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Arboviruses and their related infections in China: A comprehensive field and laboratory investigation over the last 3 decades
Summary Since the 1980s, a comprehensive field and laboratory investigation has been conducted throughout China, and a total of 29 virus species belonging to 7 families and 13 genera were identified through virological, morphological, and immunological methods, as well as whole‐genome sequencing and molecular genetic analyses. Most of the virus isolates belong to 9 genera in the families Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Togaviridae, and Reoviridae. Among them, 4 genera (Orthobunyavirus, Bunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus) belong to the family Bunyaviridae and 3 genera (Seadonavirus, Orbivirus, and Cypovirus) belong to th...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - December 6, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Guodong Liang, Xiaolong Li, Xiaoyan Gao, Shihong Fu, Huanyu Wang, Minghua Li, Zhi Lu, Wuyang Zhu, Xinjun Lu, Lihua Wang, Yuxi Cao, Ying He, Wenwen Lei Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - November 20, 2017 Category: Virology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Criteria to define interruption of transmission of human cytomegalovirus from organ donor to recipient
Summary In this review article, we consider results suggesting that transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from a donor of a solid organ to an immunologically naive individual can be reduced. Two randomized controlled trials have been conducted recently, one of active immunization of recipients pretransplant and another of passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV given at the time of transplant. Although the available data are encouraging—providing evidence of a reduction in the incidence of HCMV viraemia—they fall short of what would be required to prove definitively that transmi...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - November 17, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Ilona Anna Baraniak, Matthew B. Reeves, Paul D. Griffiths Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus is still in intensive care
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - November 15, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: P.D. Griffiths Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Dengue in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 2014 to 2016
This study analyzes and discusses laboratory, demographic, and clinical data regarding dengue cases in RS, from 2014 to 2016. This study analyzed 13,420 serum samples from notified patients with suspicion of dengue fever in RS from 2014 to 2016. Seasonality of positive cases, viral serotypes, and clinical and epidemiological aspects were analyzed. There was no difference in gender (P = .4); dengue fever occurred mainly in adults, with similar distribution among age groups. The number of dengue virus (DENV) cases increased from 89 cases in 2014 to 2518 in 2016. Dengue virus 1 was the most prevalent circulating ser...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - November 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Tatiana Schaffer Gregianini, Gabriela Luchiari Tumioto ‐Giannini, Cátia Favreto, Luciana Ciarelli Plentz, Nilo Ikuta, Ana B. Gorini Veiga Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Retraction: ‘Ebola virus: an introduction and its pathology’ by Gurpreet Singh, Arbind Kumar, Kashmir Singh and Jagdeep Kaur
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 21, 2017 Category: Virology Tags: RETRACTION Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 21, 2017 Category: Virology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Hearing and neurodevelopmental outcomes for children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection: A systematic review
ConclusionsStudies show children with asymptomatic congenital CMV are at increased risk of developing hearing loss but perform equally well on neurodevelopmental assessments when compared with healthy controls. There is no reliable virological marker to determine which infants will develop sequelae. Regular follow‐up until school entry is supported by the literature. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 6, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Adam W. Bartlett, Brendan McMullan, William D. Rawlinson, Pamela Palasanthiran Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

An overview: Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) and rabbit providing an animal model for HEV study
Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single‐stranded, positive‐sense RNA virus and the causative agent of hepatitis E. The virus belongs to genus Orthohepevirus in the family Hepeviridae, which contains 4 major genotypes closely relating to humans. Genotypes 1 and 2 only infect humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are harbored in a wide range of animal species worldwide and are zoonotic to humans. Recently, a novel animal strain of HEV has been isolated in farmed rabbits in China, and subsequently more strains were discovered in the rabbit populations in at least 7 other countries. Due to high sequence similarity to ge...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Lin Wang, Lin Liu, Ling Wang Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Human pegivirus (HPgV) infection in sub ‐Saharan Africa—A call for a renewed research agenda
Summary The human pegivirus (HPgV)—formerly GB virus C—has a beneficial impact on HIV disease progression that has been described in multiple studies. Given the high prevalence of HIV in sub‐Saharan Africa and the continuing need to suppress HIV replication, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the existing data on HPgV infection in sub‐Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on studies of prevalence and the circulating HPgV genotypes. This review also highlights the need for additional studies of HPgV conducted on the African continent and proposes a research agenda for evaluation of HPgV. (Sou...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Shivank Singh, Jason T. Blackard Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Is Dr von Magnus to blame for the withdrawal of live attenuated influenza vaccine?
