cases of COVID-19 have been described, pneumothorax was characterized as a potential, though uncommon, complication. It has been reported that diffuse alveolar injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 can cause alveolar rupture, produce air leakage and inter...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - September 5, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ferreira JG, Rapparini C, Gomes BM, Pinto LAC, Freire MSDSE Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Spatial distribution of synanthropic triatomines in Piaui State, Northeastern Brazil.
This study aimed to describe the spatial distribution and assess entomological indicators of synanthropic triatomines in Piaui State, Northeastern Brazil. We used surveillance data on the detection, identification and assessment of natural infection with trypanosomatids from triatomines in the State from 2014 to 2017. The State was divided into four macroregions. In relation to the dispersion rates of triatomines, they were much lower in the North, when compared to Southwest, Southeast and Central North macroregions. Infestation rates were higher in the Southwest and Southeast and intradomicile infestation rates varied dur...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Santos JPD, Guimarães LM, Lima IP, Batista FMA, Carvalho-Costa FA, Santos-Mallet JRD Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Ideal benznidazole dose regimen in chronic chagasic patients: a systematic review.
Authors: PMID: 32844906 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Congenital Zika syndrome: association between the gestational trimester of maternal infection, severity of brain computed tomography findings and microcephaly at birth.
This study analyzed possible associations between the trimester of maternal Zika virus infection (ZIKV) in pregnancy, severity of brain computed tomography (CT) findings and the presence of microcephaly at birth in children with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). It was an analytical study in a cohort of children with CZS. Symptoms of maternal infection were dichotomized into the 1st trimester of pregnancy and other trimesters. Head circumference (HC) at birth was used to calculate the z-score. Mild microcephaly was defined as HC between 2 and ≥3 standard deviations (SD) below the mean for each gestational age and sex, and...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mendes AKT, Ribeiro MRC, Lamy-Filho F, Amaral GA, Borges MCR, Costa LC, Cavalcante TB, Batista RFL, Sousa PDS, Silva AAMD Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Frequency of congenital cytomegalovirus infections in newborns in the Sao Paulo State, 2010-2018.
Abstract Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections remain a neglected public health issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of HCMV congenital infections in newborns up to 1 month in the Sao Paulo State, from 2010 to 2018. The molecular characterization of HCMV-positive samples was also undertaken. Urine samples from 275 potential congenital HCMV-infected patients were tested by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). HCMV-positive samples were amplified by conventional PCR targeting the UL89 gene, sequenced and searched for mutations. A total of 32 (11.6%) positive-HCMV cases were dete...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Figueiredo CG, Luchs A, Durigon EL, Oliveira DBL, Silva VBD, Mello RM, Afonso AMS, Oliveira MI Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a handmade shell-based substrate for the breeding of Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions.
uza N Abstract Efficient snail production is essential for the proper maintenance of the Schistosoma mansoni life cycle in the laboratory. In order to improve the breeding of Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions, this study aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a handmade shell-based substrate on the physiological performance of B. glabrata. The shells used to make the substrate were cleaned, sterilized and macerated until a powder was obtained (yield of 92.3%). B. glabrata specimens were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: negative control group (NCG) exposed to a clay-only substrate; a ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 13, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rodrigues JGM, Lira MGS, Nogueira RA, Gomes GCC, Licá ICL, Viegas-Melo D, Teles-Reis A, Miranda GS, Silva-Souza N Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Thrombotic microangiopathy due to Bothrops erythromelas: a case report in Northeast Brazil.
