Epidemiological profile of Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya virus infections identified by medical and molecular evaluations in Rondonia, Brazil.
o RCP Abstract Several arboviruses have emerged and/or re-emerged in North, Central and South-American countries. Viruses from some regions of Africa and Asia, such as the Zika and Chikungunya virus have been introduced in new continents causing major public health problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of RNA from Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses in symptomatic patients from Rondonia, where the epidemiological profile is still little known, by one-step real-time RT-PCR. The main clinical signs and symtoms were fever (51.2%), headache (78%), chills (6.1%), pruritus (12.2%), exanthema (...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Vieira DS, Zambenedetti MR, Requião L, Borghetti IA, Luna LKS, Santos AOD, Taborda RLM, Pereira DB, Krieger MA, Salcedo JMV, Rampazzo RCP Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Frequency and distribution of HPV genotypes in 800 genital samples of Ecuadorian men and women from the city of Guayaquil.
Cabezas JCR Abstract Even though there are data published on HPV epidemiology in Ecuador, the distribution of genotypes in Guayaquil, the largest city in the country, has not been previously determined in a study including including both, men and women. The present study aimed to determine the distribution of 37 HPV genotypes in genital samples from Ecuadorian men and women living in the city of Guayaquil. Genital samples included in daily diagnostic routine were analyzed by the 37 HPV GenoArray Diagnostic Kit (Hybribio® Ltd., Sheung Wan, Hong Kong). The relative frequency of detectable genotypes was determine...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Muentes GDG, García MAM, Galárraga RIB, Ollague K, Wachter CV, Cabezas JCR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies in patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: a systematic review.
Abstract American Tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by several species of Leishmania . Even though the direct detection of parasites has low sensitivity, it is still the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of ATL. Recent studies have shown promising results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays ( ELISAs) using recombinant antigens. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of ELISAs using novel antigens with the standard ELISA based on soluble antigens of Leishmania (SLA) to diagnose ATL. Studies that analyzed patients with ATL and studies that evaluated the diagnostic a...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zanetti ADS, Sato CM, Longhi FG, Ferreira SMB, Espinosa OA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Usefulness of a multiplex PCR for the rapid identification of Candida glabrata species complex in Mexican clinical isolates.
te;as-De-León MG Abstract Candida glabrata complex includes three species identified through molecular biology methods: C. glabrata sensu stricto , C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis . In Mexico, the phenotypic methods are still used in the diagnosis; therefore, the presence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis among clinical isolates is still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a multiplex PCR for the identification of the C. glabrata species complex. DNA samples from 92 clinical isolates that were previously identified through phenotypic characteristics as C. glabrata were amplifi...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Reyes-Montes MDR, Acosta-Altamirano G, Duarte-Escalante E, Salazar EG, Martínez-Herrera E, Arenas R, González G, Frías-De-León MG Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Anti-complement activity in salivary glands and midgut of Chagas disease vector, Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).
s VC Abstract The triatomine insect Panstrongylus megistus , one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in Brazil, presents salivary molecules pharmacologically active to counteract homeostatic responses from the host, including inhibitors of the human complement system, a major effector of immune responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of P. megistus salivary gland extract (SGE) on the complement system from different host species and characterize the inhibitory effect of SGE and intestinal contents on human complement. Glands and midguts from fourth instar nymphs were used. He...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mendes-Sousa AF, Rocha Filho EA, Macêdo MA, Barros VC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Acute petrified myocardium associated with meningococcal sepsis in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematous: a fatal case.
to AN Abstract Acute petrified myocardium associated with septic shock, diagnosed by autopsy has rarely been described. A 15-year-old adolescent male was diagnosed with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. One year later, he was hospitalized with fever, myalgia, headache, arthritis, vomiting, dyspnea and was diagnosed with sepsis secondary to bronchopneumonia and meningitis. Blood culture identified Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y. Despite antibiotics and intensive therapeutic measures, he died after 29 days of hospitalization. The autopsy revealed necrotic cardiomyocytes with dystrophic calcification ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - August 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Santos ACEZ, Luglio M, Delgado AF, Schuwartz CDSV, Marques HHS, Valões CCM, Dominguez MAC, Carvalho WB, Silva CA, Duarte-Neto AN Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Kidney involvement in yellow fever: a review.