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: P.D. Griffiths Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

A systematic review of the associations between HIV/HCV coinfection and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease
Summary The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection has been increasing with over 10 million people affected globally. The role biomarkers play as predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among coinfected individuals is not well defined. We aimed to systematically review current evidence describing CVD biomarkers among individuals with HIV/HCV coinfection. We searched EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science from inception to June 2017. MeSH terms and keywords were used to identify studies with information on HIV/HCV coinfection and CVD biomarkers (st...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Olatokunbo Osibogun, Oluseye Ogunmoroti, Erin D. Michos, Erica S. Spatz, Babatunde Olubajo, Khurram Nasir, Wasim Maziak Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Rotavirus virus ‐like particles (RV‐VLPs) vaccines: An update
Summary Rotaviruses (RVs) cause over 0.2 million deaths annually and are reported to be the foremost cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. Vaccination against RVs is the most successful and unsurpassed strategy to combat infection to date. Although the 2 current vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have dramatically reduced the disease burden, still there is a need for new vaccines. In this context, RV virus‐like particles (RV‐VLPs) represent potential vaccine candidates as they are noninfectious and effective nonreplicating immunogens that may reduce the risk of side effects related to the conventional...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Harish Changotra, Avni Vij Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Systematic screening of viral entry inhibitors using surface plasmon resonance
Summary Viral binding and entry into host cells for various viruses have been studied extensively, yielding a detailed understanding of the overall viral entry process. As cell entry is an essential and requisite process by which a virus initiates infection, it is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. The advantages of targeting viral entry are an extracellular target site, relatively easy access for biological interventions, and lower toxicity. Several cell‐based strategies and biophysical techniques have been used to screen compounds that block viral entry. These studies led to the discovery of inhibitors ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Penmetcha K.R. Kumar Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Hepatitis in AIDS patients
Summary The individuals with HIV infection are more susceptible to develop coinfections with infectious pathogens such as HCV and HBV. The routes of transmission of these pathogens are the same including sexual contact, injection drug use, or at birth from mother to an infant. The main reason of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals is a liver disease in the context of antiretroviral therapy, and coinfection such as HCV and HBV complicates this condition. Nucleos(t)ide analogues are used for HBV infection management, and treatment of HCV infection is done by PegIFN and ribavirin combination and protease inhib...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Muhammad Imran Qadir Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Mechanisms of human cytomegalovirus infection with a focus on epidermal growth factor receptor interactions
Summary Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread opportunistic herpesvirus that causes severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals. It has a high prevalence worldwide that is linked with socioeconomic factors. Similar to other herpesviruses, HCMV has the ability to establish lifelong persistence and latent infection following primary exposure. HCMV infects a broad range of cell types. This broad tropism suggests that it may use multiple receptors for host cell entry. The identification of receptors used by HCMV is essential for understanding viral pathogenesis, because these receptors mediate the early events nece...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Aline Semblano Carreira Falc ão, Pedro Fernando Costa Vasconcelos, Dorotéa de Fátima Lobato da Silva, João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, Luiz Fábio Magno Falcão, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

HIV in retreat?