In this report, we described the case of a 57 year-old-man without comorbidities who was bitten by a Bothrops erythromelas on his right ankle. He presented with pain, edema and local bleeding. Symptomatology and laboratory tests were compatible with the diagnosis of TMA. He received specific antivenom and fluids replacement without any anaphylactic reaction. The conservative treatment was effective and there was no need for red blood cells transfusion or plasmapheresis. The aim of this report was to describe the first case of thrombotic microangiopathy following Bothrops erythromelas envenoming in the Northeast Brazil, pro...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mota SMB, Albuquerque PLMM, Silva Júnior GBD, Daher EF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Ideal benznidazole dose regimen in chronic chagasic patients: a systematic review.
a CDL Abstract The present study aimed to review the existing literature and to evaluate the best dose regimen for benznidazole in adult patients with Chagas disease in the chronic phase. A systematic review was conducted followed by meta-analysis. Searches were performed in four databases, to include studies published until May 2019. The descriptors used were: "Chagas disease", "benznidazole", "Drug Therapy", "Pharmacokinetics", "Dose-response relationship, drug" and "Chronic disease". The meta-analysis compared studies using the standard dose of 5 mg/kg...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 31, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Frade VP, Simões NS, Couto NRB, Sanches C, Oliveira CDL Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Culture isolation and molecular identification of Blastocystis sp. in Brazilian human isolates: preliminary results.
k RCB Abstract Blastocystis sp. is a protist commonly found in stool samples of humans and animals. Biological and genetic factors of this organism remain controversial. The present study aimed to develop and implement the Blastocystis in vitro culture of Brazilian human isolates for routine use. The fecal isolates (n = 20) were maintained in our laboratory by several passages in Pavlova's medium. Cultures were monitored every 72 h by light microscopy. Genomic DNA was extracted to identify the subtypes (STs). In most isolates, the vacuolar form was prevalent. The amoeboid, granular and cystic forms were observed d...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Melo GB, Roldan W, Malta FM, Lescano SAZ, Castilho VL, Gonçalves EMDN, Paula FM, Gryschek RCB Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Capnocytophaga sputigena bloodstream infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantations: two cases report and review of the literature.
Abstract Capnocytophaga is a group of facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria present in the oral cavity of humans, dogs and cats, as part of their normal oral flora. Here, we described two cases of bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by Capnocytophaga in neutropenic autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) patients with mucositis (Grade I and Grade III) identified by Maldi-Tof. They were successfully treated with β-lactam (meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam). The species C. sputigena was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in one patient. The review of literature showed that C...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mendes FR, Bruniera FR, Schmidt J, Cury AP, Rizeck C, Higashino H, Oliveira FN, Rossi F, Rocha V, Costa SF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Severe coronavirus infection in pregnancy: challenging cases report.
Abstract There are few data on the impact of COVID-19 in pregnancy, however, analyzing these data is important to guide the clinical practice, covering the early prevention, detection, patients' isolation, epidemiological investigation, diagnosis and early treatment. This is a report of three cases of COVID-19 confirmed by real-time reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal secretions collected in swabs from pregnant women in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo State, Brazil. In the three cases, all the patients presented with fever, one had shortness of breath, one had diarrhea,...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Reis HLBD, Boldrini NAT, Caldas JVJ, Paz APCD, Ferrugini CLP, Miranda AE Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

24-hour Holter findings in infants with in-utero exposure to the Zika virus: a series of cases.
This study describes the 24-hour Holter findings of infants with confirmed vertical exposure to the ZIKV by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in the mother's blood during pregnancy and/or in the urine or cerebrospinal fluid of the newborn. Data analysis was descriptive and included two subgroups according to the presence of fetal distress, positive PCR to ZIKV in the newborn, CZS and severe microcephaly. Heart rate, pauses, arrhythmias, ST segment and QT interval analyses and HRV evaluation through R-R, SDNN, pNN50 and rMMSD were described. The Mann-Whitney test was performed to assess differences between the...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Orofino DHG, Passos SRL, Pone SM, Pone MVDS, Aguiar EB, Araújo IO, Ramos TM, Silva LMLE, Oliveira BM, Silva LND, Goldenzon RV, Moreira ME, Oliveira RVC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Prospective evalution of pregnant women with suspected acute toxoplasmosis treated in a reference prenatal care clinic at a university teaching hospital in Southern Brazil.