Abstract Yellow fever is one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, which still affects a significant number of people every year, mainly in tropical countries. Mortality can be high, even with intensive treatment due to multiple organ failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This disease can also be a burden on the health care system in developing countries, without mentioning the number of lives that could be spared with an early diagnosis and adequate monitoring and treatment. The pathophysiology of yellow fever-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is still to be completely understood, and the best cl...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lopes RL, Pinto JR, Silva Junior GBD, Santos AKT, Souza MTO, Daher EF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Detection of virulence genes in Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from chicken carcasses.
Abstract During the last years, Brazilian government control programs have detected an increase of Salmonella Heidelberg in poultry slaughterhouses a condition that poses a threat to human health However, the reasons remain unclear. Differences in genetic virulence profiles may be a possible justification. In addition, effective control of Salmonella is related to an efficient epidemiological surveillance system through genotyping techniques. In this context, the aim of this study was the detection of 24 virulence-associated genes in 126 S. Heidelberg isolates. We classified the isolates into 56 different genetic ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Webber B, Borges KA, Furian TQ, Rizzo NN, Tondo EC, Santos LRD, Rodrigues LB, Nascimento VPD Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

First report of Raoultella ornithinolytica carrying blaKPC-2 isolated from a dipteran muscoid collected in a garbage from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
PMID: 31269108 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Carramaschi IN, Castro EAR, Leite JA, Queiroz MMC, Boas MHSV, Rangel K, Zahner V Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Antileishmanial activity of Melampodium divaricatum and Casearia sylvestris essential oils on Leishmania amazonensis.
In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of Melampodium divaricatum (MD-EO) and Casearia sylvestris (CS-EO) essential oils (EO) against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Sesquiterpenes E-caryophyllene (56.0%), germacrene D (12.7%) and bicyclogermacrene (9.2%) were identified as the main components of MD-EO, whereas E-caryophyllene (22.2%), germacrene D (19.6%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.2%) were the main constituents of CS-EO. CS-EO and E-caryophyllene were active against promastigote forms of L. amazonensis (IC50 24.2, 29.8 and 49.9 µg/mL, respectively). However, MD-EO, CS-EO and E...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Moreira RRD, Santos AGD, Carvalho FA, Perego CH, Crevelin EJ, Crotti AEM, Cogo J, Cardoso MLC, Nakamura CV Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular typing of rotavirus in children with acute diarrhoea in Northeastern Colombia.
Abstract After the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, the number of rotavirus-associated deaths and the predicted annual rotavirus detection rate had slightly declined worldwide. Taking in account that in Colombia, Rotarix vaccine was introduced in 2009, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of rotavirus A in children under five years who were treated for acute diarrhoea in Bucaramanga, Colombia and, moreover, to determine the genotypes of rotavirus present in those children. We performed an analytical cross-sectional study of rotavirus A in faecal samples from children up to five years of age...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - July 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Martinez-Gutierrez M, Arcila-Quiceno V, Trejos-Suarez J, Ruiz-Saenz J Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

New insights into the detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium with emphasis in Brazilian studies: a review.
Abstract Cryptosporidium spp. is a pathogenic protozoan present in the gastrointestinal tract of several hosts. This protozoan was originally classified as within the Coccidia Class and has recently been reclassified to gregarine based on studies that observed the evolutionary phases from the process of excision and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Molecular biology techniques have become diagnostic tools and have also been used to understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp., since several species of this genus are very similar morphologically and morphometrically. Molecular techniques have been used in th...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Cunha FS, Peralta RHS, Peralta JM Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: genetic diversity, mechanisms of resistance to polymyxins and clinical outcomes in a tertiary teaching hospital in Brazil.