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - August 30, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Philip Mortimer Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Impact of transmission cycles and vector competence on global expansion and emergence of arboviruses
Summary Arboviruses are transmitted between arthropod vectors and vertebrate host. Arboviral infection in mosquitoes is initiated when a mosquito feeds on a viremic host. Following ingestion of a viremic blood meal by mosquitoes, virus enters midgut along with the blood, infects and replicates in midgut epithelial cells, and then escapes to the hemocoel, from where it disseminates to various secondary organs including salivary glands. Subsequently, when mosquito bites another host, a new transmission cycle is initiated. The midgut and salivary glands act as anatomical barriers to virus infection and escape. These complex i...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - August 30, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Ankita Agarwal, Manmohan Parida, Paban Kumar Dash Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Disruption of gastrointestinal integrity in patients with HIV infection
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - July 5, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: P.D. Griffiths Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Emerging arboviruses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Chikungunya and Zika outbreaks, 2014 ‐2016
In this study, we analyzed 1276 samples from patients with clinically suspected arboviral diseases between 2014 and 2016. Demographic and clinical data were collected and described; cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were analyzed. Essential findingsResults show that CHIKV and ZIKV entered RS in 2014 and 2015, respectively, with imported cases confirmed. Autochthonous infections occurred in 2016 for both viruses, with a total of 5 autochthonous cases for CHIKV and 44 for ZIKV. Most patients were older than 21 years; the main symptoms were fever, arthralgia, myalgia, and headache; rash, conjunct...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - July 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Tatiana Sch äffer Gregianini, Tani Ranieri, Cátia Favreto, Zenaida Marion Alves Nunes, Gabriela Luchiari Tumioto Giannini, Nara Druck Sanberg, Marilda Tereza Mar Rosa, Ana Beatriz Gorini Veiga Tags: CLASSIC PAPER Source Type: research

Response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with liver cirrhosis
In conclusion, cirrhotic patients achieve lower seroprotection rates after the completion of HBV vaccination series. Several strategies have tried to improve the immunogenicity; however, there is a great need for additional studies to further explore (1) the immune response in relation to poor vaccination responsiveness confounding factors, (2) novel strategies to improve immunogenicity, and (3) the immune mechanism underlying the differences in response rates to HBV vaccination. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - July 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Panagiota Davoulou, Christos Konstantakis, Konstantinos Thomopoulos, Christos Triantos Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Seroprevalence and incidence of hepatitis E virus among blood donors: A review
Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus with 4 main genotypes. HEV‐1 and HEV‐2 infect solely humans, while HEV‐3 and HEV‐4 infect humans and various animals such as pigs, deer, and rabbits. HEV‐5 and HEV‐6 infect mainly wild boar. Recently, new genotypes, known as HEV‐7 and HEV‐8, were found to infect camels and humans. HEV is globally distributed into different epidemiological patterns based on socioeconomic factors and ecology. Although HEV is mainly transmitted through the fecal‐oral route, it was also recognized as a transfusion‐transmitted virus. Transmission through blood donation was docu...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - July 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Duaa W. Al ‐Sadeq, Amin F. Majdalawieh, Gheyath K. Nasrallah Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Basic overview of method validation in the clinical virology laboratory
Summary Diagnostic virology laboratories are an essential part of the health system and are often relied upon to provide information to clinicians that will inform clinical decision making. It is therefore imperative that diagnostic results produced in the laboratory are reliable. One way of ensuring quality results is by ensuring that all tests are either validated (for tests developed in‐house) or verified (for commercial assays that are FDA‐approved or CE‐labeled). In the diagnostic virology laboratory, these processes can be complex as both qualitative and quantitative measurements for serological and molecular t...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - July 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Howard Newman, Jean Maritz Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - July 1, 2017 Category: Virology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Nature nominee quercetin's anti ‐influenza combat strategy—Demonstrations and remonstrations
Summary Nature's providences are rather the choicest remedies for human health and welfare. One such is quercetin, which is nature's nominee for cancer cure and recently demonstrated against influenza attack. Quercetin is highly recognized for its anticancer applications. This review emphasizes on yet another gift that this compound has to offer for mankind, which is none other than combating the deadly evasive influenza virus. The chemistry of this natural bioflavonoid and its derivatives and its modus operandi against influenza virus is consolidated into this review. The advancements and achievements made in the anti‐i...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - May 8, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Enkhtaivan Gansukh, Manikandan Muthu, Diby Paul, Gopal Ethiraj, Sechul Chun, Judy Gopal Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - May 8, 2017 Category: Virology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

The human cytomegalovirus nuclear egress complex unites multiple functions: Recruitment of effectors, nuclear envelope rearrangement, and docking to nuclear capsids