This study was conducted in a high-risk prenatal care outpatient clinic of a university teaching hospital. Pregnant women screened for specific IgM and IgG anti -T. gondii, attended from January 2009 to August 2018 were included. From 530 suspected patients, 218 were followed up and they presented positive IgM and IgG anti- T. gondii. From these patients, 83 (38.0%) had low IgG avidity, 39 (18%) seroconverted in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, 19 (8.7%) had no avidity test, 69 (31.6%) had high IgG avidity after 16 weeks of gestation, five had recurrent chorioretinitis (2.2%) and three (1.3%) were seropositive t...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Evangelista FF, Mantelo FM, Lima KK, Marchioro AA, Beletini LF, Souza AH, Santana PL, Riedo CO, Higa LT, Guilherme ALF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Molecular identification of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae): a neglected agent causing myiasis in Mexico.
lde;o C, Becker I Abstract Myiasis represents a group of neglected tropical diseases caused by the infestation of vertebrate tissues by dipterous larvae. We herein report an imported case of foruncular myasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in Mexico City. The species was confirmed by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction analysis. PMID: 32667394 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lozano-Sardaneta YN, Sánchez-Montes S, Fernández-Figueroa E, Rangel-Escareño C, Becker I Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 disease: a mini review on diagnostic methods.
Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease initially reported in China and currently worldwide dispersed caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV) affecting more than seven million people around the world causing more than 400 thousand deaths (on June 8th, 2020). The diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on the clinical and epidemiological history of the patient. However, the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is the viral detection through the amplification of nucleic acids. Although the quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been described as t...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oliveira BA, Oliveira LC, Sabino EC, Okay TS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Chronic heart diseases as the most prevalent comorbidities among deaths by COVID-19 in Brazil.
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of patients with comorbidities who died of COVID-19 in Brazil. Searches of data were carried out on the official pages of the 26 State health departments and the federal district. The random-effect method was used to calculate the prevalence of patients with comorbidities who died. From the beginning of the pandemic in Brazil until May 20, 2020, 276,703 cases of COVID-19 were notified in Brazil, 6.4% died, 58.6% of whom were male. The prevalence of comorbidities among deaths was 83% (95% CI: 79 - 87), with heart disease and diabetes being the most prevalent. To our...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 3, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pachiega J, Afonso AJDS, Sinhorin GT, Alencar BT, Araújo MDSM, Longhi FG, Zanetti ADS, Espinosa OA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Atypical clinical presentation of an Arthroderma gypseum infection in a renal transplant recipient.
Abstract Dermatophytes are known as a common cause of superficial mycosis, but atypical presentations in immunosuppressed patients make the diagnosis more challenging. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old patient, a renal transplant recipient from a living donor, who presented with atypical cutaneous lesions of lower extremities caused by Arthroderma gypseum (Nannizzia gypsea), four months after receiving a renal transplant. It is important to highlight the importance of the early detection of fungal infections in immunosuppressed patients. Clinicians should have a high degree of suspicion for the early detecti...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Belda Junior W, Criado PR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Prevalence of comorbidities in patients and mortality cases affected by SARS-CoV2: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract The new coronavirus, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Risk factors associated with this disease are age, sex, and the presence of comorbidities, the most common being hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. The aim of this meta-analysis was to calculate the prevalence and geographical distribution of comorbidities in all patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and the mortality rate of COVID-19. We selected studies based upon epidemiological and clinical descriptions of the patients and mortality from the disease to determine the pooled prev...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Espinosa OA, Zanetti ADS, Antunes EF, Longhi FG, Matos TA, Battaglini PF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Awareness of Chagas disease and socioeconomic characteristics of Bolivian immigrants living in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
In this study which is part of a research project on Chagas disease (CD) among Bolivian immigrants in Sao Paulo, we describe socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of CD and implications for acess to health care. We applied a structured questionnaire to a sample of 472 Bolivian adults (> 18 years) living in Sao Paulo and enrolled at the Barra Funda School Health Center. Participants' median age was 28.5 years, 75.0% were from the Bolivian department of La Paz, and>90% worked in the garment industry. Respondents had lived in Sao Paulo for a median of 5.8 years. Only 169 (35.8%) were familiar with CD, while roughly h...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Silva RAD, Wanderley DMV, Forsyth C, Leite RM, Luna EJA, Carneiro Júnior N, Shikanai-Yasuda MA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Chikungunya encephalitis: report of a fatal case in Northeastern Brazil.