In conclusion, we observed resistance to polymyxin in severely ill patients mostly from intensive care units and/or immunosuppressed patients with high mortality rates in whom a diversity of ColRKP clusters was identified and might indicate selective pressure. PMID: 31241658 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Boszczowski I, Salomão MC, Moura ML, Freire MP, Guimarães T, Cury AP, Rossi F, Rizek CF, Martins RCR, Costa SF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Basic heel prick test: inclusion of screening, diagnosis and criteria for early confirmation of congenital infection by Toxoplasma gondii.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii can cross the placental barrier, causing fetal infection with potentially severe sequelae. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serological screening for toxoplasmosis should be included in the basic neonatal heel prick test in order to establish criteria for the confirmation and/or exclusion of the diagnosis of congenital infection in newborns treated at three public health units in the metropolitan region of Goiania, Goias State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from newborns and later, peripheral blood samples from the mothers and their respective chil...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Storchilo HR, Rezende HHA, Gomes TC, Souza JY, Gomes Junior AR, Avelino MM, Amaral WND, Castro AM Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of terbinafine and amphotericin B in killing Fonsecaea nubica in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection. Itraconazole and terbinafine are the most recommended antifungal drugs for chromoblastomycosis, while amphotericin B is not usually recommended. A patient with chromoblastomycosis in our hospital showed poor clinical responses to itraconazole and terbinafine. The fungus isolated from the lesions of this patient was identified as Fonsecaea nubica and numbered zssy0803. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of F. nubica zssy0803 to terbinafine, amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were evaluated, as well as the combinations of terbin...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - June 19, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zhang J, Wu X, Li M, Huang J, Yin S, Huang H, Lu C, Xi L Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Genotyping of Leptospira interrogans isolates from Mexican patients.
nchez B, Velasco-Castrejón O Abstract The aim of this study was genotypically characterize Leptospira sp. clinical isolates from Mexico which were previously identified as Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (POM) by phenotypic methods. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used for DNA amplification with five oligonucleotides. A dendrogram was constructed using the Unweighted Pair Group Method Analysis (UPGMA). During the genotypic characterization, the studied isolates constituted a group which was associated with the reference strain L. interrogans serovar Pomona. The Minimum Spanning ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 6, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: García-González R, Reyes-Torres A, Reyes-Montes MDR, Duarte-Escalante E, Frías-De-León MG, Rivas-Sánchez B, Velasco-Castrejón O Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Fatal evolution of acute Chagas disease in a child from Northern Brazil: factors that determine poor prognosis.
We report a case of Acute Chagas disease caused by oral transmission in a child from Northern Brazil. In the hospital admission, physical examination showed tachycardia, hepatomegaly, bipalpebral edema and anasarca. Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes were found in microscopy during blood cell count. Twenty-three days before hospitalization, the child had ingested the "bacaba palm fruit's wine". Even with the appropriate diagnosis and starting of treatment, she did not survive. Quantitative analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in a blood sample resulted in 54,053.42 parasite equivalents/mL and the DTU TcIV was identif...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - May 6, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Esper HR, Freitas VLT, Assy JGPL, Shimoda EY, Berreta OCP, Lopes MH, França FOS Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Ozone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in contact lenses storage cases.
Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with ocular infections such as keratitis. Multipurpose contact lens solutions can be used for washing, disinfection and storage of contact lenses, however, P. aeruginosa biofilm disinfection by this method is unsatisfactory. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ozonated water in reducing P. aeruginosa colony count. Lenses kept in storage cases were contaminated with P. aeruginosa and disinfected using ozonized water, chlorhexidine, ultrasound and multipurpose solutions. The multipurpose solutions and ultrasound methods reduced colony count from 1...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oliver JC, Bredarioli PAP, Leandro FD, Ferreira CBRJ, Veiga SMOM, Dias ALT Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Performance of lactate in discriminating bacterial meningitis from enteroviral meningitis.
Abstract The cytological and biochemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been used for the presumed diagnosis of bacterial meningitis until the final microbiological results are achieved. We assessed the ability of CSF lactate in comparison with other CSF parameters to discriminate bacterial and enteroviral community acquired meningitis. We included 1,187 CSF samples of acute community-acquired meningitis, being 662 cases of bacterial and 525 of enteroviral meningitis. Lactate concentration (mg/dL), leukocyte count/mm3, protein (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL) were compared between bacterial and viral men...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Domingues RB, Fernandes GBP, Leite FBVM, Senne C Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Evaluation of the diagnostic potential of CD1a immunohistochemistry for visceral leishmaniasis.
Abstract Visceral Leishmaniasis is a public health problem caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. K39 serological test is commonly used in the initial investigation, with high specificity, but variable sensitivity. Amastigotes can be identified by optical microscopy, however, the differential diagnosis with cellular debris or other intracellular parasites is necessary. Recent studies have raised the possibility of using immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis with labeling of amastigotes by the anti-CD1a antibody. This retrospective study was based on 38 samples from patients with vi...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gadelha SAC, Cunha MDPSSD, Coelho GM, Marinho TMS, Hirth CG Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Characteristics of cases of tuberculosis coinfected with HIV in Minas Gerais State in 2016.