ConclusionsCurrent evidence refined the view about herpesviral NECs. Datasets published for HCMV, murine CMV, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein‐Barr virus illustrate the marked functional consistency in the way herpesviruses achieve nuclear egress. However, this compares with only limited sequence conservation of core NEC proteins and a structural conservation restricted to individual domains. The translational use of this information might help to define a novel antiviral strategy on the basis of NEC‐directed small molecules. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - May 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Manfred Marschall, Yves A. Muller, Benedikt Diewald, Heinrich Sticht, Jens Milbradt Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Is salivary IgA level a potential biomarker for immunosuppression in HIV ‐positive children? A systematic review and meta‐analysis
Summary The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether or not assessment of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels could be a potential biomarker for immunosuppression in HIV‐positive children. The Patient, Exposure, Comparative, Outcome question was “Is sIgA level a potential biomarker for immunosuppression in HIV‐positive children?” Electronic and manual literature searches were conducted in indexed databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS databases) up to and including June 2017. The primary outcome was total mean salivary levels of IgA among HIV seropositive a...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - May 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Fawad Javed, Zohaib Akram, Munerah Saleh Binshabaib, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Fahim Vohra Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Orf virus infection
Summary Orf virus (ORFV) is an important pathogen responsible for a highly contagious zoonotic viral infection that threatens those who handle sheep and goats. Orf virus is the prototype of the Parapoxvirus genus, and its resilience in the environment and ability to reinfect its host has contributed to the spread and maintenance of the infection in many species. In healthy humans, the disease usually resolves spontaneously within 3 to 6 weeks. There is no specific treatment and many different approaches such as use of imiquimod, cidofovir, curettage, shave excision, cryotherapy, and electrocautery have all been report...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - May 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Christina Bergqvist, Mazen Kurban, Ossama Abbas Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Hepatitis E and pregnancy: current state
Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis cases in endemic countries. Approximately 2 billion individuals live in hepatitis E–endemic areas and, therefore, are at risk of infection. According to World Health Organization, HEV causes about 20.1 million infections and 70 000 deaths every year. In developing countries with poor sanitation, this disease is transmitted through contaminated water and is associated with large outbreaks, affecting hundreds or thousands of people. In developed countries, autochthonous cases of HEV have been increasingly recognized...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - March 19, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Mar ía Teresa Pérez‐Gracia, Beatriz Suay‐García, María Luisa Mateos‐Lindemann Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Roles of SAMHD1 in antiviral defense, autoimmunity and cancer
Summary The enzyme, sterile α motif and histidine‐aspartic acid domain–containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) diminishes infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) by hydrolyzing intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. This dNTP degradation reduces the dNTP concentration to a level insufficient for viral cDNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting retroviral replication. This antiviral enzymatic activity can be inhibited by viral protein X (Vpx). The HIV‐2/SIV Vpx causes degradation of SAMHD1, thus interfering with the SAMHD1‐mediated restriction of ret...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - March 1, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Miaomiao Li, Dong Zhang, Mengying Zhu, Yuxian Shen, Wei Wei, Songcheng Ying, Heinrich Korner, Jun Li Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Virology in a “post‐truth” world
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - February 28, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: P. D. Griffiths Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Polyomavirus microRNAs circulating in biological fluids during viral persistence
Summary Increasing evidence suggests that microRNA‐mediated gene silencing, detected during exosome intercellular communication between cells, may be exploited by persistent human viruses. Recently, it has been reported that human polyomaviruses encode microRNAs that downregulate large T expression and target host factors, helping the virus to escape immune elimination. Consequently, viral microRNAs and their genetic variability may have roles in the induction of polyomavirus reactivation, the success of persistence or replication and the development of diseases. In vitro experiments have detected polyomavirus JC (JCPyV)...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - February 28, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Francesco Martelli, Simone Giannecchini Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Norovirus infection in primary immune deficiency
Summary Norovirus is acknowledged to be a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and its importance as a cause of chronic infection in immune deficient hosts is increasingly recognised. Current evidence suggests that a coordinated response of innate immune mechanisms, CD8+ cytotoxicity and a humoral response, with CD4+ orchestration, is necessary for norovirus clearance. We explain how primary immune deficiency impairs these host defences and predisposes to chronic infection, associated with protracted diarrhoea, weight loss, and requirement for parenteral nutrition. The mucosal villous atrophy frequently seen i...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - February 28, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Li ‐An K. Brown, Ian Clark, Julianne R. Brown, Judith Breuer, David M. Lowe Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - February 28, 2017 Category: Virology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Making dollars and sense out of a screening programme