We report a 57-year-old male patient with comorbidities, admitted with high fever, arthralgia, asthenia, vomiting, psychomotor agitation, behavioral changes and seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) values revealed pleocytosis (98 cells/mm3 with 68% lymphocytes and 12% monocytes) and high levels of protein (161 mg%). Brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the temporal and frontal lobes and bilaterally in the posterior thalamus. CSF serology was positive for IgM antibodies to Chikungunya virus. Encephalitis due to an acute viral infection by Chikungunya was diagnosed. The patient's clinical condition worsened and he died on...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lima ECB, Januário AMS, Fortuna EG, Real MEC, Lacerda HR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Relevance of epidemiological surveillance in travelers: an imported case of Leishmania tropica in Mexico.
We report the case of a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis who showed a rapidly progressing ulcerative lesion after traveling to multiple countries where different Leishmania species are endemic. Diagnosis of Leishmania tropica, an exotic species in Mexico was established by using serological and molecular tools. PMID: 32578727 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Fernández-Figueroa EA, Sánchez-Montes S, Miranda-Ortíz H, Mendoza-Vargas A, Cervantes-Sarabia R, Cárdenas-Ovando RA, Ruiz-Remigio A, Becker I Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Geoprocessing and spatial analysis for identifying leptospirosis risk areas: a systematic review.
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the geoprocessing and spatial analysis techniques adopted for mapping risk areas of human and animal leptospirosis. The articles were collected on scientific platforms by entering the following terms: SIG/GIS, leptospirose/leptospirosis, area de risco/risk area and distribuicao espacial/spatial distribution, and included in the study if they met the following criteria: a) publication in the period from 1998 to 2017; b) identification of risk areas and/or spatial distribution of leptospirosis as one of the research topics; and c) application of GIS in the met...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Souza IPO, Uberti MS, Tassinari WS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

The performance of an in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples in comparison with Xpert MTB/RIF, microscopy and culture.
Abstract Simple, low-cost and effective diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) are needed especially in TB-high burden settings. The present study evaluated the performance of an in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosing TB by comparing it to Xpert MTB/RIF, microscopy and culture. In Thailand, a total of 204 excess sputum samples volume after the processing of cultures were used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) detection by Xpert MTB/RIF and LAMP. Based on culture results as the gold standard, the overall sensitivity of LAMP and Xpert MTB/RIF were 82.1% (126/153; 95% confidential in...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Phetsuksiri B, Klayut W, Rudeeaneksin J, Srisungngam S, Bunchoo S, Toonkomdang S, Wongchai T, Nakajima C, Suzuki Y Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Frequency of genomic mutations mediating resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to rifampicin in Northern Morocco.
Abstract Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is challenging particularly in developing countries. As such, a previous investigation gave the first insight into the mutational status of the Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region (RRDR) of rpoB gene among a restricted number of MTB patients' residents in the Northern Morocco. The purpose of this study was to investigate rpoB mutation types and frequencies associated with resistance to Rifampicin in a larger panel of MTB patients and to evaluate the usefulness of these mutations to improve the diagnosis of resistance to Rifampicin. A panel of 301 consecutive sputum...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Karimi H, Oudghiri A, En-Nanei L, Mzibri ME, Laglaoui A, Chaoui I, Abid M Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research