This study aimed to characterize the cases of tuberculosis (TB) co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, after the notification sheet modification, and to verify the association between the new variables and the treatment outcome. It is an analytical cross-sectional study with TB/HIV cases notified in the year 2016 to the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and multiple correspondence analysis were performed to verify the association between t...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 12, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Castro SS, Scatena LM, Miranzi A, Miranzi Neto A, Nunes AA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazon from 2010 to 2014.
This study aimed to identify the epidemiological profile of ATL and its spatial and temporal distribution in the Brazilian Amazon, from 2010 to 2014. Data were extracted from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, which descriptively evaluates the incidence rate, as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease. The highest prevalence of ATL was found in men and in the age group of 20-40 years. Approximately 95% of the cases were of cutaneous ATL and they were identified through direct examination. The spatial analysis has shown that ATL was widely distributed, both in rural and urban areas, and mor...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 12, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Teles GDC, Fonseca FR, Gonçalves MJF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Abiotic factors and population dynamic of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in an endemic area of dengue in Brazil.
This study aimed at understanding the population dynamics of A. aegypti and A. albopictus and the influence of abiotic factors in an endemic area of dengue. The study was conducted in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, over one year. In seven regions of the city, 50 ovitraps were installed in each neighborhood. The development of the larvae was monitored under controlled laboratory conditions until they reached the adult phase. A total of 50,900 eggs of Aedes sp. were collected, 26,073 of which reached adulthood: 25,496 (97.8 %) A. aegypti and 540 (2.1%) A. albopictus. A. aegypti was observed in al...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 12, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Custódio JMO, Nogueira LMS, Souza DA, Fernandes MF, Oshiro ET, Oliveira EF, Piranda EM, Oliveira AG Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Zika virus infection among symptomatic patients from two healthcare centers in Sao Paulo State, Brazil: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral detection in body fluids and serodynamics.
aud P Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) clinical presentation and frequency/duration of shedding need further clarification. Symptomatic ZIKV-infected individuals identified in two hospitals in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were investigated regarding clinical characteristics, shedding in body fluids, and serodynamics. Ninety-four of 235 symptomatic patients (Site A: 58%; Site B: 16%) had Real-Time PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection; fever, headache and gastrointestinal symptoms were less frequent, and rash was more frequent compared to ZIKV-negative patients. Real-Time PCR in serum had worse performance compared to plasma, while u...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 12, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tozetto-Mendoza TR, Avelino-Silva VI, Fonseca S, Claro IM, Paula AV, Levin AS, Sabino EC, Mendes-Correa MC, Figueiredo WM, Felix AC, Souza NCS, Costa AA, Inenami M, Silva RMGD, Levi JE, Romano CM, Paranhos-Baccalà G, Segurado AC, Mayaud P Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Virulence factors and integrons are associated with MDR and XDR phenotypes in nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Venezuelan university hospital.
In this study, we evaluated the possible association of multidrug resistance, virulence factors and integrons with intrahospital P. aeruginosa strains isolated from patients at Cumana hospital, Venezuela. Relevant clinical-epidemiological data were collected to study 176 strains (2009-2016) isolated from different hospital units. Bacterial resistance was classified as susceptible, low-level resistant (LDR), multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Most strains produced pyoverdine, DNase, gelatinase and hemolysin. Around 73% of the strains showed some type of movement. MDR and XDR strains increased fr...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - April 12, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rodulfo H, Arcia A, Hernández A, Michelli E, Martinez DDV, Guzman M, Sharma A, Donato M Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Murine typhus in Mexico City: report of an imported case.
;tez CR, Becker I Abstract Murine typhus is endemic in several countries. We herein report an imported case of murine typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi in Mexico City. This is the first report of a case after almost 20 years since the last report. The species was confirmed by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID: 30864621 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - March 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sánchez-Montes S, Colunga-Salas P, Fernández-Figueroa EA, Medel MLH, Benítez CR, Becker I Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Tegumentary leishmaniasis diagnosis: what happened with MST (Montenegro Skin Test) in Brazil?
PMID: 30864622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - March 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Braz LMA Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Reading of the Mitsuda test: comparison between diameter and total area by means of a computerized method.
In conclusion, there is a significant correlation between the standardized reading and the total area of the Mitsuda test. Digital dermoscopy can be an alternative instrument of evaluation, allowing the computerization and recording of the Mitsuda test. PMID: 30785559 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alecrim ES, Chaves AT, Pôrto LAB, Grossi MAF, Lyon S, Rocha MODC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women attended at Primary Health Care services in Amazon, Brazil.
