Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas
The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon), is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in B...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 10, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?
In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 10, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development
In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, res...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 10, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemiological transition of tropical diseases in the Brazilian Amazon
(Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 10, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Maculopapular rash and Koplik's spots in adult measles
We report the case of a young patient experienced intense pain in the left elbow one year after the treatment of tuberculoid-tuberculoid leprosy. The pain was associated with paresthesias in the ulnar edge and left ulnar claw. After evaluation, the diagnosis was changed to borderline tuberculoid leprosy accompanied with neuritis of the left ulnar nerve. Early neurolysis resulted in rapid reduction of the pain and recovery of motor function. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Surgical treatment of type I neuritis in a teenage boy with borderline tuberculoid leprosy
We report the case of a young patient experienced intense pain in the left elbow one year after the treatment of tuberculoid-tuberculoid leprosy. The pain was associated with paresthesias in the ulnar edge and left ulnar claw. After evaluation, the diagnosis was changed to borderline tuberculoid leprosy accompanied with neuritis of the left ulnar nerve. Early neurolysis resulted in rapid reduction of the pain and recovery of motor function. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

An atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotype in a rural Brazilian dog co-infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis
This report describes the clinical and laboratorial findings of a co-infection with both parasites in a 4-year-old female dog suspected of ehrlichiosis that presented anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, tachyzoite-like structures to the lung imprints, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results positive for T. gondii (kidney, lung, and liver) and Leishmania spp. Co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania braziliensis was confirmed by sequencing; restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) confirmed an atypical T. gondii genotype circulating in dogs that ha...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other pathogenic intestinal parasites in the Beberibe River in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil
CONCLUSIONS: Sanitation companies must assess pathogenic intestinal parasites in water basins providing public water and subsequently develop improved treatment systems for removal of such parasites. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Congenital and maternal syphilis in the capital of Brazil
CONCLUSIONS: Although mothers attended prenatal care, not all were diagnosed during pregnancy or received adequate treatment for syphilis, as their partners did not undergo treatment for syphilis. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Production of metallo-β-lactamase among Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in the State of Sergipe, Brazil
CONCLUSIONS: Production of metallo-β-lactamases was not the main mechanism of resistance to ceftazidime and carbapenems among P. aeruginosa strains in Sergipe, Brazil. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

A rapid and simple method to detect ESBL in Enterobacter cloacae based on MIC of cefepime
CONCLUSIONS: MIC ≥ 2µg/mL for cefepime would be very useful for the phenotypic detection of ESBL in samples of E. cloacae. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The use of saliva as a practical and feasible alternative to urine in large-scale screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection increasesinclusion and detection rates
CONCLUSIONS: Saliva samples can be used in large-scale neonatal screening for CMV infection. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a tool for analysis of the effect of physical therapy on spasticity in HAM/TSP patients
CONCLUSIONS: The ICF was effective in evaluating spasticity in HAM/TSP patients. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The stigma and prejudice of leprosy: influence on the human condition
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of recombinant A2-ELISA with rKE16 dipstick and direct agglutination tests for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in Northwestern Iran
CONCLUSIONS : This study recommends rA2-ELISA as a parallel assay combined with DAT to detect VL infection among dogs. Further evaluations should be performed to develop an inexpensive and reliable serologic test for the detection of Leishmania infantum among infected dogs. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal analysis of reported cases of acute Chagas disease in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2002 to 2013
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a significant decrease in new cases of acute Chagas disease in Pernambuco starting in 2006 when Brazil received an international certification for the interruption of vectorial transmission by Triatoma infestans. However, control strategies should still be encouraged because other triatomine species can also transmit the parasite; moreover, other transmission modes must not be neglected. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and vagal dysfunction in Chagas disease patients with no apparent cardiac involvement
CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination
CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase types in a Brazilian tertiary hospital
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ESBL-expressing strains was high, especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. CTX-M was the predominant type of ESBL observed, and its genetic variability indicates a polyclonal distribution. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Susceptibility characterization of residual Brazilian populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to deltamethrin pyrethroid
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Opportunistic infections among individuals with HIV-1/AIDS in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era at a Quaternary Level Care Teaching Hospital
CONCLUSIONS : OIs remain frequent in the ART era even in populations where the access to medical care is considered satisfactory. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp.) in Brazil
CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection
INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the prevalence of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Samples collected from HCV (n = 74) and HBV (n = 35) carriers were subjected to quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect the presence of the SNPs rs5743305 and rs3775291 in TLR3 and to measure the following biomarkers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and prothrombin time (PT). A healthy control group was investigated and...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and deaths presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea in Brazilian children: a quasi-experimental study
CONCLUSIONS: A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was demonstrated to be effective in preventing the hospitalizations and deaths of children that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea, without increasing the risk of intestinal intussusception. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Health-related quality of life in patients with Chagas disease: a review of the evidence
Chagas disease (ChD), a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), remains a serious public health issue in Latin America and is an emerging disease in several non-endemic countries, where knowledge of the condition and experience with its clinical management are limited. Regionally, the disease is the major cause of disability secondary to tropical diseases in young adults. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment is common in patients with ChD, especially in those with Chagas dilated cardiomyopathy, the most severe manifestation of the disease, which frequently...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Challenges for improving quality of life in Chagas disease
(Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - June 4, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research