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - December 31, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: P.D. Griffiths Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Mechanisms of HIV persistence in HIV reservoirs
Summary The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half‐life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia. Some anatomical reservoirs t...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - December 31, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Mayibongwe L. Mzingwane, Caroline T. Tiemessen Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Calendar of International Meetings
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - November 10, 2016 Category: Virology Tags: Calendar Source Type: research

Standard Abbreviations
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - November 10, 2016 Category: Virology Tags: List of Abbreviation Source Type: research

Reducing HIV incidence using anti ‐retrovirals: Imperative and achievable
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - November 10, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Philip P. Mortimer Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - November 10, 2016 Category: Virology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Langerhans cells and sexual transmission of HIV and HSV
Summary Langerhans cells (LCs) situated in stratified squamous epithelium of the skin and mucosal tissue are amongst the first cells that sexually transmitted pathogens encounter during transmission. They are potent antigen presenting cells and play a key role in the host mounting an appropriate immune response. As such, viruses have evolved complex strategies to manipulate these cells to facilitate successful transmission. One of best studied examples is HIV, which manipulates the natural function of these cells to interact with CD4 T cells, which are the main target cell for HIV in which rapid replication occurs. However...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - October 31, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Rachel A. Botting, Hafsa Rana, Kirstie M. Bertram, Jake W. Rhodes, Heeva Baharlou, Najla Nasr, Anthony L. Cunningham, Andrew N. Harman Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Maternal immune correlates of protection from human cytomegalovirus transmission to the fetus after primary infection in pregnancy
Summary Immune control of primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection appears to depend on the interaction of humoral and T‐cell responses. In this review, we have separately explored the 2 arms of the immune response to primary HCMV infection in HCMV‐seronegative pregnant women transmitting (T) or not transmitting (NT) the infection to the fetus, with the objective of correlating the immune risk factors associated with vertical HCMV transmission. As for the humoral response, the following findings were documented: (i) in competitive binding assays, antibody titers to different antigenic sites of the gH pentamer com...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - October 31, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Daniele Lilleri, Giuseppe Gerna Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Medical practice driven by legislators rather than by regulators
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - October 31, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: P.D. Griffiths Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Vitamin D modulation of innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections
Summary Vitamin D, in addition to its classical functions in bone homeostasis, has a modulatory and regulatory role in multiple processes, including host defense, inflammation, immunity, and epithelial repair. Patients with respiratory disease are frequently deficient in vitamin D, implying that supplementation might provide significant benefit to these patients. Respiratory viral infections are common and are the main trigger of acute exacerbations and hospitalization in children and adults with asthma and other airways diseases. Respiratory monocytes/macrophages and epithelial cells constitutively express the vitamin D r...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - October 6, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Mihnea T. Zdrenghea, Heidi Makrinioti, Cristina Bagacean, Andy Bush, Sebastian L. Johnston, Luminita A. Stanciu Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Review of cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV ‐infected individuals in Africa
ConclusionsCytomegalovirus is highly prevalent in Africa and a common cause of disease manifestations in HIV‐infected individuals among all age groups. Cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV‐infected individuals in Africa is associated with increased transmission and mortality of HIV, but it is a neglected area of research. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - October 6, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Helene Ladefoged Gr ønborg, Sanne Jespersen, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Søren Jensen‐Fangel, Christian Wejse Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Calendar of International Meetings
(Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 6, 2016 Category: Virology Tags: Calendar Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Reviews in Medical Virology)
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - September 6, 2016 Category: Virology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Vaccines against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus for humans and camels
Summary Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS‐CoV) is caused by a novel betacoronavirus that was isolated in late 2012 in Saudi Arabia. The viral infections have been reported in more than 1700 humans, ranging from asymptomatic or mild cases to severe pneumonia with a mortality rate of 40%. It is well documented now that dromedary camels contract the infection and shed the virus without notable symptoms, and such animals had been infected by at least the early 1980s. The mechanism of camel to human transmission is still not clear, but several primary cases have been associated with camel contact. There is no...
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology - August 31, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Naif Khalaf Alharbi Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research