This study showed a high prevalence (18%) of CT infection among pregnant women in Coari / Amazonas. Urine sampales were as good as cervical-vaginal ones for the screening of CT infection during the prenatal period. PMID: 30785560 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Azevedo MJN, Nunes SDS, Oliveira FG, Rocha DAP Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Increased serum gastrin in patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease coinfected with Helicobacter pylori.
Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi and Helicobacter pylori (HP) are pathogens that cause chronic diseases and have been associated with hypergastrinemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fasting gastrin levels in patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease (CD), coinfected or not by HP. The enrolled individuals were outpatients attending at the university hospital. HP infection was assessed by serology and 13 C-urea breath test. Fasting serum gastrin concentration was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Gastric endoscopic and histological features were also evaluated. Associations between CD and ser...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sousa JB, Etchebehere RM, Queiroz DMM, Fonseca FM, Batista BB, Junqueira IS, Camilo SMP, Oliveira AG Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Mixed infection by Histoplasma capsulatum isolates with different mating types in Brazilian AIDS-patients.
L, Zancopé-Oliveira RM Abstract Mixed infection by Histoplasma capsulatum isolates with different mating types, in AIDS-patients are described in this study. Morphological, mating type-specific PCR assay and multilocus sequencing type analysis of H. capsulatum isolates recovered from two Brazilian AIDS-patients were performed. Five H. capsulatum isolates were recovered at different times from the two patients. Three isolates were obtained from bone marrow (day 1 - CE0411) and buffy coat cultures (day 1 - CE0311; day 2 - CE0511) of patient 1, and two isolates were isolated from buffy coat cultures (day 3 - C...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Damasceno LS, Vite-Garín T, Ramírez JA, Rodríguez-Arellanes G, Almeida MA, Muniz MM, Mesquita JRL, Leitão TDMJS, Taylor ML, Zancopé-Oliveira RM Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Entomological and virological surveillance for dengue virus in churches in Merida, Mexico.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that some churches in Merida are infested with mosquitoes all year long and they potentially serve as sites for DENV transmission and should therefore be considered for inclusion in mosquito and arboviruses control and surveillance efforts. PMID: 30785563 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Baak-Baak CM, Cigarroa-Toledo N, Pech-May A, Cruz-Escalona GA, Cetina-Trejo RC, Tzuc-Dzul JC, Talavera-Aguilar LG, Flores-Ruiz S, Machain-Williams C, Torres-Chable OM, Blitvich BJ, Mendez-Galvan J, Garcia-Rejon JE Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Gastric cryptococcosis: an unusual presentation of a common opportunistic disorder.
tta R PMID: 30785564 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Eyer-Silva WA, Oliveira TC, Carvalho RS, Carvalho-Rangel I, Basílio-de-Oliveira RP, Araujo LF, Silva GARD, Neves-Motta R Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Lack of evidence of seronegative infection in an endemic area of Chagas disease.
Abstract The diagnosis of Chagas disease is based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi)-specific antibodies. Nonetheless, there is concern about the sensitivity of current serological assays due to reports of T. cruzi PCR positivity among seronegative individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate if T. cruzi seronegative infections occur in endemic areas. We recruited 2,157 individuals that were identified as having Chagas disease in a public health system database of an endemic region in Brazil. All participants were interviewed and 2,091 had a sample collected for serological and PCR testing. Fro...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Oliveira LC, Lee TH, Ferreira AM, Bierrenbach AL, Souza-Basqueira M, Oliveira CDL, Cardoso CS, Moreira CHV, Oikawa MK, Ribeiro ALP, Busch MP, Sabino EC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Sofosbuvir, ribavirin and pegylated interferon for a daclatasvir-resistent genotype 3 hepatitis C virus: case report and review.
i GPC Abstract Chronic Hepatitis C relapse after liver transplantation can lead to graft failure within a short time period. The high efficacy and good safety profile of direct-acting antivirals has led to consensual recommendations for using interferon-free treatment after liver transplantation. However, pegylated interferon may still be required for genotype 3 non-responders. We treated a liver graft recipient with grade 1 fibrosis in the biopsy with daclatasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks. He did not respond and progressed to grade 3 fibrosis. Lacking other options, we obtained a sustained virological response ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Mucenic M, Brandão ABM, Marroni CA, Fleck Junior AM, Zanotelli ML, Leipnitz I, Meine MH, Kiss G, Martini J, Schlindwein ES, Costabeber AM, Sacco FKR, Rossato G, Cantisani GPC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Risk factors for physical disability upon release from multidrug therapy in new cases of leprosy at a referral center in Brazil.
This study also shows that the disability grade upon admission is the main risk factor for disability upon release from MDT. This result draws attention to the importance of early diagnosis in disability prevention. PMID: 30785567 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Assis BPN, Lyon S, Grossi MAF, Rocha MODC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Good manufacturing practices of minimally processed vegetables reduce contamination with pathogenic microorganisms.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological and parasitological contamination of fresh RTE vegetables produced in agroindustries in the Federal District of Brazil (FD), and to correlate contamination with good manufacturing practices (GMP). One hundred and three samples of RTE vegetables were collected from six agroindustries for microbiology and parasitology analyses and correlate with GMP; 54 samples were collected from three hypermarkets for parasitological evaluation. None of the samples analyzed were positive for Salmonella sp. and for thermotolerant coliforms, but they were contaminated with total...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Maldonade IR, Ginani VC, Riquette RFR, Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Mendes VS, Machado ER Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Arbovirus control: what is the (real) stone in the way?
r JVJ PMID: 30785569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lopes TRR, Paiva MHS, Farias PCS, Silva Júnior JVJ Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

First report of an autochthonous human visceral leishmaniasis in a child from the South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.
We present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a history of recurrent fever, anorexia, cachexia, chronic fatigue, weight loss, left palpebral unilateral edema, persistent cough and pancytopenia. A diagnosis of VL was performed using a reference immunochromatographic rapid test. Identification of the infecting protozoan was directly obtained by PCR of bone marrow. The patient responded favorably to treatment using liposomal amphotericin B. This is the first report of human visceral leishmaniasis in the city of Lavras in the South of Minas Gerais State. This first report of VL highlighted the need of maintenance of permanent s...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 20, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Narciso TP, Carvalho RC, Campos LC, Viana AG, Fujiwara RT, Barçante TA, Alvarenga IM, Barçante JMP Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Quantitation of pulmonary fungal burden in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-infected mice by real-time PCR.
lo A Abstract Although colony-forming unit (CFU) counting is widely used to quantify fungal load in tissue from animal experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, several technical disadvantages have been described. Here we developed highly accurate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to determine the relative P brasiliensis load in lungs from infected mice. SYBR Green- and TaqMan-based assays using primers and probe for the 43-kDa glycoprotein (gp43) gene detected as little as 270 gene copies (about 2 fg of DNA) per reaction. Although qPCR assays cannot distinguish between living and dead yeasts, we fo...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 20, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Costa MV, Landgraf TN, Corrêa PC, Souza IEL, Fernandes FF, Panunto-Castelo A Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Bloodstream infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outpatients: risk factors for hospitalization and death.
We described 235 bloodstream infection (BSI) episodes in 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outpatients and evaluated risk factors for hospitalization and death. Records of outpatients presenting with positive blood cultures over a 5-year period (January 2005 to December 2008) were reviewed. Variables with p
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 20, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Russo R, Mendes ET, Levin AS, Dulley F, Oliveira MS, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Costa SF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Safety assessment of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine produced by Instituto Butantan from 2013 to 2017.
so AR Abstract Vaccination has been a successful strategy in influenza prevention. However, despite the safety and efficacy of the vaccines, they can cause adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Moreover, due to the vaccination success, most of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) have become rare, and public attention has been shifted from VPD to the AEFI associated with vaccination. This manuscript describes the safety of Instituto Butantan (IB) seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) from 2013 to 2017. AEFI data were received by the Department of Pharmacovigilance of IB (PV-IB), from January the 1st 201...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 20, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Gattás VL, Braga PE, Koike ME, Lucchesi MBB, Oliveira MMM, Piorelli RO, Queiroz V, Precioso AR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

ERRATUM: Spatial analysis of probable cases of dengue fever, chikungunya fever and zika virus infections in Maranhao State, Brazil.
Authors: Abstract [This corrects the article doi: 10.1590/S1678-9946201860062]. PMID: 30540019 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - December 10, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

A survey of freshwater and terrestrial snails in a predominantly urban municipality of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with emphasis on human parasites vectors.
Abstract Many snail species act as intermediate hosts of helminths that transmit diseases to humans and animals, such as schistosomiasis and angiostrongyliasis. São Gonçalo, a mostly urban municipality in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, has undergone fundamental environmental impacts, which favor the establishment of a range of diseases, for which snails act as the intermediate hosts of the etiological agents. In the present study, freshwater and terrestrial snail populations were surveyed in different environments within five city districts, and the presence of helminths was determined in the collecte...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 29, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tomaz TP, Gentile R, Garcia JS, Teixeira BR, Faro MJ Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

An alternative storage method for characterization of the intestinal microbiota through next generation sequencing.
Abstract Gut microbiota has been the subject of various molecular studies mainly due to its importance and wide-ranging relationships with human hosts. However, the storage of fecal samples prior to DNA extraction is critical when characterizing the composition of intestinal microbiota. Therefore, we aimed to understand the effects of different fecal storage methods to characterize intestinal microbiota using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as well as to establish an alternative conservation method of bacterial genetic material in these samples using guanidine. Stool samples from 10 healthy volunteers were collec...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 29, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ribeiro RM, Souza-Basqueira M, Oliveira LC, Salles FC, Pereira NB, Sabino EC Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Quality of life of Brazilian chronic hepatitis C patients treated with interferon-free therapies.
Abstract Due to the severity of chronic hepatitis C, there are multiple factors that can negatively affect the quality of life of infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients under second-generation direct-acting antiviral (DAA) (interferon-free) therapies and to assess treatment effectiveness. This was an observational study conducted in Curitiba (Brazil) using two instruments (a generic and a specific) for measuring the quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis C, the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Chronic Liver Disease Questio...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 14, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Siqueira FM, Ferreira VL, Borba HHL, Pontarolo R Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Renal dysfunction in Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease coinfection: a case report.
We describe the rare case of a patient with VL, who developed severe AKI requiring dialysis and was subsequently diagnosed with Chagas disease coinfection. After specific treatment for VL, there was partial recovery of the renal function, followed by the onset of Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. PMID: 30462796 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo)
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 14, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alcântara CCS, Santana LRL, Evangelista PD, Teixeira AC, Silva Junior GBD, Daher EF Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Chronic cavitary pneumonia by Rhodococcus equi in a highly prevalent tuberculosis country: a diagnosis challenge.
Abstract Rhodococcus equi is a facultative aerobic, intracellular, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive, weakly acid-fast coccobacillus belonging to the group of nocardioform actinomycetes. R. equi infections are rare opportunistic illnesses in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), associated with a high mortality rate. The most common clinical presentation of R. equi infections is a chronic cavitary pneumonia. Due to its acid-fastness, R. equi can be mistaken for others acid-fast organisms, as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In turn, R. equi is also a gram-positive pleomorphic bacteria and ...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 14, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Vechi HT, Oliveira ETG, Freitas MR, Rossi F, Britto MHMF, Alves MDM Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

Coccidioidomycosis: first cases reported in Pernambuco, Brazil.
den A Abstract Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. These fungi are known to thrive in desert climate. Fungi produce infectious arthroconidia in soil, they are aerosolized in the air and when inhaled by humans, usually cause infections such as pneumonia. The first cases of coccidioidomycosis in Brazil were reported in 1978. Since then, there have been other reports mainly from desert regions of Northeastern Brazil. The present report describes three cases of coccidioidomycosis on male farmers from Serra Talhada county, Pernambuco State, who developed pn...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 14, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Araújo PSR, Souza Junior VR, Padilha CE, Oliveira MI, Arraes LC, Vieira R, Antunes A, Lima Neto RG, Marsden A Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

High detection rate of new cases of multibacillary leprosy in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: an observational study from 2001-2015.
Abstract Leprosy remains a public health problem in Brazil, and the Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS) had the seventh highest rate of detection of new cases in the country in 2015 (26.59 per 100,000 inhabitants) which was classified as very high. This work aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of leprosy in MS. Descriptive statistics were performed with data from the Information System on Diseases of Compulsory Declaration (SINAN) between 2001 and 2015, with all patients included in the system serving as the sample. Clinical forms of multibacillary (MB) leprosy predominated in MS during the study peri...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - November 8, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Zanella LF, Sousa IBA, Barbosa MDS, Faccenda O, Simionatto S, Marchioro SB Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research